Table of content

Tikret Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصيدلانية

ISSN: 18172716
Publisher: Tikrit University
Faculty: Pharmacy
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

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Table of content: 2012 volume:8 issue:2

Article
Physiological effects of prolactin on early pregnancy loss

Authors: Suzan Sami Yousif
Pages: 147-155
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Abstract

Abortion generally presented as two types; the spontaneous and the induced abortion. Spontaneous one is the termination of pregnancy before fetal viability which occurs spontaneously. About 80% of spontaneous abortion losses occur in the first trimester, the incidence decreases with advance in pregnancy. Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone that is synthesized in and secreted from specialized cells of the anterior pituitary gland, the lactotrophs. The major action of prolactin is lactogenesis (milk production). It is the major hormone stimulating the production of milk. Prolactin seems to play an important role in implantation and subsequent placentation in the human endometrium, and it is recognized as a crucial signal for the initiation and maintenance of decidualization. In addition to that, prolactin inhibits the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone by the hypothalamus, and this inhibition lead to decreased secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH), which normally initiates ovulation, therefore with hyperprolactinemic state ovulation, does not occur (anovulation). The aim of this study is to study the effects of prolactin hormone in the incidence of abortion cases in first trimester pregnancy in women in Tikrit city. Serum Prolactin was measured by using kit made in France. VIDAS Prolactin (Made in Italy), for the enzyme immunoassay determination of human prolactin in human serum or plasma by using the technique of Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA). One hundred and thirty four pregnant women were participated & finished the whole study; 56 normal pregnant women in first trimester as a control group and 78 women with different types of abortion in first trimester who are diagnosed by clinical examination and/or by ultrasonography as aborted group. Seventy eight aborted women were participating in the present study. Threatened abortion was the highest one among aborted women (44.9%). Followed by missed abortion (19.23%), incomplete abortion (14.1%), complete (9%), inevitable (7.69%) & the last is recurrent (2.57%). Regarding serum prolactin, there is a significant difference between normal pregnant women (47.1 ± 25.4 ng/ml) as compare with aborted women (69.4 ± 48.8 ng/ml). In another word, aborted women have a serum prolactin concentration than that of normal pregnant women (p≤0.01).

Keywords

Prolactin --- women --- abortion --- age group.


Article
Left ventricular function in type 2 diabetics

Authors: Fakher Y. Hussain
Pages: 156-164
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Abstract

Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been proposed as an independent cardiovascular disease and many mechanisms, such as microvascular disease, autonomic dysfunction, metabolic disorders, and interstitial fibrosis, have been suggested as causative factors. However, the exact causes and mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy remain unclear. Several studies have demonstrated evidence for preclinical left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) independent of coronary disease or hypertension. The prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or its relation with other diabetic complications (nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy) is not well defined and data are controversial. A case series study of ninety patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was designed to determine the frequency of asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes patients and its relation to patients’ duration, control of diabetes and other factors, the setting was at Diabetes Clinic, Echocardiography Unit and wards of Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital. During the period from the 1st of July to 31st of December 2011, eighty seven consecutive normotensive diabetic patients type 2 (mean age 51.35+8.21 years) and having no coronary artery disease on non invasive testing, were studied for assessment of left ventricular diastolic function using pulsed Doppler at the tip of mitral valve, the peak late (atrial) transmitral flow velocity (A wave), the peak early transmitral flow velocity (E wave),the (E wave) deceleration time and the ratio between (E wave) and (A wave) were assessed. Tissue Doppler was also used to assess the basal septal (medial) mitral valve annular velocities, the peak early basal annular velocity ( E` wave ) and the peak late basal annular velocity (A` wave) in addition E/E` ratio was assessed, left ventricular diastolic function was classified as left ventricular diastolic dysfunction positive and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction negative, further classification in to normal, impaired relaxation and Pseudonormal groups was made, age gender duration of diabetes, atherogenic index, obesity were studied in relation to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction using Chi square and Fissures exact tests, T-tests and ANOVA were used to calculate means and to compare them.إن انتشار خلل البطين الانبساطي غير المصحوب باعراض لدى مرضى داءالسكر من النمط الثاني او علاقته مع مضاعفات داء السكر غير معّرف بصورة واضحة و ان اعتلال عضلة القلب السكري ومسبباته والاليات الدقيقة له لاتزال غير واضحة. الخلل العصبي اللاارادي, والاضطرابات الايضية قد تكون احد مسبباته. اجريت الدراسة لسبعة وثمانون مريضا (48رجل و39امراة )بداء السكر من النمط الثاني بهدف استقصاء ترداد خلل البطين الأيسر الانبساطي لدى المرضى المصابين وليس لديهم أعراض وعلاقته مع عمر المرضى, مدة داء السكر. اما موقع اجراء الدراسة فكان وحدة تخطيط صدى القلب في العيادة الاستشارية وعيادة داء السكر وردهات مستشفى ابن سينا التعليمي في الموصل . ابتداء من الفترة الاول من تموز 2011ولغاية 31 كانون الاول 2011 تم جمع سبعة وثمانون مريض ومريضة متوسط العمر(٥١٫٣٥ سنة ) والذين اخضعوا للدراسة لغرض تقييم وظيفة البطين الايسر بأستخدام الدوبلر النسيجي و الدوبلر النبضي على راس الصمام التاجي . وتم تصنيف وظيفة البطين الايسر الانبساطية الى ايجابية وسلبية, وايضا تصنيف اخرالى ( طبيعية, ارتخاء بطيني معاق, طبيعية كاذبة), لقد تمت مقارنة العمر, مدة داء السكر, , مَنْسَبُ المَعَصِّد, والسمنة مع خلل وظيفة البطين الايسر الانبساطي بواسطة الفحوصات الاحصائية مربع كاي, فشر, أما فحصا أنوفا و تيوكي, فقد استخدما عند الضرورة لتبيين العلاقة بين متوسطات العوامل المقارنة ضمن مجاميع وظيفة البطين الايسر الانبساطية من اصل سبعة وثمانون مريضا بداء السكر من النمط الثاني( 48 ذكرا و ٣٩ انثى),كان هنالك ٣٤ (٣٩٫٥٪) مريضا(١٠منهم ذكور و٢٤ اناث ) يعانون من خلل وظيفي انبساطي في البطين الأيسر مع العلم بأن الوظيفة التقلصية للبطين الأيسر كانت طبيعية (٠٫٠٠١>p), وان الأناث المصابات بالخلل كن اكثر من الذكور بنسبة ٢٫٤: ١.لقد لوحظ ان الخلل يزداد بصورة ملموسة بزيادة العمر(٠٫٠١=p ),كذلك كانت الحال مع مدة داء السكر, حيث يزاد الخلل بزيادة مدة داء السكر(٠٫٠٠١=p ), ان عوامل الخطورة القلبية الوعائية من ارتفاع الدهون في الدم كانت ذات علاقة مباشرة بالخلل(٠٫٠٠٦=p), بيد ان السمنة لم تكن لها علاقة احصائية بالخلل(٠٫٢79=p).

