Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:55 issue:2

Article
Corrosion inhibition of zinc in hydrochloric acid solution using Ampicillin
تثبيط تآكل الزنك في محلول حامض الهايدروكلوريك بأستخدام الأمبسلين

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The corrosion behavior of Zn in 0.1 M HCl solution containing various concentration of Ampicillin range (2 x 10-4 – 1x10-3) M was investigated. The corrosion rates were measured by using weight loss measurement and polarization curve, The results of polarization method obtained showed that the rate of corrosion of zinc increased with increasing the temperature from 293K to 323K and the values of inhibition efficiency of ampicillin increased with increasing the temperature and AMP concentrations, the results showed that AMP caused to protection efficiency reached to 88.8% when (1x10-3) M AMP concentration was used in 323K. The coverage (θ) of metal surface by AMP could be obtained from the rate of corrosion in the presence and absence of AMP in the acid solution. A linear relationship was found to exist between the value of (C/θ) and the corresponding AMP concentration (C) indicating that the inhibition action to occur via adsorption mechanism. Changes in the free energy, enthalpy and entropy associated with AMP adsorption have been determined. Apparent energies of activation have been calculated for the corrosion process of zinc in the acid from corrosion rates and Arrhenius Plots.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Several New Homopolymers, Copolymers and Phenolic Resins of N-Substituted Citraconisoimides
تحضير وتشخيص عدد من البوليمرات الذاتية والمشتركة والراتنجات الفينولية الجديدة لمركبات N-معوض ستراكون ايسوايمايد

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Four N-substituted citraconisoimides were prepared via dehydration of the corresponding prepared citraconamic acids using N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as dehydrating agent. The prepared citraconisoimides were introduced in free radical homopolymerization producing four new poly citraconisoimides. Also the prepared citraconisoimides were introduced in free radical copolymerization with three vinylic monomers including acrylonitrile, methylmethacrylate and methylacrylate producing new copolymers having different physical properties. Moreover two new phenolic resins containing pendent citraconisoimide moiety were prepared via condensation polymerization of N-(hydroxyphenol)citraconisoimide with formaldehyde. The new homopolymers and copolymers are of great importance since they contain isoimide ring in their repeating units which exhibit better processing properties and can rearrange gradually with time and use to the more stable structure of the corresponding imides having thermosetting properties.


Article
Synthesis and characterization of some New Derivatives from 2- Mercaptobenzothiazole
تحضير وتشخيص بعض المشتقات الجديدة من 2- مركبتو بنزوثايازول

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In this work 2- mercaptobenzothiazole ( 2-MBT ) and some of its derivatives(1, 14 ,27) were prepared by using home made Auto clave .The synthesis involve treatment of 2- MBT or some of its derivatives with chloro acetyl chloride to give 1- chloro acetyl -2- MBT or the corresponding derivatives (2,15,28) . the product was treated with phenyl hydrazine to give the phenyl hydrazide derivatives (3,16,29) . The new derivatives(4-13, 17-26,30-39) were synthesized by reaction of the phenyl hydrazide derivatives with different aromatic aldehydes in the presence of Acetic Acid . Structure of all the prepared compounds confirmation were proved using FTIR , elemental analysis (C .H .N .S ) in addition to melting points.


Article
Focal glial detection coincides with precedes amyloid plague formation in APPPS1 transgenic mice by PCR
التشخيص المتزامن لبقع الاملويد المتكونة في الخلايا العصبية المركزية للفئران المعدلة وراثيا من نوع APPPS1 باستعمال تقنية PCR

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The identification and sequencing of Amyloid Precursor Protien (APP) and presenilin (PS) opened the door for the engineering of transgenic mouse models to study pathogenic mechanisms of Alzheimer Disease (AD). The first successful mouse models over-expressed human APP with an Familiar AD (FAD) linked mutation in the brain. These mice exhibit Aß plaques, neuron loss, dystrophic neurites, inflammatory responses, learning impairments and deficits in synaptic transmission and/or long-term potentiation. The genotypes of all offspring of APP/PS1 mutant mice are analysed by Polymerise Chain Reactions. Generally there are two possibilities to analyse the DNA. The First, primers for APP or PS1 was used separately assuming that both genes are integrated into the transgene. The second possibility is to do both amplifications in one PCR. Transgene mapping revealed that both transgenes were integrated at the lower arm of chromosome 2 between 40 and 60 cM. The result showed a clear band of APP gene. By using many gel concentrations( 1%, 2%, 5%). The 2% gel concentration is the best to visualize the band in 150 V at 1 hour, in order to optimize the method. The Polymerise Chain reaction method (PCR) also had been optimized, in order to have a band of APP. Considering the number of studies that rely on the detection of AD pathology, it is surprising to find such high variability in the APPPS1gene PCR of key AD-related markers across pretreatments in adjacent Aβ Accumulations of gene manipulation.


