Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552265X 25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

Loading...
Contact info

Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:2 issue:208

Article
Insufficient incentives for scientific research in Iraqi universities""
كفاية حوافز البحث العلمي في الجامعات العراقية من وجهة نظر تدريسيي جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Research aimed to identify: 1-level of adequacy of incentives used in scientific research in Iraqi universities 2-the relative importance of incentives used in scientific research in Iraqi universities from the view point of the teaching staff of Baghdad University. The research involves a sample of about 100 members of staff of the colleges under investigation chosen randomly, used questionnaire tool to achieve search also used equation Fischer and statistical means for that purpose, the results of research as follows with respect to the first goal: 1- There is a level well in insufficient incentives used in scientific research from the standpoint of the sample. 2- The highest strength obtained by paragraph (6), which stipulates (I would like to conduct scientific research they help me to gain new experiences) While the paragraph (10), which stipulates (Research costs are not commensurate with the financial reward granted them) have the less powerful

Keywords


Article
Study the effects of salinity and crude oil on germination and seedling growth of barley and Green gram Seeds
دراسة تائير الملوحة والنفط الخام على انبات ونمو بادرات نباتي الشعير والماش

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The current study was conducted for determination the effect of salinity and oil pollution plants growth under Iraqi environmental conditions. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chose as plant indicator for Grassy family and green gram(Vigna radiate L) as plant indicator for Leguminous family. Germination stage and seedlings growth considered as indicators for yield production. 5 different salinity levels (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 meq/l of NaCl) were used. 10 seeds of each plant were placed on filter paper and placed inside Petri dish and 10 ml of saline solution was added, each treatment replicated 3 times and incubated at 25±2 °C. Germination rates, radical's length and gross weight were recorded daily during the experiments. Salinity was significantly (p<0.01) reduced the germination rate up to 80% for barley and up to 87% for green gram. Seedlings grow under saline condition characterized by low ability to absorb water as a result of increasing osmotic pressure and reducing radical’s length. Effect of crude oil pollution studied only on green gram by using three levels (0 ml (Oil, 0), 1ml (Oil,1) and 2ml (Oil, 2)) were added over the filter paper with same five levels of salinity. Crude oil pollution led to decrease the germination rate by (7.8%) and (63.4)% for (Oil,1) and (Oil, 2) respectively . On other hand, low level of crude oil pollution (Oil, 1) was able to increase the mean of gross weight by ( 40.8%) and high level (Oil, 2) by (2.6%) . While the radical length increased by (25.6%) at (Oil, 1) and decreased by (55.2%) by using (Oil, 2).In spite of the low levels of crude pollution that ameliorate the stress of salinity on the germination and seedling growth at highest level of salinity (400 meq/l), we need more care about the affects of some carcinogenic hydrocarbon compounds which might be absorbed by roots and incorporated inside the plant materials. Such plants materials could cause cancers dieses as for consumers.

Keywords


Article
اثر أسلوب الوعي (هنا وألان) في تنمية احترام الوقت لدى تلاميذ المرحلة الابتدائية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present research aims at knowing:- First, the nature of time respect of by primary school students second, the effect of the consciousness style (here and now) in developing time respect by primary school students through using the following Zeno hy pothesis: 1.There are no statistically significant differences on(0.05) among the rank grades of the experimental in the pre and post-tests on time respect scale. 2.There are no statistically significant differences on(0.05) among rank grades of the contrled group individuals on the time respecyt scale. 3.There are no statistically significant differencesson(0.05) among the rank grades of the experimental and the controlled groups in the pre and post-test on time respect scale After applying the (consciousness) style on the experimental group. The present study in limited in using the(counciou) style in developing time respect of primary students stage/fifth class in day schools belong to (the general administration of Baghdad education/Rusafa the third in the academic year(2001/2012). The researeher has lealt with many theories that illustrate time, such as, psychological analysis theory, behavioral theory, features and factors theory, self theory, the existential theory and the biological theory the second variable, namely the conciousness style here and now it has been explaiued according to the Jeshalt theory,Joseph Bearls. The population of this research consists of 13642 students from the fifth class.The sample consists of(100) students from the fifth class,Al-kufa primary school.The experimental sample consists of (20) studeuts randomly divide nto two eqal groups (10) students for the controld and (10) stueuts in the experimental group.The re searcher has adopted the scale of time respect by (Hadeel Khalid mahmoud /2001) which consists of(33) items with three ahernatives.The researcher has found out the validlty and the reliability of the scale by using re-test and pearson coefficient correlation which is(0.78).He also uses the ration and pearson coefficient corre lation for reliability and the t-test for one sample. The researeher has adopted the counseling program by using the consciousnesstyle chere and nowl according to planning, programming and budgeting system. Where th mumber of sessions are (101) arranged according to the and standard deviation of the item and determining a topic for each session, the related need, the behavioral goals, the activities introduced in the session, the evahation of the session and home work training.The results show that the studeuts have low time respect.As for the second goal, the results show that there are statistically significant differences for the bere fit of the experimental group which indicates the effect of the(consciousness) style chere and nowl and the related activities withes withs the experimeatal,and also shows the importance of using couuselig styles and techniques in treating and lessening students psychological, social and educational problems, especially those concernihg time respect. The researcher has arrived at a number of conclusions, such as, the effect of using (her and now) style developing time respect of primary stage students. And, the importance of encouragiug and supporting student towards times respect in order to make use of it.The researcher has put forward a number of recommendations and snggestions, like the necessity of seriously taking care of students and their problems and helping them by introducing suitable solutions which participate in achieving their goals and encouraging and developing their needs and abilities.This task lieson the school administration class couuselors and educational counselors.