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Article
Role of Misoprostol in Induction of Labor: Sublingual versus Vaginal in Tikrit City

Authors: Sumaya Tahir Saihood
Pages: 165-171
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Abstract

A successful induction of labor leads to vaginal delivery of a healthy baby, in an acceptable time frame with minimum maternal discomfort or side effects. To compare the efficacy and safety of sublingual and per vaginal 25µg misoprostol for labor induction. Primary outcome measures were the number of cases delivering vaginally, Secondary requirement, the incidence of meconium-stained liquor, number of cesarean deliveries, the incidence of hyperstimulation/tachysystole, maternal adverse effects and neonatal outcomes. A prospective study was conducted in Tikrit Teaching Hospital. Indications were reviewed; 416 women randomly received misoprostol 25 µg vaginally and sublingually every three hourly for maximum three doses. Outcomes were analyzed accordingly. The number of the cases who successfully delivered vaginally was greater in the sublingual group. The induction to vaginal delivery interval was significantly shorter in sublingual group. The incidence of tachysystole and meconium-stained liquor were more in the vaginal than in the sublingual group. The mean doses, mode of delivery, oxytocin augmentation and maternal outcomes were significantly favorable in sublingual group. No significant difference is seen in neonatal outcome. Sublingual misoprostol 25 µg administered three hourly for labor induction has better effficacy as compared to 25 µg of vaginal misoprostol.


Article
Nerve conductive study in women with carpel tunnel syndrome in Tikrit city

Authors: Umer T. Ismael
Pages: 172-178
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Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the most common upper limb compression neuropathies. CTS account for approximately 90% of all entrapment neuropathies. An estimated one million adults from the United States (annually) have CTS requiring medical treatment. The aim of the study is to investigate to compare the normal values of median nerve of normal healthy women (distal latency, amplitude & conduction velocity) with the same values of median nerve in women with carpel tunnel syndrome. The study was conducted as a case series study for Iraqi volunteers and patients attended to rheumatology department - neurophysiology unit at Tikrit teaching hospital (TTH) at the period from the 1st of December 2010 to the 1st of August 2011. Forty healthy female subjects with a mean age of (40.315 ± 10.324 years) to compare with the CTS female patients. Thirty eight female patients with mean age group of (40.55 ± 10.230 years) with CTS affect them in right hand diagnosed by rheumatologist and neurologist then referred to nerve conductive study (NCS) and EMG unit at TTH. The NCS was done by using NIHON KOHDEN / Neuropack S1 EMG / EP Measuring System MEB-9400 MODEL 2009. There are no significance differences between control subjects & CTS patients regarding age, body mass index. Also, there are no significance difference between normal control subjects & CTS patients in regard to upper limb length, arm circumference, index finger length (IFL), index finger circumference and wrist circumference. In regard to motor activity of median nerve, there is significance increase in distal latency time of median nerve of CTS patients (5.632 ± 1.791 msec) on compare to normal control subjects (3.540 ± 0.622 msec). Also, the amplitude of action potential of motor activity of median nerve is higher in control subjects (9.217 ± 0.509 mv) in compare to CTS patients motor activity of amplitude of (6.530 ± 1.937 mv). The difference between median nerve motor amplitude is significance at ( p<0.01) between patients and controls. Moreover the conduction velocity in CTS patients of median motor (58.354 ± 1.789 m/sec) is significance lower (p<0.01) in compare to motor conduction values of median nerve in normal control subjects (53.744 ± 4.232 m/sec). However, in regard to sensory activity of median nerve in right hand of both normal control subjects and CTS patients. The latency period in CTS patients is delayed (3.414 ± 1.606 msec) in compare to normal subjects (2.761 ± 0.344 msec). While, the amplitude of action potential of the sensory activity of median nerve is significantly lower (p< 0.01) in compare to normal subjects. Also, the conduction velocity of sensory activity of median nerve of CTS patients is significantly lower (38.357 ± 4.357 m/sec) on compare to conduction velocity of sensory activity of median nerve of normal subjects (48.236 ± 2.545 m/sec). The present study concludes that: The present study showed abnormal values NCS of median nerve at CTS patients as compare to normal healthy women of same age. The present study recommend that;- Using median nerve ultrasonography as diagnostic tools to confirm or exclude CTS & minimize false positive results.


Article
Management of pyloric stenosis in children

Authors: Fawzi S. Shehab Aljomaily
Pages: 179-184
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Abstract

A prospective study of 24 cases of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in Salahaldeen government from February 2008-february 2011. All patients evaluated according to family history, sex, age, age at starting of vomiting and hydration state. Examination done for any palpable mass and sign of dehydration, and muscle wasting ,feeding test done for all patients. Patients admitted to hospital and investigations done which includes complete blood picture, blood urea, serum electrolyte. All patients send for ultrasound study of the pyloric canal to evaluate the length and thickening of the pyloric canal and consider as appositive study if the length more than 14mm and thickening more than 4mm pyloromyotomy done for all case with very good result and most of patient discharge after 24h of surgery.

