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The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
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009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2014 volume:45 issue:4

Article
EFFECT OF ADDING VARIOUS DIETERY LEVELS OF FLAXSEED OIL, FISH AND WALNUT OILS ON PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS FOR LOHMANN BROWN LAYING HENS
تأثير إضافة زيوت بذور الكتان والسمك والجوز إلى العليقة في الصفات الإنتاجية لدجاج اللوهمان البني

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Abstract

This study was conducted at the Poultry Farm / Department of Animal Resources/College of Agriculture/Baghdad University during the period from 25/10/2010 to 27/3/2011 to study the effect of different levels of flaxseed , fish and walnut oils supplementation in the layer diet Lohmann Brown on productive characteristics (Egg production. average egg weight, egg mass cumulative egg number, feed conversion ration). A total of, 126 laying hens (20 weeks of age) were distrubuted randomly to seven dietary treatments Each treatment included three replicate pen (6 hen/pen) and were fed one of the following diet : (T1) treatment one (Control) which represent comparison diatery that free from Omega-3 source, T2 and T3 were supple mented with 1, 0.5 % flaxseed oil, T4 and T5 were added with 1, 0.5% fish oil and T6 and T7 were provided with 0.5, 1% walnut oil. Results revealed that there are no significant differences between treatments in the averge of egg production, cumulative egg number, feed conversion ratio. Significant differences were observed among treatments in the average of egg weight. The treatments T2, T3, T6 and T7 were showed superior as compared with the others. On the other hand, the mean average of egg masswas showed superiority in the T3, T4, T6 and T7 treatments in comparison to other. It could be concluded that using of oils is led to improve productive characteristics (average egg weight and egg mass cumulative).


Article
EFFECT OF FEEDING ATRIPLEX NUMMULARIA ON AWASSI LAMBS PERFORMANCE
تأثير التغذية بالرغل الاسترالي في أداء الحملان العواسية

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Abstract

Twenty Awassi lambs weighed an average 36.75 ± 1.25 kg and age 8-9 months were randomly allotted to 5 dietary groups feeding with 4 replicates per diet. All animals were fed concentrate at 2.5 % of body weight. roughage fed ad. lip. Alfalfa hay (alfa) and Atriplex Nummularia (At) fed in different ratios as follow: R1: 100 % alfa. R2: 75 % alfa + 25% At. R3: 50 % alfa + 50 % At. R4: 25 % alfa + 75 % At and R5: 100 % At. Dry matter intake was significantly (p<0.05) higher with diet R1 and R2. significant decreased (p<0.05) in Final weight of lambs feed R5. apparent digestibility of crud protein were higher (p<0.05) with diet R3 and R4. Ether extract and Crud fiber digestibility were higher (p<0.05) with lambs consuming diet R1. R2 and R3. Hemicellulose digestibility were higher(p<0.05) with R1. acid detergent fiber digestibility were higher (p<0.05) with R5 diet. Acid detergent lignin digestibility decreased significantly (P<0.05) with diets R1. R2 and R3. whereas digestibility of Cellulose were higher (p<0.05) with R2 and R 3 diet. Animals fed on R1 and R2 showed highest total digestible nutrients. digestible crud protein high value with diet R4. Nitrogen intake and Fecal nitrogen showed higher values in R1 and R2. Urine-N of lambs fed R1 was higher (p<0.05) Total nitrogen excretion of lambs that consumed R1 was higher (p<0.05). the N-retention of lambs that consumed R5 was lower (p<0.05). According to the results we can substituted Atriplex instead of Alfalfa hay at rate 25 and 50%.