Keywords


Article
(Teaching aids between rooting and update)
الوسائل التعليمية بين التأصيل والتحديث

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

تُشكل الوسائل التعليمية مكانة مهمة في العملية التعليمية، فبها تتضح المفاهيم والحقائق، ومن خلالها يصل المدرس والطالب الى أهدافهما من اقصر سبيل، ولهذا زاد الاهتمام بها حديثاً، وتعددت البحوث حولها وحول دورها في العملية التعليمية، وضرورة الاخذ بنظام متكامل فيها يوزع فيه دور كل وسيلة تبعاً لمدى قيمتها في تحقيق الغرض المنشود( ). فالوسيلة هي الأداة التي تستعمل في تحسين عملية التعليم والتعلم، وتوضح المعاني، وتشرح الأفكار، وتدرب على المهارات، وتنمي الاتجاهات، وتغرس القيم( ). لقد طرأ كثير من التطور على العملية التعليمية منذ النصف الثاني من القرن العشرين فلم يعد مقتصراً على التدريس اللفظي من المدرس، وانما يتطلب منه معرفة ومهارة في تصميم وسائل تعليمية واختيارها والتخطيط لاستعمالها على نحو فاعل في تدريسه، بحيث تخرجه عن اللفظية وتساعده في تحقيق أهداف الدرس( ).

Keywords


Article
The Effect Of Active Thinking Model In The A Cquisition Of Geographical Concepts And The Derelopment Congnitive Skills Over The Fourth Grade Students Literavy …
اثر أنموذج التفكير النشط في اكتساب المفاهيم الجغرافية وتنمية المهارات فوق المعرفية لدى طالبات الصف الرابع الأدبي

Authors: م . د هيفاء عبد بدن
Pages: 91-127
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Aimssearch to know the model active in the acquisition of concepts geographical and skills development over cognitive students fourth grade literary study sample consisted of ( 60 ) students dividedeach in to two experimental have been tougat using amodel thinking active and controls have been tauyht in the traclitional way was a pplied skills test on cognictive befor and after the experiment . Use the test ( t ) two independent samples at the ( 0.05 ) level of significance to test hypotheses zero results have shown the presence of statistically significant differences an imale in acquiring geogr aphicall concepts and the developmcnt of cognitve skills over in far or of the experimental group was due to the method of teaching .

Keywords


Article
The Effect strategy to (Thinking – Pairing –Share) In the achievement of Ibn Rushid college of Education for human sciences
أثر إستراتيجية "فكر- زاوج – شارك" في تحصيل طلبة كلية التربية ابن رشد للعلوم الإنسانية