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Article
The Value of Ultrasound in Diagnosing Acute Appendicitis

Authors: Baha'a Mushref Abdulsalam
Pages: 185-191
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Acute appendicitis considered one of the causes of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is usually straight forward in typical cases, but this is not true in atypical cases. This study is to assess the value of ultrasound modality in diagnosing acute appendicitis. From January 2009 to January 2012 in Al-Ramadi teaching hospital, 196 patients were included in this study, 10 patients were excluded, and 186 examined by ultrasound, after adequate clinical assessment, for their signs and symptoms that suggestive of acute appendicitis. Age groups were 6-75 years, Mean age 33.5 years, with 105(54%) males, and 91(46%) females. 186 patients could be explained, and examined by ultrasound, with mean age of 33.5 years, the diagnosis had established in 34 patients. The false positive was three cases, and false negative was six cases, this means that the ultrasound had failed in these nine cases. The sensitivity is 81.8%, the specificity is 98%. 90% and 96.2% are the positive and negative predictive values respectively. The diagnostic accuracy is 95.5%. The P-value is


Article
Frequency of biochemical abnormality in elderly with fracture neck of femur

Authors: Sura K. Mohi aldeen
Pages: 192-199
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To assess the frequency of abnormal results of bone profile tests including serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and the results of parathyroid hormone in patients with fracture neck of femur. The study includes a group of 100 elderly patients ages 60 years and older with fracture neck of femur, and 100 healthy elderly persons without fracture neck of femur from the same age range, served as a control group .The subjects selected for the study were free from secondary risk of metabolic bone disease apart from age, genetic and menopause. Individual of both groups were referred to the laboratory of Department of Biochemistry/ College of Medicine/ University of Mosul. The study was conducted during the period from 17th February 2008 up to 22nd of December 2008. Measurements of serum parathyroid hormone was conducted by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay, and serum calcium; phosphate, albumin, total alkaline phosphatase activity was conducted by colorimetric method. A high frequency of combined abnormal biochemical tests 79% among the fractured group was found, compared to 46% in non fractured, which is highly significant (p˂0.001). Combined abnormal biochemical tests (osteomalacia) in elderly person may contribute to risk of fracture


Article
Effect of Pre-Exercise Loading Diet in Different Digital Ratio Subject on Aerobic Level of Exercise Performance

Authors: Mohammed A-K. Younes
Pages: 200-208
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This study based on a random sample from a Prospective Cohort study including one hundred healthy young untrained male volunteers, with mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of 22.820 ± 2.271 years. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of pre-exercise carbohydrate diet for untrained subjects on exercise performance. The parameters that have been measured were: Index and ring fingers length of both right and left hand, body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, body composition (including: fat, muscle and water) and exercise performance (including: time, distance, calories and calculated calories expenditure). Participants were divided into three subgroups according to their digit ratio; 36 subject with (high D2:D4 1.036-0.980), 37 subject with (moderate D2:D4 0.979-0.954) and 27 subject with (Low D2:D4 0.950-0.912). The result showed that distance, time, calorie expenditure and calculated calorie expenditure were significantly higher after diet intake (150gm and 250gm respectively) in comparison with fasting state among participant during briskly walking on treadmill. As well as, the effect appear more obviously among low digit ratio group in comparison with that of moderate and high digit ratio group respectively.أجريت هذه الدراسة بالاعتماد على نموذج عشوائي من دراسة جماعة مستقبلية متضمنة 100 شاب متطوع وغير متدرب جميعهم أصحاء. هدف هذه الدراسة هو لاختبار تأثير الكربوهيدرات وزيادة الكربوهيدرات في طعام الشخص غير المتدرب قبل الرياضة على الانجاز الرياضي. المتغيرات التي تم قياسها :ـ طول الإصبع الثاني و الرابع لليد اليمنى واليسرى, وزن وطول الجسم ومحيط الخصر والورك, مكونات الجسم (وتتضمن نسبة الدهون, العضلات والماء), والانجاز الرياضي (ويتضمن الزمن, المسافة, استهلاك السعر الحراري و السعر الحراري المحسوب). الأشخاص المشتركين قسموا إلى ثلاثة مجاميع حسب النسبة الإصبعية (عالية, متوسطة و منخفضة) حيث أظهرت النتائج أن الانجاز الرياضي يكون معنويا أعلى بعد تناول الطعام (150 غرام و 250 غرام على التوالي) بالمقارنة مع حالة الصيام للمشتركين على جهاز الرياضة الحركي أثناء المشي السريع, والتأثير يكون أوضح لدى الأشخاص ذو النسب الإصبعية المنخفضة بالمقارنة مع الأشخاص ذو النسب الإصبعية المتوسطة والعالية على التوالي

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Article
The Role of Endothelin-1 and Oxidative Stress In Pregnancy Induced Hypertension
دور الاندوثيلين -1واجهاد الاكسدة في ضغط الدم المحرض بالحمل

Authors: Shaimaa A.H. Jasim
Pages: 209-216
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Pregnancy Induced HypertensionPIH is one of the most frequent complications of pregnancy , however little is known about its etiology. Endothelial dysfunction serves as a causative factor in the initiation of the maternal pathophysiological changes of PIH & is not just a result of this disorder. Endothelin-1 may play an important role in the pathophysiology of PIH, either by acting on vascular smooth muscle directly to induce contraction or by increasing the formation of angiotensin II. Pregnancy induced hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction & could be caused by oxidative stress. Recent evidence suggest the role of oxidative stress in PIH. The high level of malondiahyde MDA may reflect the excessive oxidative damage in PIH. The study sample consist of 50 normal non pregnant women, 50 normotensive pregnant women, and 50 preeclamptic pregnant women in their third trimester in Mosul city. The aim of this study was designed to evaluate the role of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in pathogenesis of PIH. The results of this study showed that there was a highly significant elevation (P0.000) in the serum level of endothelin-1 in the preeclamptic pregnant women in comparison with normotensive pregnant & the control group. Also there was a highly significant elevation (P0.000) in the level of serum MDA in the preeclamptic pregnant women in comparison with normotensive pregnancy & the control group. The serum endothelin-1 has a significant negative correlation with both maternal age & gestational age, while endothelin-1 has a significant positive correlation with diastolic blood pressure. The MDA showed a significant negative correlation with maternal age, while there was a significant positive correlation between MDA & diastolic blood pressure.

