Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2014 volume:45 issue:3

Article
EFFECT OF USE OF PROBIOTIC AND SYNBIOTIC ON SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTIONAL TRAITS
تأثير استعمال المعزز الحيوي والخليط التأزري مع المنتجات المستوردة في بعض الصفات المناعية والانتاجية

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Abstract

The present study was conducted. at the poultry Research station-Agricultural Research Center at Abu-Graib from 26 October 2010 until 26 April 2011 to evaluate two foreign probiotic Products ,Australian Biomin lmbo and Japanese EMI, with two locally microbial products. A total of 360 Lohman Brown laying hens, 22 weeks old, were randomly distributed into six treatment groups 3 replicates each and reared on the liter floor pen, 3 square meter for each 20 laying hens. The six treatment groups were fed on six experimental diets as follows; T1=standard diet+3 g./kg Japanese EMI probiotic, T2=standard diet 3 g/kg .Australian Biomin Embo, T3=standard diet +3 g./kg. Iraqi robiotic, T4=stander diet+5. g./kg Iraqi symbiotic, T5=stander diet +3 g.kg. Iraqi symbiotic and T6=control group fed on slander diet only. Intestinal villi height, cryps depth, and the total count of lactobacilli bacteria in intestinal content were significantly (P<0.05) increased with diet supplement-ation, while the number of coliform bacteria were significantly decreased. Diet supplementation with probiotics and Synbiotics products were significantly (P<0.01) increased the Antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus (ND), furthermore, there were no significant differences between all groups regarding digestive tract component weight and length.


Article
EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTING DIFFERENT LEVELS SOURCES OF PHYTASE ENZYME TO THE JAPANESE QUAIL DIETS ON PRODUCTIVITY
تأثير إضافة مصادر ومستويات مختلفة لإنزيم الفايتيز Phytase في علائق طيور السمان الياباني في الأداء الإنتاجي

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Abstract

This study was conducted in the Poultry Research Station Animal Resources Research department–state Board of Agricultural Research- Ministry of Agricultural in Abu Ghraib, which included one experiment to study the effect of supplementing different levels sources of Phytase enzyme to the Japanese Quail diets of birds on productive performance, Eighty hundred female quail birds (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) 50 days of age, the experiment period from 31/8/2011 to 21/12/ 2011 (16 weeks). Quail birds distributed randomly to 16 treatments with various sources of Phytase, each source contain three levels divide to 16 treatments with 2 replicates (25 quail birds per replicate).The results of the second experiment showed, There are a significant increasing (P<0.05) for the treatment T4 (B) which recorded higher egg production. While T5 treatments showed significant increasing (P<0.05) at levels A in egg weight, while significant superiority in feed conversion ratio for T5 and T6 at level A and C and T2B and T4B.


Article
EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTING DIFFERENT LEVELS SOURCES OF PHYTASE ENZYME TO THE JAPANESE QUAIL DIETS ON THE EGG QUALITY TRAITS
تأثير إضافة مصادر ومستويات مختلفة لإنزيم الفايتيز Phytase في علائق طيور السمان الياباني في الصفات النوعية للبيض

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Abstract

This study was conducted in the Poultry Research Station Animal Resources Research department-state Board of Agricultural Research-Ministry of Agricultural in Abu Ghraib, which included one experiment to study the effect of supplementing different levels sources of Phytase enzyme to the Japanese Quail diets of birds on quality of eggs produced. Eighty hundred female quail birds (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) 50 days of age, the experiment period from 31/8/2011 to 21/12/ 2011 (16 weeks). Quail birds distributed randomly to 16 treatments with various sources of Phytase, each source contain three levels divide to 16 treatments with 2 replicates (25 quail birds per replicate).The results of the second experiment showed, The treatment of T4C and T5C showed significant superiority (P<0.05) for the quality of yolk and white egg, while there are no significant differences between the treatments for relative weight of shell and SWUSA, when there are significant increase in shell thickness for the treatment of T6A.