Article
EFFECT OF ADDING NIACIN IN MILK YIELD AND SOME OF ITS COMPOSITION FOR FRIESIAN COWS IN SUMMER IN CENTRAL OF IRAQ
تأثير إضافة النياسين في إنتاج الحليب وبعض مواصفاته لدى أبقار الفريزيان في فصل الصيف وسط العراق

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Abstract

This study was conducted in AL-Ishaqi Cattle Station, north of Baghdad, and use of 36 multiparous Friesian cows in the early stage of lactation, cows were divided randomly into three equal groups, during the period of 1St June 2010 to Thirty August 2010, to study the effect of niacin supplementation on average of weekly milk production, quick access to the peak lactation and length, and and some of milk composition (Protein, fat and lactose) The results showed a highly significant effect of niacin supplementation level 6 and 12g on Increasing weekly milk production for June, July and August, The speed of access to the peak lactation and the length of the peak of the Cows had significantly affected )P<0.01) by niacin supplementation namely 37.66 days and 74.75 days respectively as compared to the control (52.16 days and 47 days) The influence of niacin supplementation was had a significant effect on milk composition (protein, fat and lactose), most months of the experiment, so that the average milk components mentioned above for the two group of cows that received niacin during August were 3.45, 3.22 and 4.53 % respectively, while it were 3.18, 2.21 and 3.97% for the cows in control group, it seems clear that exposure dairy cattle to heat stress in summer had a negative effect on performance of productive, and niacin supplementation (12 and 6 g/cow/ day) led to the mitigate the adverse impact of heat stress and a general improvement in the performance of these cows.


Article
EFFECT OF WETTING FEED WITH WATER ON RELATIVE GROWTH AND BACTERIA COUNT IN JEJUNUM AND CECUM FOR SOME TYPES OF BACTERIA AND LITTER RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON BROILER
تأثير ترطيب العلف بالماء في النمو النسبي والأعداد اللوغارتيمية لبعض أنواع البكتريا في الصائم والأعورين والرطوبة النسبية للفرشة لفروج اللحم

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Abstract

The present study was carried out at Poultry Farm, Department of Animal Resources, Agriculture College-University of Baghdad, during the period Sept. 12th 2012 until Oct. 24th 2012( 42 days). A total of 240 one day old unsexed broiler chicks Ross-308 strain were randomly divided into four equal treatment groups according to added water at rates 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 L/kg feed for Tc, T1, T2 and T3 respectively, each groups consisted three replicates (20 chicks per replicate). The chicks were fed starter diet within first three weeks, after that fed on grower diet until 42 days of age. The results showed that wet feeding treatments showed significant improvement (P<0.01) in average growth rate as compared with (Tc) control group during the second week, and showed that wetting diet with water lead to improve (P< 0.05) in Log. numbers of Lactobacillus bacteria in jejunum and cecum, the Log. numbers of Coliform bacteria significantly (P<0.01) decreased in T3 treatment as compared Tc treatment in cecum and jejunum. Wetting feed didn’t affect litter relative humidity. We concluded from this study the effect of wetting feed with water lead to improve in relative growth, significant increasing on log. numbers for Lactobacillus bacteria and significant decreasing on log. numbers for Coliform bacteria in jejunum and cecum and there was no significant effect on litter relative humidity for broiler.


Article
EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTING LOW QUALITY ZAHDI DATE IN RATIONS INSTEAD OF BARLEY ON AWASSI SHEEP PERFORMANCE
تأثير استبدال الشعير بالتمر الزهدي التالف بالعلائق في أداء الأغنام العواسية

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Abstract

This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of bad quality Zahdi dates substitution instead of barley on performance of Turkish Awassi ewe lambs. Twenty five ewes lambs aged 4-5 months and 28.24±0.25kg average body weight, individually feeding were divided into five equal groups. The total period of the experiment 60 days befor this period ewes lambs were fed ten days as adaptation period to study the substitution bad quality Zahdi dates instead of part of barley 10 %, 20% whole dates and 10%, 20% crushed whole dates for the treatments T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively while T1 was regard as control diet (0% date). The ewe lambs were fed concentrate diet once daily at rate of 3% of live body weight (LBW) in addition to ad-libitum alfalfa hay. Ewe lambs were weekly weighted and the daily quantities allowances of concentrate diets gave for each ewe adjusted according to the body weight change. The results of this study revealed not significantly differences in digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter and crude protein for the date treatments, while there was significant differences (p<0.01) for digestibility of organic matter (OM) and crude protein for date physical shape treatments, and significant differences (p<0.05) for the interaction between date% and the physical shape for the digestibility of crude protein (CP) in treatments T4 and T5 than the other treatments. For the effect of date% and the physical shape there was not significant differences for the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, while there was significant increasing (p <0.05) in total weight gain The total feed intake (g/day) has appeared highly significant differences (p<0.01) for the treatment T5 than other treatments. In conclusion the crushed whole dates was the best than whole dates in the case of substitution instead of barley to increase of whole daily gain and feed conversion efficiency.