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Article
Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimethoprim in Pure Form and Pharmaceutical Formulations with Metol and potassium hexacyanoferrate (ΙΙΙ)

Authors: Ayad M.R. Raauf Ayad M.R. Raauf
Pages: 217-228
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A simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method of determination of trimethoprim (TMP) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulation. The method is based on the formation of (TMP) complex. The reaction between of the trimethoprim with the mixture of metol and potassium hexacyanoferrate (ΙΙΙ) was evaluated for the spectrophotometric determination of the trimethoprim. The maximum absorbance of the colored complex occurred at λ=540nm. Reaction conditions have been optimized to obtain (TMP) complex of high sensitivity and longer stability. Under optimum conditions the absorbance of the (TMP) complex where found to increase linearly with increase in concentration of the trimethoprim, which corroborated with correlation coefficient value. The concentration ranges are 10-100 µg mL-1 with detection limit 0.0286 µg mL-1 and relative standard deviation 0.74 % and relative error of prediction for drug were lower . The proposed method was successfully applied to determine of the selected trimethoprim in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations with good precision and accuracy compared to standard method as revealed by t- and F- values and the results obtained agree well with the labeled contents.


Article
Effects of chronic myeloid leukemia on some haematological parameters and indicators during chemotherapy period
تأثير مرض ابيضاض الدم النخاعي المزمن على بعض المعاييروالدلائل الدموية اثناء فترة العلاج الكيمياوي

Authors: Sendes waleed khalid
Pages: 229-235
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This study include calculation of some haematological parameters & indicators of chronic myeloid leukemia(CML) after chemotherapy, involve collecting (40) blood samples from CML patients & (40) blood samples from normal individuals considered as control group with ages of (35-60) year; after making the haematological testes of these samples we noticed the presence of variable significant differences(p<0.05) in the values, by which at the beginning of the treatment by chemotherapy there was obvious decreasing in all hemoglobin value (9.8±0.61)gm/100 ml ,the number of red blood cells (3.88±0.30) millions cells /mm3 & packed cell volume (40.7±2.57)% and decreasing of blood indices like MCV (80.4+2.13) fl, MCH (24.1±1.32) pg, MCHC (30.1±1.13)g/dl, and this decreasing continue throughout chemotherapy period, we also found obvious increasing in leukocytes and platelets numbers at the beginning of the treatment by chemotherapy (7765±665.1) cell/mm3 (396.6±41.2) cell/mm3 respectively, after that decreasing of these numbers throughout chemotherapy (7350 70)cell/mm3 of leukocytes. In addition to that we observe increasing in erythrocyte sedimentation rate(19.6±8.82)mm/1h ,and increasing in granular white blood cells like neutrophils cells (74.3±6.91)%, eosinophils cells(8.25±2.19)% and basophils cells (3.55±0.99)% of leukemia patients in comparison with control group. تضمنت الدراسة الحالية حساب قيم بعض المعايير والدلائل الدموية لمرضى ابيضاض الدم النخاعي المزمن بعد اعطائهم العلاج الكيمياوي ، فقد شملت الدراسة جمع (40) عينة دم من مرضى ابيضاض الدم النخاعي المزمن و(40) عينة دم من اشخاص اصحاء اعتبرت كمجموعة سيطرة وبأعمارمابين (35-60)سنة من مركزالاورام السرطانية في المنطقة الجنوبية، وبعد اجراء التحاليل الدموية لهذه العينات لوحظ وجود اختلافات معنوية مختلفةp<0.05)) في القيم فقد تبين في بداية علاجهم الكيمياوي وجود انخفاض واضح في كل من خضاب الدم (0.61±9.8)غرام /100 مل وعدد كريات الدم الحمر (0.30+3.88)مليون خلية /ملم³ وحجم الخلايا المتراصة (2.57±40.7)%. وانخفاض واضح في قيم الدلائل الدموية مثل MCV (2.13+80.4) fl و MCH(1.32±24.1) pg و MCHC (1.13±30.1) g/dl واستمر هذا الانخفاض اثناء فترة العلاج ، كذلك وجد زيادة واضحة في اعداد كريات الدم البيض في بداية العلاج (665.1±7765) خلية / ملم٣ وبعدها انخفضت هذه الاعداد اثناء فترة العلاج فأصبح عددها(70±7350)خلية/ ملم٣ وزيادة في اعداد الصفائح الدموية (41.2±396.6) خلية/ملم٣ انخفضت هذه الاعداد اثناء فترة العلاج كما لوحظ زيادة في معدل ترسيب كريات الدم الحمر (8.82±19.6) ملم / ساعة ، ولوحظ زيادة في اعداد كريات الدم البيض الحبيبية كالخلايا العدلة (6.91±74.3) % والخلايا الحمضة (2.19±8.25) % والخلايا القعدة(0.99±3.55) % لدى مرضى اللوكيميا مقارنةً مع مجموعة السيطرة .

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Article
Autoimmune Hepatitis Markers in Association with Chronic Viral Hepatitis Type B and C

Authors: Khalid Omar M. Ali
Pages: 236-241
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Abstract

Circulating auto-antibodies have gained great significance for the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and various autoantibodies have been reported in patients infected by chronic viral hepatitis. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess these autoantibodies in the sera of 116 seropositive hepatitis B & C virus patients admitted to Baghdad Teaching Hospital from March 2009 to the end of December 2009. The presence of autoantibodies against cell nuclei (ANA), smooth muscle (SMA), liver- cytosol type-1 (anti LC1) and liver kidney microsome type1 (anti LKM-1) for all the affected patients' sera was measured. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) results showed that 18 (16%) of cases revealed seropositive results, while anti- smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) results showed only two (2%) seropositive results both of which are of HCV patients. Results of anti LC-1 autoantibodies and anti LKM1 autoantibodies showed seropositivity in 6 (5%) and 8 (7%) cases, respectively, all of which are of HCV type. The current study suggest that chronic HCV infection can mimic autoimmune chronic active hepatitis; and special care must be held in patients who are unresponsive to immunosuppressive treatment, as HCV may be the role here.