Article
THE EFFECT OF REGION AND STRUCTURE OF HERD ON DAILY MILK YIELD OF IRAQI BUFFALOES THROUGH TWO YEARS
تأثير الموقع وتركيب القطيع في إنتاج الحليب اليومي لدى الجاموس العراقي خلال عامي 2012-2013

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Abstract

This study was taken place in five different area from Baghdad city for buffaloes breeders aggregations through the years 2012 - 2013 and this contain the areas Al-Fadhliya , Alma’aml, Abu – Ghriub, Al- Taji and Boob Al-Sham to study the effect of region on daily milk yield. The records of 9252 Buffaloes consistence 3805 lactating buffaloes were used. These records were collected from 139 buffalo breeders randomly . The region had a highly significant effect (P < 0.01) on average daily milk yield, and Alma’aml (6.12 ± 0.09 kg ) and Abu-Ghriub (5.52 ±0.20 kg) regions were superior than other areas. The highest frequency were found in the second group of total numbers of holding size for buffalo( 11 – 20 head ) in Al-Fadhaliya and Abu – Ghriub ( 33.61 and 32.41 % ) respectively. While the first group for holding size ( 4 to 10 head ) was higher frequency in Al-Fadhliya ,Al-Taji and Boob Al-Sham in order (29.93, 32.80 and 38.76% ) respectively, and these differences were highly Significant ( P< 0.01 ), and was observed when the holding size increased for any breeder by animals they decreased their frequency . The percentage of lactating buffaloes for holding Size rate , the first. group ( less than 5 ) have highest frequent than other three groups in 5 area in this study (35.67, 34.86, 41.03, 40.06 and 46.15%) respectively . They found the Years for service in buffaloes breeding was 50 years in area Al-Fadhaliya , Abu-Ghriub and Al-Taji, but they are 42 and 40 years in Alma’mal and Boob Al-Sham respectively .So there are differences for daily milk yield within Baghdad city may be produce a good future for selection the best animals from male and female to increase the production and Improvement.

Keywords


Article
EFFECT OF AN ABRUPT TRANSFER TO DIFFERENT SALINITIES ON ABILITY OF SALT TOLERANCE IN GOLDFISH CARASSIUS AURATUS
تأثير النقل المفاجيء الى ملوحات مختلفة في قابلية التحمّل الملحي للأسماك الذهبية

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Abstract

This study carried out to investigate the effect of an abrupt increasing of salinity on survival rates and defining the Lethal concentration (LC50) which kills 50% of goldfish Carassius auratus. Fish at average weight 39.5 ± 2.5 g were exposed to different salt concentrations: 0.1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 g/l, where each concentration represented a treatment, while the first treatment represented as a control. The results showed that the survival rates of goldfish were 100% in 0.1, 4 and 8 g/l, while it was 40% and 0% in 12 and 16 g/l salt concentrations, respectively. The LC50 which killed 50% of goldfish was 10.96 g/l during 96 hours of an abrupt exposure to salt concentrations: 4, 8, 12 and 16 g/l. Fish were fed a diet contained 32% protein at a ratio 3% of fish body weight.


Article
EFFECT OF ADDING GLUTAMIN AND METHIONINE TO SEMEN EXTENDER ON POST-CRYOPRESERVATION SEMEN QUALITY OF HOLSTEIN BULLS
تأثير إضافة الكلوتامين والمثايونين إلى مخففات السائل المنوي لثيران الهولشتاين في نوعية السائل المنوي بعد التجميد