Article
Antibiogram of Escherichia coli Isolated from different Hospitals Wastewater in Erbil City, Iraq
نمط المقاومة لمضادات الحياة للاشيريكة القولونية المعزولة من مياه فضلة عدة مستشفيات في مدينة اربيل، العراق

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Abstract

Three hospitals were chosen for the present (Maternity hospital, Raperin hospital and Rhizgari hospital) survey within Erbil city, 36 water samples were collected at regular monthly interval periods beginning at January to December 2012. Microbial analysis was done by selective medium and biochemical tests and the isolated bacteria from those hospitals were Eshcerichia coli, Acinetobacter lowffii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxilla spp., Salmonella Typhi, Citrbtobacter freundii, Vibrio fluvials, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Weeksella zoohelcum, Pasteurella multicida, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In vitro activities of 10 different antibiotics against E. coli isolates were showed a high resistance rate observed against ampicillin (80%) while the lowest resistance was to pipercillin/ tazobactam (22%). A high proportion of the E. coli isolates from the three hospitals revealed resistance to more than one antibiotic.

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Article
Inhibitory effect of some medicinal plant extracts on some pathogenic fungi
التاثير التثبيطي لبعض مستخلصات النباتات الطبية ضد بعض الفطريات الممرضة

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Abstract

Plants and their extracts preparations have been used as medicines against infectious diseases. In present work, Cassia senna (leaves), Piper nigrum (fruits) were extracted with different organic solvents to investigate their antifungal activities in vitro. However, the effective of plant extracts against some pathologic fungi (Tricophyton rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. violaceum, Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and M. gypseum) were evaluated at concentrations ranged between (0.005–5%) using agar diffusion methods and compared with standard antifungal drug (Clotrimazole). Results showed that methanol extract of C. senna and ethanol extract of P. nigrum displayed excellent inhibition on dermatophytes compared with standard antifungal drug, the MFC value for C. senna extract against dermatophyte isolates was (0.5%) except T. rubrum and M. canis (0.1%), the MIC was (0.05%). MFC value for P. nigrum extract against T. violaceum, M. audouinii and M. gypseum was (0.1%) while for M. canis was (0.05%), T. rubrum and T. tonsurans was (0.01%) and the MIC value was (0.005%). But MFC value for clotrimazole was (0.5%) and the MIC value was (0.1%). The yield of active compounds in C. senna and P. nigrum were (3, 6.7%) respectively. Also, the chemical compositions of these extracts were analyzed by FLC (Fast Liquid Chromatography) the result shows that the main components in C. senna were phenols, alkaloids and glycosides, while in P. nigrum were phenols, alkaloids and there was no terpens.


Article
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with tuberculosis
الاجسام المضادة ضد بعض مستضدات كريات الدم البيضاء العدِلة في المرضى المصابين بالسل الرئؤي