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Article
Bioequivalency of Two Piroxicam Products in Plasma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Shaimaa Dhia M. Sheet Al-Shakargi
Pages: 242-247
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To determine piroxicam in human plasma and to compare the pharmacokinetic profile of the test drug (Piroxicam Tablet) and the reference drug (Piroxicam Capsule) for bioequivalence study. This study represents the result of a randomized, single dose, two period crossover studies in 15 healthy volunteers to assess the bioequivalence of two formulations of piroxicam 20 mg. The blood samples (5 ml) were drawn concomitantly from 1-72 hours after oral administration of a single dose of 20 mg piroxicam capsules (Piroxisam)® (Samarra Drug Industry) as reference drug to 15 volunteers then after 15 days wash out period, the same volunteers were given 20 mg of piroxisam tablets (Samarra Drug Industry) as test drug. The pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained from the mean plasma concentration measured at various sampling times. Cmax and Tmax of both products were similar. Ka and Kelm values of were very close between test and reference formulations. The AUC value of piroxicam tablet was lower than that of capsule. The test formulation was found to be bioequivalent to reference formulation based on the pharmacokinetic parametersلتحديد البيروكسيكام في البلازما و مقارنة المؤشرات الحركية لكل الدواء الاختباري و المرجعي لدراسة التكافؤ الحيوي. هذه الدراسة هي نتيجة لتناول جرعة واحدة عن طريق الفم لاثنين من الصيغ الصيدلانية لدواء البيروكسيكام20 ملغم ل 15 متطوعا من الأصحاء لغرض تقييم التكافؤ الحيوي. تم سحب عينات الدم (5مليليتر) للفترة من 1-72 ساعة بعد تناول كل من (بيروكسيكام كبسول ®(Piroxisam) (معمل أدوية سامراء) وأقراص Piroxisam (معمل أدوية سامراء) لهؤلاء المتطوعين على فترتين تتخللها فترة 15 يوم من عدم تعاطي أي من المستحضرين, ثم تم الحصول على موشرات حركية الدواء من تركيز الدواء في البلازما المقاسة في أوقات مختلفة. كانت كل من Cmax وTmax متماثلة لكلا المستحضرين كذلك قيم Ka و Kelm كانت متقاربة. أما قيمة AUC للأقراص فقد كانت اقل منها للكبسول. وجد بان الصيغة الجديدة (أقراص البيروكسيكام) مكافئة بيولوجيا للصيغة القياسية بالاعتماد على المؤشرات الحركية لهذا الدواء.

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Article
Effects of Carbamazepine on blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, lipid profile and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in epileptic patients

Authors: Isam Hamo Mahmood
Pages: 248-255
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To investigate the effects of carbamazepine on serum glucose concentrations, lipid profile, blood pressure and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in epileptic patients. Seventy epileptic patients involved in this study. They have primary generalized and partial seizures with duration of treatment with carbamazepine of 11.5±8.37 years. Another 100 apparently healthy individuals were also participated in the study as a control group. Ten ml of venous blood samples were taken from each patient and control after 14 hours fasting. The obtained serum was separated and used for the estimation of glucose concentration, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol by using special Kits. LDL-cholesterol was determined by Friedewald equation. Metabolic syndrome was determined according to ATP III criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The patients and controls were matched regarding age and sex. Weight, BMI and waist circumference were statistically not different between patients and controls. Comparison between the measured variables shows significant elevations of the lipid parameters in the patient group as compared with the control group. Non significant differences obtained between serum glucose concentrations and significant low values of BP were obtained in the patient group as compared with the controls. The number of patients and control having metabolic syndrome according to ATP II diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome were 4 and 3, respectively. The difference is not significant. This study demonstrated that carbamazepine have no effects on serum glucose concentrations, but have elevating effects on lipid parameters and reducing effects on BP. It has no effects on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the epileptic patients

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Epilepsy --- carbamazepine --- glucose --- lipids --- BP --- metabolic syndrome


Article
The Effect of site of tympanic membrane perforation on hearing

Authors: Alyaa Farouk Al- Omari
Pages: 256-263
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Tympanic membrane(TM) perforation is one of the most common causes of hearing impairment. Apart from conduction of sound waves across the middle ear, the tympanic membrane, also sub-serves a protective function to the middle ear cleft and round window niche. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of the site of the tympanic membrane perforation on hearing. Seventy-eight patients with perforated tympanic membranes were included in the study.They all have TM perforation due to recurrent or chronic otitis media. Patients with traumatic TM perforation were excluded from the study. There were 47 males (46.5%) and 54 females (53.5%). Twenty patients had left ear perforation, 35 patients had right ear perforation, and 23 patients had bilateral perforations. Each ear was taken as a case, so the total number of the perforated ear drums was 101. The age ranged from 13- 56 with the mean of age was (31.64 ± 13.249) years. The TM perforation was examined and photo image was taken with the aid of the endoscope. Controls were 55 patients with a mean age 30.73 ±12.09 (range 14-53) years. Male controls were 34 (61.8%), and 21 female controls (38.2%). There is a positive correlation between site of TM perforation and hearing level, air bone gap, low frequency hearing level and high frequency hearing level. As a conclusion, there is a positive relationship between the site of TM perforation and hearing level being more in the posterior-superior and inferior parts. ان ثقب غشاء الطبلة هو احد اهم الاسباب شيوعا لضعف السمع. ان الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو تقييم ثأثير موقع الثقب على السمع. تم تضمين ثمانية وسبعين مريضا في هذه الدراسة, وكانو مصابين بثقب غشاء الطبلة نتيجة الالتهاب المكرر او المزمن في الاذن الوسطى. وقد تم استبعاد المرضى المصابين بثقب الطبلة الرَضْحِيّ. من المرضى كان الذكور حوالي 47 مريضا (46%), وحوالي 56 مريضا كانوا من الاناث(53%) . عشرون مريضا كان لديهم ثقب في غشاء الطبلة في الاذن اليسرى, و 35 مريضا كان لديهم ثقب الطبلة اليمنى, وفي 23 مريضا لديهم ثقب في كلتا الاذنين. كل اذن تم دراستها كحالة مستقلة وبذلك يصبح المجموع الكلي 101 حالة. العمر تراوح من 13-56 سنة مع متوسط العمر(31,64 سنة). تم فحص وتصوير غشاء الطبة باستخدام الناظور. وكانت المجموعة الضابطة تتكون من 55 مريضا مع متوسط العمر(30,73 سنة), حيث تراوح العمر من 14-53 سنة. شكل الذكور 34 مريضا(61%), والاناث 21 مريضا(38%). كان هناك علاقة قوية وايجابية بين موقع الثقب ومستوى السمع و الَغْرَةٌ العَظْمِيَّةٌ الهَوائِيَّة حيث انهما يزيدان في حالة ثقب الطبلة في المنطقة الخلْفِيّةٌ العُلْوِيةّ و السفلية .