Article
EFFECT OF ADDING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF GARLIC POWDER, BLACK SEED AND THE ANTIBIOTIC AVILAMYCIN AS GROWTH PROMOTER IN THE RATION ON BROILER CARCASS QUALITY
تأثير إضافة مسحوق الثوم والحبة السوداء والأفيلامايسين كمحفز نمو إلى العليقة في الصفات النوعية لذبائح فروج اللحم

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Abstract

This study was conducted in the General Directorate of Agricultural Research-Ministry of Agriculture in Baghdad during the period from 10-10-2010 until 21-11-2010. The objective of this study was to compare the addition of garlic meal,black seed meal and the antibiotic Avilamycin as growth promoter in broiler diets and their impact on carcass characteristics. Two hundred and eighty one-day old (Ross 308( broiler chicks were used. The birds were unsexed and randomly distributed in to seven treatments with two replicates/ treatment (20 birds per replicate). The first treatment as the control without addition, the second and third included 0.7 and 1% of garlic powder, respectively, the fourth and fifth included 0.7 and 1% of black seed powder, respectively, the sixth and seventh included 0.005 and 0.01% of the antibiotic (Avilamycin), respectively. The chicks were raised in pens with (2×3 m) in a closed house. The results revealed that a highly significant (P≤0.01) improvement in the percentages of carcass cuts was shown in birds of treatments 2, 3, 4 and 7; whereas a highly significant decrease was shown in birds of T6; and there were no differences shown between T5 and T1. A highly significant improvement was shown in the percentage weight of breast cut in T3 compared with that of T1. The percentage weight of thigh cut in all treatments was significantly higher than that in T1.Its concluded that the dressing percentage and the relative percentages of the main carcass cuts were significantly improved when 1% of garlic and 0.7% of black seed powder were used in broiler rations instead of avilamycin.


Article
THE EFFECT OF IN OVO INJECTION WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF VITAMIN A ON SOME BLOOD TRAITS OF BROILER CHICKEN
تأثير حقن بيض التفقيس بفيتامين A في بعض صفات الدم لفروج اللحم

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin A injection of hatching eggs with different concentrations on some blood characteristics of broiler chicken. Six hundred eggs hatching (Hubbard) were divided into four groups (150 eggs / group). Treatment groups were distributed as follows: T0 control group (without injection), T1, T2 and T3 injected by 100, 150 and 200 I.U. vit. A respectively at age zero (before incubation). The blood physiological characteristics were studied at 21 and 35 days after hatching. The data showed that vitamin A injection led to significantly (P<0.05) elevated in packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cells count (WBC), percentage of lymphocytes and significant decrease (P<0.05) in the percentage of hetrophiles and the ratio of H/L, in all treated groups, especially in T1. However, the result revealed that there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the concentrations of total protein and significant decrease (P<0.05) in concentration of uric acid, in blood plasma for T1 at ages of 21` and 35 days.


Article
INHIBITORY EFFECT OF THE DOUBLE CONCENTRATED FILTRATE OF LBACTOBACILLUS CASEI IN VIVO AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM
الفعالية التثبيطية للراشح المركز لبكترياLactobacillius casei داخل الجسم الحي ضد جرثومة Salmonella typhimurium