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Abstract

This study was conducted at the Department of Artificial Insemination, Abu-Ghraib pertaining to the Department of Animal Resource Services/Ministry of Agriculture during the period from October 2012 to February 2013 to investigate the effect addition of glutamine and methionine to Holstein bull’s semen extender on post freezing semen characteristics following different cryopreservation periods. Seven mature Holstein bulls of 2.5-3 years old were used in this study. Semen was collected by using an artificial vagina as one ejaculate / bull / week. The evaluations were performed for fresh semen, and thereafter, pooled, and subdivided to different experimental groups and diluted by using Tris-based extender. Glutamine (40 mM), methionine (2.5 mM) and control group to determine their effects on sperm individual motility, dead: alive sperm percentage, total sperm abnormalities percentage and normal acrosome percentage following different cryopreservation periods (cooling at 5 Celsius, 48 hours, one month, two months and three months post cryopreservation). Addition of Glutamine had positive significant (P<0.05) effect on sperm individual motility,3 months post cryopreservation as compared with control and methionine groups. Addition of Glutamine increased (P<0.05) a live sperm percentage,3 months post cryopreservation in comparison with the control and Methionine groups. On the other hand, addition of Glutamine decreased (P <0.05) total sperm abnormalities percentage as compared with control group throughout the whole period post cryopreservation. Glutamine and methionine were superior (P<0.05) than control group in high normal acrosome percentage during all preservation periods. In conclusion, addition of glutamine as primarily and methionine as secondarily to bulls semen extenders improved post cryopreservation semen characteristics through their pivotal role as antioxidant and cryoprotectant agents simultaneously. These will certainly increase sperm individual motility, a live sperm percentage, normal acrosome percentage and decrease total sperm abnormalities percentage, and may consequently enhance fertilization and pregnancy rates of inseminated cows.


Article
THE EFFECT OF SOME GENETIC AND NONGENETIC FACTORS ON FERTILITY AND GROWTH TRAITS IN AWASSI SHEEP
تأثير بعض العوامل الوراثية واللاوراثية في صفات الخصوبة والنمو للأغنام العواسية

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Abstract

The study included 300 records to study the effect of genetic group and age on fertility (FER) and prolificacy (PRO) traits, and the effect of genetic group, age and sex of lamb on birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), and daily gain (DG) from birth to weaning at research station of Sheep and Goat in Abo-Ghraib General Directorate of Agriculture research. Overall means of (FER) and (PRO) were 90.67% and 1.09, respectively and for (BW), (WW) and (DG) were 3.678, 19.457 and 0.168 kg, respectively, There was no significant effect for genetic group on both (FER) and (PRO) and significant effect (P>0.05) on growth traits. There was a significant effect (P>0.05) for age of dam on (PRO), and (DG), and a highly significant effect (P>0.01) on (BW) and (WW). There was no significant effect for sex on all growth traits. The results showed that the regression of (FER) and (PRO) on dam's weight at birth was highly significant (P> 0.01) which can make an advantage of this relation to predict the (PRO) and (FER) by the weight of dam at birth.


Article
EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTING SODIUM AND POTASSIUM BICARBONATE ON MILK YIELD AND COMPOSITION AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS OF DAMASCUS GOATS UNDER HEAT STRESS
تأثير إضافة بيكاربونات الصوديوم والبوتاسيوم للعليقة في إنتاج الحليب وتركيبه الكيمياوي وبعض معايير الدم للماعز القبرصي تحت الإجهاد الحراري

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Abstract

Thirty tow Damascus goats were used in this study and carried out at the Ruminants researches station, State Board for Agricultural Researches, during the period from 1/6 to 12/7/2012 to study the effect of sodium and potassium bicarbonate on milk production, major milk composition and some blood parameters in Damascus goats under heat stress. The does were divided into four equal groups (8 does for each group), to receive one of four levels of NaHco3 and KHco3, namely 0 (T1), 1% NaHco3 (T2), 1% KHco3 (T3), and 1% NaHco3 + 1% KHco3 (T4). The experimental period was divided to tow stages, the first 2 weeks was adaptation stage and the last 3 weeks as experimental stage. Daily milk yield were recorded and milk samples for each does were taken every tow days for chemical analysis. Blood samples were taken in the last day of the experiment. A significant increases (P< 0.05) in milk yield and fat corrected milk (FCM) in T4 and T2 . No significant different in the fat, lactose, protein and solid not fat (SNF). No significant different in blood parameters. Indicate that the effect of sodium bicarbonate is beast than potassium bicarbonate on milk production. So, we suggest using 2% sodium bicarbonate instead of potassium bicarbonate as a source of bicarbonate.