Article
Role of of Montilukaste with or without Desloratidin in treatment of Bronchial Asthma

Authors: Mohammad Shareef Abdulla
Pages: 264-271
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The role of leukotriens antagonist alone and with the new generation H1 antihistaminics is not well elucidated. This study has been designed to evaluate the role of montilukast with and without desloratidine in the treatment of mild to moderate severity bronchial asthma. This is a double blind placebo control clinical trial which has been conducted on 150 patients with mild to moderate bronchial asthma in the period between July 2011 to January 2012 in Tikrit General Hospital and Private Clinic. The patients were divided into 3 groups, first group received montilukast alone, the second group received montilukast plus desloratidine and the third group received placebo tablet. Forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and Asthmatic Symptom Score were measured before and after the treatment period of three months. There was a significant improvements in all parameters in the montilukast group (P≤ 0.01). The combination of montilukast with desloratidIne resulted in a highly significant improvement in all parameters (P≤ 0.001). From this study we conclude that montilukast is a useful drug in the armamentarium against asthma, however the addition of desloratidine appears to have synergistic action in patients with mild to moderate bronchial asthma ان دور مضادات الليوكوترين مع او بدون الاجيال الحديثة من مضادات الهستامين فى علاج مرضى الربو لم تتم دراستها بصورة واضحة. اجريت هذه الدراسة المسيطر عليها بالبلاسيبو على 150 مريضا مصابين بالربو الشعبي الخفيف والمعتدل الشدة ، وقد قسم المرضى الى ثلاثة مجاميع كل مجموعة من 50 مريض المجموعة الاولى عولجت بالمونتلوكاست والمجموعة الثانية عولجت بالمونتلوكاست مع الديسلوراتدين ، اما المجموعة الثالثة فقد تم معالجتها بالبلاسيبو. تم اعتماد قياسات كمية الزفير في اول ثانية واعلى نسبة جريان زفيري وكذلك مقياس اعراض الربو لتقييم النتائج. كانت هناك نتائج ذو قيمة احصائية ولكل المقاييس لمجموعة المونتلوكاست(P≤0.01 )، بينما كان هناك نتائج ذات قيمة احصائية عالية(p≤ 0.001). يستنتج من هده الدراسة ان مضادات الليوكوترين مفيدة في علاج الربو الشعبي وان اضافة مضادات الهستامين من الاجيال الجديدة له فائدة اضافية.

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Article
Appearance of F-wave during electrophysiological study of

Authors: Mohammed E. Sulaiman
Pages: 272-283
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To evaluate the appearance of F-wave in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome through electrophysiological study. Fifty patients with carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) of the median nerve who were diagnosed clinically and through electrophysiological study for median and ulnar nerve. Fifty normal subjects of healthy volunteers of similar age and gender were compared to the patients and examined for nerve conduction study. Nerve conduction study for median and ulnar nerve (motor and sensory) were done for each patient and subject in neurophysiology department to study the distal motor and sensory latency (DML,DSL), compound motor and sensory action potentials (CMAP,SNAP) ,motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (MNCV,SNCV) and F-wave latencies(maximum, mean and minimum). There are prolonged distal motor and sensory latency, decrease of compound motor and sensory action potential, decrease of motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and prolongation of F-wave latencies( minimum, mean and maximum.) of the median nerve (motor) in carpal tunnel syndrome patients compared with the controls and these differences are statistically significant p-value < 0.01. The F-wave parameters for median nerve must be added in electrophysiological study to establish the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. دراسة ظهور موجة (أف ) عند أجراء فحص توصيل الأعصاب الكهربائي للعصب الوسطي لدى المرضى المصابين بمتلازمة ضغط العصب الوسطي . شملت الدراسة (50) شخص من الحالات الطبيعية و (50) مريض من المرضى المصابين بمتلازمة ضغط العصب الوسطي. أجريت الدراسة في قسم المفاصل وقسم الجملة العصبية في مستشفى ابن سينا التعليمي في الموصل للفترة من 1 اذار 2011 ولغاية 30 كانون الاول 2011. تم إملاء الاستمارة الخاصة بالمعلومات للمرضى وإجري الفحص الطبي السريري والشعاعي للكفين والفقرات العنقية لجميع المرضى المصابين بمتلازمة ضغط العصب الوسطي. تم إجراء فحص توصيل الأعصاب الكهربائي للعصب الوسطي والزندي (الحسي والحركي) لدراسة الكمون العصبي القاص (الحسي والحركي) وسعة العصب الحسي والحركي (المدى) وسرعة توصيل العصب (الحسي والحركي) وموجة (أف) للعصب الوسطي الحركي. عند مقارنة الكمون العصبي القاص (الحسي والحركي) وسعة العصب (الحسي والحركي) وسرعة توصيل الأعصاب للعصب الوسطي والزندي (الحسي والحركي) للحالات الطبيعية والمرضى المصابين بمتلازمة ضغط العصب الوسطي تبين أن هناك استطالة في زمن الكمون العصبي القاص (الحسي والحركي) وقصور في سعة العصب (الحسي والحركي) فضلا على بطء في سرعة توصيل العصب (الحسي والحركي) عند المرضى المصابين بمتلازمة ضغط العصب الوسطي مقارنة بالحالات الطبيعية. وكان الفرق بينهما معنويا من ناحية التحليل الإحصائي. كما أظهرت الدراسة أن هناك استطالة في زمن الكمون العصبي القاص لموجة (أف) للعصب الوسطي (الحركي) للمرضى المصابين بمتلازمة ضغط العصب الوسطي مقارنة بالحالات الطبيعية وكان الفرق بينهما معنويا من ناحية التحليل الإحصائي. كما ظهر أن هناك استطالة في زمن الكمون العصبي القاص لموجة (أف) للعصب الوسطي (الحركي) مقارنة بالعصب ألزندي (الحركي) للمرضى المصابين بمتلازمة ضغط العصب الوسطي وكان الفرق بينهما معنويا من ناحية التحليل الإحصائي. يجب أدراج فحص موجة (أف) عند أجراء فحص توصيل الأعصاب للعصب الوسطي (الحركي) للمرضى المصابين بمتلازمة ضغط العصب الوسطي.