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Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the therapeutic role of the double concentrated filtrate of Lb. casei toward Salmonella typhimurium in vivo .To achieve this goal this study included two main aspects as follow: 1. First aspect isolation and identification of Salmonella typhimurium from diarrhea infection of calves. For this purpose, 15 samples of faeces from infected calves were collected from Al-Fayhaa cattle station at Sowara and animal field of Agriculture College, University of Baghdad. These faecal samples were inoculated onto selected media including solid salmonella-shigella medium,xylose lysine deoxycholate XLD medium and solid MacConkey medium then incubated at 37˚C for 24 hr. According to the growth features and the microscopical examination of gram stained cells, and some biochemical and serological tests, only one isolate of Salmonella typhimurium from the diarrhea cases of calves was isolated. 2. The second aspect demonstrate inhibitory effect of the double concentrated filtrate of Lb. casei in vivo toward Salmonella typhimurium. Mice were infected and the histopathological changes of intestine, liver and spleen were recorded. The most important histopathological changes in these organs were congestion, bleeding and infiltration of inflammatory cells in addition to presence of coagulative necrosis in the liver and depletion of the white pulp in the spleen. Whereas the group of mice treated with double concentrated filtrate of Lb. casei after infected with Salmonella typhimurium showed improvement in the tissue of intestine, liver and spleen.


Article
EFFECT OF USING MAIZE DRIED DISTILLERS GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS, YOLK COLOR AND SOME EGG CHARACTERISTICS IN LAYING HENS
تأثير استخدام الذرة المقطرة مع الذوائب (DDGS) في بعض الصفات الفسلجية وبعض خصائص البيض ولون الصفار للدجاج البياض

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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60%) of corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS). A total of six hundred thirty (24wks old) Isa Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to seven treatments each containing three replicates in each replicate thirty hens. Hens were fed for a two weeks as experimental period after transition feeding to corn DDGS inclusion over a 12-wk. Result showed that egg yolk cholesterol, uric acid Percentage of the Yolk, Egg Shell Thickness, and yolk color were significant differences (P<0.05). Also, Result indicated that no significant effect of DDGS on triglyceride, percentage of the Shell after first period. Percentage of the Albumen in the two periods second period and third period. The present results show that DDGS can be successfully fed at levels 20, 30% in laying hen diet without adverse effect on laying performance.


Article
EFFECT OF USING CHEMICALLY TREATED VICIA FABA BEAN IN THE DIET IN BROILER CARCASS PROPERTIES
تأثير استخدام الباقلاء العلفية المعاملة كيميائياً في العليقة في صفات ذبيحة فروج اللحم

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This study was conducted at the Poultry Farm of the College of Agriculture, University of Kufa, during the period from 16 September to 3 November-2012,for a period of 7 weeks .Atotal of 420 day old of Cobb strain broiler chicks were used and evenly distributed randomly over seven treatments (60 chicks/treatment) 3 replicates each treatment with 20 chicks/rep. The chicks were fed on two rations, Starter ration for the first 21 days of age and Grower ration for the rest 22-49 days of age. The treatments were as follows: (T0) consists of starter diet which contained 24% of the diet soybean meal, however the grower diet contained 21% of the diet soybean meal. (T1): consists of replacement of water soaked Faba bean for the 1/3 level of the soy beans meal in the diet as protein percentage. (T2) consists of replacement of treated Faba beans with 1.0% ascorbic acid for the 1/3 level of the soy bean meal in the diet as protein percentage.(T3) consists of replacement of treated Faba beans with 0.7% Sodium Bicarbonate for the 1/3 level of the soy bean meal in the diet as protein percentage. (T4) consists of replacement of water soaked Faba bean for the 2/3 level of the soy beans meal in the diet as protein percentage. (T5) consists of replacement of treated Faba beans with 1.0% ascorbic acid for the 2/3 level of the soy bean meal in the diet as protein percentage. (T6) consists of replacement of treated Faba beans with 0.7% Sodium Bicarbonate for the 2/3 level of the soy bean meal in the diet as protein percentage. The results indicated that: Dressing percentage of birds in T6 was significantly improved as compared to birds in T4 and T5. However, T6 didn’t differ from other treatments by giving equal dressing percentage. Significant differences in means of carcass cut percentages were found among all treatments. The percentages of liver and gizzard weight in treatment 4 were significantly (P<0.05) the highest among all treatments. However, T6 recorded the highest relative weight of heart. T2 and T5 had the highest significant values in Productive Index and Economical Figure among all treatments.