Authors: م.د. أزهار علون كشاش
Pages: 129-154
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Development psychology is cousidered one of education and psychology subjects which is studied for Colleges of education studied which deals with most important matters. The importance to this subject appears clearly if it is studied by modern strategies and in students sharing in introduce subjects and discuss them. The most important strategies that developed in cooperative learning is thinking – pair ing – share strategy that gives students more time for thinking and respond this research aims to loarn the influence or (Thinking - Pairing – Share) strategy in achieving of college of college of education for human sciences. To achieve the objective of this research, the researcher ma de an experiment on a sample of 65 male and female student in Kurdish language department was divided into two groups! Experimental group (33) male and female student's by use (thinking – pairing – share) and control group (62) studied by normal method. The researcher mad achievement protest which its items shows on experts to conclude its truth and account difficulty coeiffiency and distinguishing and validity of wrong substitnte – The researcher used half devidision to conclude test affirmation pearson coffiency (0,82). The researcher used T-test and pearson collaboration coeiffieut – difficulty law, distingnishing force and wrong substitute valiaity – The experiment continues complet study course after apply achievement test on the research sample. The researcher conclude that T-test accounted is 2,250 is more than tabelity which is 2,000 at (0.05) function that means there is difference of statistic function for experimental group through this result the researcher recommend to invoke teachers to depend this strategy in teaching and inter it in studying training for teachers such as methods of teaching. I suggest making several study in thinking - pairing - share in achieve methods of teaching in college of education Ibn Rushid for human sciences.

Keywords


Article
أثر أنموذج درايفر في إكتساب مفاهيم مادة قانون اصول المحاكمات الجزائية وتنمية التفكير الابداعي عند طلبة كلية القانون

Authors: م . علي داود جوامير
Pages: 155-183
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The impact of Drever model on the attainment Concepts of Criminal Procedure and Developing divergent thinking at Faculty of Law The research aims to study and establish the impact of drever model on the educational attainment scores for students taught (Concepts of criminal procedure) and developing divergent thinking at Faculty of law, In order to achieve the aims of the study, the researcher used the null hypothesis " assuming that there is no significant statistical difference ie at significance level of 0.05 between the subsequent educational attainment scores between the experimental /study group of students that are taught the concepts of criminal procedure subject according to drever’s model and the average scores of the control group that taught according to the traditional method of delivering the subject. The researcher selected the students from the Faculty of law, to be a random sample for his study. A total of 101 were selected, and they were divided into 2 groups/classes .The study/experimental group of a total of 50 students were taught according to drever model, While the control group represented by 51 students and they were taught by using the traditional teaching method at a different students group/class.The researcher established the internal and external validity of the evaluation by identifying the confounding factors of the study design, identifying factors that can affect the variables. The researcher prepared a teaching plan, and a test was prepared consisting of (20) items /questions. The test consisted of objective questions including, multiple-choice questions. The exam results to tests the understanding of the concepts of criminal procedure , revealed superiority of the students of the experimental/study group who studied using drever’s model over the students in the control group who studied in the traditional way.

Keywords


Article
Effect Mastery Learning Strategy in a Achievement forThird Grade Students Teachers Training Institute In Subject Of Primary Education And Attitudes Towards it
اثر استراتيجية التعلم للتمكن في تحصيل طالبات الصف الثالث معهد اعداد المعلمات لمادة التعليم الابتدائي و الاتجاه نحوها

Authors: م.م هناء محمد صالح
Pages: 185-214
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research aims to know the effect of Mastery Learning strategy to be able to Achievement third grade students of the Institute to Institute Training Teachers in subject of primary education and the Attitudes Towards it. The researcher has chosen experimental design for the two one experimental group who " Mastery Learning " and the second control group taught in the traditional method researcher has chosen a way that clouds indiscriminate (2) to be the experimental group, and (1) to be the control group. Excluded researcher students repeaters are and adult numbers (3) student because they studied the same subject in the past year and to avoid the impact of past experience, which may affect the search results, and total students (56) student for both groups. Been rewarded the two groups in the variables: age of the students, Achievement of the parents, intelligence. Researcher prepared a tool to search a test, and extracted characteristics psychometric testing, validity and reliability reached, Richardson, 20), reaching (86. 0) and Cronbach alpha (0.82). The researcher has taught two groups, test a test on students two sets of search. Data were treated statistically using test (T-test), showed results of the experimental group that studied according to a learning strategy to enable the collection, the researcher Recommends this strategy in teaching. Key words: Mastery Learning, Attitudes Towards.