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Abstract

Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; it is considered as one of the most common, infectious diseases and major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A prospective study was conducted to obtain more clarification about the impact of causative agent and its treatment to enhance autoantibodies production such as ANCA and BPI which used as diagnostic markers for several diseases, and to provide further insight into the classical risk factors (age and sex).Seventy patients with tuberculosis involved in this study, 35 of them were untreated and 35 with treatment administration these patients were attending to directorate of general health national reference laboratory in Baghdad during the period between November/ 2012 and March/ 2013 as well as 20 apparently healthy volunteers as control group. Their ages ranged between 11-70 years.The present study revealed that most patients at the third decades of age; male were affected more than female (1.8:1).Estimation of serum ANCA were done by indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) whereas BPI measured by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and comparing with healthy control (H.C) group.The current study revealed that high significant increasing of ANCA and BPI in tuberculosis patients 71.43% and 15.71% respectively as compared with H.C 15% and 0% respectively. Also the data of the research showed significant differences of ANCA between untreated group 82.85% and treated group 60%. As well as our results showed differences of BPI percentage between, before treatment group 17.14% and after treatment group 14.28% but non-significant (p> 0.05).These results showed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis plays pivotal role in stimulation autoantibodies production. In contrast to our study on the treatment influences had yielded controversial results. Clinically, present of positive ANCA in patients with TB confused the diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis as many of the clinical features of this disease eg. Haemoptysis and pulmonary infiltrate may also be found in patients with TB.

Keywords

ANCA --- BPI --- Tuberculosis


Article
Activity Evaluation of some Plant Extracted Oils in Controling of Algal Growth
تقييم فعالية بعض الزيوت المستخلصة من النباتات في السيطرة على نمو الطحالب

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This study includes isolation, purification, and identification of algae from the canal around Baghdad university Al-jadriah. Four unialgal cultures were obtained. These algal cultures included 3 species of cyanophyta ( Nostoc carneum, Westillopesis prolifica, Chroococcus turgidus), 1 species of chlorophyta (Chlorella vulgaris) . Different plants belonging to different families were collected and extracted for their oils which were Ricinus communis and Sesamum indicum (seeds), Matricaria chamomilla (flowers) .However, antialgal activity of the extracted oils were evaluated the isolated algae with 7 concentrations (0.09, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 10, 20 , 30) % using the agar wells diffusion method. Results showed that R. communis oil was more effective against isolated algae followed by Sesamum indicum oil .The volatile oil extracted from M. chamomilla was less effective. C. turgidus was the most sensitive to attack by oils followed by N. carneum .While W. prolifica was the less sensitive alga, followed by Chlorella vulgaris . Chemical composition of the most effective oil (R. communis ) was analyzed by HPLC which showed that 5 terpens compounds found in this oil (Alpha-pinene, Thujone, Camphor,1-8Cineole, Camphene).


Article
Effect Of Methotrexate On Mice Embryo Liver
تأثير عقار الميثوتركسيت على النمو الجنيني لكبد الفئران

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Abstract

Methotrexate (MTX)is a multiple therapeutic drug, it's used in treatment of ectopic pregnancy, neoplastic disease, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory conditions. It’s associated with a spectrum of side effect that includes damage to the (liver, kidney, lung and bone marrow). MTX has been associated with fetal malformations in( nervous, skeletal, gastrointestinal, and cardiac) system, and even fetal death. The study was conducted to test the effect of two doses of MTX (5and 10mg/kg) on the development of the mice liver during two gestational age (day11 and day 17) of pregnancy.18 healthy female mice were divided into three groups ,first group (control) was injected with normal saline ,second group injected with 5mg/kg and third group injected with 10mg/kg (all groups were injected on day 7 of gestation). Histology examination of control fetal liver on day11of gestation showed normal fetal development where cords of hepatoblast were formed and hepatic blood sinusoids were filled with erythroblasts ,fetal liver of animals dosed with 5mg/kg and 10mg/kg on day 11 of gestation showed ballooning degeneration with hepatoblast that have pyknotic nucleus .control fetal liver of day 17 of gestation showed normal hepatocyte arranged around a central vein, fetal liver of animals of day 17 of gestation dosed with 5mg/kg showed ballooning degeneration while fetal liver of 17 days of gestation dosed with 10mg/kg showed ballooning degeneration with inflammatory infiltration. Results of this study revealed that low dose MTX can affect internal organs causing damage during gestational age which might cause problems later in life after birth ,the effect have been proven in mice but does not necessarily apply on human but a possibility of such damage in human should be kept in mind.

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Article
Antimicrobial Effect of Black Grape Seed Extract
التأثير ضد المايكروبي لمستخلص بذور العنب الاسود

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Abstract

Grape is a phenolics rich plants, Black Grape seed extract was reported to have many pharmalogically benefits including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer and anti aging and anti Alzheimer's properties. Black grape seed phenols were extracted by percolation method. Results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of phenolic extract had no effect against K.pneuminae, However, variable inhibitory effects were developed against pathogenic P.aeruginosa , E.coli ,Bacillus ,S.aureus , E.faecalis and C.albicans. We found that black grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) was more effective against gram positive bacteria than gram negative bacteria and its effect also against pathogenic C.albicans.