Article
EFFECT OF EARLY FEEDING WITH PROBIOTICS ON BODY DIMENSIONS OF BROILER CARCASS
تأثير التغذية المبكرة بالمعززات الحيوية في قياسات جسم ذبائح فروج اللحم

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The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of using three types of locally produced probiotics as an early feeding of broiler chicks in hatcher on body length , breast circumambient, thigh, body and breast fleshing and bone lenghts of broiler. The different types of local probiotics as following: First probiotic product contains locally isolated Bifid bacterium from cecum of healthy adult chickens, the second probiotic product contains standard human source isolation of Bifi. longum BB536, the third probiotic product contains mixture of first and second probiotic with ratio 1:1. A total of 300 one day old non-sexed chicks of Ross308 were randomly distributed on five treatments at chicks transport boxes in hatcher , each treatment consists of 60 birds with 3 replicates (20 birds each ) , the treatment were as follows: T1 (Negative control) chicks without any offered until arrived farm, T2 (Positive control) chicks were offered standard feed in hatcher by spray and sticked as paste in transport boxes sides, T3 chicks were offered on first probiotic in hatcher by spray sticked as paste in transport boxes sides, T4 chicks were offered on second probiotic in hatcher by spray and sticked as paste in transport boxes sides and T5 chicks were offered on third probiotic in hatcher by spray and sticked as paste in transport boxes sides: The result showed significant increase (P<0.05) in (T3andT5) than T1 in regarding the circumference of thigh, lengths of thigh bones drumstick and body filling degree, also improved in body length , circumambient of breast and body fleshing. It concluded that chiks were using three kinds of probiotics as an early feeding in hatcher improved carcass traits and body dimensions in broilers.


Article
EFFECT 0F SUPPLEMENTING GARLIC OIL ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS
تأثير إضافة زيت الثوم إلى العليقة في الأداء الإنتاجي وبعض الصفات الفسلجية لفروج اللحم

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Abstract

This study was conducted at the poultry research station Department of Agricultural, Ministry of Agriculture from the period 02.28. 2012 to 04.10.2012 (42 days) to study the effect of supplementing different levels of garlic oil (100, 200 300 400 and 500) mg / kg diet T1,T2,T3,T4 and T5 respectively on productive performance and some physiological traits of broiler chicks. A total of 630 day – old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were used in this study. The birds were fed starter- grower and finisher diet to provide protein levels of (22.75, 21.125 and 19.53) % respectively and energy (3033), (3141.3) (3198.7) Kcal Me/ kg diet, each treatment include three replicates pens (35 birds replicate). The results showed There were no significant differences in body weight , weight gain , feed consumption and feed conversion ratio between different treatment groups, however supplemented groups were numerically higher than the control group in performance parameters There was a significant decrease (P <0.05) in cholesterol and serum glucose level in the supplemented groups as compared the control group. It could be concluded from this study that supplementing 300 or 400 garlic oil to broilers diet resulted in numerically higher final live weight and feed conversion as compared to the control and other supplemented groups.


Article
STUDY OF HEAVY METALS RESIDUES IN RACK AND LONGISSMUSDORSI MUSCLE OF AWASSI LAMBS MEAT
دراسة متبقيات العناصر الثقيلة في قطعة الاضلاع والعضلة الظهرية الطويلة في الاغنام العواسية

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In the present study, heavy metal residual concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in rack meat and Longissimusdorsi of Awassi lambs have been determined in sheep in Three areas (Tikrit, Samarra and Baiji), in Salah al-din province. During present study the range of heavy metal residues in Rack meat in Tikrit Pb 2.31, Cd 0.35, Cu 1.69 and Zn 58.10 ppm. In Samarra Pb 1.62, Cd 0.37, Cu 1.63 and Zn 55.35 ppm. In Baiji Pb 2.14, Cd 0.37, Cu 4.92, and Zn 49.12 ppm. Heavy metals were low concentration in Samarra compared with Tikrit and Baiji. Similar results were observed in Longissimusdorsi muscle in Tikrit Pb 1.25, Cd 0.37, Cu 7.11 and Zn 52.17 ppm. in Samarra Pb 1.26, Cd 0.37, Cu 3.31 and Zn 50.88 ppm. In Baiji Pb 1.54, Cd 0.37, Cu 6.27 and Zn 44.84 ppm.

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