Article
Assessment of Liver Enzymes Activity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Nineveh province

Authors: Hiba R. Tawfeeq
Pages: 284-290
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Aim of the study: to determine the effect of Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA) on liver enzymes level. Methods: 75 subjects were enrolled in this study (40 patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 35 healthy subjects as control group), at Mosul city, Northern of Iraq, aged 20-70 years. The biochemical parameters measured were some of liver function tests which include measurement of the liver enzymes activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT). Results: There was a significant increase in liver enzymes activity in patients when compared to control. There was also significant increase in serum AST level at age group 40-50 years when compared to other age group in patients, in addition, there was a significant increase in serum ALP in female patients when compared to male patients. There was non-significant change in liver enzymes activity when compared according to residence, according to family history, and according to rheumatoid factor in patients. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated no deterioration in liver functions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis regarding serum enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanin transaminase, gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase), although subclinical alteration in liver functions could be expected in those patients, so that measurement of other early markers of liver dysfunction is occasionally recommended.هدف البحث: تحديد تأثير مرض التهاب المفاصل الرثواني على مستوى انزيمات الكبد. طرق البحث :75 شخص شملوا في هذه الدراسة 40من المصابين بالتهاب المفاصل الرثواني و35شخص كمجموعة ضبط , في مدينة الموصل وضواحيها, شمال العراق, تراوحت اعمارهم بين 20-70سنة, تم اجراء بعض فحوصات وظائف الكبد عليهم والتي شملت قياس فعالية انزيمات الكبد والمتضمنة مستوى خميرة ناقلة امين الأسبارتات (AST), ناقلة امين الالنين (ALT),الفوسفاتيز القلوية (ALP) وناقل الغاما غلوتاميل.(GGT) النتائج: أظهرت الدراسة زيادة معنوية في معدل مستويات انزيمات الكبد(ناقلة امين الأسبارتات, ناقلة امين الالنين, الفوسفاتيز القلوية وناقل الغاما غلوتاميل في مصل الدم لدى المرضى عند مقارنتهم بمجموعة الضبط بالإضافة إلى زيادة معنوية في معدل مستوى ناقلة امين الأسبارتات عند المرضى الذين تتراوح اعمارهم بين 40-50 سنة وكذلك كان هناك زيادة معنوية في معدل مستوى الفوسفاتيز القلوية لدى المرضى الاناث عند مقارنتهم بالمرضى الذكور. كما أظهرت عدم وجود اختلافات معنوية في معدلات مستويات انزيمات الكبد لدى المرضى عند مقارنتهم طبقا" للسكن, وجود المرض في العائلة, وطبقا" لوجود العامل الرثوي في العائلة. الخلاصة: تبين نتائج الدراسة الحالية عدم وجود اضطرابات ظاهرية في وظائف الكبد لدى مرضى التهاب المفاصل الرثواني بالاعتماد على مستويات انزيمات الكبد في مصل الدم . مع ذلك فانه من المتوقع وحسب النتائج، وجود تغييرات طفيفة وغير ظاهرة سريريا" في وظائف الكبد لدى هؤلاء المرضى، وبذلك ينصح بمتابعة وظائف الكبد لدى مرضى التهاب المفاصل الرثواني عن طريق إجراء فحوصات اشمل وأدق لوظائف الكبد.


Article
The effect of garlic extract and volatile oil on growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes

Authors: Thikra Ahmed Humada
Pages: 291-295
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This study was conducted in the College of Medicine- laboratory of microbiology to assess the effect of crude garlic extract and essential volatile oil on growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Antidermatophytic activity of different concentrations of volatile oil, aqueous extract of garlic were investigated in vitro against T. mentagrophytes by using agar dilution technique. The results showed that minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous garlic extract (crude) was 0.5 mg/ ml, while the MIC of essential oil was 0.25 mg/ml.

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Article
Herbal Treatment, Usage Frequency, Types and Preferences in
العلاج بالإعشاب تعدد استعمالاته ,أنواعه, والمفضل منه في مدينة تكريت,العراق

Authors: Ban Abdulkhalk Yehea Al-Handh
Pages: 296-303
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Alternative treatment usage is increasing around the world although treatment methods are becoming more modern and more drugs are made available. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the incidence of treatment with herbs as an alternative treatment method in Tikrit city and the reasons for its usage. in a sample (number =1268) in the age group (20 – 50) years. duration of the study extended from the January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011. In Tikrit there were 15 herbal stores ,and 35 pharmacies deal with herbal treatment such as nettle, St. John’s wort, rosemary, garden sage and hawthorn, oleander and thyme. The study was carried out with a questionnaire to persons who had received preliminary information. After the subjects were informed of the study, the analysis of medicinal plants by the participants. Nine hundred sexist two(75.9%) of those participating in the study reported that they had used a herbal medication at least once. The main health problems leading to the usage of herbal medication for their treatment was hair loss - hair care, hemorrhoids, skin care, peptic ulcer - gastritis and infertility. The main reason for interest in herbal treatments was “hoping to find a herbal medicine which could help treat their condition”. People living in Tikrit city has a high rate of alternative medicine usage and regular studies are required to show changes over time.

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Article
Some renal function parameters in individuals with metabolic syndrome

Authors: Mohammad A. Alkataan
Pages: 304-308
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Metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. This syndrome characterized by: Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, lipid abnormalities and low grade inflammatory state. There are growing data demonstrated the relation between MS and renal impairment, these data revealed that individual with MS at higher risk to develop chronic kidney disease. (a) To determined the changes in renal function parameters in MS individuals.(b) determine the effect of age, sex and BMI on the measured parameters . This study was conducted during period from January to September 2011. Fifty apparently healthy individual (30 male and 20 female) were included in this work as control with age range 25±6.3 years, BMI range 21± 3.7 Kg/m2 and weight range 55± 3.9 Kg and another fifty individual(30 male and 20 female) were selected to have at least three of the WHO criteria of MS. Data were presented as mean ± SD , 2-sample t-Test was used to show the significance changes between the two groups. The effect of age and BMI on measured parameters were determined using Person - correlation. This study revealed that MS individual shows a significant increase in SFG,TC,TG, B.Urea, S.Cr and U.Sp-G when compared to those of the controls, while HDL-C and e-GFR shows significant reduction when compared to those of control table 1. In both group e-GFR significantly correlated to individual weight ( r =0.02), BMI (r =.0.075).SFG significantly correlated to B.Urea, S.Cr., e-GFR and U.Sp-G in MS individual (r = 0.03) but not in control group. In conclusion: MS individual show significant changes in renal function that may related to higher susaptability of this group to developing renal diseases

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Article
Evaluation of Antibacterial Effects of Ginger Extract When Used as One Component of the Root Canal Sealers; (An in vitro Study)

Authors: Wafaa Mohammed Ali
Pages: 309-317
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The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of aqueous ginger extract as endodontic sealer, against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sanguis, Candida albicans, anaerobic bacteria and normal flora of oral cavity, and to evaluate the most effective dilution of ginger extract against Enterococcus faecalis in dentinal tubules in order to use it as one component of root canal sealer. Disc diffusion test and direct contact method were used to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the aqueous ginger extract. The antimicrobial activity was tested 1, 3 and 30 days after dentinal tubules manipulation using different dentin sealer. The Results showed that the highest antimicrobial activity was exhibited by the 20% (w/v) aqueous ginger extract. Moreover, this ginger extract (20%) showed a remarkable antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis in infected dentinal tubules when examined in vitro; the study indicates that ginger extract might have promising effect to be use as one component of root canal sealer.


Article
Adherence to WHO guidelines of diarrhea management among children under 2 years old in Tikrit city

Authors: Sarab K. Abedalrahman
Pages: 318-327
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Diarrhea, has a major impact on global health, due to its high worldwide prevalence and health costs, and because it can be reduced by appropriate interventions and treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the adherence of health workers with the WHO guidelines of diarrhea management for children under 2 years old. A cross sectional study, done in 4 primary health care centers and Tikrit Teaching hospital . Three samples tested ; Random sample of 491 mother of under 2 years old child with diarrhea,14 GPand 17 nursing staff in PHCCs, 22 residents and11 nursing staff in Tikrit teaching hospital. Drugs alone or with ORS had given by 90% of all respondents and non-had received ORS alone. About45.5% of the residents and 21.4% of GP prescribe antispasmodic and antiemetic drugs during diarrhea. Only one 4.5% of the residents know that zinc is used in the treatment of diarrhea, and only 21.4% of the GP and 9.1% of the residents know the relation between vitamin A and diarrhea. Only 14.3% of the GPs and 9.1% of the residents didn’t use antibiotics in the management of diarrhea. Only 14.3% of the GPs and 13.6% of residents give correct indication of antibiotic use in diarrhea. Only 70.3% of the PHCC nursing staff and 18.2% of hospital nursing staff mentioned dextrolyt as the best treatment for diarrhea. Conclusion: There is overuse of antibiotics which is due to the wrong knowledge of the health workers.


Article
Risk Factors for Perinatal Deaths

Authors: Intisar A.A. AL-Gafoor
Pages: 328-337
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Perinatal mortality is significant health problem throughout the ward .it is prevalence is quite high specially in developing countries (16 ) .most of the causes are treatable and fetal out come can be improved by recognizing the site of the problem and provision good health care facilities during ante partum and intrapartum periods. To investigate the fetal and maternal factors associated with perinatal deaths. Case control study was designed to study the main risk factors for perinatal deaths at AL-batool Teaching Hospital /SBCU from1st January 2009 to 30S December 2009.505 registerated perinatal deaths were considered as cases ,a sample of 505 controls obtained among the survivals of the perinatal period. The data collected by questionnaire form to assess main causes of perinatal deaths such as respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, birth asphyxia ,low birth weight , congenital abnormality ,gender of new born .In addition maternal risk factors like history of pregnancy induced hypertension ,history of ante partum hemorrhage, women parity ,maternal age , maternal medical disorder, more over history of infertility ,mode of deliveries, ruptured uterus. Regarding causes of perinatal deaths; respiratory deaths syndrome, sepsis, birth asphyxia, low birth weight, congenital abnormality , all of them were found to be highly significant associated with the occurrence of perinatal deaths . According to maternal variable; maternal age<35 ,parity<5 pregnancy Induced hypertension ,history of ante partum hemorrhage ,ruptured uterus, unexplained causes of deaths were all found to be among the significant risk factors associated with perinatal loss. This study showed although there is clear reduction in the PNMMR after 2003, but still no changes in the main causes and risk factors for perinatal deaths and it is same to most of studies done in different countries in Iraq and world. The overall aim is to reduce the risk of perinatal death, effectively implementing the problems identified and solutions to the problems identified by application and designating practical clinical guide line.


Article
Clinical and Sociodemographic Characteristics of Depressive Disorders in Kirkuk Governorate

Authors: Saadoun Dawood Ahmed Al-jiboori
Pages: 338-344
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Abstract

Depression has been recognized as a major public health evidenced by its ranking of fourth position among the global burden of diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of depressive disorders in Kirkuk Governorate. 231 depressed patients included 78 male patients and 153 female patients who were attending psychiatric unit were participating in this study. Diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental disorders-IV (Text Revision) (DSM-IVTR). It was observed that a significant number of depressed patients were females 153(66%), unemployed140 (61%), come from rural area142 (61.5%). The highest rate is seen in widowed 70 (30%) and divorced 65 (28%) while the lowest rate is seen in married 40 (17%). The most frequent depression subtypes are major depression 140 (61%) followed by dysthymia 35(15%), while the lowest subtype is bipolar depression 14(6%). The frequency of depression subtypes among patients are major depression 61%, dysthymia 15%, psychotic depression9.5%, postpartum depression 8.6%, bipolar depression 6%.The sociodemographic characteristic factors are consistent with some previous finding.

Table of content: volume:8 issue:2