Keywords


Article
تطور التفكير الإبداعي لدى طلبة كلية التربية الأساسية

Authors: م.م. بيداء محمد أحمد
Pages: 215-247
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research aimed to know wether there is a development of creative thinking in the students of college of basic education and wether there are differences between both stages in this, the first and the fourth have the five factors of creative thinking ( fluency, flexibility, originality, sensitivity to problems, details).The null hypotheses : (There is no statistically significant difference at (0.05) level of significance between the mean of the score of the first stage students and that of the fourth stage students in creative thinking test ) . The researcher has derive eighth potheses from it to mull the aims . The sample of the study is the student of the math Dept. ( first , fourth stages ) – morning study – college of basic education / Al – Mustansirhya University for the academic year 2012 – 2013 . The researcher has used descriptive research . The sample consisted of ( 140 ) students divided to ( 34 ) male students – ( 36 ) female students from the first stage , and ( 28 ) male students – ( 42 ) female students from fourth stage . The researcher has adopted test consisted of ( 30 ) items and distributed according to the five factors ( fluency , flexibility , originality , sensitivity to problems , details ) ( 6 items ) for every factor , this test was made to measure the creative thinking in the sample of the study . The construct validity is verified using (Pierson correlation) for every item with the total mark of the test, the result ranges from (0.799– 0.512),and reliability 0.959) . After applying the test and treating the data statistically using ( T – Test ) for one sample and two samples , the result has showed : - 1- All students ( male and female ) in the basic sample have the creative thinking in math material . 2- The achievement of the fourth stage students is higher than that of the first stage students , this means that there is a development in the creative thinking of the students . 3- There are no statistically significant differences between the means of scores of the students according to gender variable . 4- All students generally have the creative thinking according its five factors ( fluency , flexibility , originality , sensitivity to problems , details ) . 5- The basic sample of the research according to gender variable ( male – female) has the creative thinking in math material at efficient level exception ( originality , sensitivity to problems , details ) according to male . The result has shown that it has no statistical significance although . In the light of the result , the researcher has recommended to use the method of creative thinking , enrich the curriculum specifically in pure math materials for the academy students by situation stimulate thinking in general and creative thinking specifically . The researcher has also recommended to study the relation between creative thinking and the ability to solve mathematical questions .

Keywords


Article
Central public library in tikrit: Acase Study
المكتبة المركزية العامة في تكريت :دراسة حالة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The research aims to identify the reality of the Central public Library in the Tikrit follow the approach case study) in research and collected data through interview and observation and two models of the questionnaire was distributed to a sample of society under the first model to the staff of the library and the second of the beneficiaries were selected random sample of them numbered (50) drawing were analyzed answers the sample has been used percentages in the statistical analyzes the questionnaire included many questions which have been identified on the of the public library under study The results of the study was the most important of many the weakness of financial allocation earmarked for the library which negatively affects the size and type of services they provide and the lack of staff with competence in information science and libraries the study suggested that there be a special budget for the library and is an annual to enable them to carry out its duties to the fullest

Keywords


Article
Assistant teacher wafaa Qais cream Master kindergarten
قيم الانتماء الوطني لدى اطفال الرياض ((دراسة مقارنة بين أطفال المحرومين وغير المحرومين من احد الوالدين))

Authors: م.م. وفاء قيس كريم
Pages: 275-296
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of the present research is to reveal the level of Values of national affiliation in Kindergartens, and to know the differences in the national affiliation values according to gender variable (males-females), and to know the difference in the national affiliation values in Kindergartens between advantaged children and disadvantaged from one of their parents. The study sample consists of 60 child divided into (25) females, (35) males, (18) father disadvantaged and( 12 )mother disadvantaged. In order to achieve the goals of research, the researcher used a scale from Ghazal numbers (2001) which consisting of (11) dimension to determine the level of kindergarten child affiliation to the homeland. Of the most prominent findings of the researcher is that the national affiliation level in Kindergartens was very good, and that the minimum mark obtained by the kids was in the mid-level, i.e no child was within the low level. As there were statistically significant differences due to the variable in favor of female gender, there were not any statistically significant differences due to deprivation variable from one parent . Keywords: - ((values of belonging, a sense of national belonging, kindergarten children))

Keywords


Article
Assistant teacher Hassan Abd allah al-atafe Master psychological counseling
فاعلية برنامج إرشادي لخفض الوحدة النفسية لدى الأرامل العاملات وغير العاملات

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The goal of current research to know the effectiveness of the counseling program to reduce the unit's psychological widows in Diyala province, and also to measure the unit's psychological have and know the difference between the scores of widows workers and non-workers and detect the difference between the scores of pretest and posttest of the experimental group, and consisted sample of (200) widow was selected of whom on (20) widow who received the highest scores of the scale unit psychological been Tksiman into two groups, one officer and the other pilot, in order to achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher using the measure prepared by Abed (2008), consisting of (34),items, and the most prominent results reached by the research that there is effectiveness of the program indicative of reducing the unit's psychological experimental group, and also turns out that a high percentage of widows Ienn of the unit high psychological and adult Adhen (176) widow of (200) widow most of whom widows is working and that there is a difference between grades pretest and posttest for the benefit of post-test.