Article
The Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in AL-Sulaimania city
انتشار العنقوديات الذهبية و البشروية المقاومة للمثيسيلين في محافظة السليمانية

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One hundred thirty seven Staphylococcus spp. isolates were isolated form one hundred fifty clinical specimens which were collected from several hospitals at Al-Sulaimaniya city. Seventy two Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 28 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates and 37 isolates related to other coagulase negative staphylocci (S. chromogenes, S. lugdunensis, S. cohnii, S. saprophyticus, S. hominis, and S. haemolyticus constituted 3.60%, 2.20%, 2.90%, 2.90%, 6.60%, and 8.80%, respectively). Burn specimens represented the highest (P< 0.05) reservoir for S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates. Staphylococci developed variable susceptibility to 4 antibiotics (cefoxitin; 30 µg, oxacillin; 1µg, methicillin; 5µg, and cefotaxime; 30 µg). Nevertheless, the results revealed that 68, 93, and 92% of S. aureus, S. epidrmidis, and other Coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS) isolates developed methicillin resistance based on cefoxitin diffusion disc test. In a conclusion, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and coagulase negative staphylococcus sp. (MRCONS) is an emerging subject even in our community, which requires further attention and support.


Article
Production of Antibody (IgG) Against Aflatoxin B1
انتاج الاجسام المضادة IgG للأفلاتوكسين 1B

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Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by fungus Aspergillus flavus in food and feed . It is considered as a carcinogenic toxin for human and animals. The current study was designed for produce antibody (IgG) against aflatoxin B1.It was achieved by immunization of experimental animals (New Zealand White rabbits) with prepared antigen consist of aflatoxin B1-BSA Conjugate (100 and 200 µg ) concentrations, and detection of produced antibody using Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion and ELISA techniques,. Ochterlony and ELISA techniques revealed that, high titer of IgG antibody was obtained by rabbit’s immunize, and the titer of antibody was increased steadily during the immunization schedule. The highest titer of antibody reached up to 12800.


Article
Comparative study of the Antibody Responses to Streptococcus pyogenes between school Children carriers and patients with Tonsillitis
دراسة مقارنة لاستجابة الاجسام المضادة ضد بكتريا المكورات المسبحية (Streptococcus pyogenes) بين اطفال المدارس الحاملين للبكتريا المصابين بالتهاب اللوزتين.

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This study is designed to evaluate the immune status of patients and schoolchildren with respect to Streptococcus pyogenes. A prospective study was conducted to investigate antibody against GAS in children patients and asymptomatic healthy carriers in serum samples with tonsillitis and compare antibody response (ASO) between patients and healthy carriers with tonsillitis. Tonsillar swabs were obtained to detect the presence of GAS and blood samples were collected to determine elevated ASO titer in serum. A total of 376 sample patients and asymptomatic healthy carriers were included in this study, 142 (37.7%) samples are GABHS positive, included 80 (56.3%) patients and 62 (43.6%) asymptomatic healthy carriers. The finding of a significant relationship between ASO positive and GABHS carriage and patients indicated that ASOT measurement might be used together with throat culture to identify GABHS carriers and GABHS patients. The value of ASOT varies with the age of the subject, and the most pronounced differences are between the values of preschool age children and school age children. The upper limits of normal values for these groups were as follows: preschool age (100) and school age (170). Recently infected children showed raised ASO antibody titer than the carrier. But this study present elevated of ASOT in asymptomatic healthy carriers indicated recent infection or past infection then this children recovery from disease but remain record titer of antibody.


Article
The removal of Zinc, Chromium and Nickel from industrial waste water using Rice husk
أزالة ألزنك وألكروم وألنيكل من مياه ألفضلة ألصناعية بأستخدام قشور ألرز[ألسبوس]

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The aim of this study was to use low cost adsorbents, which consists of plant wastes in treatment of Industrial waste water by fixed bed column technique and study the effect of to two variables (pH value and contact time) on adsorption process. The sample of plant waste (Rice husk) was tested to determine its activity which gives the best performance in heavy metals removal and other pollutants (TSS, TDS and COD). Adsorption tests showed all tested plant adsorbents had significant heavy metal removal efficiency. The best removal efficiency 96.56% of Cr was occurred at pH 6.5 and 5hrs. Higher removal efficiency 99.02% of Ni was occurred at pH 6.5 and 0.15hr. While, lower removal efficiency 94% for Zn obtained at pH 5 and 2.83hrs. Removal efficiency for TDS, TSS and COD were 58.6%, 98.8% and 86.6% respectively.


Article
Biodegradation Behavior of PVA/Corn Starch Blend Films under the Influence of α-amylase Solution Immersion, Soil Burial and Water immersion
سلوك تحلل أفلام خليط بولي فنيل الكحول/نشا الذرة تحت تأثير الغمر في محلول الفا امليز و الدفن في التربة والغمر في الماء

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The objective of this work is to study the influence of α-amylase enzymatic solution immersion, soil burial and water immersion on the biodegradability behavior of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) /Corn Starch (CS) blend films Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) /Corn Starch (CS) blend films were prepared by solution casting method with different weight percentages of PVA(0%,10%,30%,50%,70% and 90%) . The biodegradability of the films has been investigated by determination the weight loss of the tested films. It was noticed that the films containing corn starch were highly biodegraded under above influences. The weight loss of the tested films decreased with increasing PVA content and increased with immersion time in enzymatic solution and water and soil burial time.


Article
Analytical study of the high absorption Region of the optical absorption edge of a-Si:H films using the derivative method
دراسة تحليلية لمنطقة الامتصاص العالي من حافة الامتصاص البصري لأغشية a-Si:H باستخدام طريقة المشتقة

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In this research, optical absorption data (the imaginary part of the dielectric function Ɛ2 as a function of photon energy E) were re-analyzed for three samples of a-Si:H thin films using derivative methods trying to investigate the ambiguity that accompany the interpretation of the optical data of these film in order to obtainm the optical energy gap (Eg) and the factor (r) which in concerned with the density of state distribution near the mobility edge directly without the need for a pre- assumption for the factor r usually followed in traditional methods such as the Tauc plot. The derivative method was used for two choices for the factor q (which in connected with the dependence of the dipole matrix element on the photon energy ) for two choices q=0 and q=2. Results showed that r might take non-integer values . the result for two of the samples, those prepared by Jackson et al and Cody, showed that the derivative plot that adopt q=0 better fits the experimental data, thus Cody's model might seems closer to the experimental results than the Tauc model. While the third sample the one prepared by Ferlauto et al showed somewhat different behavior such that neither Cody nor Tauc models could be considered a better fit to experimental data for this sample


Article
Effect of Different Percentages of Titanium Dioxide Additives on the Enamel Protecting of Steel Surface
تأثير إضافة نسب مختلفة من ثاني أوكسيد التيتانيوم على خواص طبقة طلاء (آلمينا) لحماية الصلب

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This work involves the development of ceramic coating to steel surfaces (enamel).This enamel high quality consisted of two ceramic layers to ensure excellent bonding with the steel surfaces. The first is called the ground coat which proved bonding between the steel base and the second outer layer called the cover coat. Various concentrations of TiO2 were separately added to the mixture of the cover coat, resulting in to much better densification of the ceramic outer layer, the hardness, thermal shock resistances, and glossiness were improved also .Moreover this addition has raised the corrosion resistances of the ceramic in harsh acidic environment and at higher temperatures Also this enamel was used to protect the surfaces of steels which have various carbon content.


Article
Detection of Subsurface Cavities by Using Pole- Dipole Array (Bristow's Method)/Hit Area-Western Iraq
تحديد الكهوف تحت-السطحية باستخدام ترتيب قطب- قطبين( طريقة برستو) في منطقة هيت غرب العراق

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The study area is located within the Hit area, western Iraq. The measurements of Graphical Bristow’s method were carried out by using Pole-dipole array, to delineate the anomaly of apparent resistivity caused by a known cavity target. The survey was applied along two traverses: traverse in W-E direction and traverse in S-N direction above Um El-Githoaa cavity. Data interpretation of the traverse trending W-E, with a-spacing equal to(2m)identified the anomaly of the cavity at a depth of (2.6m), (1.6m) height, and( 9.5m) width, while the actual dimensions of depth, height, and width were (3.80m),( 2.2m), and (12.30m) respectively, with variations of depth equal to (1.2m), high (0.8m), and width( 2.8m). The data interpretation with a-spacing of (3m) over the same travers W-E identified small differences from actual dimensions of the cavity, which are approximately equal to (0.4m), (0.6m), and (1m) for depth, height, and width respectively. This means that the survey by using (a=3m) identified a very accurate detection and location of this cave; more than the survey of (a=2m).Therefore, the survey along the traverse S-N is also performed with (a=3m). The data interpretation indicated that the cavity of depth, height, and width are (3.3m),( 2.20m), and(18.6m) respectively, which are approximately the same as the actual dimensions of the cavity with small variations of about (0.5m) depth, (0.4m) high, and (1m) width. It is concluded that the a-spacing is a very important factor, because of its effect on the accurate determinations of subsurface cavity. So, it must be taken into consideration in choosing a-spacing in the filed before taking the measurements by using Bristow's method.


Article
Assessment natural radioactivity of marl as raw material at Kufa Cement Quarry in Najaf Governorate
تقييم الاشعاع الطبيعي للمارل كمادة اولية ضمن مقلع سمنت الكوفة في محافظة النجف

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This Research involves radiological study to assess the marl layer in the Euphrates Formation (Early Miocene) as a raw material for Portland cement industry. Nine wells are drilled penetrating the marl layer to the limestone beneath it. Nine samples were collected from core wells. Each sample represents one well. The concentration of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 14.91, 5.16 and 223.98 Bq/kg-1, respectively. They are determined by using the technique of gamma-ray spectroscopy with HPGe detector. The radiation doesn't exceed the globally permissible limits. Then the results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the world average activity of cement raw materials. The radium equivalent (Raeq) activities values of marl samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg-1. Gamma index (Iɣ) below 1 mSv y-1. The values of the external hazard index (Hex) and the internal radiation hazard index (Hin) are less than unity. For estimating the radiological hazards on human health, these parameters are used. The results are indicated that there is no negative effect of radioactive radionuclides on workers' health.

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Article
Estimation of Groundwater Recharge for the Main Aquifer in the Northeastern Missan Governorate, South of Iraq Using Chloride Mass Balance Technique
تقييم تغذية المياه الجوفية للخزان الجوفي الرئيس في منطقة شمال شرق ميسان باستخدام طريقة موازنة كتلة الكلور

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The groundwater recharge from rainfall for the main shallow aquifer in the northeastern Missan governorate south of Iraq is investigated via classical and refined chloride mass balance techniques. Application of both techniques reveals that the mean annual groundwater recharge is 0.82 mm/y. The annual recharge received by the aquifer approximately reaches to three million cubic meters after multiply this figure by the area of the study area (about 1856 km2). This figure represents a renewable storage from which a sustainable management of the groundwater reserve could be implemented. The techniques applied are robust, costly-effective, and could be used with other methods such as groundwater table fluctuation method to give a more realistic value for this very important parameter.


Article
Depositional Environment of the Gercus Formation in Jabal Haibat Sultan, NE Iraq; New Sedimentological Approach
بيئة ترسيب تكوين الجركس في جبل هيبت سلطان, شمال شرق العراق : نظرة رسوبية جديدة

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Sedimentary structures of Gercus Formation in NE Iraq was little studied in the last decades. In this study the identified sedimentary structures display alternative graded and fining upward cycles, load and flute casts, submarine channels, sand and clay balls and pillow structures, convolute and slump beddings, of marine turbidity origin. The foreland part of Tethys basin characterized by deep marine Tanjero and Kolosh Formations followed by the Gercus formation with conformable relationships. The Eocene aged Flysch comprises predominantly litharenitic sandstones and interbedded mudstones, both of turbiditic affinities and most likely derived from a NE Arabian Plate source. The sediments provide excellent examples of distal fan sands associated with turbidites and related sedimentary structures. The overall sedimentological characteristics of the examined section indicate that the sandstones were deposited in larger channel complexes that fed a mud-dominated slope. The more proximal sediments have a proportion of pebble conglomerates, shale-clast conglomerates and thick-bedded structureless pebbly sandstones, deposited by high-density turbidity currents, debris flows and slumping. Otherwise, more distal or more uniform sand-rich source are dominated by thick-bedded and amalgamated structureless sandstones. The massive sands are thought to originate from the gradual aggradation of sediment beneath steady flows. In this paper, new sedimentological evidences prove for the first time that the Gercus Formation was deposited in gravity-flow regime in marine environment. This is supported with identified glauconite index mineral in some sandstone beds.


Article
On Generalized Leftly e ─ Core Transference
حول التحويلات اليسارية المعممة للقلب – e

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Richards in 1996 introduced the idea of leftly e ─ core transference by using many conditions, including that the difference between the colums (k) is greater than of weight. In this paper, we generalized this idea without the condition of Richards depending on the mathematical and computational solution.

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Article
Modeling and Stability of Lotka-Volterra Prey-Predator System Involving Infectious Disease in Each Population
نمذجة واستقرارية نظام لتكا-فولتيرا للفريسة والمفترس والمتضمن مرض معدي في كل مجتمع

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Abstract

In this paper, a mathematical model consisting of the prey- predator model with disease in both the population is proposed and analyzed. The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution are discussed. The existences and the stability analysis of all possible equilibrium points are studied. Numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the global dynamical behavior of the system.


Article
The Dynamics of Four-Species Ecological Model
ديناميكية النموذج الايكولوجي لاربعة انواع

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Abstract

In this paper, a four species mathematical models involving different types of ecological interactions is proposed and analyzed. Holling type – II functional response is a doubted to describes the behavior of predation. The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution are discussed. The existences and the stability analysis of all possible equilibrium points are studied. suitable Lyapunov functions are used to study the global dynamics of the system. Numerical simulations are also carried out to investigate the influence of certain parameters on the dynamical behavior of the model, to support the analytical results of the model.


Article
Influence of Thermal Radiation and MHD on the Boundary Layer Flow Due to an Exponentially Stretching Sheet
تأثير الاشعاع الحراري والمجال المغناطيسي على جريان الطبقة الحدودية لصفيحة متمددة اسيا"

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Abstract

In this paper, the effect of thermal radiation and magnetic field on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a viscous fluid due to an exponentially stretching sheet is proposed. The governing boundary layer equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations. The homotopy analysis method (HAM) is employed to solve the velocity and temperature equations.


Article
Influence of MHD for Newtonian Fluid and Heat Transfer in Microchannals between Two Parallel Plates Using HAM
تأثير الحقل المغناطيسي على مائع نيوتيني وانتقال الحراره بين صفيحتين متوازيتين باستخدام HAM

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is the study of the influence magnetic field on steady state flows and heat transfer in microchannels between two parallel plates. It is found that the motion equations are controlled by many dimensionless parameter, namely magnetic field parameter M Reynolds number Re, physical quantity at wall W and Knudsen number Kn also found that the energy equations are controlled by many dimensionless parameter, namely magnetic field parameter M Reynolds number Re, physical quantity at wall W and Knudsen number Kn , Prinkman number Br and Peclet number Pe. The equations which controlled this type of fluid flow are complicated, so finding an analytical solution is not easy. We obtained the velocity and energy distribution by using homotopy analysis method (HAM). We have been studied the influence of all the physical parameters, that mentioned above on the velocity And heat transfer distribution . This study is done through drawing about (30) graph by using the Mathematica package.


Article
Adaptive Medical Image Watermarking Technique based on Wavelet Transform
تقنية العلامة المائية التكييفية للصور الطبية استنادا على التحويل المويجي

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Abstract

In this paper, an adaptive medical image watermarking technique is proposed based on wavelet transform and properties of human visual system in order to maintain the authentication of medical images. Watermark embedding process is carried out by transforming the medical image into wavelet domain and then adaptive thresholding is computed to determine the suitable locations to hide the watermark in the image coefficients. The watermark data is embedded in the coefficients that are less sensitive into the human visual system in order to achieve the fidelity of medical image. Experimental results show that the degradation by embedding the watermark is too small to be visualized. Also, the proposed adaptive watermarking technique can preserve the fidelity of medical image. The fidelity performance of proposed technique was evaluated by three image quality metrics are PSNR, UQI and SSIM. The evaluation results exhibit the high results of the proposed technique respect with fidelity of medical image.


Article
The Relation between Influenza Pandemics and Solar Activity
الــعـــلاقــــــة بـين أوبـئـةِ الإنفلونــزا والنشاطِ الشمــسيِ

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Abstract

Influenza is a highly infectious and lethal viral disease, it appears on Earth periodically in connection with the passage of comet in the vicinity of Earth around the Sun .it is believed that particles spread from the tail of the comet due to solar heating energy ,are contaminated with very tiny small particles considered as viruses. Viruses reach the Earth with the power of the solar wind due to solar activity cycle which is driven every 11 year. Viruses pushed towards Earth’s atmosphere, then precipitate on clouds and reach the surface of Earth. These viruses are very well shielded and unaffected by even UV radiation ,but the only way the shell is melt when they passes through the digestive system . Results showed a good correlation between sunspots cycles and influenza epidemics events.


Article
Ambient Turbulence Intensity Calculation for Al-Nasiriyah Province in Iraq
حساب شدة اضطراب الرياح لمحافظة الناصرية في العراق

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Abstract

Before setting a turbine in a wind farms allocated for power generation, it must be know the appropriate turbine class for that site depending on the turbulence intensity of the winds in the studied area and the IEC-61400 standard. The importance of identifying a class of wind turbine is due to the complex environmental conditions that produce turbulent air which, in turn, may cause damage to the turbine blades and weakness in the performance. Therefore, the ambient turbulence intensity is a very important factor in determining the performance and productivity of the wind turbines. In this research we calculate Turbulence Intensity "TI" in the province of Nasiriyah, south of Iraq (Lat. 31.052049 , Lon. 46.261021) for the years 2008, 2009, and 2010, in addition to determine the wind turbine class that appropriate for the site after comparison with the Normal Turbulence Model "NTM" belongs to IEC 61400-1, edition2 and IEC 61400-1, edition3.


Article
Atmospheric Stability and Its Effect on The Polluted Columns of Concentrations in North West of Baghdad City
الاستقرارية الجوية وتاثيرها على تراكيز اعمدة الملوثات الجوية في الشمال الغربي لمدينة بغداد

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Abstract

Atmospheric stability plays the most important role in the transport and dispersion of air pollutants. Different methods are used for stability determination with varying degrees of complexity. Most of these methods are based on the relative magnitude of convective and mechanical turbulence in atmospheric motions, such as Richardson number, Monin-Obukhov length, Pasquill-Gifford stability classification and Pasquill-Turner stability classification. The Pasquill-Turner Method (PTM), which is employed in this study used Observations of wind speed, solar altitude angle and the time of day to classify atmospheric stability with distinguishable indices. As a case study, meteorological data that gathered from European Centre For Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) at latitude 33.750 and longitude 43.870 that Located north west of Baghdad city ( this area consider suburban that a crosses domain wind towards city center) through hours 00,03,06,09,12,15,18,21 from every day in 2010 year . The scheme used two different categories are considered to deduce the pattern of atmospheric stability conditions. First, the annual or total pattern of stability classification is obtained and results show that atmosphere is 54.4 %, 8.7 %, 36.9 %, at stable, neutral and unstable conditions, respectively. It is also observed that days are mostly unstable (61.6%) while nights are mostly stable (94.5%). Second, monthly and seasonal patterns are derived and results indicate that relative frequency RF% of stable conditions decrease during January to June and increase during June to December, while results for unstable conditions are exactly in opposite manner. Autumn is the most stable season with relative frequency of 62.1% for stable condition, whilst, it is 56.2 %, 44.6 % and 54.6% for winter, summer and spring, respectively. Finally, correlation between RF% of stable conditions and NOX, SO2, CO, CH4 columns concentrations in(kg/m2) is achieved and results show correlation between these elements and stability .The important of this study basically located in assessment air quality of Baghdad city and also in urban planning.

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