Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552265X 25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2013 volume:2 issue:207

Article
Diving industry (pearling) in Bahrain A study in social and economic history
صناعة الغوص (صيد اللؤلؤ) في البحرين دراسة في التاريخ الاجتماعي والاقتصادي

Authors: أ.د.صباح مهدي رميض
Pages: 1-18
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Abstract

Pearling profession in Bahrain and the Gulf region in general occupied an important place in the region's economic and social modern history, before the discovery of oil during the twenties of the last century. This study shed light on the nature of this profession and working conditions of its staff to accomplish a task which is not easy, but drained the effort and made a great sacrifices, the study material distributed on six main axes, included the definition with the natural tenets of diving industry in Bahrain, evoking and preparing the profession required equipment, with determining the work cadres and distributing the tasks, with reference to the work practices and daily ritual, I also defined with the diving four seasons in terms of features and characteristics, then showed their social, economic, and Implications on the Bahraini society, and presented at the end of the study the visions aimed to re-interest with this cultural heritage of Bahrain, the study also strengthened by the extension of demonstration images that represent work details in the diving industry.

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Article
Simplify Equation to Calculate Elongation River Basin Proposed by Schumm (1956)
تبسيط معادلة استطالة حوض النهر المقترحة من قبل شوم عام 1956

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Abstract

Since of twentieth century, Schumm (1956) suggested equation known “Elongation Measuring River Basin: R= 2 × L Where R= Elongation Ratio. A = Area of the basin(km2 ). Pi = 3.14. L = Basin length(km). Up to know this equation still gaining attention by many researchers around the world. Schumms equation faced many difficulties from graduate student, researchers and during its application. So we tried to make this equation simple and easy to use with simply application: R= A× C Where . R= Elongation Ratio. A = Fixed factor (1.1282). B = Area of the Basin / km2. C = Along the Basin/km. This simplified equation was implement to basin of Djaal Valley in Iraq and it gave the same results as schumm equation.

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Article
William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice: A Tragicomedy and a Comedy Proper A Research Paper Written
مسرحية تاجر البندقية لوليم شكسبير: ملهاة ماساوية وملهاة صحيحة تامة

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Abstract

The Merchant of Venice has been considered a tragicomedy by many critics. But the author William Shakespeare defined it as a comedy proper as shown in its first Quaro. It must be mentioned here that the opinions of great critics cannot be opposed in this respect. This research paper displays an analytical and critical presentation which proves the hypothesis that the play is both a tragicomedy and a comedy proper. Furthermore, the research paper sheds light on the idea that the play can be regarded as a romance as well.

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Article
The electoral system in Sudan 1953-2000
النظام الانتخابي في السودان 1953-2000

Authors: ا.م.د منى حسين عبيد
Pages: 19-36
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Abstract

Selecting the electoral system is considered one of the most important decisions for any democratic system. Mainly, choosing a particular electoral system has great consequences on the future of political life of that country. Selecting electoral systems nowadays are made after many planning, in the past the case was different. In many cases, the selection process was done accidentally, as a result of unusual circumstances, or in response to common tendencies, or because of a sudden historical change, besides the colonial legacy and the impact of the surrounding environment. In fact, selecting the electoral system is primarily a political issue, not a technical issue that can be done bye group of independent experts ,because political interests are the main considerations that can be taken in selecting electoral system. Perhaps this can be said on the Sudanese case in which political considerations and party interests are imposed on the type of electoral system, a matter that leads Sudan to suffer from political instability during the past eras. Most of electoral systems adopted by the successive civilian and military governments in Sudan have failed to make changes in building integrated state where traditional leaders of the political parties remained controlling the parties themselves and the power through controlling the ministries, as well as the military systems, a matter that keeps the country under ethnic and sectarian conflicts.

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Article
LA LINGÜÍSTICA MODERNA Y LA TRADUCTOLOGÍA
علم اللغة الحديث ودراسات الترجمة

Authors: م.د. عبير حسين عبد
Pages: 21-36
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Abstract

El signo lingüístico es una base fundamental en el proceso de la traducción. Pero, ¿son las teorías tradicionales sobre el significado o el signo lingüístico suficientes para evaluar las traducciones, asimismo para evaluar el trabajo de un traductor, ayudándole para llevar a cabo su trabajo, etc.? En nuestra investigación intentaremos ofrecer respuestas a todas estas preguntas a través de una teoría nueva sobre el significado y el signo lingüístico “El Esquema Básico de la referencia”.

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Article
Turkish policy towards the Kurdistan region of Iraq after the U.S. withdrawal
السياسة التركية تجاه اقليم كردستان العراق بعد الانسحاب الامريكي

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Abstract

The Kurdish problem considers one of the complicated problems to Turkey that had its effect on the realatio with the Kurds and Kurdistan region in Iraq later .then,there is a chronic crisis between two sides .The Turks have always refused to set up a Kurdish state in northern Iraq or even set up a federal state in Iraq where the kurds would have arole in it,starting from their belief if the Kurds set up a state in northern Iraq ,that means rael threats to the Turkish,s security and then growing the separation bents to the Kurds in the southern turkey which would caused to separate third of the Turkish territories aswell as the acussattions that Ankara would directed to the region ,accussing it in hosting and supporting the Kurdistan workers party (pkk),which used to lunch permanent attacks on the Turksish troops in the common borders districts between Iraq and turkey and Iran ,in additional to the subordination of Kirkuk issue and the necessity of protecting the Turkmens rights in it .the chance that Iraq had witnessed it after 2003 had represented an important stage in the case that Turkey deals with the Kurdish,s issue generally and in the frame of dealing with the Kurdistan region in Iraq especially .so ,the Turkish administration has adopted anew strategy toward the region as a part of its policy in zero ing the problems with the region and focus on problems of region ,which might provided to turkey an important role on thr regional and international aspects .from this point the turkey administration has starting to be calm and adopting anew policy ,from the common interests dimension ,it is realized the necessity to coordinate with the regions leadership to fight the Kurdistan workers party (pkk)and then seeking to find asolution for the Kurdistan issue in turkey ,as well as the possibility to exploit the regions areas as an influential district for the Turkish commercial activities till the balance of its trade reached to 7 billions dollars .the trade and economy are the key of policy which can find solutions for the coming problems.

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Article
Pacifism in William Stafford’s Poetry
اللّاعنف في شعر وليام ستافورد "على أرض المعركة، لايهمه الذباب من يفوز." وليام ستافورد، 1986

Authors: د.عنان يوسف
Pages: 37-60
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Abstract

In an age that reinforces a culture of war and faith in military violence as means to resolve social and political conflicts, William Edgar Stafford (1914 – 1993), National Book Award winner and poet Laureate, stands as a prolific pacifist American poet whose both life and anti-war poetry carried a diligent endeavor to articulate a vision of a ‘beloved community’. From World War II until his death in 1993, his conviction of peace remained solid and his belief in the futility of wars did not change. A Conscientious Objector, Stafford registered himself as a pacifist along with Robert Lowell (1917-1977) and William Everson (1912-1994), the civilian poets who played an essential role in shaping and representing American anti-war poetry of World War II. He knew that he could not stop war but through his art he sought to implement a culture of peace, a new home, a universe of human fellowship whose members choose to preserve life rather than put an end to it and restore the image of a land that bombing destroyed. Throughout his fifty-year literary career, he advocated pacifism and consistently argued that it is crucial to act independently when violence rules and to speak for reconciliation when nations fight. How Stafford confronted and defied a history of the so-called inevitable wars, the powers of modernism, militarism, and war propaganda as well as the traditional portrayal of the bitter-beauty horror of war within his pacifist poetics is the basic question this paper tends to answer. Whether he was a starry-eyed idealist or a realist in arguing for strife free nation is another question to be answered.

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Article
Biography tree Durr
سـيــرة شجــرة الـدر

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Abstract

The character study a great deal of important events in any era often make people whether man or woman either to be closer to the event and his motives because they live with him and so mixed their secrets and Khvaaahm Bserthm and their lives . The tree Durr of important personalities, which took power on the throne of Egypt at the beginning of the Mamluk era, although it belongs to the era does not allow women to ascend the judgment , and is ruled transition rule between the Ayyubidand Mamluk State Marine, Has been dealt with in the first section of her life, which included her name , attributed qualities, her, and led tree Durr an important role in the political life in the country Mamluk, has put a in the second part of its role in matters of war, allegiance and opposition to the tree Durr, waiving the throne, the conflict between Ayyubid Sultan APIC on Power , killing goats Epic, and then killing the tree Durr research has concluded the most important finding .

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Article
Lexical Cohesion in Two Selected English and Arabic Short Stories
الاتساق المعجمي في قصتين قصيرتين مختارتين انكليزية و عربية

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Abstract

This paper deals with lexical cohesion as an effective means in forming a text. It analyses the types of lexical cohesive ties in two matched English and Arabic literary texts. The lexical cohesive ties are investigated within their two main categories: reiteration and collocation. The paper has come up with some findings from which are those that validate the first three postulated hypotheses like: a) the ratio of reiteration in Arabic literary texts is higher than in English literary texts (84.210% to 70.10%), b) the recurrence of Arabic words repetition is higher than that of English (52.226% to 43.478%), c) the occurrence of synonymy in English text is higher than that in Arabic texts (15.217% to 9.716%). d)The fourth postulated hypothesis proved invalid: the claim that lexical cohesive ties are denser in English literary texts than in Arabic literary texts. One of the main objectives of this study rests on the desire of investigating the reliability of cohesion to be applied on Arabic language, not only on English as Halliday and Hasan's 1976 Cohesion in English suggests, and that lexical recurrence is common in English and Arabic. Other objectives are embodied in its hypotheses.

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Article
Economic factors and their impact on the struggle for power in the era of the Mamluk
العوامل الاقتصادية وأثرها في الصراع على السلطة في عهد الدولة المملوكية

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Abstract

We have characterized the Mamluk period in the conflict and the conflict between the parties strong contending that were seeking access to the throne of power. The economic factors were represented by taxes and feudalism deep impact in influencing policy Mamluk, and form of feudal most important resources military expenditures, and mocked the Mamluks feudalism to their military service first Then in order to preserve the throne Sultnthm of greedy it. And it was feudalism hub of themes that have participated in the struggle for power as a key resource for the safe state, also found the ruling power of multiple taxes imposed by the way to fill its coffers with money. I thought I split the search and introduction three sections and a conclusion Fama presented has shown why you invited me to choose a topic and either the first section has included Mamluks continued marine origin and the second section has put a where to the statement feudalism and its impact on the struggle for power But the topic has stated the tax and its impac in the struggle for power and research concluded the most important findings.

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Article
اثر عدم الاستقرار السياسي على التنمية الاقتصادية في العراق

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Abstract

Played political influences and successive crises role in aborting all development plans that the Iraqi people sought and needed government continued repeating failures, not even increased them to take decisions urgent and development has become a fantasy to be realized in this country, which has become his government is not based or based on political base Popular contrary, led to enter Iraq in more than a war, ending a political era and management judgment led occupation forces and successive Iraqi governments after, it was the results almost completely destroyed the infrastructure and the disruption in production and high rates of unemployment and widespread poverty among members of the community as well as the deterioration of security witnessed by the Iraqi arena and which led to the paralysis of the joints economic and disrupt public life in different parts of Iraq, and now the Iraqi economy is weak does not meet the ambitious governments and Iraqi institutions and thus prove the hypothesis search that factor political instability effect in delayed development programs.

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Article
Emily Dickinson'sConcept of Love: The Far side of Paradise
مفهوم اميلي دكنسون للحب: أقصى الفردوس

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Abstract

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) is concerned with the concept of love as a source of harmony in the universe. She believes that the earth is created for lovers. Her love poems are closely related to her personal experience. She portrays the development of the emotional life until it reaches maturity that makes her persona immortal. Dickinson's speculation, unlike the mystics, is based on imaginative and sensory experience. She explores it with profundity. She does this by experiences all forms of contradictory emotions to reflect her phases of suffering in a metaphysical way. Furthermore, what marks her modernity is the realistic basis of her images which are written in a condensed and vague way.

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Article
دراسة بيئية عن أشجار الكونوكاربس Engl. & Diels. Conocarpus lancifolius المدخلة حديثا الى العراق

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Abstract

The study has conducted because of fast wide spreading of non domestic tree species. It concluded two parts; The first was obtained literature data collections related with environment, taxonomy, characteristics, propagation, and species distribution. The second involved a field study in the middle region of Iraq where the species was spread out. Two locations ( in and out the city), and two ages ( one and three years) were studied through the cold season ( begin of November to end of April). Result approved the species tolerance to the different dominant soil textures and levels of salinity. It was faster in growth than the other cultivated fast growing trees. Low temperature affected significantly the growth and survival. Few degrees below zero centigrade’s resulted in a vital rates of deterioration for older shrubs and death of young seedlings. The effects were more obvious out of the city. Older shrubs could restart growth again where conditions improved. In contract, plants tolerated very high levels of maximum temperatures ( more than 50°C) during summer months preceding to study. Some conclusions and recommendations were created for scientific dealing with this recently introduced plant.

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Article
The Portrayal of Suffering In Selected Poems of Emily Dickinson
تصوير المعاناة في قصائد مختارة من شعر املي ديكنسون

Authors: انغام علي فالح
Pages: 99-118
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Abstract

This research deals with the portrayal of the suffering in selected poems of Emily Dickenson who is a nineteenth century American female poet. The research will try to trace how Emily portrayed suffering and what methods she used in sketching it. In addition and throughout the research, I will try to depict the various types of suffering, pain, and anguish she portrayed in the poems under discussion, and whether this pain was psychological, physical, spiritual or both. In addition, I will try to depict the reasons Emily gave for suffering and consequences or aftermath of it. The research ends with a conclusion that sums up the major finding of the research which I came up with.

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Article
The population of Iraq and Iran - a comparative study in political geography
سكان العراق وايران - دراسة مقارنة في الجغرافيا السياسية

Authors: د. عباس غالي الحديثي
Pages: 117-138
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Abstract

This research is concerned with the differences and similarities between population of Iraq and Iran from political geography perspective. To view this comparative it is related to the size of population and its structures, especially national, environmental and educational structure for Iraq and Iran . The analysis demonstrate the population of both states have similar features in the growth average of size population, educational structure and have some relative differences in the number and size of urban centers and national construction .

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Article
Control of the AC Induction Motor by Using Fuzzy Logic
للسيطرة على موتور التعريفي AC باستخدام المنطق الضبابي

Authors: أوس محمود عبد الله
Pages: 117-128
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Abstract

The main aim of this thesis is studying and recognize the specifications and main concepts of (Fuzzy Logic) and its components and studying the practical experiments of the (Fuzzy Logic) techniques in the electrical engineering field through by using the (Fuzzy Logic) for controlling the three-phase AC induction motor by using (Matlab_ simulation_7) for modeling the system by using the computer.

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Article
Laurence Sterne's Tristram Shandy :A Study of Sterne's Character as a Misogynist
رواية ترسترام شاندي للورنس ستيرن دراسة لشخصية ستيرين باعتباره كارها للنساء

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The idea of this research is to show how Laurence Sterne appears as a misogynist, a women hater in his novel, Tristram Shandy which is written during the 1760s in the eighteenth century. It shows this through different ways : first by pointing to the voice Sterne uses in narrating Tristram Shandy's story in addition to the kind of his readers – he is biased to male readers in specific when he uses bawdy words, having direct or indirect sexual connotations that stir sexual caprice in males , second by measuring the space given to human female, and by studying the way she is presented by the author if she is given any role to mention in comparison to the way her counterpart is portrayed, and third by referring to the nature of Sterne's relationships with women in his life, which point to the psychological motive behind his misogyny .

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Article
Spatial Analysis for small scale Industries Reality in Iraq for the Year of 2010
التحليل المكاني لواقع الصناعات الكبيرة في العراق لعام 2010

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Abstract

The small scale industries of state sector in Iraq are elementary , vital, and important industries and for its rolls to support the national economic , and support the Iraqi industry such as equipments ,goods , and deferent industries . The government economic is depend on this industries as main . To be inform most this industries were stopped because the difficult cases and this cases effects upon the developing the industrial sector ,and decrease the electrical power , and fuel , and raw gods ,and depending upon the import for most equipments , and goods , and decrease the professional workers , and most people are turn away from the local goods industries , and decrease the financial credits for the industrial projects in Iraq . The located difference for indicators small scale industries in Iraq , and this effect upon the geography distribution in the Iraqi provinces . This differences is explain between the deferent productive elements that were formed the geography distribution for this industries .

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Article
“The Common Humanity That is in Us All”: Ernest Gaines's A Lesson Before Dying
”الأنسـانية المشتــركة بيننـا جميـعآ“: رواية أرنست غاينـز درس قبل الموت

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From his earliest works to his most recent novel, A Lesson before Dying, the afro–American writer, Ernest Gaines consistently writes about people who face the problems of being denied humanity, dignity and self–worth. In A Lesson before Dying, Gaines picks up this theme as the narrator of the story, Grant Wiggins, takes on the responsibility of convincing Jefferson, a non-educated labourer who has been sentenced to death for a murder he did not commit, that he is a “man” and not a hog as his white attorney declared. The paper illustrates one man's struggle to gain recognition of his humanity and how this recognition will initiate a change in the community.

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Article
Spatial variation of gender in Iraq in the light of the indicators of the Millennium Development Goals
التباين المكاني للنوع الاجتماعي في العراق في ضوء مؤشرات الاهداف الانمائية للالفية

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The concept of gender to the social capital of a society of each country and intended roles, rights and responsibilities of women and men and the relationships between them and also includes a method that determines the characteristics and behaviors and identities and is generally considered the issues of gender issues is critical to achieving sustainable development, where except for gender equality and the availability of equal opportunities and equal participation and interaction in all fields, especially in the areas of education and employment of the main goals of human development adopted by many countries of the world, including Iraq. That the concepts of gender was and still is one of the most concepts controversial and which has received wide attention in the Arab world, including Iraq and strengthen this attention to gender since 1992 when he used the UNDP UN concept of gender as a method and a target for international policy and national promotion of human development. Also addressed the announcement Begin in 1995 and the Platform for Action, adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women specific issues relating to the roles exchanged between men and women, inequality and the empowerment of women, given that both men and women benefit from social and economic policies unevenly, so necessary to the commitment of governments in collaboration with the NGOs, regional and international formulate strategies, policies, programs and development priorities, and the integration of gender issues in the overall development because it represents the social capital of each society which encouraged many countries in the world and the Arab countries, including Iraq, to issue a national human development reports annual issued by the Ministry of Planning and Development Cooperation in Iraq. These data are published in reports of sex-disaggregated essential to follow the contribution of both sexes, especially women, in the process of comprehensive human development of the state and the achievement of gender balance in the community.

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Article
“The problam and the importance of scientific terms in Kurdish language”
كيَشةء طرنطيى زاراوةى زانستي لة زمانى كورديدا

Authors: د.شهاب طيب طاهر
Pages: 175-189
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The scientific terms are considered as the corner stone of the language in the world. If we form any scientific term for the social, political, economic and scientific concepts of life, the language will be authourized to face all the new terms that are introduced into any language daily. That is why the scientific terms must receive agreat interest .Then; scientific studies should be carried out in that field so that the terminologhcal issues could be solved through the morphological rules allowing the formation of words and terms. Concerning Kurdish language, it has passed through some difficult stages .Thus , it is impoverished in comparison with the other languages because of the lack of liberal entity , unified lexicography, and a cademic institution .That is why any Kurdish individual and the authority must work together in the field of terminology to form new words and terms for the newly intvoduced concepts. The resurrection of Kurdish culture, old and new scripts and books are regarded as a rich source of terms that are used daily. Then, Kurdish experts, kurdish syndicates and acadernic institutions should particpate in this attempt. Kurdish language has proved that it is able to be used in all the academic fields . Thus, it refuted the idea that Kurdish language is the language of poetry and literature only , not the language of natural sciences and scientific affairs. In fact, any language which is used for generating ideas is the language of borrowing, expressing and composing concepts. This paper dealing with the scientific terms in Kurdish language is divided in to two sections. The first section tackles the historical stages of developing terminology and the relation between terminological meaning and linguistic meaning. The second section is about the issues of scientific terms in Kurdish language and the importance of terms in Kurdish language.

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Article
Relationship with text language and literary types
ثةيوةندي زمان بة دةق و ذانرة ئةدةبييةكان

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Most language philosophers indicate that the speaker of any language needs two kinds of knowledge. The first one is called the cognitive knowledge, which the speaker acquires through studying and observing the rules of language. The second is called the sensational knowledge that grows inside him through using formal expressions. This means that the background of the man of letters should be constructed through the language of discourse that confirms the intended meanings, and discovering the meaning of each word in addition, and its conformity with other words. Since the creative discourse depends on the expressive abilities that differs from one person to another. In literature we always try to reshape language to introduce it in a coherent form.

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Article
تطور قواعد الفهرسة الوصفية من AACR2الى RDAومتابعة المكتبات الجامعية العراقية لها

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The paper aimes to the hature of change and development to whiche the descriptive ،Biblogarphy rules have been submitted and what are the latest rules resulted from that change and what are the Arabic efforts which contributes to that development , the cadastral method has been used in collecting data and analyzing them, as well as using data forms, which deal with descriptive bibliography subject and there rules and also meeting the employers in the artistry procedure department in our university libraries which is focus of the paper The paper has many results 1-The appellative attributive bibliography rules are not stable ones, but thy have been submitted to review, change development, continually, so we final that these rules are regarded as part of them and represent its third experimentalism print 2- Though many of the workers in the bibliography department are expert in data and libraries along with their long experience but, they suffer from not knowing the modern development in such a field Recommendation 1-Expert must use the helpful meansin applyingthe appellative bibliography rules (interpretive books, proofs) in order to show and interpret the rules in simple method 2-The necessity of making workers participate in the exercising programmers to apply the rules and use them worldly to make contact with different experiencesin this field

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