Keywords


Article
The role of climate in Variation to the values of Potential Evapotranspiration in the southern region of Iraq. (Using the program CROPWAT 8.0)
دور المناخ في تباين قيم التبخر /نتح المحتمل في المنطقة الجنوبية من العراق ( باستخدام برنامج CROPWAT 8.0 )

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Affected by of Potential Evapotranspiration climate all elements of the solar radiation, and the actual and theoretical Sun shine, temperatures, winds, and relative humidity. In order to extract accurate data for the of Potential Evapotranspiration in the southern region of Iraq has been the adoption of the equation Penman - Monteith, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in the form of a computer program called CROPWAT 8.0, and enter the data elements of climate key was to get rates and totals of Potential Evapotranspiration in the southern region of Iraq, which appeared to be getting increases progress in the south of the study area, while less progress in the north. Also increasingly approach the summer, especially the month of July, and at least close to winter, especially from the month of January. To prove the existence of a causal relationship does not exist between the elements of climate and potential evaportranspiration of Pearson correlation used to extract the simple correlation coefficient between the two variables, the law was also used t-test to see if the correlation coefficient was statistically significant and has a causal relationship or not. As well as the use of multiple correlation coefficient for the extraction of the correlation coefficient between the three variables, the variable in which the first and second elements of climate and the third variable of Potential Evapotranspiration, And Was reached several conclusions contained in the search.

Keywords


Article
The role of climate in Variation to the values of Potential Evapotranspiration in the southern region of Iraq. (Using the program CROPWAT 8.0)
دور المناخ في تباين قيم التبخر /نتح المحتمل في المنطقة الجنوبية من العراق ( باستخدام برنامج CROPWAT 8.0 )

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Affected by of Potential Evapotranspiration climate all elements of the solar radiation, and the actual and theoretical Sun shine, temperatures, winds, and relative humidity. In order to extract accurate data for the of Potential Evapotranspiration in the southern region of Iraq has been the adoption of the equation Penman - Monteith, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in the form of a computer program called CROPWAT 8.0, and enter the data elements of climate key was to get rates and totals of Potential Evapotranspiration in the southern region of Iraq, which appeared to be getting increases progress in the south of the study area, while less progress in the north. Also increasingly approach the summer, especially the month of July, and at least close to winter, especially from the month of January. To prove the existence of a causal relationship does not exist between the elements of climate and potential evaportranspiration of Pearson correlation used to extract the simple correlation coefficient between the two variables, the law was also used t-test to see if the correlation coefficient was statistically significant and has a causal relationship or not. As well as the use of multiple correlation coefficient for the extraction of the correlation coefficient between the three variables, the variable in which the first and second elements of climate and the third variable of Potential Evapotranspiration, And Was reached several conclusions contained in the search.

Keywords


Article
التداخل السكني الصناعي وأثراها البيئية والصحية (منطقة مصفى الدورة الصناعي)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The choice of an industrial site within the design basis is based on the study of how to isolate the contaminated area is oil refinery, which is one of the most polluting industries from areas other uses do not affect them. Taking into account the wind directions and speeds, and when it gets over and overlap at the expense of the industrial zone will affect the health status of residents of the families of employees as a result of gaseous pollutants emitted from chimneys drained and water pollutants, as well as odors as there two apartment blocks for workers at the refinery. First in the south-west and the second in the north-east without taking into account the effect of pollutants on the health of residents and this is what is aimed our analysis and give a clear picture of the environmental impact of such interference in land uses and this is due to the absence of law deterrent and follow-up in official quarters to interference, even if there are formal approvals to build these housing units.