Article
FEEDING COMMON CARP CYPRINUS CARPIO FRY ON COW MANURE REARED ARTEMIA PARTHENOGENTICA WITH ARTIFICIAL DIET
استخدام الأرتيميا العذرية Artemia parthenogentica المنماة على فضلات الأبقار مع الغذاء الصناعي في تغذية صغار أسماك الكارب الشائع

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Abstract

The present study conducted rearing Iraq artimia Artemia parthenogentica brought from Diala province in postgraduate fish laboratory conditions, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, by using animal (Cow) manure at concentrations of 2,4 and 6 grams/liter with artificial diet, salty water (85% using sawah lake salt, located in Al-Muthana province). Stocking densities of artemia were 25 naupli/L. The results showed the best growth rate, number mature adult and survival rates were found in 4 grams Cow manure/L treatment. Adult was sexually matured on 12 days at a length of 3.65 mm and survival 95% for 6 grams Cow manure/L. A biomass of 17 grams of common carp fry (mean weight ranged 1-2 gm), Have been fed naupli and juvenile of artemia decapsulated cysts and artificial diet (treatments) adlibtum. Results showed that fry fed decapsulated artemia cysts treatment have the highest biomass (80.58 gm), growth rate (28.6 gm). The study concluded the possibility of using lived artemia and bad hatchary decapsulated cyts as a supplementary animal protein resource in feeds common carp fry.


Article
EFFECT OF MAGNETICALLY TREATED WATER IN MILK PRODUCTION OF TURKISH AWASSI EWES DURING THE SUCKLING PERIOD
تأثير الماء المعالج مغناطيسياً في إنتاج الحليب للنعاج العواسي التركي خلال فترة الرضاعة

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Abstract

An experiment was conducted at Ruminante Researches Station at Abu – Ghraib/Department of Animal Resource Researches/Office of Agricultural Researches/Ministry of Agriculture, for a period from 15th Dec. 2009 up to 15th June 2010. Thirty- six pregnant Turkish- Awassi ewes were used at ages ranged 1- 4 years, conception period were restricted between 3.50– 4.50 month with a 3 parturition seasons first, second and fourth. Ewes were randomly divided into 3 equal groups of 12 ewes each group included the 3 above mentioned parturition seasons (4 ewes from each season). First group were taken normal streaming water which is considered as a control group, whereas the second and third groups were taken the same above water magnetically treated with 2 intensity 1000 and 2000 gaus, respectively. The amount of milk production was studied. It possible to conclude that using magnetically treated water for pregnant and lactating ewes led to increased amount of milk production.


Article
EFFECT OF AGE ON ECONOMIC TRAITS OF IMPROVED AWASSI SHEEP
تأثير العمر في بعض الصفات الاقتصادية في الأغنام العواسية المحسنة

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Abstract

The study was conducted at Research Station of Ruminants in Abu Ghraib (20 km west of Baghdad ) from 22 / 5 / 2011 to 1/ 4 / 2012 . Sixty improved Awassi ewes were divided into three groups according to (Parity) in order to determine the relationship between 1, 2, 3 and 4 of body measurements with milk production. Results showed that: The mean value of milk production in this study 638,20 gm/d/ewe. The result show that the third group was high than first groups in milk production thru 4, 10, 12 and 16 weeks ,the milk amounts was 953.12, 887.36, 662.50 and 315.62 gm/d/ewe. Respectively, and the third group was significant than the first group of body wt. during the insemination period to the birth month. No effect of mother age on weight at birth and weaning, the average birth weight and weaning (four months) was 4.12 and 27.48 kg/hd. In conclusion selecting ewes for milk production concentration on chest diminution because is the best measurement of the body for producing milk.

Keywords

Sheep --- milk --- lambs. --- أغنام --- حليب --- حملان.


Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF CHROMIUM FEED ADDITIVES TO AWASSI LAMBS DIET ON PRODUCTIVE AND SOME MEAT QUANTITY CHARACTERISTICS
تأثير الاضافات العلفية لمصادر مختلفة من الكروم الى علائق الحملان العواسية في الصفات الإنتاجية وبعض الصفات الكمية للحم

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This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of adding different sources of chromium to Awasi lambs diet on productive and some quantity characteristics of their carcasses meat. Fifteen locally Awassi lambs aged 3-4 months and 21.9±0.2 kg in weight were randomly distributed on three treatments (control treatment, chromium yeast (Ch. Yeast) treatment, chromium picolinate (Ch. Picolinate) treatment) with five lambs for each treatment. All treatments animals were provided with the same constant concentrate diet, chromium sources were provided to the chromium adding treatments in concentrate of 300 µg/kg of concentrate diet. Concentrate diet was providing to animals as 3% of live weight for whole period of experiment (90 days), wheat straw was provided adlibitum as a roughage diet. Each, daily Feed consumption, weekly animal's weight was recorded, average daily and total weight gain, feed conversion ratio were calculated. Thereafter, nine animals were slaughtered (three animals to each treatment was randomly chosen). Each, slaughtering weight, empty body weight, hot and cold carcass weight, carcass length, rib eye area and fat thickness were recorded. Dressing percentage was calculated. Results shown that adding feed additives of chromium in concentrate of 300 µg /kg as chromium yeast lead to beneficial enhancement of productive characteristics and carcass weights while adding chromium as chromium picolinate lead to carcass composition enhancement through increase rib eye area.


Article
INVESTIGATION OF FECUNDITY FecB GENE IN IRAQI AWASSI EWES
التحري عن جين الخصب FecB في نعاج العواسي العراقي

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Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the multiple aspects of mutant fertile gene and their effects in reproductive performance of Iraqi Awassi ewes. A total of 82 Iraqi Awassi (2-3 years) old with an average live body weight 45 kg were obtained from two locations (First , College of Agriculture , second , Agricultural Research Station / Ministry of Agriculture) in Abu-Ghraib , (30 km) south – west of Baghdad, were used in this study from August 2009 to August 2010. Investigation was carried out for multiple fertility gene (FecB) using the (PCR-RFLP) technique. Blood samples (5 ml/ewe) were drawn from the juglar vein using vacutainer tubes with anticoagulant material (ACD). Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood for each sample using (Wizard genomic DNA purification Kit). The concentration and the purity of extracted DNA were measured with Spectrophotometry. Gel concentration (0.8%) was used for the purpose of electrophoresis. Specific parts of mutant region were isolated and amplified using (polymerase chain reaction) and specific (DNA markers) technique. For the purpose of natural point mutation diagnosis in the resulting PCR product is through the digestion of (FecB) gene (190 bp), by using restriction enzymes (Ava II). The results of the study showed that: Awassi ewes studied with (++) genotype revealed the absence of fertility genes (FecB). Twining percentage found in some Awassi ewes were not related to this gene and may be are related to other fertility genes or to other factors such as nutrition. No significant differences were observed in the birth weight or body weight at 90 days postpartum.


Article
EFFECT OF USING REDUCED RUMINAL DEGRADABILITY RATION ON MILK PRODUCTION, SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS AND LAMB GROWTH IN AWASSI EWES
تأثير استخدام الغذاء المخفض تحلله في الكرش على إنتاج الحليب وبعض قياسات الدم ونمو الحملان في النعاج العواسية

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This study was conducted in Al-Rashidiya Animal Breeding Station, using 28 ewes (2-6 yrs old) with an average body weight of 57.1 Kg with their single new born lambs. Divided into 4 equall groups just after the second week of birth were used in the experiment lasted 56 days, over 4 intervals (14 days each) to investigate the effect of MP:ME in the ration (gm MP: ME MJ). Four rations, the first consist mainly of barley, yellow corn, soybean meal and wheat bran (control R1). While the second ration R2 (barley and wheat bran were treated), third ration R3 and forth R4 also soybean meal, were treated with acidic formaldehyde (9 L/ton), the ration were iso calories and iso nitrogen except that crude protein % in R4 was elevated by additional urea, but differ in MP: ME (6.61, 8.87, 9.98 & 9.98) respectively. Results showed that feeding ewes on rations, R2, R3 and elevating RDP with additional urea R4 significantly (p< 0.05) increased total milk production (19.2, 35.7 and 40.3%) compared with R1 respectively. Treating barley and wheat bran ( R2 )significantly (p< 0.05 ) increased milk fat content (7.3%), but milk protein and lactose percentage was not affected by treatments. A decrease in milk production was found as the nursing season proceeded, except R4 ration show non-significant difference in daily milk production between the 4 intervals. Treatment R3 and R4 increased ( p < 0.05 ) serum total protein and albumin compared with control R1, treated rations (R2, R3 and R4) significantly increased (p< 0.05) serum glucose and triglycerides concentrations but decreased (p< 0.05) urea concentration compared with control R1. Treatment R4 (p < 0.05) increased lambs body weight compared with R1 and R2 group.


Article
SUPPLEMENTATION OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA L.ROOTS AND PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF HEAT STRESSED JAPANESE QUAIL
تأثير المعاملة بجذور نبات L. Withania somnifera في الاداء الانتاجي لطير السلوى الياباني المعرض لإجهاد حراري

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An experiment was conducted to assess the anti-stress efficacy of Withania somnifera root on prod-uctive performance of Japanese quail hens reared under high environmental temperature (27-37-27ºC). Three hundred Japanese quail hens six weeks old were randomly distributed into five treat-ments: T0= control, T1 and T2=quails supplemented orally with 50, 100 mg/kg/day Withania somnifera root ethanolic extract respectively, while T3 and T4 = quails received 1 and 2 g/kg diet Withania somnifera root powder respectively. The productive characteristics included: feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to total mortality percentage. Results showed that feed consumption increased significantly (p≤0.01) in quails received 1g/kg root powder (T3) in comparison with all other treatments (T0, T1,T2 and T4) whereas T2 group was the lowest in this character. On the other hand, supplemented quails with 100mg/kg ethanolic extract (T2) resulted in significant (p≤0.05) increasing in body weight gain as compared with control group (T0), yet, all treated groups didn’t differ significantly among each others. The best (p≤0.05) feed conversion ratio was obtained when the quails supplemented with root ethanolic extract (T1andT2) or with 2g/kg diet of root powder (T4) in comparison with control. Withania somnifera root as ethanolic extract or powder resulted in significant (p≤0.05) reduction in mortality percentage in comparison with untreated group.


Article
REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF IRAQI AWASSI EWES OWNED BY SHEEP OWNERS AND EXTENSION FARMS IN RESPONSE TO FLUSHING AND ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION REGIMES
الاداء التناسلي للنعاج العواسية العراقية العائدة لمربي الاغنام والمزارع الارشادية استجابةً لبرنامجي الدفع الغذائي وتزامن الشياع

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The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the reproductive performance of Iraqi Awassi ewes as influences by flushing and estrus synchronization regimes as on sheep owners and extension farms, and 2) to compare the reproductive performance of these flocks between the extension and sheep producer’s farms as affected by these two regimes during the period from April 2011 to April 2012. Two hundred and sixty five Awassi ewes pertaining to owners from 12 Iraqi provinces (Experiment 1) were fed on 500 g / head / day of concentrate diet of 16 % crude protein and 2600 Kcal / kg energy for 3 weeks pre-mating. Thereafter, ewes were inserted with 13 days vaginal sponges, followed by I.M. injection of 500 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG).Simultaneously,28 Awassi ewes pertaining to extension farms in four Iraqi provinces (Experiment 2) were used for similar programs. Higher (P < 0.0 1) fertility and conception rates were observed in flocks belong to sheep owners in nine provinces as compared with remaining provinces. Ewes in Najaf and Nineveh exhibited higher (P < 0.05) litter size as compared with ewes in other provinces. Greater (P < 0.0 1) lambing and twinning rates were noticed in producer’s flocks of Najaf province in comparison with the others. On extension farms, ewes in Babil and Najaf provinces exhibited higher fertility and conception rates as compared with Basra and Misan. Greater (P < 0.01) lambing and twinning rates were noted in Misan and Najaf provinces respectively. Excluding data of litter size, the overall reproductive performance was better in Awassi ewes pertaining to sheep owners as compared with those in extension farms.In conclusion; flushing and estrus synchronization regimes play an important role to improve the reproductive performance of Awassi ewes owned by owners rather than the extension farms.

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