Keywords


Article
An Economic Light in the Shades of Al-Ma'oun Surah
إضاءةٌ اقتصادية في ظلال سورة الماعون

Authors: د.أيوب محمد جاسم
Pages: 371-388
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Praise be to Allah and peace upon the master of all messengers and his progeny and those who followed them until the Day of Judgment. This research studies the economical sides which are mentioned in the blessed Surah of Al-Ma'oun and the importance of these in the legislative of Islam. The activation of these are related to the realization of property in the life. This study tackles the pivots which the surah has tackled in details, which is the custody of the orphan and the performance pilgrimage. Each of these pivots has a role in supporting the economy and comes up to the economically and socially. The pivots varied in their legislative rules between the firdh statutory , Kifayah collective duty and the alnudab. But they turnover all in the time of need, The Muslim society has left to humanity a realist model which translates the rules and the individuals practiced these pivot in believes and application. It was a plea of the world and for those who seek happiness in this life and the afterlife.

Keywords


Article
The production and consummation of Electrical power in the middle forat in Iraq A study of electrical geography))
إنتاج واستهلاك الطاقة الكهربائية في منطقة الفرات الأوسط في العراق (بابل ، النجف ، كربلاء ) ((دراسة في جغرافية الطاقة))

Authors: م.د علاء محسن شنشول
Pages: 389-412
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Electricity gains a great importance in various daily activities whether domestic ,governmental or industrial ,because it is the main machinery for these activities which can provide a high level of services for the society in general and the human being in specific, because he is the goal of all these various processes and activities which lead to the ideal use of time, effort and the potentials to achieve prosperity and good life standards for human beings. This subject of Electricity production and consumption in the middle of Iraq (Bable, Najaf and Karbala) has been chosen in order to clarify the extent of the production capacity of the functioning power plants and to clarify the cases of deficit and surplus of the power that the consumer gets after stating the consumption of all the sectors that are found there in order to find the best solutions and possible means to treat the malfunctioning in the supply reaching the ideal state which can be relied on for the development in various areas. In this research ,we have clarified the production in the power plants and the special distribution of these power plants in each governorate and then the consumption in various sectors in the society. We have also clarified the balance between the production and consumption in order to show the real status of the cases of deficit and surplus in the production. Many results and recommendations have been reached at that could participate in clarifying the situation for the reader about the importance of the electricity production in the middle of Iraq and the obstacles confronted now and in the future.

Keywords


Article
The Geographical Distribution of Cotton in Wasit Province for the period ( 2003 – 2010 )
التوزيع الجغرافي للقطن في اقضية محافظة واسط للمدة (2003-2010)

Authors: م.م. كوثر ناصر عباس
Pages: 413-428
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This Study is concentrated on the basis of Agriculture and Production of Cotton in The Governorate Of Wasit , aiming to reveal the truth face of The Geographical Distribution for planting Cotton and its production as well . The Cotton is considered one of the yields which was grown in The Governorate since a long time because of the availability of water , representing by The River Of Tigris and its own two Tributaries " Al-Gharaf and Al-Dijeela " . In addition to the availability of the valid soil for the purpose of agriculture . But in the period of the study , Growing cotton was limited in some regions than other regions because of the lack of water . The Study , in the same time , illustrate and indicate that some districts such as " Al-Swera District and Al-Azeeziya District which were interested in planting and growing the yield of cotton along the year . While in other districts like " Al-Haey District and BAdraa District " which haven't interested in growing and planting the yield of Cotton along the period of the study . In Al No'amania District which hasn't interested in planting the yield of Cotton in the latest year of the study . While it is revealed that Al Kut District gad planted the yield of cotton for the first three years of the years of study " 2003-2005 " . Thus this matter is an obvious proof and good evidence for the absence of the policy of the Government towards this yield , which is lead to , finally , the farmers give up , and abstain from planting and growing the yield of Cotton year by year continuously .

Keywords


Article
اعداد المركبات الخاصة والأختناقات المرورية في مدينة بغداد

Authors: م. م. ندى محمد عبد
Pages: 429-452
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The problem of Congestion is like very dangerous and unapparent ill which can be growth suddenly and kill the iller , everyone knew that and feel it the government and the people but nobody care about it or gave the problem the enough attention in the local government agenda . And I am afraid from the day which the movement became incapable or zero on it . The problem of Congestion do not stop on the delay and the consumed of time which it caused big economic losses carry by the national economic but it also has bad effectives represented by the pollution with its types and forms which have bad effectives on the social health and the human . The Congestion problems are different from county to another and from town to another independent on its projects and planners of road networks to avoid the maximizing numbers of vehicles and the other factors caused this problem . From this research come to define this problem and its reason and the effect of physical planning to solve this problem and who to be useful from the world solves by studying the problem in Baghdad city and the effective of maximizing the number of personal vehicles in it .

Keywords

Table of content: volume: issue: