جدول المحتويات

مجلة جامعة كربلاء

ISSN: 18130410
الجامعة: جامعة كربلاء
الكلية: رئاسة الجامعة او مراكز
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

أن مجلة رئاسة الجامعة هي مجلة علمية محكمة تصدر بشكل فصلي لأغراض الترقيات العلمية وهي مجلة علمية رصينة في مختلف الاختصاصات تأسست في عام 2003 حاصلة على الترميز الدولي ISSN-1813-0410 تستقبل المجلة بما يقارب 500 بحث في السنة وعليه يبلغ عدد البحوث المنشورة بما يقارب 300 بحث منشور في السنة وبما يقارب 200 بحث قيد النشر وتخضع البحوث المقدمة للتقويم العلمي من قبل أساتذة اختصاصين وتنشر البحوث باللغتين العربية والانكليزية اما أعمال المجلة هي :-

1- استقبال البحوث الخاصة بالسادة التدريسيين الراغبين بنشرها في المجلة .
2- عرضها على السادة المقيمين .
3- تزويد الباحثين بكتاب قبول نشر بعد حصول الموافقة على النشر .
4- تنضيد البحوث وفق السياق الخاص بالمجلة والمرفق نسخة منه طياً .
5- استنساخ العدد الخاص بالمجلة بمعدل 50 نسخة لكل مجلد (علمي عربي + علمي انكليزي + انساني )

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معلومات الاتصال

phone Number :07814214835
E_mail :Journal@uokerbala.edu.iq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2012 المجلد: العدد: المؤتمر العلمي الثاني لكلية الزراعة

Article
Evaluation the immune suppressive effect of aflatoxin B1 in mice
التأثيرات المناعية الكابحة للـ aflatoxin B1 في الفئران

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الخلاصة

Aflatoxin B1 cause immune suppression especially in cellular immunity and decrease the number of T and B cells .The percentage of both CD4+ and CD8+ Tcells which are, in general, used as markers for helper and cytotoxic T cells ,are affected by aflatoxin B1 and showed lower percentage when injected with aflatoxin B1 four successive doses in mice for 16 days ( CD4+Tcell =224.25 , CD8+Tcell =177) and eight successive doses for 32 days ( CD4+Tcell =159 , CD8+Tcell =144) when compared with the untreated mice (control group) (CD4+Tcell =361 , CD8+Tcell=237.5)for 16 days and (CD4+Tcell =338.33 , CD8+Tcell=257)for 32 days

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUPPLY RESPONSE OF AREA CULTIVATED WITH PEANUT IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD 1990 - 2010
تحليل اقتصادي للعوامل المؤثرة في استجابة عرض المساحات المزروعة بمحصول فستق الحقل في العراق للمدة 1990 ـ 2010

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الخلاصة

In spite of the economic importance of peanut as an oil crop and an important source of protein, but it is still cultivated in limited area in the country as a whole. Most farmers do not cultivate peanut due to the difficulties facing them represented by the many operations that cost so much in addition to some diseases infecting it which can't be controlled easily and causing a decrease in crop quantity and quality. The aim of this research is to estimate the cultivated area response function of peanut on Iraq level for the period 1990 – 2010. The estimated results showed that the annual growth rates for the area and production of peanut on Iraq level affecting the cultivated area supply response and which have influence on farmers decisions were the previous year area of peanut then the previous year average price of summer vegetables as competitive crops and finally the previous year price of the crop, and the coefficients were significant at different levels of significance except the coefficient of peanut price. About 89% of total change in cultivated area with peanut was due to the changes in variables included in the model during research period. The values of short runt own and cross price elasticity's of the crop were (0.532) supply for peanut price and (-1.184) for summer vegetables average price and (0.282) for the irrigation water, while their values in long run were (1.46), (-3.24), and (0.77) respectively. Finally it was recommended to subsidize the main inputs for peanut production in order to expand the cultivated area in future .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The influence of harvesting frequencies on green pod and dry seed productions of Cowpea [Vigna unguculata L. Walp] Ramshorn cultivar obtained from three varying seed production companies
تاثير فترات الحصاد في انتاج القرنات الخضراء والجافه للوبيا [Vigna unguculata L. Walp Ramshorn cultivar] المنتج من ثلاثة شركات عالميه لانتاج البذور

المؤلفون: Caser G. Abdel --- Mohammed S. S. D. Al-Slem
الصفحات: 7-31
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الخلاصة

An attempt was made to evaluate the variation in green pod and dry seed production of Ramshorn Cowpea cultivar produced by three varying seed companies as influenced by harvesting frequencies. Therefore, green pods were either continuously harvested around the growing season, harvested four, six times, eight times and continuous dry pod harvest. The highest green pod yield (2.041 kg.m-2) were obtained from continuous green pod harvesting treatment, gradual reduction in green pod yields were confined with gradual reductions in harvesting frequencies. Contrary results were found with dry seed yield where gradual yield reductions were accompanied with gradual increases in green pod harvesting frequencies. Consequently, the highest seed yield (0.29859kg.m-2) was observed in continuous dry pod harvesting treatment. The best Ramshorn producing seed company was the Italian since it gave the highest green pod and dry seed yields (1.42997 and 0.12713 kg.m-2, respectively). The highest green pod and yield (2.12203kg.m-2) was obtained from Genex source of continuously green pod harvested interaction. The paramount dry seed yield (0.34236kg.m-2) was concomitant with Genex source of continuous dry pod harvest.


Article
Measuring the resource productivity growth in Iraqi agricultural sector For period (1970 – 2010 )
قياس نمو انتاجية الموارد في القطاع الزراعي العراقي للمدة (1970-2010 )

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الخلاصة

The research hypothesis is that there was retreating in the growth rate of crops in Iraq due to low production and productivity. The aim of this research is to measure the contribution of each main factor in total output .This could be achieved through establishing functional relationship between output value and the main factors affecting on it such as labour , public capital , private capital , and land . The research results showed that labor was the most effective factor in aggregate production function , but due to low growth (0.3%) its influence was limited (0.0108) in output growth . This means that labourer number in agricultural sector did not grow in natural way during study period which caused a low effect of this factor on output growth. Land also had positive effect on production function, but due to its low rate of growth during study period, its contribution in growth was relatively low. Private capital had a negative growth rate during the study period, it also had a negative effect on production function due continuous decrease in it during study period in agricultural sector, this made its contribution in output growth negative du to the interaction between the two negative effects. The effect of public capital contribution in output growth negative. The conclusion is that there was low growth in output due to low growth in main factors. Some recommendations were forwarded.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Work environment and their impact on the performance of workers in the field of Agricultural Extension
بيئة العمل وأثرها على اداء العاملين في مجال الارشاد الزراعي

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الخلاصة

Overall job performance is affected by many factors, and what was in the working environment of an effective and important impact on the performance of employees. So the goal of identifying research on the impact of the work environment on the performance of workers in the field of agricultural extension. These researchers to conduct this research using descriptive method style surveys, because it is commensurate with the nature of the objective of this research, which targeted mainly to identify the level of impact and contribution of the work environment in the performance of those working in the field of agricultural extension. Included all of the research community working in the field of Agricultural Extension in Iraq. Accuracy of the information for the purpose of the sample was taken in the provinces of Nineveh and workers Tamim, Babil, Wasit and Qadisiyah, Maysan, and Basra. The number of employees 171 employees working within the permanent staffing. In order to collect information promising researchers a measure of the work environment agricultural extension workers in Iraq, which contains four key areas is the desire to work and creativity in the work and focus on business goals as well as the relationship with the bosses. The researchers used statistical methods appropriate to the objectives of the research where the averages, percentages, and standard-class. Study results show a clear discrepancy in the levels of performance, but we can say generally that the level of performance was average tends to decline relative. As for the areas of the work environment appeared to factor the desire to work as the most important domain in its negative impact on performance, then followed by other fields, respectively, the relationship with the bosses and then focus on business goals and creativity at work. Find recommended the need to be able to find mechanisms through which all employees in the extension of knowing them Masiqdmh change in the organization and ways to adapt their work to this change

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
THE ROLE OF FARM SIZE TO ACHIEVE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
دور حجم المزرعة في تحقيق الكفاءة الاقتصادية

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الخلاصة

The goal of the economic development to eradicate hunger and poverty and the sustainable use of the environment and to achieve this depends to a large extent on how to deal with the earth, and administering the correct and scientific use can be accessed safely and just for this and control over resources, ensuring the provision of adequate food and achieve rural development advanced, and provides livelihoods for the current generation and future generations, so the goal of search judged integrated set of activities performed by the farmers under the resources and the circumstances of Agriculture and its relation to the size of the farm through a random sample of farmers in the province of Diyala included on 29 farmers were interviewed through a form questionnaire prepared for this purpose. Through the analysis of the cost structure shows that the costs of family labor of the most important items of fixed costs as representing 65% of them in the first category, while farms fell in the second category farms to 48% due to lower average costs increase the size of the farm, either variable costs, the cost of production inputs were the most important items, as recorded the third lowest rate category of these costs amounted to 100,618.3 dinars per acre. When applying evaluation criteria categories sample question results showed that the third category achieved the best results of the applicable standards, as was her highest efficiency of using available items for each JD spender on those elements, has also acquired the highest productivity per worker amounted to 2,355,769 dinars and higher productivity wage was 8.3 per JD spender on wages, one of the farms that have efficiently work item in the absence of disguised unemployment as a result the size of farms large as the percentage of the net profits from the sales were in this category 52.5% and an indication of the success of economic unity, also achieved the third category the best standards (rate of return of investment, the degree of industrialization, net cash income, Earnings per dinar, capital productivity) (43%, 0.31 0.220188 KD 999 fils 0.30018), respectively. Based on the study recommends the need to invest in large farms because of their ability to absorb technology and reduce production costs with a concerted effort to provide what the farmer needs capital to develop its activities with the intensification of production other productive resources

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
ESTIMATION OF COMBINING ABILITY, GENE ACTION AND HETEROSIS IN DURUM WHEAT USING NESTED MATING DESIGN
تقدير مقدرة الائتلاف والفعل الجيني وقوة الهجين في الحنطة الخشنة باستخدام تصميم التزاوج المتشعب

المؤلفون: Ismail Hussain Ali --- Erfan Fateh Shakor
الصفحات: 32-44
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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted by using the nested mating design involved 15 hybrids and 20 parents (5 male and 15 female) in durum wheat during 2011-2012 at the station of Directorate of Agricultural Researches/Erbil under dry farming conditions using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Some growth characters, grain yield and its components were studied. Genetic statistical analysis were done to estimate general combining ability (GCA) of the parents, genetic variance components (additive and dominance), environmental variance, average degree of dominance, heritability in broad and narrow sense, expected genetic advance, heterosis and correlation coefficients among the characters. The results showed highly significant differences among genotypes for all studied characters. Three parents had a positive general combining ability effect in most characters including grain yield. The additive was greater than dominance genetic variance in most characters. Heritability in narrow sense was high for plant height, spike no./plant, 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant. The values of average degree of dominance was greater than one for flag leaf area, number of grains/spike and biological yield/plant, while less than unit for spike no./plant. Expected genetic advance was high for plant height, spike no./plant and grain yield/plant and it were moderate for plant height, grain no./spike, 1000-grain weight, biological yield/plant and harvest index, while it was low for flag leaf area. Maximum number of hybrids showed significant positive heterosis for grain no./spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant . The cross [14 × 3] had the highest positive heterosis for most studied characters including grain yield followed by [8 × 1] and [16 × 4]. Grain yield/plant revealed a significant positive genetic correlation with spike no./plant, grain no./spike, 1000-grain weight and harvest index.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The extent to which managers Agricultural Extension communications skills in the Departments of Agriculture in the Central Region Provinces From the Standpoint of Agricultural Extension Agents
مدى ممارسة مدراء الارشاد الزراعي المهارات الاتصالية في مديريات الزراعة لمحافظات المنطقة الوسطى من وجهة نظر المرشدين الزراعيين

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الخلاصة

The objective of this research is to identify the extent of the managers of agricultural extension for the skills of communication in the departments of Agriculture provinces central region from the standpoint of agricultural extension agents, through the scale consisted of three main and (5) sub-areas represented management modernization and innovation in the fields of agriculture and rural areas and included (Management modernization and innovation, accept the risk), and the ability to connect and which includes (to communicate with others, listen, and means of communication) and guidance of agricultural information. Selected provinces of the central region of Iraq to conduct the current research and of the (10) provinces and took a random sample (60%) and the rate of (6) provinces (Baghdad, Najaf, Karbala, Qadisiyah, Babylon, Anbar). I took a simple random sample of agricultural extension agent (43%) and the rate of (112) agent of the total community of (262) agricultural agent , has used the following statistical methods: frequencies, percentages, weighted arithmetic mean, weight percentile. For the purpose of achieving the objectives of the research, was prepared scale five to a group of paragraphs reached (44) paragraph distributed on three main themes, including (16) paragraph at the center of administration modernization and innovation in the fields of agriculture and rural (24) paragraph in the axis of the ability to connect and (6) paragraphs in the axis of extension of agricultural information. Results reached, that the majority of managers of agricultural extension in the provinces of the central region have communication skills medium tend to rise, and the results show a slight variation in the importance of communication skills from one governorate to another.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Comparative transverse sections study of leaves for some species of the genus Aegilops L. (Poaceae) in Iraq
دراسة مقارنة للمقاطع المستعرضة لاوراق بعض انواع الجنس Aegilops L. (Poaceae) في العراق

المؤلفون: Rukaiya, M. Al- Na'amani --- Abid Al- Karim, K. Al- Bermani
الصفحات: 45-56
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الخلاصة

In this paper leaf transverse sections for nine species of Aegilops in Iraq from 57 accessions have been anatomically examined. Different characters (variable and constant) have taxonomical value and can be used for distinguishing between species such as shape of the keel, shape of abaxial and adaxial sclerenchyma, shape of marginal sclerenchyma and bulliform cells arrangment. Finally, the study show that anatomical characteristic of the leaf blade vary between studied taxa .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect Of Spraying Algamix Extract And ColdTreatment On Flowerin And Plant Yield Of Two Strawberry Cultivars (Fragaria X ananassa Duch)
تأثير الرش بمستخلص الجامكس ( Algamix) وتعريض الشتلات للبرودة في تزهير و حاصل النبات لصنفين من الشليك Fragaria X ananassa Duch))

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted at the field of Horticulture and Landscape Design Department, College of Agriculture& Forestry,during the growing season 2010-2011. To investigate the effect of foliar spraying of seaweed extract (Algamix) and low temperature (3±1) °C on flowering and plant yield parameters of two strawberry cultivars ( Fragaria X ananassa Duch.) .Transplants of two strawberry cultivars (Hapil and Kaiser's samling) were exposed to three periods (0 , 15 and 30 days) of low temperature (3±1) °C and three concentrations ( 0 , 1.5and 3.0 cm3/L) of seaweed extract ( Algamix) applied as a foliar spray on plants of strawberry cultivars. The experimental design was a randomize complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates . The obtained results could be summarized as follows: * Hapil cultivar was superior in yield per plant and pollen grain validity as compared with kaiser's samling variety. * Spraying of Algamaix extract at both concentrations 1.5 & 3 cm3/L increased plant yield significantly, while only conc. of 1.5cm caused a significant increase in the length of flowering period as compared with 3.0 cm3/L concentration treatment, which caused a significant increase in both average number of days from planting to first flower appearance and number of flowers per plant significantly . *Exposure of strawberry transplants to low temperature increased yield per plant significantly and induce flowering in both cultivars. Treatment of 15 days duration of cold storage significantly increased number of flowers per plant as compared with the effect of 30 days duration treatment

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by plant growth promoting bacteria on Tomato plant .
المكافحة الاحيائية للفطر Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici بأستخدام البكتريا المحفزة للنمو على نبات الطماطة

المؤلفون: Al-Azawi , A. Q. --- H. H. Nawar --- M. I. Abdulla
الصفحات: 57-64
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الخلاصة

This study was carried out to study the efficiencyof six strains of plant growth promoting bacteria(Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Azotobacter chroococcum1, Azotobacterchroococcum2and Bacillus sp.)as biocontrol agents against the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum the causal pathogen of wilt disease of tomato plants under greenhouse conditions . The results of antagonistic activity of the six bacterial strains against F.oxysporum showed that the tested strains varied in their abilities in reducing growth rate of the pathogen and increasing the percentage of pathogen inhibition as compared to control treatment.B.subtilis was the superior in reducing the radial growth rate of pathogen20.33mm as compared to control treatment34.66 mm . The results revealed that most the tested bacterial strains significantly increased the percentage of seeds germination and the 1stgermination .B. subtilis , P. fluorescence and B. pumilus were the best in increasing seeds germination which recorded(97.33,95.33 and 93.66)% respectively as compared to control treatment ( 77.40 % ) . The greenhouse experiment revealed that the plants treated with B.subtilis recorded maximum ( shoot length , root length , branch no./ plant ,fresh and dry weight of plant ,branch no. / plant , fruit no/plant and plant productivity ) . All these parameters were increased by 317.6 cm , 29.4 cm , 5.1 branch / plant ,(1456.6 , 298.6) g / plant ,(5.1) branch / plant ,11.63 fruit / plant , 1361.6 g / plant respectively,also the results showed B.subtilis significantly decreased disease incidence and severity of tomato plants infected by F. oxysporum which recorded( 20.6 %,0.14 ) respectively as compared to both positive ( without pathogen)and negative( with pathogen) control treatment( 6.90 % , 0.05) , ( 82.70 % , 0.69 ) respectively .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Influence of numbers and spraying site of humic acid on growth and yield of potato (Solanum Tuberosom L.) cultivated by true potato seed
تأثير عدد مرات الرش وموقع الرش لحامض الدبال في نمو وانتاج درنات البطاطا ((Solanum tuberosum L. المكثرة بالبذور الحقيقية

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to study the effect of spraying numbers and spraying site of Humic acid on individual potato seedlings (aged 30 days from planting true potato seeds). The experiment carried out in accordance with Complete Random Design included two factors: the first three levels of spray (0 , 2, 4 times ) and the second: three sites for spraying: vegetative, soil, foliage + soil. Pots filled with 10 kg of planting mixture (2/3 river soil 1/3 peat- mouse), planted with one seedling in each pot, using four pots for each replicate. The results can be summarized as follow: Spraying humic acid led to increase in plant height and number of leaves per plant as compared with control, also the treatment four times spraying was superior upon two times of spraying. The site of the spray on foliage soil around roots caused a significant increase in plant height and number of leaves per plant as compared with spraying foliage only. Humic acid spraying led to increase tubers number per plant, total yield of tubers and total weight and numbers of tuber/plant with the largest weight of 20 g significantly as compared with control. 4 times spray led to increase plant yield of tubers with the largest weight of 20 g as compared with two time sprays. Spraying foliage soil around the roots was superior upon foliage spray or sprays the soil only. The interaction had a significant effect, and the treatment of four times sprayed on foliage soil around roots was superior in most traits.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of budding autumn date, rootstock and cultivars on budtake and some growth characteristics of japanese plum prunus salicina
تاثير موعد التطعيم الخريفي والاصل والصنف في نجاح التطعيم وبعض صفات النمو الخضري للاجاص الياباني Prunus salicina

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted during 2001-2002 in private nursery at AL-Egraa’t district, Baghdad to study the effect of budding date, root stocks and cultivars on success of budding and sum vegetative characteristics of plum on apricot and plum rootstocks. A factorial experiment (224) with Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD) with three replicate and 10 plants per replicate were used in this study.The treatments used were two budding dates Aug. 20th and sept. 20th, two rootstocks Apricote and marianna plum seedlings. and four plum cultivars Beauty, Alo no.1, Bathinjani and Golden japanese and the means was tested by LSD at p≤ 0.05 , the results showed that the date of Sept 20th and marianna rootstock given the best result in bud takes,height plant,number of leaves and leaf area , on the other hand beauty give bud take and leaf area upper than the others whereas bathenjani significant by height of plant and gold japans was significant by number of leaves .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Pear seedlings response to sulfur and spraying Liquorice extract
استجابة شتلات الكمثرى للكبريت والرش بمنقوع عرق السوس

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted in lathhouse , Dep . of Horticulture , College of Agriculture , University of Baghdad ,Abu Ghraib during growing seasons 2011 and 2012. Pear seedling Pyrus communis L. cv. Cocia two year old were used , This study included two factors ;spraying with liquorice extract (L) and addition of sulphur (S) wich done in the March . The first factor three levels were used, 0 (L0) , 5 (L1) , 10 (L2) gm / L and three levels of sulphur, 0 (S0) , 50 (S1) , 100 (S2) gm / seedling . Each treatment replicated three times with a factorial experiment using RCBD. The number of trees used were 27 trees. The experimental results showed that liquorice extract 10 ml /L (L2) and sulphur at 100 gm (S2) that mean interaction (L2S2) significantly gave the highest plant height of 64.55 and 83,42 cm and the highest stem diameter of 0,26 and 0,41 cm and the highest leaf dry percentage of 40,14 and 42,41% and the highest leaf content of chlorophyll of 41,93 43,98 SPAD unit and the highest leaf content of sulphur of 0,23 and 0,24% and the highest leaf content of nitrogen of 1,24 and1,31% for two season respectively , while the lowest value of these parameters were found in the control (L0S0) treatment .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Fruit Characters Study of some mandarin varieties and hybrid cultivated in Iraq
دراسة الصفات الثمرية لبعض أصناف وهجن اللالنكي المزروعة في العراق

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out during the growing season 2010 and 2011on different trees Mandarin in vineyard at AL-Doura region . This study was aimed to get the best chemical and physical characteristics of the mandarin fruits. The results showed superiority of Temple in fruit weight and Juice fruit Juice weight which gives highest weight (85.20 and 162.00) gm respectively ,while Willowleaf Mandarin variety gave the lowest weights fruit (77.90)gm ,While Tangelo hybrid gave the lowest weights Juice fruit (29.80)gm .The fruit skin thickness were significant different, the Satsuma var. gave highest thickness reached (0.57cm), While the Forgen variety gave lowest values (0.23cm) .For the seeds numbers the Fairchild(2) had highest number of seed values (27.61) seed/fruit ,While Satsuma Mandarin variety acheived the lowest average values are (0.90)seed/fruit. Concerning the chemical characters(Total soluble solids ,Total acidity and fruit content of Vitamin C),The Fairchild significant gave the highest TSS values (14.20%),While Satsuma Mandarin variety gave the less percentage (9.10%).The Forgen variety had superiority when it gave the highest percentage of acidity with (2.10%),While Mandarin (61)var.less acidity percentage (0.95%). Tample variety gave highest fruit content of Vitamin C to (47.40)mg/100ml juice,While Satsuma Mandarin variety gave less content of Vitamin C to (20) mg/100ml juice

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SULPHUR , PHOSPHORUS APPPLICATION AND GIBBERELLIC ACID SPRAY ON SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH PARAMETERES OF DIXIRED PEACH TRANSPLANTS
تأثير إضافة الكبريت والفسفور والرش بحامض الجبرليك في بعض صفات النمو الخضري لشتلات الخوخ صنف Dixired

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الخلاصة

Dixired peach transplants which were budded on peach seedling rootstock and planted on black polyethylene bags containing 9 Kg soil , fertilized with three levels of sulphur ( 0 , 250 and 500 mg. S Kg-1soil ) and phosphorus ( 0 , 15 and 30 mg P Kg-1 soil ) .The agriculture sulphur ( 95 % S ) and triple super phosphate ( 22 % P ) used as a sources for sulphur and phosphorus respectively , which were mixed with soil when the transplants planted in the bags at the 17th of febroury at both seasons . Transplants were sprayed with three levels of GA3 ( 0 , 15 and 30 mg. GA3 L-1 ) twice at both seasons , first spray was after 45 days from full buds burst , while the second was after one month from the first spray . Results indicated that application of sulphur , phosphorus and GA3 each alone and all interactions among them , significantly increased leaves chlorophyll and carbohydrate concentrations , transplantes leaf area , transplantes height and its main steam diameter at both seasons ( except the effect of GA3 on main stem diameter in the second season , the differences between the treatments was unsignificant ) . The treatment of 500 mg. S Kg-1 soil + 30 mg. P Kg-1 soil + 30 mg. GA3 L-1. was the best . The means of leaves chlorophyll , transplantes leaves area , carbohydrate , transplantes height and main steam diameter in this treatment was 13.68 mg . gr-1 fresh weight , 1220.3 cm2. transplant-1 , 12.21 % , 110.53 cm and 7.20 mm. in the first season , and 16.23 mg . gr-1 fresh weight, 1419.7 cm2. transplant-1 , 13.49 % , 106.00 cm and 7.07 mm. in the second season .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF FOLIARUREA AND CHELATED IRON ON GROWTHOF WASHINGTONIA SEEDLINGS
تأثير الرش باليوريا والحديد المخلبي في نمو شتلات نخيل الواشنطونيا filiferaWashingtonia

المؤلفون: ابتهاج حنظل التميمي
الصفحات: 100-106
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الخلاصة

Experiment was conducted in wood shed of agriculture college - Basrah university - Iraq to study the effect of three average of urea (0 , 50 , 100)mg /L/seedlings/year and three average of iron (0 ,25 , 50)mg /L/seedlings/year , and their interactions on physical and chemical of Washingtonian seedlings . Results indicated that . Interaction between urea and iron had significant effects in the number of leaf and area of leaf , the treatment(100mg urea/L +50mg Fe/L) gave higher average of( number of leaf( 9.00) and area of leaf( 0.229.20cm²). compared with other treatments .Results showed the interaction between urea and iron treatment(100mg urea/L +50mg Fe/L) had significant effects in increasing leaves content of chlorophyll 0.1769% and leaves content of protein( 6.125%)but leaves content of carbohydrate 2.613% resulted by the treatment ( 50 mg urea+50 mg iron)L compared with other treatments.

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Article
Effect of some treatments with sea weed extract (ultra klep - 40) and roots pruning on root and shoot system properties of grape hybrid seedless produced from Thompson seedless x Abbassi .CV.
تأثير بعض المعاملات بمستخلص الأعشاب البحرية Ultra klep-40 و تقليم الجذور في صفات المجموع الجذري و الخضري في هجين العنب العديم البذور المنتج من تضريب صنفي العنب (تومسن سيدلس x العباسي).

المؤلفون: جبار عباس حسن الدجيلي
الصفحات: 107-114
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الخلاصة

The experiment was carried out on the hybrid grape produced from (Thompson x Abassi) during 15/1/2010 - 30/12/2011 . Experiment with completely randomized block design (RCBD( with three replicates and three plants per replicate treatments were five as the following . Control (A) , root pruning (B) , dipped the root system (C) , Soak soil (D), and spray the foliar in 25/3/2010 (E). The experiment results was show that the pruning root system (B) was height significant superior in the number of root with one year old. Length and diameter compared with E treatment , while in two year old roots the D treatment was height significant in length , diameter (cm) and total fresh weight and dry weight root system. Stem length and cane diameter in the first year in E treatments was superior , while D treatment was height significant in cane diameter. In the second year the E treatment was superior in cane diameter, while the total fresh weight of the cane the D treatment was highly significant different. In the other side for N.P.K in the root the C treatment record height percentage in N in the root and cane system P element was superior in A in the root , but E treatment was height in the cane while K was height in the B treatment in the root and cane system .We recommended to pruning the root system before planting and spray the foliar or soak soil with sea weed extract (ultra kelp-40) . to increase the growth in plant and stress .

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Article
Effect of Brassinolide ,Cytokinin and Auxins on In Vitro propagation of Citrus Rootstock ( Troyer Citrang )
تأثيرالبراسينولايد والسايتوكاينين والاوكسينات في إكثار أصل الحمضيات التروير سترانج خارج الجسم الحي

المؤلفون: محمد شهاب حمد --- ميادة طارق الجبوري
الصفحات: 115-122
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الخلاصة

A study on in vitro micropropagation of a citrus Rootstock Troyer Citrange Was Conducted at the tissue culture lab.located in postgraduate building /Collage of Agric./Uni.of Baghdad from September 2010 till August 2011. Single nodal segment or terminal shoots were explanted on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators( Brassinolide ,Cytokinin and Auxins ). The aims of the study were increasing number and length of shoots , rooting and plantlet acclimatization . Results showed that 3% of NaOCl was the best for explant disinfestation only 25% of explants were contaminated .Although 4.5 or6.0 %of NaOCl gave 100% disinfestation ،the concentrations were poisonous. Single nodal segments responded better than terminal shoots. In the establishment stage. MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg / L BA + 0.2mg / L IAA was superior on shoot multiplication ( 5.30 shoots / explant) . While MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg / L NAA + 0.096 mg / L BL. was more effective on root number 4.89 roots / explant .Most plantlets 90% were acclimatized when cultured on soil consisted of 1 : 1 sand : peatmoss. *Part of M. Sc.thesis of the second author

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Article
Effect of liquorices root, garlic, and onion extract on growth and yield of three potato varieties ( Solanum tuberosum L.)
تأثير مستخلصات عرق السوس والثوم والبصل في نمو وحاصل ثلاثة أصناف من البطاطا (Solanum tuberosum L.)

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted in vegetable crops farm of plant production department in Technical Agricultural College /Mosul during spring season 2012 to study the effect of three plant extracts (liquorices root extract 4 gr./L. conc. garlic extract 40 gr./L. conc. and onion extract 40 gr./L. conc. ) in growth, and yield of three variety of potato( Alaska ,Santa, and Niktard.The experiment conducted in Factorial experiment in RBCD with three replicates. The results indicated that Niktard variety superior the other two variety in growth characteristic ( plant length , stem number, fresh and dry weight per plant and plant leaf erea ) and yield characteristic (tuber weight 50.52 gr., plant yield 415.9 gr. total yield 4159 Kg/ Donum and marketable yield 4113 Kg/Donum ) . Spraying the plants by liquorices and garlic extract caused a significant increased in some growth characters ( fresh, dry weight per plant and plant leaf area) and yield characters ( tuber weight ,plant yield and total yield ) compared with spray onion extract and control treatment

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Article
Effect of stratification and seaweed extract on peach seed germination and seedling growth(Prunus persica L.)
تأثير التنضيد ومستخلص الأعشاب البحرية على أنبات بذور الخوخ الصوفي ونمو البادرات Prunus persica L

المؤلفون: سوزان محمد خضير
الصفحات: 129-135
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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted in lath house at the college of Agriculture ,Kerbala University during the growing season of 2012 to study the effect of stratification and seaweed extract on peach seed germination and seeding growth. Three replicates were used for each treatment .The stratification was used at three levels 0,30,45 day and three levels of seaweed extract 0,150,300 ml/L . The seeds were stratification at two intervals ,1/1/2012 and 15/1/2012 and planted at 15/12/2012 .Germination results were recorded after 60 days vegetative growth characters were measured after 60 days from planting time at 15/4/2012 .The experiment was conducted according to the completely Randomized Desgin(C.R.D).and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was based on the least significant difference (P=0.05). Results showed that :- 1- seed stratification for 45 day significantly surpassed all other treatments regarding all studied growth characters (seeds germination ,length of seedling ,stem diameter , number of leaves , rate leaf area and chlorophyll content in leaves) , at this treatment reached 86.7,26.4cm/seedling,2.2mm,27.3leaf/seedling,9.9cm²/seedling and 34.0SPAD repectively 2- Seed treated with 300 ml/L seaweed concentration significantly surpassed all other concentrations regarding all studied growth characters (seed germination , length of seedling, stem diameter, number of leaves, rate leaf area and chlorophyll content in leaves),at this concentration reached 57.8,17.8cm/seedling, 1.4mm, 17.3 leaf/seedling, 6.4 cm²/seedling and 22.9 SPAD respectively. 3- The interaction between stratification and seaweed extract had significant effects on the most characters of growth including seed germination , length of seedling, stem diameter , number of leaves and rate leaf area, however , the only no significant effect of this interaction was notice on chlorophyll content of leaves.

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Article
Effect foliar organic acids and EM1biofertilizer in growth of broad bean with application organic fertilizer and without application
تأثير الرش بالأحماض العضوية والمخصب الحيوي 1EM في نمو الباقلاء بإضافة أرضية للسماد العضوي وعدم الإضافة

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الخلاصة

Our experiment was achieved by using pots contain 20 kg of loam slit clay soil collected from one plantation located in Al- Talea’a district, Babylon province. Effect of spray of foliar organic acid (Fulvic +Humic) and bio-fertilizer (EM1) was studied in growth of cultivar Spain and winter season of 2011, Luz-be-otono broad bean. Both experiment included spray of (Fulvic +Humic), (EM1) and EM1+ (Fulvic +Humic) and control with or without10 ton. ha-1 of organic fertilizer (Orgno Fert) as design (CRD). After flowering the growth features, height of plant, dry yield and nitrogen concentration were estimated. LSD showed superiority of mixed spray (dual) treatment for both practice followed by EM1 and organic acids respectively compared with control. All growth features of application of organic fertilizer were increased comparing with absent experiment (12, 14, 14 and 21) % to the plant height of estimation treatment, spray by organic acids, bio-fertilizer and (bio-fertilizer + organic acids) respectively and 14, 10, 5 and 8.5 of dry substance as previous treatments.

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Article
Effect of foliar application of urea and potassium chloride on flowering characters and concentration of auxins and gibberellins in flowers and fruits of jujube Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. cv. Tufahi
تأثير الرش باليوريا وكلوريد البوتاسيوم في المؤشرات الزهرية وتركيز اشباه الاوكسينات والجبرلينات في أزهار وثمار السدر Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. صنف تفاحي

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الخلاصة

The present study was conducted on 12 years old jujube trees Ziziphus maurtitiana Lam., cv. Tufahi which were grown in a private orchard situated at Al-Hartha District. Basrah Governorate during the growing season of 2009 to investigate effects of spraying urea fertilizer at concentrations of 0%, 1% and 2% and potassium chloride fertilizer at concentrations of 0%, 0.5% and 1% and their combinations on flowering characters and concentrations of auxins and gibberellins like substances in flowers and fruits. The trees were sprayed three times on 15th and 30th August and 15th September 2009. Results showed that treatment of 2% urea recorded significant increases in flowering shoot length , number of leaves per flowering shoot, number of flower per inflorescence and concentration of gibberellins like substances in fruit. Treatment of 1% urea gave significant increases in fruit set and concentration of auxins like substances in fruit whereas treatment of 0% urea recorded significant increase in flower drop percentage. Treatment of 1% kCl recorded significant increases in flowering shoot length, number of leaves and inflorescences per flowering shoot, concentration of auxins and gibberellins like substances in fruit. The combination treatments of 2% urea and 0% kCl gave significant increases in flowering shoot length and number of flowers per inflorescence whereas treatment of 2% urea and 1% kcl significantly increased number of inflorescences per flowering shoot and concentration of gibberellins like substances in fruit. Treatment of 0% urea and 1% kCl significantly increased number of leaves per flowering shoot and concentration of auxins like substances in fruit whereas treatment of 1% urea and 0.5% kCl increased percentage of fruit set significantly. Treatment of 0% urea and 0% kCl had the highest percentage of flower drop. Anthesis stage had significant increase in concentration of auxins like substances in fruit whereas period of one week after fruit set had significant increase in concentration of gibberellins like substances in fruit. The tri-combination of 0% urea and 1% kCl and period of one week after fruit set had the highest concentration of auxins like substances in fruit whereas that of 2% urea and 1%kCl and period of one week after fruit set recorded the highest concentration of gibberellins like substances in fruit.


Article
EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND CYCOCEL AND ADDITION SYSTEM ON VEGTEATION CHARACTERS OF ALOE VERA
تأثير النتروجين والسايكوسيل وطريقة الاضافة في صفات النمو الخضري لنبات الصبار L. Aloe vera

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted in the lath house in the Department of Horticulture . College of Agriculture,University of Baghdad. Seedlings one and half year of Aloe vera plant were planted in plastic pots filled with sandyloam soil. The research contained two separate experiment. In the first experiments, nitrogen fertilizer was used as urea CO(NH2)2 46% applied to the soil at a rate of:0,0.5,1.0,1.5 g/ plant or as afoliar spray at a rate of :0,1,2,3 g / L. Second experiment was used to study namber of sprays of cycocel at a rate of (0,500,1000,1500) mg./L The experimental results showed that nitrogen at the rate of 3 g / L. significantly increased in the character of the number of leaves and the width and thickness securities amounted to 2.500, 3.190 mm, 2.49 mm and the treatment of spray concentration 2gm nitrogen in plant height and treatment fertilization 0.5 gm nitrogen in the percentage of carbohydrates and the treatment of spraying N1 in the percentage of carbohydrates and chlorophyll in the leaves. Twice Foliar spray with cycocel at the rate of 1500 mg / L significanty increased the percentage of N in the leaves for 2009 season and total charbohydrates in the leaves for 2010 season . Foliar spray with cycocel at the rate of 500 mg / L four times in the season increased the percentage of potassium in the leaves for both season,while foliar spray with 1000 mg / L cycocel applied four times significantly increased the percentage of total charbohydrates and phousphors for 2010 season.

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Article
Effect of Some Antioxidants, Auxins and Explants Type on Callus Initiation of Date palm cv. Bream
تأثير بعض مضادات الاكسدة والاوكسينات ونوع الجزء النباتي في نشوء الكالس لنخيل التمر صنف بريم خارج الجسم الحي

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الخلاصة

This research was implemented in order to study some factors affecting callus initiation of date palm cv. Bream. Four explants; shoot tips, leaf primordia, axillary buds and mantel meriestems were used as an explants. To overcome browning, citric and ascorbic acids, as antioxidents and adsorbents including activated charcoal and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) sterilized by autoclave or microfiltration were used. In the initiation stage, the effect of three plant growth regulators 2,4- Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (Picloram) on callus induction from the four types of explants was studied using various concentrations (0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/L). Supplementation of 50 mg/l of each citric and ascorbic acid to the nutrient medium reduced of total soluble phenols to 0.009 mg/g of fresh weight . Results showed that the highest percentage of callus induction (53.12%) was obtained with MS medium supplemented 50mg/l picloram compared, with other auxins NAA and 2,4-D which were 37.5% and 28.12% respectively at the same concentration. Best explants response for callus induction were shoot tips (87.5%) compared with other. Picloram reduced the period required for callus induction 40 days compared with other auxins which was 63 days for 2,4-D and 59 days for NAA. Accordingly, these results can be adopted in the in vitro micropropagation protocols of date palm cv. Bream.

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Article
Effect of cutting diameter and length on seedling growth of pomegranate variety salemy
تأثير قطر وطول العقل في نمو شتلات الرمان صنف (سليمي)

المؤلفون: سعد شاكر جواد
الصفحات: 168-172
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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted at the Hindia Hort. Station/ Kerbala - The general company for Hort. and Forestry, during the period from 15/1/2011 to 25/10/2011. to find out the effect of cutting diameter ( 0.5, 1 and 1.5) cm and cutting length ( 10, 20 and 30) cm factorial experiment in ( RCBD ) replicated 3 times. Diameter significantly effect ( 1.5 cm ) on the percentage of the number of cutting produced branches per cutting / and the mean of diameter of the main stem of the seeding (90.90%, 6.82, 12.49 mm) respectively compared to (0.5)cm (71.40%, 4.28, 7.80mm) respectively. Length of the cutting significantly effect (30)cm all characters studied. (84.59%, 7.13, 12.18mm ) respectively compared of ( 10 )cm ( 77.74%, 4.12, 8.21mm ) respectively. the result also showed a significant interaction diameter (1.5 )cm and length ( 30 )cm gave significant effect on all characteristic studied.

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Article
Response of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss .to Plant Spacing and Spraying with Salicylic acid and their Effects on Growth and Seed Yield and its Content of Fixed Oil
استجابة نبات الخردل الهندي Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss. لمسافة الزراعة والرش بحامض السالسليك وأثرهما في النمو وحاصل البذور و الزيت الثابت

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الخلاصة

Two field experiments were conducted during the growing seasons of 2009/ 2010 and 2010/2011 in private orchard at Abu Al- Khaseeb district, Basrah to study the effect of plant spacing and spraying with salicylic acid and on growth and yield of Indian mustard plant Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss . The study included nine factorial treatments, which were the combinations of three plant spacing 30, 45 or 60 cm and concentrations of salicylic acid 0, 35 or 70 mg/l. A complete randomized block design in a factorial experiment was used with three replicates. Treatment means were compared according Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 0.05 levels. The most important results may be summarized as follows:- Plants cultivated at 60 cm a part had a significantly higher vegetative growth parameters, as well as number of inflorescences per plant, and yield parameters (sequel weight were 0.215, 0.216g, total sequels yield/ plant were 184.6 and 192.6 g and total seed yield 104.8 and 110.6 g and weight of 1000 seeds7.1 and 8.3g). Plants cultivated at 30 cm a part showed an early appearance of the first inflorescences, as well as productivity per hectare of seeds (3.564 and 3.882 tons) and total oil yield (808.0 and 1132.0 kg per hectare ) for both growing seasons respectively. Plants sprayed with SA at 70 mg l-1 had a significantly higher vegetative growth parameters, as well as appearance of the first inflorescences, the total number of inflorescence/ plant and all yield parameters (sequel weight, total sequels yield/ plant, total seed yield, weight of 1000 seed as well as productivity per hectare of seeds) were 0.213 and 0.216g, 173.7 and 173.7g, 97.7 and 103.9g, 6.9 and 8.4g and 3.334, 3.530 tons for both growing seasons respectively, as well as oil percentage, total oil yield/ plant and productivity per hectare of oil were 25.6 and 32.5%, 25.9 and 34.3g and 868,1156kg respectively. The Interactions between the study factors, showed a significant effect in all studied parameters.

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Article
EFFECT OF SHADING LEVEL AND IRRIGATION WITH MAGNETIZED WATER ON GROWTH OF OLIVE TREES (NABALI, KHODEIRI) CVS.
تأثير مستويات الظل والري بالماء الممغنط في نمو شتلات الزيتون صنفي (نبالي و خضيري)

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted in the lath house of Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during fourteen months begins from 1/4/2009 to 1/7/2010, to investigated effect of shading in three levels (0, 25, 50) %, The second factor was irrigation with (tap water only 0 gauss, magnetized tap water 4800 gauss) on two cultivars of olive (Nabali, Khodeiri). The experiment was designed as nested with three factors, four replicates, means of experimental results were compared using LSD at 5% level using genstat computer programme. Using 192 uniform olive plants of one year old for two cultivars. The results showed that the level 50% of shading enhanced the following adjectives (length of shoot, leaf area) the results reaches (37.8cm, 926.5cm2) alternatively .While the levels 25% of shading increased (Number of shoot, Stem dia.) their results reached (14.28shoot/plant, 1.027cm) alternatively. the plants irrigated with magnetized tap water (4800 gauss) gave highest (length of shoot) reached (34.92cm) . The treatment (25%shade+Tap water +Nabali) gave highest (number of shoot) reached (15.38shoot/plant). While the treatment (50%shade+Magnetized tap water+ Nabali) increase leaf area and length of shoot to reached (1058cm2 , 42.28cm) alternatively. and the treatment (25% shade+ Magnetized tap water+ Khodeiri ) gave highest stem dia. Reached (1.077cm).

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Article
Effect of Planting Date and The development Stage of Borage officinalis L. plant on growth and leaf content Of Total phenols
تأثير موعد الزراعةوالمرحلةالتطورية لنبات لسان الثور Borago officinalisL في النمو ومحتوى الأوراق من الفينولات الكلية

المؤلفون: ساجد عودة محمد
الصفحات: 193-198
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الخلاصة

Field Experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Unit, College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad for the During 2011 – 2012 season to study the effect of the planting date (30-12-2011 and 15-1-2012) The plants were harves to 1 the development stages: (beging Flowering , full bloom and seed formation) in the growth indicators (plant height (cm), number of branches Vegetative plant, number of leaves, leaf area (Dcm 2 / plant), dry weight (g / plant, leaf content of total phenols (mg / g),harve been examined in split plot design whith herves, the first date of planting Each growth and the content of leafs of total phenols and excelled evolutionary stage when Moral formation of seeds from the rest of the stages in the above indicators, and recorded the treatment of overlap for an appointment The first study of the evolutionary stage of the plant when you configure the highest seed in all Indicators measured (138.9 (cm), 10, 303 / plant, 268.44) creamy 2 / plant), 214.61 (g Plant), 0.800 (mg / g), we conclude from this study that the best time for planting of borage plant its. First date (30-12-2011) and the best vegetative growth measurements were obtained at the stage of formation Seeds.


Article
Effects of nitrogen and patassium fertilizers on the Same Quantitative and the qualitative and nutrients content for date palm cv. Khyara Planted in Gypsifrious Soil
تأثيرالتسميد النايتروجيني والبوتاسي في بعض الصفات الكمية والنوعية ومحتوى الوريقات من المغذيات لنخلة التمر صنف خياره النامية في الترب الجبسية

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted during the growing season 2011 in AL-Falluja date palm research station province fellow general date board/Ministry of Agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of the Nitrogen and potassium Fertilizers treatments on fruit characters (weight, length, diameter, volume , weight ,length, width seed and nutrients contents (leaves nitrogen content, carbohydrate, potassium ) on Khyara date palm at eight years age.Experiment was include four Nitrogen fertilizers levels (0 ,300 ,600, 900) g/tree , and four Patassium fertilizers levels (0, 200, 400, 600)g/tree .The experimental results showed : Nitrogen fertilizers level (900) g/tree was significantly on effect weight, length, diameter, volume , and (protein , Tannins content) and weight ,length, width seed and nutrients contents (leaves nitrogen content, carbohydrate, potassium )given highest weight fruit and total yield rates were 19.08 g/fruit , 53.75 kg/tree respectively . Than the control treatment losses average all parameter mentioned,gave weight fruit and total yield rates were 15.25g ,42.25 kg/tree respectively. Patassium fertilizers level (600) g/tree (K3) was significantly on effect highest superior in all parameter mentioned given total yield rate was (56.42) kg/tree, Than the control treatment losses all parameter mentioned given total yield rate was 41.58 kg/tree , The interaction between nitrogen fertilizer and the patassium fertilizer showed significant effect on highest superior in all parameter mentioned.The (N3K3) given highest on the yield total, These rate was, (61.67) kg/tree ,The control treatment given the losses average parameter mentioned. given yield total rate was 31.67 kg/tree.The content tannins fruit ,the treatment (N3) given losses average tannins content thase rate was 0.24% ,While the control treatment given highest . These rates was 0.30 % .The treatment (K3)given losses tannins content rate 0.25 % ,while control treatment given highest rate 0.29 %. The interaction (N3K3) treatment given loss tannins content rate 0.22% ,Than Than the control treatment highest given tannins content rate 0.35%

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Article
Detection of the genetic stability for the tissue tomato plants by using RAPD technique
تحديد الثبات الوراثي لنباتات الطماطة النسيجية باستخدام تقانة RAPD

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الخلاصة

The Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to confirm the genetic stability for two hybrids of tomato: Shorouk and GS-12 produced from plant tissue culture which produced from synthetic seeds were selected and randomly assigned to three treatments as well as the control treatment which included plantlets developing from the tomato seeds planted on the sterile filter paper and moisturized with sterile distilled water. RAPD-PCR analysis using 5 universal primers were performed on DNA extraction from the fresh healthy leaves of the mother plants and from samples randomly taken plantlets derived from tissue culture for both tomato hybrids. Results have been obtained by using the primer OPC-O3 which elect out of five primers confirmed the resemblance among the tissue culture seedlings which grown from synseeds (synthetic seeds) as well as with those grown from natural seeds, furthermore RAPD appears to be an efficient technique and a simple fast DNA marker for the early detection of genetic variation in plants produced by tissue culture technique.

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Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF ROCK DOVE MANURE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF CUCUMBER ( Cucumis sativus L. ) INTER UNHEATED PLASTIC HOUSES
تأثير تراكيز مختلفة من محلول زرق الحمام في نمو وحاصل الخيار الانثوي الهجين Cucumis sativus L. ) ( المزروع داخل البيوت البلاستيكية غير المدفأة

المؤلفون: حسين جواد محرم البياتي
الصفحات: 218-224
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted during spring growing season 2012 in the one of unheated plastic house at the faculity of Agriculture and Forestry , Mosul Universty , to study the effect of different organic manures (Roct Dove manure ) on vegetative growth and quantity , quality yield of cucumber hybrid F1 of Sayff variety, the Roct Dove manure treatmend which used in this study : Chemical fertilizer ( Control ), and fife concentration of Roct Dove manure ( 10 gm L , 20 gm L , 30 gm L , 40 gm L , 50 gm L ) ,this experiment was conducted in the field in Randomized Complet Block Design ( RCBD ) with tree replicated . The results could be summarized as following : The leaf number per plant , yield per plant , fruit length and diameter fruit unsignificantly effected when used Rock Dove manure , but the 50 gm L of this manure significantly effect in plant length , branch number per plant , dry weight per plant , fruit number per plant , total and marketable fruits yield and early yield per plastic house ( 500m² ) compared with chemical fertilizer treatment , while this increasing unsignificantly between the treatments of Rock Dove manure which used in this study in characteristics .


Article
Effect of some plant growth regulator on some physiological and chemical characteristics on sour orange Citrus aurantium L.
تأثير بعض منظمات النمو النباتية في بعض الصفات الفيزيائية والكيميائية لشتلات النارنج Citrus aurantium L

المؤلفون: عقيل هادي عبد الواحد --- رواء هاشم
الصفحات: 235-238
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in the Lath house, Department of Horticulture University of Basrah during the growing season (2012) to investigate the effect of plant growth regulator (Malic hydrzied MH, Naphthalene acetic acid NAA and Salicylic acid SA) at 100ppm, on vegetative growth of young sour orange, the experiment design RCBD were adopted. This study was determine some vegetative characteristics (Plant height ,leaf number ,leaf area ,stem diameter ,fresh and dry weight of leaves, secondary branch tall), and some chemical characteristics on leaves ( soluble protein, Total soluble carbohydrates and total chlorophylls). The results were shows the Exogenous treatment with NAA at concentration of 100 mg/L caused a significant increase in plant height (94cm) which no significant effect with MH, whereas NAA had a significant effect on number of leaves(34 leafes) then SA treatment, however the diameter of stem reached 1.4 cm at NAA treatment then MH. The NAA treatment had higher significantly concentration of soluble carbohydrates, soluble protein and total chlorophylls (140.4,73.6 47.7)mg/g respectively

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Article
Effect of Some Organic Compounds and Benzyle Adenine on Growth, and flowering of Olive (Olea europaea L.) CV. Bashikey
دراسة تأثير بعض المواد العضوية والبنزايل ادينين في النمو الخضري والزهري للزيتون Olea europaea L صنف بعشيقي

المؤلفون: منى حسين شريف --- احسان عبد الوهاب شاكر
الصفحات: 239-250
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الخلاصة

The research was conducted in a private orchard in fadhiliya village, located15km. east of Mosul city, during2009- 2011 seasons to study the Effect of Some Organic compounds and application dates on growth and flowering of Olive (Olea europaea L.) CV. Bashikey. The study consist three replicates in a factorial experiment by using complete randomized design (C.R.D.), and the means compared by using least significant difference (L.S.D.) at 0.05% probability level. The most important results were as follows: Spraying with Sea force1 extract in resulted in superiority in leaf area,and chlorophyll A. Humus addition resulted in a significant increase in leaf area, chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B. Also 50 mg./L of Benzyl Adenine treatment was superior in leaf area, chlorophyll B and total chlorophyll in the second season. Interaction between Sea force1 and Hurnus + Benzyl Adenine gave a significant increase in new shoot number and chlorophyll A, whereas, the increase was in the leaf area, chlorophyll A, also interaction with Benzyl Adenine was superior significantly chlorophyll B. spraying with Sea force1 extract increased flowers numbers, and 2 ml/1 of Sea force1 extract reduced fruits drop. Humus addition, reduced fruits drop at the concentration 6 ml/1. Interaction between Sea force1 and Humus + Benzyl Adenine caused in a significant increase in flower numbers, while fruit set increased during the season, and interaction of 2 ml Sea force1 + 6 ml/1 Humus reduced fruit drop at the seasons.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Pruning role and growth retardant (Cultar) in some vegetative and flowering characteristics in apricot trees cv.Zaini
دور التقليم والمعوق Cultar في بعض الصفات الخضرية والزهرية لأشجار المشمش صنف زيني

المؤلفون: نجم عبود جاسم --- عيادة عداي عبيد
الصفحات: 251-259
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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted in apricot orchard ,Dep . of Horticulture , College of Agriculture , University of Baghdad ,Abu Ghraib . during the growing seasons of 2005 and 2006 . Apricot trees Prunus armeniaca L. cv.Zaini one year old were used , This study included two factors ; pruning (t) and growth retardant (Cultar) . The first factor five levels were used, without pruning (t0) , Keep four side branches distributed evenly around the tree and the dimensions of 20 - 25 cm between the branch and another on modified central leader training system (t1) , Keep four side branches distributed bunk and a distance of 40 cm between the floor and another on the palmar training system (t2) , Keep three side branches distributed evenly around the tree and the dimensions of 30 cm between the branch and another in modified central leader training system (t3) and Keep the two branches and in opposite directions and at a height of 60 cm from the surface of the earth (according to V-system) (t4) and four levels of growth retardant (Cultar) were used , 0 (pb0) , 500 mg.L (pb1) , 750 mg.L (pb2) and 1000 mg.L (pb3) . Each treatment replicated four times with a factorial experiment using RCBD. The number of trees used were 80 trees . The experimental results showed that pruning at level (t0) and growth retardant at level pb3 (t0pb3) significantly gave the highest branches content of carbohydrates of 5,95 % and the highest C/N ratio in branches of 8,8806 % and the highest percentage of floral buds / vegetative buds of 1,4575 % and highest fruit set of 8,275 % . it could be concluded of this experiment that the growth retardant at level pb3 and no pruning treatments improved vegetative and floral characteristics in apricot trees cv . Zaini .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Pruning role and growth retardant (Cultar) in some vegetative and flowering characteristics in apricot trees cv.Zaini
دور التقليم والمعوق Cultar في بعض الصفات الخضرية والزهرية لأشجار المشمش صنف زيني

المؤلفون: نجم عبود جاسم --- عيادة عداي عبيد
الصفحات: 251-259
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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted in apricot orchard ,Dep . of Horticulture , College of Agriculture , University of Baghdad ,Abu Ghraib . during the growing seasons of 2005 and 2006 . Apricot trees Prunus armeniaca L. cv.Zaini one year old were used , This study included two factors ; pruning (t) and growth retardant (Cultar) . The first factor five levels were used, without pruning (t0) , Keep four side branches distributed evenly around the tree and the dimensions of 20 - 25 cm between the branch and another on modified central leader training system (t1) , Keep four side branches distributed bunk and a distance of 40 cm between the floor and another on the palmar training system (t2) , Keep three side branches distributed evenly around the tree and the dimensions of 30 cm between the branch and another in modified central leader training system (t3) and Keep the two branches and in opposite directions and at a height of 60 cm from the surface of the earth (according to V-system) (t4) and four levels of growth retardant (Cultar) were used , 0 (pb0) , 500 mg.L (pb1) , 750 mg.L (pb2) and 1000 mg.L (pb3) . Each treatment replicated four times with a factorial experiment using RCBD. The number of trees used were 80 trees . The experimental results showed that pruning at level (t0) and growth retardant at level pb3 (t0pb3) significantly gave the highest branches content of carbohydrates of 5,95 % and the highest C/N ratio in branches of 8,8806 % and the highest percentage of floral buds / vegetative buds of 1,4575 % and highest fruit set of 8,275 % . it could be concluded of this experiment that the growth retardant at level pb3 and no pruning treatments improved vegetative and floral characteristics in apricot trees cv . Zaini .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EVALUATION OF SNAPDRAGON Antirrhinum majus L. INFLORESCENCE PRODUCTION UNDER PLASTIC HOUSE AT MOSUL LOCATION.
تقييم إنتاج نورات حلق السبع Antirrhinum majus L. تحت ظروف البيت البلاستيكي في منطقة الموصل.

المؤلفون: عمار عمر الأطرقجي --- آلاء محمد نجم بركات
الصفحات: 255-234
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الخلاصة

The study was carried out in Horticulture and Landscape Department field, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, between 25 October 2009 to 1 July 2010, to study the effect of three Agricultural factors on growth and flowering snapdragon plants Antirrhinum majus cv "Potomac yellow" yellow flower, planted under partially heated plastic house. The experiment involved study: First three planting dates: 25 October, 18 November and 14 December, the second: Pinching at three type include: no Pinch, Single pinch for main stem only and double pinch for main stem and shoots, the third factor was spraying plants with Phenylalanine at 0 , 75 , and 150 mg/ liter. The results indicates: The study succeeded in production of snapdragon inflorescence from 22 March to 20 June when Planting done under partially heated plastic house in Mosul location, but with some differences in inflorescence quality. Planting at 25 October gave significantly best results for most characters studied including: the time from transplanting to the inflorescence cutting and total inflorescence length compared with values obtained from planting in 18 November and December. The results showed that leaving plants without pinching gave best results of total inflorescence length 58,51 cm compared with double pinching. In general, planting in 25 October with double pinching and spraying with 150 mg Phenylalanine/ liter gave significant best result of total inflorescence length 75,65cm .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of foliar spraying of potassium chloride on some vegetative characteristics and leaves contents of carbohydrates and nitrogen of mango Mangifera indica L.
تأثير الرش بكلوريد البوتاسيوم في بعض الصفات الخضرية والكيميائية لشتلات المانكو Mangifera indica L.

المؤلفون: رواء هاشم حسون --- عقيل هادي عبد الواحد
الصفحات: 260-263
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in the Lath house , Department of Horticulture University of Basrah, to investigate the Effect of potassium chloride spraying on some vegetative characteristics and leaves contents of carbohydrates and nitrogen on mango, the plants were sprayed with three concentration of KCl (0 ,0.5 and 1%) twice, the first at 3/5/2012 and the second treatment after two weeks, The result showed the KCl was given a significant effect at 1% concentration at most vegetative characteristics, plant tall, the main and secondary branch, leaf area and number of leaves which reach (79.8cm, 46.2cm, 36.00cm2 and 26.00 leaves) respectively. The KCl treatment at 1% recorded a highest significant mean in carbohydrates, nitrogen and protein contents at leaves and C/N ratio which reached (23.63 mg/g, 1.06% ,6.67% and 22.22) respectivlt.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Vitamins and IAA on in vitro Potato growth
تاثير بعض الفيتامينات والاحماض الامينية والاندول حامض الخليك على نمو صنفين البطاطا خارج الجسم الحي

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الخلاصة

To investigate the effects of vitamins, glycine and IAA on plantlets growth (plant , branch length and number/plant, leaf and cut number) in vitro, plantlets of Borine and Arnova cultivar s were treated in vitro with or without vitamins, glycine and IAA to the MS medium. Minituber yield parameters were evaluated at different concentration of Agar 0 and 0.8% (liquid or solid media respectively). The result showed that there is no significant differences between cultivars in all plantlets growth except cut numbers and from another hand the result revealed that adding vitamins , glycine and IAA did not affect in number and branch length/plant, leaf and cut number in tow cultivars. Minitubers yield did not affect with adding agar in each cultivars.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of spraying nutritional solution Foliartal and Licorice roots extract on growth and flowering of carnation plant Dianthus caryophyllus L.
تأثير رش المحلول المغذي Foliartalومستخلص جذور عرق السوس في نمو نبات القرنفلDianthus caryophyllus L.

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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted at the nursery of the College of Agriculture, Kufa University, Al Najaf Province , during the growing season 2011 - 2012 to study the effect of spraying nutritional solution Foliartal and Licorice root extract Glycyrriza glabra L on growth and flowering parameters of carnation plant Dianthus caryophyllus L. The experiment was adopting Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) in three replicates with tow factors; first factor implementing three concentration of nutritional solution Foliartal (0 , 1 and 2 Mg.L-1) and the second factor three concentration of Licorice root extract ( 0 , 2 and 4 Mg.L-1) and the interaction between the treatments. The mean were analyzed using L.S.D under probability level 0.05. The results showed that spraying nutritional solution Foliartal at concentration 2 Mg.L-1 or Licorice at concentration 4 Mg.L-1 improved vegetative and flowering parameters which increased significantly the following; plant height , number of leaves, shoot dry weight, leaf total chlorophyll an carbohydrates content , length of the longest root , root dry weight , number of flower and petals , diameter of flower and flower stalks and flower dry weight compared to the control treatment (sprayed with distilled water) which gave least values.. The interaction results showed that spraying with nutritional solution Foliartal at concentration 2 Mg. L-1 and Licorice roots extract at concentration 4 Mg. L -1 had a significant increase in all studied growth parameters; plant height, number of leaves , shoot dry weight, leaves total chlorophyll and carbohydrates content , length of the longest roots, root dry weight , number of flowers and petals , diameter of flower and flower stalk and flower dry weight . The number of flowers and petals , diameter of flower and flower stalk and flower dry weight gave 9.33 flower. plant -1 and 12.67 petals.Flower -1, 4.27 cm and 0.40 cm and 4.13 gm compared with the control treatment (sprayed with distilled water) which gave 5.00 flower.plant -1 and 8.00 petals. Flower -1, 1.33 cm and 0.12 cm and 1.20 gm respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF SUCROS AND PHENYLALANIN ON ACCUMALATION OF TROPANE ALKALOIDS IN BALLADONNA Atropa belladonna CALLUS IN VITRO
تأثير السكروز والفنيل الانين في تراكم قلويدات التروبان في كالس نبات البلادونا Atropa belladonna خارج الجسم الحي

المؤلفون: نورا جبر جاسم ألساعدي --- محمد شهاب حمد
الصفحات: 280-292
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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted at tissue culture lab .,Dept of Hort., College of Agriculture , University of Baghdad . during 2009-2010 . The study included effect of each sucrose and phenylalanine on fresh and dry weight of callus derived from shoot tip of belladonna and on accumulation of tropane alkaloid in callus which included (Atropine ,hyoscyamine , hyosine or scopolamine) . Results indicated the treatment 30 g.l-1 sucrose with 20 mg.l-1 phenylalanine gave the highest fresh and dry weight of callus (495.7 -52.4) mg respectively , while the treatment 60g.l-1 sucrose with 10mg.l-1 phenylalanine gave the highest concentration of Atropine and Hyoscyamine of (528.73 -70.29) µg.Gdw-1 respectively , while the treatment 60g.l-1 sucrose with 40mg.l-1 phenylalanine gave the lowest concentration of Atropine of 65.90 µg.Gdw-1 .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Supplementation Different Level of AL-jameed powder to the diet on some Productive and Physiological Performance of Broiler Chicken
تأثير إضافة مستويات مختلفة من مسحوق الجميد في الأداء الإنتاجي والفسلجي لفروج اللحم

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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted at the Poultry Farm ,College of Agriculture , University of Basra from 1/11/2011 to 5/12/2011, to study the effect of adding AL-Jameed powder to the diet on some productive and physiological parameter of broiler chickens. A total of 180 day- old chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments of AL-Jameed 0 , 0.5 , 1 and 1.5 % . Each treatment contains three replicate (15 birds / pen ) . The results revealed that the addition of AL-Jameed to the diet resulted in significant increase (P<0.05) in live body weight , total weight gain as compared with the control group at 21 and 35 days . Results indicated that there was no significant differences in total feed intake between all treatments , but feed conversion ratio was significant (P<0.05) improved for the chickens that received 0.5 , 1 and 1.5 % AL-Jameed powder as compared with control groups. Chickens received AL-Jameed powder had significant increase (P<0.05) in red blood cells counts , hemoglobin and packed cell volume , but total white blood cells counts was significant decreased (P<0.05) in these treatments compared with control. There was a significant declined in cholesterol level at 35 days of age in the birds that were fed 0.5 , 1 and 1.5 % AL-Jameed meal as compared with the control , but no significant differences in glucose , total protein , albumen , globulin levels and the activity of GPT and GOT enzymes in blood serum. The groups treated by different levels of AL-Jameed showed a significant increase (P<0.05) villus height , reduced crypt depth and villus raised villus height / crypt depth ratio compared to control treatment . It could be concluded from the result of this study that supplementary AL-Jameed powder have a beneficial effect on productive and physiological parameters for broiler chicken

الكلمات الدلالية

Broiler --- AL-Jameed powder --- productive and physiological parameter


Article
Effect of Supplementation Different Level of AL-jameed powder to the diet on some Productive and Physiological Performance of Broiler Chicken
تأثير إضافة مستويات مختلفة من مسحوق الجميد في الأداء الإنتاجي والفسلجي لفروج اللحم

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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted at the Poultry Farm ,College of Agriculture , University of Basra from 1/11/2011 to 5/12/2011, to study the effect of adding AL-Jameed powder to the diet on some productive and physiological parameter of broiler chickens. A total of 180 day- old chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments of AL-Jameed 0 , 0.5 , 1 and 1.5 % . Each treatment contains three replicate (15 birds / pen ) . The results revealed that the addition of AL-Jameed to the diet resulted in significant increase (P<0.05) in live body weight , total weight gain as compared with the control group at 21 and 35 days . Results indicated that there was no significant differences in total feed intake between all treatments , but feed conversion ratio was significant (P<0.05) improved for the chickens that received 0.5 , 1 and 1.5 % AL-Jameed powder as compared with control groups. Chickens received AL-Jameed powder had significant increase (P<0.05) in red blood cells counts , hemoglobin and packed cell volume , but total white blood cells counts was significant decreased (P<0.05) in these treatments compared with control. There was a significant declined in cholesterol level at 35 days of age in the birds that were fed 0.5 , 1 and 1.5 % AL-Jameed meal as compared with the control , but no significant differences in glucose , total protein , albumen , globulin levels and the activity of GPT and GOT enzymes in blood serum. The groups treated by different levels of AL-Jameed showed a significant increase (P<0.05) villus height , reduced crypt depth and villus raised villus height / crypt depth ratio compared to control treatment . It could be concluded from the result of this study that supplementary AL-Jameed powder have a beneficial effect on productive and physiological parameters for broiler chicken

الكلمات الدلالية

Broiler --- AL-Jameed powder --- productive and physiological parameter


Article
Effect of adding different levels of L - Carnitine to the diets of guinea fowls females on certain blood biochemistry traits
تأثير إضافة مستويات مختلفة من الكارنتين L – Carnitine إلى علائق إناث دجاج غينيا في بعض صفات الدم الكيمياحيوية

المؤلفون: حازم جبار الدراجي --- وليد خالد الحياني
الصفحات: 316-325
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at the Poultry Farm of Department of Animal Resource, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during the period from 15 / 2 / 2011 to 1 / 8 / 2011. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of carnitine on productive performance of guinea fowl. A total of 72 guinea fowl, 30 weeks of old were used in this study. Birds were randomly distributed into 4 treatment groups (C0, C100, C200, C300) which is added to the diets carnitine levels 0, 100, 200, 300 mg Carnitine / kg diet. Birds were fed during the whole period of birds rearing which lasted 22 weeks on diet contain 18.38 % crude protein and 2962.1 Kcal metabolic energy / Kg. L-carnitine was added to the diets of birds at the beginning of 34 weeks of birds age till the end of experiment which lasted 18 weeks including 2 weeks which considered as preliminary carnitine treatment period. Guinea fowl were reared during experimental period in separated cages. The resulted Showed significant improvement (P<0.05) or (P<0.01) in concentration of total protein and the activity of the enzyme ALP in the serum, and significant low in the concentrations of cholesterol and glucose and activity of the ALT and AST in favor of L - carnitine treatment when comparison with a control. Conclude from this study that the addition of carnitine to the diets of Guinea fowl is working to improve the blood biochemistry characteristics of these birds.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Garlic(Allium sativum) oil supplementation on some biochemical parameters and serum minerals of Awassi ewes
تأثير إضافة زيت الثوم Allium sativum oil في بعض المعايير الكيموحيوية ومعادن مصل دم النعاج العواسية

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of garlic oil supplementation on some serum biochemical parameters ,minerals and liver enzymes of Awassi ewes.Thirty Awassi ewes at same ages(2-3 years) and weights(56.1±4 kg.) were chosen randomly and divided into three equal groups(10 animal/group), and these groups were fed during matting season 2011 on the same basal ration and supplemented with 0.5 and 1 ml of garlic oil /animal/ day for ewes in second and third groups respectively, while first group was left as control without supplementation .At the end of mating season blood samples were collected form Jugglers vein from all ewes. The results indicated that values of cholesterol ,triglyceride and Alkaline Phosphate( ALP) were decreased significantly(P≤0.05) in blood serum of ewes in the 2nd and 3rd groups ,respectively as compared to 1st group. On the other hand the values of total protein , albumin ,globulin , urea, glucose , Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ,Aspartate aminotransferase(AST),phosphors, sodium, chlorine, magnesium and potassium were not significantly affected by supplemented of garlic oil to the basal rations.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effects of type of feed additives on some hematological and biochemical parameters of Sharabi native male calves
تأثير نوع المعززات الغذائية والعمر في بعض الصفات الدموية والكيموحيوية في دم العجول الشرابية

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted on 12 male Sharabi calves,10-12 months old with initial body weight 183±50 kg.were divided into three groups,fed on same basal ration but different in type of feed additive ,first treatment(T1= basal ration) , second treatment (T2= basal ration +25 g.of stymulan cattle / 100 kg.ration) and third treatment (T3= basal ration + 200 g. of Sorbotiol/ 100 kg.ration).and fed for 16 weeks,and study the effect of feed additives on some hematological & biochemical parameters .The results indicated that adding feed additives to second ration has significantly (P≤0.05) increased hemoglobin, red & white blood cell count, packed cell volume , lymphocyte cell percentages )as compared with other rations, also total protein, albumin, globulin were increased significantly (P≤0.05) , while cholesterol , triglycerides and urea were decreased significantly (P≤0.05) with adding feed additive to second and third treatments as compared to first treatment. Also hemoglobin, red & white blood cell count, packed cell volume , lymphocyte cell percentage , total protein, albumin, globulin and urea were increased significantly(P≤0.05) ,while the percentages of acidophile and netrophile, cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased significantly(P≤0.05)as animal get older .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
تأثير أحلال تفل التمر المضاف أليه الإنزيمات أو المعزز الحيوي المحضر محلياً أو كليهما محل الذرة الصفراء في علائق فروج اللحم في بعض صفات الدم

المؤلفون: جعفر محمد جاسم --- جبار طارش أحمد
الصفحات: 345-353
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الخلاصة

The present study were conducted in one of private sector poultry farms at Basra Province for the period from 1/3/2011 to 12/4/2011 , to evaluate the effect of replacement sputter dates with supplementation of enzymes or Iraqi probiotic or both instead of maize in broiler diets in some blood characteristics. A total 390 unsexed broiler chicks one day old Ross 308 strain were randomly allocated into 13 th treatments groups with three replicates per treatment, chicks in the treatment groups were fed on the following treatment diets . T1 = fed standard broiler diet of broiler ( used as control) . Replacement sputter dates instead of( 20,25,30) % of maize in treatments T2 , T3,T4 . Replacement sputter dates instead of (20 ,25 , 30)% of maize + 0.5 g enzymes mixture / kg fed in treatments T5,T6,T7. Replacement sputter dates instead of( 20,25,30) % of maize + 5 g Iraqi probiotic / kg fed in treatments T8,T9,T10. And replacement sputter dates instead of (20,25,30)% of maize + 0.5g enzymes mixture /kg fed + 5g Iraqi probiotic / kg fed in treatments T11,T12,T13 The results summarized as follows. There were significant increase (p<0.05) in concentration of total protein , glucose and concentration of (HDL). with significant decrease in concentration of Cholesterol, Triglyceride, (LDL), and (VLDL), in the groups birds which feeding on diets replacement sputter dates instead of (20,25,30) % of maize with added to it Iraqi probiotic alone or combination with the enzymes, comparison with concentration of this blood parameters in the other treatments

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effects of using different types of oils on some productive and physiological traits of broilers chicken
تأثير استخدام مستويات مختلفة من الزيوت في بعض الصفات الانتاجية والفسلجية لفروج اللحم

المؤلفون: عدنان نعمه الاسدي --- عقيل يوسف الشكري
الصفحات: 345-359
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at the poultry farm, Department of Animal Resource, College of Agriculture University of KUFA The period from 15th of November to 27th December 2010. The experiment aimed to investigate the effect of deferent types of oils on some productive and physiological traits of broilers chicken through the period of study. Three hundred and twenty unsexed one day old chick (Ross 308) average weight 40g/chick. The chicks were reared on aground and feeding one diet. They were randomly allocated 4 treatments groups, each comprising 4 replicates of 20 chicks. The treatments T1, T2, T3 added 1% animal bone fat, animal fat and fish fat respectively but Tc its standard diet. The most important result can be summarizing. 1- Birds in T1 and T2 have a higher (p<0.05) body weight means at 6 weeks of age, and total weight gain means during the period (1-6) weeks of age compared with T3 and Tc. 2- During the period (1-6) weeks of age feed intake and feed conversion efficiency values ratio where significantly (p<0.05) improved in all treatments as compared with Tc (control). 3- Mortality was no significantly in all treatments. 4- Blood traits PCV, Hb, glucose, cholesterol and protein were no significantly different among treatment.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF ADDITION IN IRAQI PROBIOTIC WITH VITAMIN C AND THEIR MIXTURE UNDER HEAT STRESS ON PERFORMANCE OF QUAIL
تأثير أضافه المعزز الحيوي (العراقي) وفيتامين C وخليطهما تحت ظروف الإجهاد الحراري في أداء الإنتاجي لطيور السمان

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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted in the poultry farm technical college Al Mussayab to investigate the effect of addition of vitamin C and Iraqi probhotic or their mixture on productive performance of japans quail . Atotatel 120 birds were used in the experiment (96 females and 24 males ) those birds were randomly allocated into 4 equal treatment , each treatment included 3 replicated birds were fed on standard diet with added Iraqi probiotic at arate of 4 gm / kgm for the third and fourth treatment , vitamin C was given via potable water at adose of 250 mg / liter for the second and fourth treatment meanwhile , the first treatment was left on the standard diet and is regarded as acontrol treatment . total egg production , cracked egg percentage , thin shelled eggs, marketed for each treatment .in addition egg weights , egg mass and specific egg characteristic which were reperesented by Haugh unit and yolk index were colcuted . Results indicated high significant ( ( p > 0.01) difference of the studied traits which were represented by total egg production , cracked eggs , marketed eggs and accumucutive egg production aswell as, egg weights and egg mass according to(p >0.01) ) differenece the marked eggs . In addition , there were high signification(p of the specific egg characteristic which were represented by Haugh unit and yolk index.

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Article
EFFECT OF BETAINE SUPPLEMENTED TO DIET AND SEX RESPONSE ON CARCASS WEIGHT AND DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF BROILER CHICKENS(ROSS) REARED UNDER HEAT STRESS CONDITIONS
تأثير البيتين Betaine المضاف الى العليقة واستجابة الجنس على وزن الذبيحه ونسبة التصافي لفروج اللحم Ross المربى في ظروف الاجهاد الحراري

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الخلاصة

This experiment was conducted at the Poultry Farm, Animal Reso. Dept., College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad for the period 27/8 /2009 – 8/10/2009 to investigate the effect of different levels of betaine supplemented with diet on some body and carcass traits, Five hundred and sixty day old unsexed ROSS birds were used and on 7 day of age were allocated randomly into 4 treatments groups (140 birds/treatment), 4 replicates per treatment (35birds/replicate) . Treatments were T1, T2, T3 and T4 represented supplementing with 0,500,800 and 1400 mg betaine / kg diet respectively. Fattening period lasted 42 days, at that time samples were taken. Results indicated a highly significant (p<0.01) superiority in each of live body weight, carcass weight and relative weight of abdominal fat, in addition to improving of dressing percentage with and without edible parts of males in comparison to females. T2 exhibited an improvement in dressing percentage with and without edible parts, and abdominal fat, whereas birds of T4 manifested an improvement in absolute weight of live body and carcass. It is concluded that supplementing betaine in levels; 500, 800 and 1400 mg/ kg diet improved weight of live body and carcass, as well as dressing percentage in males compared with females for broilers have being reared for 42 days under heat stress conditions.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Influence of in ovo injection the hatching eggs with two levels of thiamin Riboflavin on hatchability and productive performance of broiler
تأثير حقن بيض التفقيس بمستويين من الثيامين والرايبوفلافين في نسبة الفقس والأداء الإنتاجي لفروج اللحم

المؤلفون: رياض كاظم موسى --- سلوان عبد الامير قاسم
الصفحات: 377-386
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted to define the influence of in ovo injection the Broiler hatching eggs with two levels of vitamins B1,B2 on hatchability and the productive performance and some anatomical of broiler. 600 hatching eggs (Ross 308) was incubated ,on fourteenth day, eggs was candled to isolate non fertile eggs and containing death embryos . then residual eggs divided into equal 6 treatments adjuster three repeater and injected with 0.1 ml of ready solutions according to the following treatments : 1- The first treatment (T1): injection of 100 µg B1/egg. 2- The second treatment (T2): injection of 150 µg B1/egg. 3- The third treatment (T3): injection of 100 µg B2/egg. 4- The fourth treatment (T4): injection of 150 µg B2/egg. 5- The fifth treatment (T5): injection of 0.1 ml sterile distilled water (positive control) . 6- The sixth treatment (T6): without injection (negative control) . Hatching chicks from each treatment, were divided into three repeater adjuster (10) birds for each repeater and reared to (5) weeks . The results of this study indicated that : 1- There were significant differences (p<0.01) in hatchability and relative weight of hatched chick. additionally, significant surpuss (p<0.05) in average weight of hatched Chick of eggs were injected with vitamins, T3(100µg B2) was the optimal, comparative with the other experimental treatments . 2- There was a significant rise (p<0.05) in average of live body weight for all weeks of rearing to birds which produced from eggs were injected with 100 µg B1 (T1) comparative with the other experimental treatments. 3- There was a significant rise (p<0.05) at average of total body weight gain to birds of T1 and T4 (150 µg B2) comparative with the other experiment . 4- There were significant differences (p<0.01) in average of total feed intake, whereat the birds of T1 consumed the largest feed comparative with the other experimental treatments . 5- There were significant differences (p<0.05) in average of feed conversion at age (5) weeks, the highest reduction of feed conversion was to birds of (T4).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of gestation stage and parity in some physiological parameters of blood in pregnant ewes .
تأثير مرحلة الحمل وتسلسله في بعض المعايير الفسلجية للدم في النعاج الحوامل

المؤلفون: لينا أديب مهدي
الصفحات: 387-391
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الخلاصة

College of agriculture – Kufa University- Dept. of Animal Resources This study was carried out in the farms of animals resources department ,college of agriculture – Kufa university at the month November 2011 . 28 awassi ewes was taken and divided in to three groups according to the gestation stage there was early ,middle and late gestation stage and also divided according to the parity from the first to the fifth parity . Blood samples were taken from all the ewes to determine the effect of gestation stage and parity in Hb ,RBC, PCV, ESR and WBC . Results show that a significant effect (p≤ 0.05) of gestation stage in blood parameters above .Least values were in early gestation about 6.56g/cc, 5.68×〖10〗^6cell/cc ,20.13% ,0.53mm/h and 6.32×10³cel/cc respectively while the higher values were in early gestation stage it's about 8.05g/cc, 7.19×〖10〗^6cell/cc ,22.96% , 0.82mm/h and7.52 ×10³cel/cc respectively. Study show that no significant effect of parity in blood parameters although a calculating differences' towards the 5th parity compared with the 1st parity .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect Different Levels of Barley on Some of Sex and Metabolic Hormones of Arabi Female Lambs
تأثير مستويات مختلفة من الشعير في تراكيز بعض الهرمونات الجنسية والايضية للحملان الأنثوية العرابية خلال فترة الحمل

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at Animal Farm of Agriculture College, Basrah University from 1-12-2009 to 31-12-2010. Thirty Arabi female lambs were selected randomly and divided equally into three levels of nutrition (1,2,3 % barley of body weight) from weaning to first birth . The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of nutrition and lambs sex on levels of some sex hormones (Estrogen, Progesterone, Follicle-Stimulation Hormone and Luteizing Hormone) and some metabolic hormone ( Growth Hormone, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Leptin) during pregnancy period. Results showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in steroid hormones , IGF-1 and leptin concentrations of the third group in comparison with first group during the whole pregnancy period. Significantly (P<0.05) difference in gonadotropin hormones presented between first and third groups at the first and last month of pregnancy. Estrogen, FSH , LH and leptin hormones recorded low concentrations during mid-pregnancy in comparison with first and last month of pregnancy. In contrast progesterone level was high.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect study of change dry roughage and forage at average growth and feed conversion efficiency of awassi lambs at al-fayhaa station.
دراسة تأثير تغيير العلف الجاف الخشن والاخضر في معدل النمو وكفاءة التحويل الغذائي في تسمين الحملان العواسية في محطة الفيحاء

المؤلفون: خضير علوان الزبيدي
الصفحات: 402-408
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الخلاصة

The research was conducted at AL-Fayhaa station in north Babylon provence with has group of awassi lambs from 15-12-2011 to 30-6-2012 to study effect of ration change during three periods (first period concentrated% ration +25kg of soft wheat straw for 100kgconcentrated ration)(second period concentrated % +25kg forage for 100kg concentrated ration)and(third period concentrated% +25kg section wheat straw for100kg concentrated .The result appeared that the average increasing weight was 11.250, 10.480 and 9.850kg whith amount of increasing weight of 187.65 , 171.80 and 161.14 gmlamb respectively , the period of fattening was significant (p<0.050) of the two types. There was significant effect (p<0.05)at the amount of concentrated ration cons- ed which for each lambs and also at the amount of roughage consumed which increasing during the second and third period compared with the first period .The total ration consume (concentrated + roughage )by the lambs for the three period 1031.40 , 1485.50 and1850.50 gm respectively , the amount differed significantly (p<0.05)according to fattening period which were 5.50, 8.64 and 11.48 kg ration kg weight that means feed conversion efficiency was excellent during the first period ,where as significant difference in total increasing weight during January and February (first period)5.68 and 5.67 kg respectively ,where as the second period (March and April) 5.07 and 5.32 kg respectively ,the period (May and June) 5.62 and 4.23 kg respectively. We conclude from this research had changing the ration according the style used the research had an imprvelant effect in growth speectally during increasing weight and feed conversion efficiency .

الكلمات الدلالية

العواسية- تغير العلف-النمو.


Article
THE EFFECT OF USE SOME AGRICULTURAL AND MANUFACTURAL BY_PRODUCTES SUPPLEMENTED WITH BREAD YEAST Saccharomyces cerevisiae AND IRAQI PROBIOTIC ON SOME PRODUCTION CHARACTERISES OF AWASSI LAMBS CARCASSES.
تأثير استخدام بعض الأعلاف الخشنة و إضافة خميرة الخبز (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) والمعزز الحيوي العراقي (Iraqi Probiotic) في بعض صفات ذبائح الحملان العواسية

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الخلاصة

The experiment lasted for 70 days , eighteen animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment from 30 fattening Awassi lamb ( 3 animals of each trait ) .There are 5-6 months of age and 26.02 Kg average initial body weight, they were randomly allocated into six groups. The animals were fed group feeding (3% of body weight) six ration of different sources (ground corn cobs, date stones or date pulp) which was supplemented with 2 kg of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and 1kg Iraqi probiotic(Ip) as a pellets ration. Barley straw introduced Ad. Lib. the pellets ration were as following: Group 1= 34% ground corn cobs and 66% of other feed materils, supplemented with (2 kg Sc and 1 kg Ip per ton feed ) . Group 2 = Group 1without supplementation. Group 3 = 34% ground date stones and 66% of other feed materils, supplemented with (2 kg Sc and 1 kg Ip per ton feed ) . Group 4 = Group 3 without supplementation. Group 5 = 34% ground date pulp and 66% of other feed materils, supplemented with (2 kg Sc and 1 kg Ip per ton feed ) . Group 6 = Group 5 without supplementation. The experiment lasted for 70 days , eighteen animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment ( 3 animals of each trait ) . Results indicated: 1. Highly significant differences were observed (p<0.01) of hot carcass and the empty body weight for supplementation Sc&Ip but significant (p<0.05) for kind of roughage feed and their interaction that was reached 17.37 ,16.35 ,21.70 ,16.83 ,19.70 , 16.55 kg and 31.53 , 28.86 ,36.45 ,29.40 ,33.76 ,29.25 , kg for 1, 2,…, 6 respectively . 2. Significant differences were observed (p<0.05)for interaction effect of the dressing percentage (1)according to live weight this was 47.15 ,47.85 , 51.49 ,48.47 ,49.46 ,48.13 ,% for 1 , 2,…, 6 respectively ,whereas dressing percentage (2)according to empty body weight improvement was noticed . 3. Significant differences were observed (p<0.05) for interaction effect of the rib eye area and fat thickness which was 12.94 , 11.33 ,13.63 ,11.33 ,13.25 ,11.38 ,cm. and 5.33 ,5.33 ,9.00 ,7.66 ,5.66 , 5.00 mm. for 1, 2,…, 6 respectively . 4. Highly significant differences were observed (p<0.01) for supplementation Sc&Ip of the rib cut weight 9 ,10 &11, where as not Significant for kind of roughage feed but Significant (p<0.05) for interaction, this was 0.800 ,0.750 ,1.050 ,0.683 ,0.900 0.700 kg for 1, 2,…, 6 respectively . Then this study indicated an improvement of all productive and some of Caracas characteristics due to treatments by Sc&Ip which were pellets with date stones in ration followed by date pulp and corn cobs .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
General , Specific Combining Ability Variance and Genetic Parameters for Diallele Cross of Sun flower[Helianthus annus L.]
تباين قابلية الإتلاف العامة والخاصة و المعالم الوراثية لهجن تبادلية من زهرة الشمس

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the field of field Kefil region , Babylon . the half diallel was done among seven F3 selected genotypes of sunflower(Coban , Qudis – 3 , Flamme , Euroflore , Royal , Argensun and Iraqi flower) genotypes were tested for general and specific combining ability . during fall season 2006 crossed between F3 selected of seven genotypes and spring season of 2007 the genotypes and crosses were growing . to estimate some genetic features (gen action) and heritability and average of dominance degree. Some growth traits were estimated. Results reflected that 1 dominant genetic variation was higher of addition of genetic variation except for all the characters studied expect the number of days from sawing to harvesting , the weight of 1000 seed (gm) fertility percentage and oil percent heritability board sense all qualities ranged between lower percent (88.81%) for stem for stem girth and higher percent (99.77%) for the weight of 1000 seed . While the heritability narrow sense between lower percent (4.70%) for the leaf area and higher percent (91.86%) for oil content and dominance degree exceeded one , to indicate over dominance of some gen locations for all characters studied but fertility percent and oil content of the seed which gene values less than one , that indicate the presence of partial dominance gene action controlled on the fertility percent and oil content of the seed

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
RESPONSE OF GROWTH AND YIELD OF BREAD WHEAT TO IRRIGATION AND NITROGEN FIRTILIZER
استجابة نمو وحاصل حنطة الخبز للري والسماد النتروجيني

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted in mixed clay textured soil during winter season of 2010 in Anbar Governorate that was to study the requirement of irrigation and the best level of nitrogen fertilizer to cultivars IPA 99 and Abu Ghraib -3 under the Anbar conditions. A Randomized Complete Block Design in split – split plot arrangement with three replicates was applied . Result showed that The cultivar IPA99 gave a highest plant height 62.64 cm and flag leaf area 55.51cm2. Cultivar Abu Ghraib -3 gave high grains yield 5.15tan.ha-1.The five irrigations in season gave highest rate in plant height82.68cm and flag leaf area 56.23cm2 and high grains yield 5.18 tan.ha-1.The level 250 KgN.ha-1 gave the highest plant height 83.0 cm , flag leaf area 55.95cm2, number of spikes 337 spike/ m2.and grains yield 5.12 tan.ha-1.The interaction between cultivars Abu Ghraib and level 250 KgN.ha-1 had significant effect on grains yield 5.32 tan.ha-1.While the interaction between cultivars Abu Ghraib and five irrigations and level 250 KgN.ha-1 had significant effect on grains yield and gave 5.63 tan.ha-1.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Zea mays L. GROWTH RESPONSE TO FREQUENCY OF IRRIGATION, METHOD AND DEPTH PLANTING
استجابة نمو الذرة الصفراء Zea mays L. لتكرار الري وطريقة وعمق الزراعة

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the Research Station of State Board for Agricultural Research in Abu-Ghraib during the autumn seasons of 2008 and 2009 to study the response of maize to irrigation frequency planting methods and planting depth. The layout of the experiment was split- plot in RCBD with four replicates. The Results showed that irrigation every five days , gave lowest days from date planting to 90% anthesis, silking and physiological maturity were 61.9 , 59.5 , 65.9 ,64.0 , 103.1 and 103.2 days respectively. while the irrigation every ten days increased the days from date planting to 90% anthesis , silking and physiological maturity were at first season 68.0 , 71.7 and 108.2 days and at second season 62.8 , 67.8 and 198.4 days respectively. Irrigation every five days gave highest value of height plant , leaf area and growth of plant at first season were 179.3 cm , 0.6274 m2 and 3.06 g/day and at second season 184.9 cm , 0.5765 m2 and 3.30 g/day respectively. The planting at the bottom of the furrow method gave superior value of height plant at first season 167.3 cm and at second season 173.7 cm , also it gave high value of leaf area at first season was 0.5600m2 but the row then furrowing method gave high value growth of plant at both seasons were 2.83 and 3.11 g/day respectively. The treatment of irrigation every five days with row then furrowing method gave superior value of leaf area and rate growth of plant at first season 0.6316m2 and 3.15 g/day espectively also at second season 0.580m2 and 3.44 g/day. The treatment irrigation every five days with row then furrowing and depth of planting 16 cm gave highest value of rate growth of crop at both seasons 3.31 and 3.62 g/day respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
GENETIC STABILITY OF SOME VARIETIES OF DURUM WHEAT UNDER DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
الثباتية الوراثية لبعض من أصناف الحنطة الخشنة تحت ظروف بيئية مختلفة

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الخلاصة

Eight varieties of durum wheat: Leeds, Waha, Um-Rabie5, Azegar1, Um-Rabie3, Brashua, Cyprus1 and Korfila were used in an experiments conducted in four treatments of biofertilizer EM1 (represents four different environments), these treatments were (with out EM1, priming seeds in solution of EM1, spraying EM1 on plants and on soil before planting). The four sets of varieties were planted under rainfed conditions during 2007/2008 season using randomized complete block design with three replications to study their stability for the characters: grain yield per plant, 1000 grain weight, number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, harvest index and biological yield. Four methods were used to measure stability, regression coefficient, variance, coefficient of variability and the method outlined by (1). The results showed that mean square of varieties and genetic-environment interaction was significant at 1% level for all characters, while mean square for environments was significant at 5% level for grain yield per plant and biological yield only. Variations in stability values among varieties were recorded according to stability measurement methods used. The varieties Um-Rabie5, Um-Rabie3 and Cyprus1 showed a good stability for more than one important character.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF PLANTING DATES AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN THE YIELD AND THE QUALITY OF CHAMOMILE Matricaria chamomilla L.
تأثير مواعيد الزراعة والتسميد النتروجيني في حاصل ونوعية البابونج Matricaria chamomilla L.

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الخلاصة

Afield experiment was conducted at the experimental Farm, Dep. of Field Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and Spilt Plot Design with three replications to study the effect of sowing date and fertilizer nitrogen in the product of plant chamomile Matricaria chamomilla L. of inflorescences and volatile oil. Used three levels of nitrogen is (200 and 00 3 and 400 kg N. ha -1) which has been of major Plot and three planting dates are (1/11 , 15/11 and 1/12) which has been of secondary Plot. Conducted analysis of variance followed by design holds the qualities of individual plants and the percentage of oil holds the pilot and the pilot fuel. The results showed superiority first date to give the highest rate for the sum of individual plant and holds a hectare as Men reached 11.71 g. Plant -1 and 1874.32 kg. ha-1, respectively. As well as the first date than in the percentage of oil, the pilot and sum up 1.125% and 22.33 liters. H-1, respectively. As for the levels of fertilizer nitrogen was given at 400 kg N. e.1. Highest rate of prescriptions holds a plant individual and holds a hectare and the percentage of oil, the pilot and holds a pilot fuel rates amounted to 6.50 g. Plant -1 and 10.41 kg. E -1 and 1.30% and 14. 21 liters. ha -1. Preferably chamomile cultivation at the beginning of the month of October and the addition of 400 kg N. ha-1. Urea in the central region of Iraq for the purpose of obtaining the sum and the highest proportion Flowers and oil.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EVALUATION OF DICLOPHOF-METHYL AND TRIBENURON-METHYL FOR WEED CONTROL IN SOME WHEAT CULTIVARS GRWON IN CENTRAL REGION OF IRAQ
تقييم كفاءة مبيدي Clodinafop-propargyl و Tribenuron-methyl في مكافحة الادغال المرافقة لبعض اصناف الحنطة المزروعة في المنطقة الوسطى من العراق

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted during winter season of 2008-2009 at the farm of the Department of Field Crop Sciences / Agriculture College / Univ. of Baghdad - Abu-Graib, to evaluate the activity of clodinafop-propargyl and tribenuron-methyl on weeds control associated with some wheat cultivars. Results showed that tribenuron-methyl herbicide superior than clodinaphop-propargyl herbicide. Tribenuron-methyl reduced weed density, weed dry weights, and caused great dry weight suppression percentage and weed control percentage; 20.7 plant.m-2, 31.50 gm.m-2, 70.73% and 92.42% respectively as compared with clodinaphop-propargyl and weedy check treatments. The wheat cultivar Tahaddi showed greater effect than other cultivars, and caused least weed density 120.3 plant.m-2, least weed dry weight 44.25 gm.m-2, high percentage ofweed dry weights suppression 59.35% and greater percentage of weed control 64.19%. While the cultivars Fatah and Iraq showed greater weed dry weight 63.08 and 57.25 gm.m-2 respectively and least percentage of weed suppression 26.27% and 49.73% respectively. However the cultivar IPA99 recorded highest weed density 139 plant.m-2 and lower percentage of weed control 51.73%. Interaction between the herbicides and cultivars, it seems that the cultivar Tahaddi caused greater weed density, reduction in weed dry weights, and gave greater percentage of weed suppression and weed control, while the cultivar Fatah showed more sensitivity to both herbicides and recorded highest weed density, dry weight and least percentage of weed suppression and weed control. This indicates that cultivars Tahaddi was the most tolerant to weed competition and showed greater response to herbicides activity, Therefor recommendation could be carry out by using mixtures of both herbicides with other cultivars to study the integration between competitive the cultivars to accompanied weeds and its impact on their yield.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF DEPTH OF IRRIGATION WATER AND NITROGEN ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF COTTON
تأثير عمق ماء الري والنيتروجين في نمو وحاصل القطن

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted at the experiments field of department of Field Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during two summer seasons 2010 and 2011 in order to increase water use efficiency when increasing of nitrogen fertilizer. Randomized complete block design under arrangement of split plot with four replications was used. Main factor was depth of irrigation water (959 mm.season-1 (control treatment) and 80% and 60% of the value of the comparison), and secondary factor was nitrogen (150, 200 and 250 kg N.h-1). The treatment 959 mm.season-1 significantly outperformed in plant height 124.51 and 129.73 cm, sympodia 16.55 and 18.45, leaf area per plant 2172.1 and 2192.9 cm2 and oil percentage of seeds 23.45 and 23.13% for two seasons, respectively. No significant effect was shown at the percentages of protein for two seasons, while the irrigation treatment 575 mm outperformed and gave the highest average water use efficiency 0.40 and 0.46 kg.m-3 compared to other treatments for the two seasons, respectively. The results showed that the addition of 250 kgN.h-1gave highest values for plant height 115.72 and 116.80 cm, sympodia15.58 and 17.68 branch.plant-1, leaf area per plant 2248.5 and 2430.7 cm2, and the number of open bolls 11.19 and 12.07, which is led to increase the yield of seed cotton 2817.00 and 3153.4 kg.h-1, percentages of protein 25.03and 24.70% and increase the water use efficiency 0.35 and 0.43 kg.m-3 for both seasons, respectively. The interaction of irrigation depth and nitrogen fertilizer significantly affected on number of characteristics. Treatment 959 mm.season-1 with 250 kg N.h-1 gave highest averages at plant height 129 and 135.33 cm,sympodia 19.23 and 21.33, number of open bolls 12.66 and 13.92 and yield of seed cotton 2781 and 3354 kg.h-1, and which did not differ significantly with treatment 80% of the value of the control treatment of irrigation water with 250 kg N.h-1. And there was no significant interaction between factors on the average of water use efficiency for the two seasons. This means that the style of irrigation management which used in this study was important through the results were obtained which led to increase water use efficiency when increasing amounts of fertilizer added to the soil and reducing the depth of irrigation water, so we recommend adding 250 kg N.h-1 with reduced depth of irrigation water to 767 mm.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
GENOTYPE- ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION AND STABILITY PARAMETERS FOR INTRODUC BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES
التداخل الوراثي البيئي ومعلمات الاستقرارية لتراكيب وراثية مدخلة من حنطة الخبز

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الخلاصة

This study carried out to investigate the comparative genotype x environment interaction for number of tillers per plant, plant height, number of spikes per plants, spike length, biological yield, 100 grain weight and grain yield, and estimation of broad sense heritability, for 23 introduced genotypes from ICARDA, in addition to the varieties registered and certified, Abo-Graib, Sham6 and Talafer3. All 25 genotypes were planted at three locations in Nineveh Governorate (Al-Rahmania, Wana and Telkef) using randomized complete block design with three replications. It was shown from combining analysis of variance that environment (location) mean square was significant at 1% level for plant height, spike length and biological yield, and non significant for other characters, and genotype mean square and it's interaction with environments was highly significant for all characters. The broad sense heritability ranged between 50.007% for number of tillers per plant and 71.243% for plant height, and it was high for plant height, spike length, 100 grain weight and grain yield and moderate for other characters. There was positive highly significant correlation for grain yield with each of plant height, spike length and biological yield, and positive highly significant correlations for biological yield with each of number of tillers per plant, plant height, number of spikes per plant and spike length. The stability parameters results showed that four introduced genotypes (BUS/PVN//MILAN/TX96V2427, VORONA/HD2402/3/RSK/CA8055//CHAM6, TAM200/KAUZ//Ltg-164 and Billing " N566/OK94P597") in addition to the three local varieties characterized by high stability for most characters. Six introduced genotypes showed good response to favorable environments only for most characters, while there was good response for unfavorable environments shown by six genotypes for specific characters.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Response of sunflower to some plant extractions and anti-oxidant
استجابة زهرة الشمس لبعض المستخلصات النباتية ومضادات الأكسدة

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الخلاصة

To investigate the response of sunflower cultivars to plant extraction and anti-oxidants and their effects on yield and quality, A field experiment was conducted during fall season of 2009 and spring season of 2010 at the Experimental Farm, Department of Field Crop Sciense, College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad. Randomized Complete Block Design was used with three replications as factorial at two factors. First factor was cultivars Akmar and Shmoss, second was spraying with extraction of karkade at 25 %, liquorices at 50 %, vitamine C at concentration 1.5 mg.L-1 and nutriant which content 15 elementes at concentration 15 % in addition to control treatment which sprayed with distilled water only. The result showed that Shmoss cv. was superior in head diameter of 28.1 cm in fall season of 2009, number of filled seeds per head 1644 and 1407 seeds for both season respectively, weight of 100 seeds 14.25 and 12.91 g respectively and these reflected on plant yield in spring of 2010 (137 g.plant-1), while Akmar cv. superior in fertileness (92.35 and 82.64) % respectively and oil percentage (36.57 and 36.07) for both seasons. Vitamine C treatment was superior in head diameter in spring of 2010 (26.6) cm, seed / head (1468 and 1405) seeds for both seasons, and highest weight for 100 seeds (11.50 and 10.28) g respectively. Karkade treatment was superior in oil percentage (35.09 and 34.07) % in both seasons respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFICIENCY OF SELECTION CRITERIA TO IMPROVE MAIZE PERFORMANCE UNDER TOW LEVEL OF NITROGEN. (GROWTH CRITERIA AND YIELD( Mg/h)).
كفاءة معايير انتخاب لتحسين أداء الذرة الصفراء تحت مستويي نتروجين معايير النمو وحاصل وحدة المساحة

المؤلفون: بنان حسن هادي --- كريمة محمد وهيب
الصفحات: 515-524
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الخلاصة

Four selection criteria ; grain /plant (GN) ,anthesis-silking interval(ASI) ,yield efficiency (YE) and leaf area duration (LAD) were tested in selected plants of maize (Zea mays L.) cv.R-106. The experiment was applied for six consecutive seasons( 2009- 2011) on the farm of the Dept.of Field Crops Sci./College of Agric./Univ.of Baghdad . Plants of high grain coincided with the desired criterion were taken , selfed, and harvested for three selection cycles under 200 and 400 kg N/ha . Seeds of third cycle of each selection criterion were planted for panmixia .The resulted seeds were grown in a yield trial for evaluation under 60 and 80 thousands plant/ha in spring and fall seasons .The results showed that low nitrogen plants that were selected for shorter ASI and larger grain number GN increased total dry matter (TDM) by 13.8% and 34.5 for spring season and 14.4% and 37.6%for fall season ,respectively .Days to maturity(DTM) decreased 3days less than original population for ASI for spring and fall season .Crop growth rate(CGR) increased 2.59and 3.65 gm/plant/day for ASI in spring and fall seasons, respectively. Selection cycles also affected the growth criteria of all selected plants under high nitrogen in the same way.(TDM )increased 16.3%,24%,25.3%and 25% in spring season and 24%,37%,39%and 23% in fall season for GN,ASI,YE,LAD respectively. Selection criteria were earlier than original population in (DTM) by1.3,4,2.5and 2.3days in spring season and 2.3,3.7,3.6and 2.5days in fall season, for selection criteria respectively. CGR increased also by 17%,28%,27%,27% and 30.8%,48.5% 55%,32% in spring and fall seasons respectively. Grain yield increased 35.5% , 32%,57%and 34 in spring and fall seasons for ASI,YE respectively. Plant density 80thousandes plant /h decreased TDM , CGR and increased DTM , grain yield (Mg/h) , in high and low nitrogen for both seasons. Selection under high and low levels of N led to improve individual plant performance for many field characters, that resulted in increasing the efficiency of plants that were selected under high and low levels of nitrogen. We recommend the use of these criteria for selection and to develop inbred that will be tolerant to low nitrogen and high densities.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND TIMES OF APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF PEANUT (Arachis hypogaea L.)
تأثير مستويات مختلفة من السماد النتروجيني ومواعيد الاضافة في نمو وحاصل فستق الحقل (Arachis hypogaea L

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was carried out at the experimental farm of the College of Agriculture , University of Baghdad during the 2005 summer season in loam soil. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and time of application of timings on some growth characteristics yield and quality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) RCBD Asplit plot design in arrangement with four replication was used Time of application (at the beginning of vegetative growth 23/5/2005 , at the beginning of flowering 18/6/2005 and at Full flowering 11/7/2005) were assined in the main plot , while nitrogen levels (0 , 100 , 200 and 300 kg N.ha-1) were assined in the sub – plot . The results could be showed the following.the level 100 Kg N.ha-1 level gave the highest values of plant height (30.5 cm) , No :of branches (11.3) and total dry weight (94.6 gm) compared with (24.4 , 10.1 and 63.8) of zero level of N (control treatment) , respectively . The same level of nitrogen also gave the highest values of yield components. No. of pods plant-1 (49.2) , No. of seed plant-1 (65.1) and weight of 100 seeds (70.9 gm) compared with control . These highest values reflected into higher pods and seeds yield (3727 and 2168 kg.ha-1) with increase percentage (38.19 and 69.11%) respectively , compared with the control treatment .The applied levels 200 and 300 Kg N.ha-1 were gave higest plant height and total vegetative dry weight (34.8 , 36.0 cm , 110.4 and 114.5 g) , respectively compared with 100 kg N. ha-1 level . Timing of application at the beginning of flowering gave the highest values of plant height (32.4 cm) , total dry weight per plant (104.3 g) , No. of pods (46.4) , No. of seeds per plant (63.5) and 100 seed weight (66.6 gm) , respectively , these higher values were reflected into a higher pods and seeds yield (3624 and 2003 kg. ha-1) withe increasement percentage(19.48 and 24.79%) compared with the application at the beginning of vegetative growth . The interaction of nitrogen levels and timings of Application influenced significantly in seed and pod yield. the nitrogen level 100 Kg N.ha-1 at the beginning of flowering gave pod yield (4230 Kg.ha-1) and seeds yield (2513 Kg.ha-1) respectively with the increasement percentage about (60.34 and 94.50 %) as compared with control treatment.

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Article
Gibberellic acid effect in the in creasing of fenugreek Plant ( Trigonella foenum- graecum L.) Tolerance for sodium chloride under hydroponics system conditiones.
تأثير حامض الجبرلين في زيادة تحمل نبات الحلبة Trigonella foenum- graecum L. لكلوريد الصوديوم تحت ظروف نظام الزراعة المائية

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الخلاصة

The experiment has been made by using the the nutrient solution unit in the green house of the Biology Department , College of Education Ibn Al- Haitham, Baghdad University during the growing season of 2008 – 2009 to now effect of three concentrations 0 , 50 ,100 mM . Lˉ¹ of sodium chloride and four concentrations 0 , 25 , 50 ,100 ppm of gibberellic acid and interaction bettween them in some growth parameters (fresh weight of root, number of branches and concentration of N,P,K,Ca,Mg in root)of fenugreek plant. The experiment was accompliched as a completely randomized design(CRD) by three replicates then including 36 plastic pots in nutrient solution unit , the results showed the increase in sodium chloride concentration from 0_100Mm.L ̄1 in nutrient solution had negative effects in the mentioned parameters growth. Results showed that gibberellic acid had an important role in decreasing the harmful effects of sodium chloride in studied parameters.

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Article
FFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND PHES GROWTH OF GROWTH, YIELD FORAGE OF OAT VARIETIES (Avena sativa L.)
تأثير التسميد النتروجيني وطور النمو في صفات نمو وحاصل علف أصناف من الشوفان (Avena sativa L.)

المؤلفون: سالم عبدالله يونس --- عباس مهدي الحسن
الصفحات: 547-563
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الخلاصة

¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬ This study was conducted in the winter season 2010-2011 at Bashiqa / Tobzawh village (25 km) east of Mosul and at Hemidat / AL-masiad village (20 km) west of Mosul. The study included two experiments at each site, the first one included studying the effect of four nitrogen fertilizer levels zero, 50, 75 and 100 kg N / ha, on growth character, Forage yield and of five varieties of oats T , P , M ,M andS at three growth phases booting, milky and soft dough, the Each experiment was carried out according to a Desing in Randomized Complete Block Design ( R.C.B.D) with three replications.The most significant results, are the following Nitrogen fertilization affected all growth charactersand yield at both sites. T varietiy surpassed other the varieties in plant height and fresh and dry forage yield, while variety M surpassed the others in the number of tillers ̸ m². Growth phases affected significantly all growth characters, forage yield, at both sites. The highest dry forage yield and highest yield for all the qualitative characters where achevied at the Soft dough stage of grains.

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Article
COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF SIX COTTON CULTIVARS AND ITS IMPACT ON WEED CONTROL AND LINT YIELD
القابلية التنافسية لستة أصناف من القطن وأثرها في مكافحة الادغال وحاصل قطن الشعر .

المؤلفون: نبيل رحيم لهمود --- فائق توفيق الجلبي
الصفحات: 564-572
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الخلاصة

To investigate the competitive ability of six cotton cultivars with the associated weeds, field experiment was conducted on field at Al-Ahrar / Wasit governorate, during summer season of 2004. Split plot design was used with three replications. Weed treatments as main plots included: weedy-check, weed-free, trifluralin application( 2.4 L.ha-1 ), and mechanical weed control after six weaks from sowing date, while the cultivars Cocker310, Ashor -1, Lashata, Dise, W888 and Pak-kut189 regarded as the sub-plots. Results showed different competitive ability of cotton cultivars to associated weeds. Reduction in cotton lint yield with Pak-kut189 and W888 cultivars were 21.40 and 23 % , as compared to 35.84 % with Coker310 cultivar. Similarly . Also, competitive ability of Pak-kut189 and W888 cultivar was related with height leaf area index compared with Coker310 cultivar. Cultivars with greater tolerance for weed competition showed similar responses to weed control treatments (herbicide or mechanical control) and this response reflected on their yield .Cultivars Pak-kut189 and W888 produce almost similar yield with these two treatments as compared with the weed –free treatments. On the other hand cultivars with less tolerance to weed competition showed variation in cotton yield produce in mechanical control treatment as compared with the weed – free treatment.

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Article
Effect Different Seasonal Growth Of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart)Solms On Horizontal Shoot Cover And Dispersal In Northern Iraq.
تأثير اختلاف فترات النمو في الانتشار والنمو الأفقي لنبات زهرة النيل Eichhornia crassipes (Mart)Solms النامي في شمال العراق .

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الخلاصة

The field experiment was conducted during growing season 2011 at college of Agriculture and Forestry /Mosul University on water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart)Solms to investigate seasonal growth habitat productivity horizontal shoot cover water and dispersal in Neniva province. Propagates had planted on 15-February -2011 in bonds which measuring horizontal weed mat growth on ( 1st April ,1st May ,1st June ,1st August) using plant high ,leaf area ,number and length of stolons . Randomize Complete Block Design with three replicates was used in a simple experiment .The results showed that water hyacinth had vertical growth relevant with plant high and leaf area which are more important in that growth especially at high temperature monthly (June, July ,august),while horizontal growth of mat was confirmed by increasing stolons length and daughter plant .Stolons length had increased more than doubled in August comparing growth in April . Also number of propagates had increased up to 127 in August comparing in April .On other hand ,the horizontal growth of weed mat had increased up to 92.7% in July . In general these characteristics gave a rapid growth rate that cover the water surface up to 4.20m length producing 728 daughter plant ,10.8m leaf area , 93 cm stolon length and 3743 leaf number during the period of study.

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Article
EFFECT OF PLANT POPULATION DENSITY ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF GRAIN SORGHUM
تأثير الكثافة النباتية في نمو وحاصل الذرة البيضاء الحبوبية

المؤلفون: خضير عباس جدوع --- حيدر عبد اللطيف شهاب
الصفحات: 579-588
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الخلاصة

A factorial experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, Dept. of Field Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture/Abu-Ghraib-University of Baghdad during the spring and fall seasons of 2009. The aim was to investigate the effect of plant population density 27600, 53300, 107600 and 213300 plant. ha-1 and varieties(Inqath, Rabeh, and Kaffir) on growth traits of the grain sorghum and its relation to the grain yield and its components, Cultivars were significantly different in their Plant height where Kaffir gave significantly the highest average in each density of the four plant densities. The performance of cultivars Rabeh and Inqath for Plant height in both seasons was similar. Inqath was superior in the average number of leaf produced in spring and fall seasons, respectively. The three cultivars were significantly different in their tillers number during both seasons where Kaffir was superior in this character in each plant population density with the highest tiller number reached 2.20 and 1.44 tiller. Plant -1. The Rabeh cultivar had the highest flag leaf area reached 466.13 and 716.15 cm2, compared with 166.39 and 225.58 cm2 for Kaffir cultivar in both seasons, respectively, Grain yield of three cultivars was not significantly different in spring season, while in the fall season, Kaffir was superior giving 5.85 t. ha-1 compared with 5.48 and 4.59 t. ha-1 for Inqath and Rabeh, respectively. For biological yield the Superiority was to Rabeh over other cultivars in spring season only reached the average of yield 17.30 t. ha-1 compared with 16.76 and 13.74 t. ha-1 for Inqath and Kaffir, respectively. It is concluded that the total plant grain yield responds to the changes in growth traits of cultivars. Kaffir had the less biological yield but it gave the highest grain yield in fall season. This may be attributed to the contribution of tiller in this trait where Kaffir possessed the highest average of tiller number and the highest percentage of contribution of the tiller in grain yield in the fall season.

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Article
تأثير حامض الجبرلين والسماد المركب NPK في تركيز بعض العناصر الغذائية الكبرى في صنفين من نبات البابونج Chamomile
Effect of Gibberellic Acid and NPK Fertilizer on some macronutrients concentration in two variety of chamomile .

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الخلاصة

This experiment was carried out at the field of botanical garden which belongs to Biology Department , College of Education (Ibn Al-Haitham), University of Baghdad during the growing season 2009-2010.The experiment was designed to study the effect sex concentrations of Gibberellic acid(GA3)( 0, 25,50,75,100and125mg.L-1 ) and three levels of NPK (17:17:17) fertilizer ( 0 , 200 and 400 Kg.ha-1) and their interaction on the some macronutrients ( N, P , K , Ca and Mg ) concentration in two varieties of chamomile plant ( Local variety , Matricaria chamomilla L. and German variety , Matricaria recutitia L.) . Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split – plots arrangement was used with 3 replicate for each treatment. results showed a significant increase in the concentration of macronutrients with increased GA3 concentration and NPK levels and their interaction in comparision with the control plants . The highest rates of macronutrient concentrations were obtained by using GA3 at 75 mg.L-1 and NPK at 400 Kg.ha-1 . The German variety surpassed the Local variety .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of row space and pre-harvest treatments on yield, yield components and other characteristics of white mustard Sinapis alba L.
تأثير مسافات الزراعة ومعاملات ما قبل الحصاد في صفات الحاصل ومكوناته وصفات أخرى للخردل الأبيض Sinapis alba L

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الخلاصة

To study the effect of row space and pre-harvest treatment technique on yield, yield components and other characteristics of white mustard Sinapis alba L, an experiment was conducted in the field at the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad/ Abu-Graib, using split plot design with three replications arranged in RCBD. The main treatments included three row space 20, 40 and 60 cm, while the sub-plot treatments included plants harvested at physiological maturity stage, plants harvested at full maturity stage, plants harvested at full maturity stage after GA3 application, and plants harvested at full maturity stage after Auxin application. The results obtained showed that row space of 60cm lead to significant increase in number of pods of plant, number of seeds of pod, weight of 1000 seeds, seeds yield of plant and biological yield of plant which were 486.31 pod.plant-1, 12.54 seed.pod-1, 1.74 g ,9.8 g. plant-1and 59.51 g.plant-1 respectively, as compared with row space of 20cm which gave least mean of 291.66 pods.plant-1, 10.90 seeds.pod-1, 1.59 g, 5.10 g.plant-1 and 27.42 g.plant-1 respectively. However these increases did not increase the total yield. Row space of 60cm lead to significant increase in percentage of field seeds germination 84.16% compared with row space of 20 cm which gave least percentage 76.58%, although there was no significant effects in percentage of laboratory seeds germination. Pre-harvest treatments did not affect number of pods in plant, number of seeds in pod and yield biomass. Treatment of plant harvested at full maturity stage after Auxin application lead to significant increase in weight of 1000 seeds, and yield of plant, while treatment of plant harvested at physiological maturity stage lead to significant increase in percentage of laboratory and field seeds germination. It was concluded that there was possibility of using some plants growth regulators to increase seeds plant yield, and if the purpose of planting to produce certified seeds, its prefer to harvest plants at physiological maturity for greater percentage of laboratory and field seed germination.

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Article
Effect of Amino Acids Type and Concentration on Callus Induction from Mature Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. Embryos
تأثير نوع وتركيز الاحماض الامينية على استحثاث الكالس من اجنة الفاصوليا Phaseolus vulgaris الناضجة

المؤلفون: ستار عبد الله شلاهي --- زهرة نوري الحطاب
الصفحات: 612-619
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الخلاصة

This research was conducted to study the effect of some amino acids and their concentrations on callus induction from mature bean CV. Harvester embryos. Calli were induced on MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg /L BA, 1 mg/L IAA and different combination and concentrations of casein hydrolysate, glycine, asparagine, tyrosine and myo inositol as described in the text. All the embryo parts induced calli on the control medium which contained 100 mg/l of each of casein hydrolysate, glycine, asparagine, tyrosine, and myo- inositol, with different percentage. The hypocotyl apex gave significantly high percentage (95.6%) of callus induction compared with the radicle (76.7%) and the shoot apex (36.6%).


Article
COLLEGE IN MOSUL / AL – RASHEEDYIA REGION STUDY THE STSTE OF SOILS AT THE OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNICAL
دراسة حالة الترب في موقع الكلية التقنية الزراعية في الموصل / منطقة الرشيدية

المؤلفون: نايف سلطان صالح
الصفحات: 620-629
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الخلاصة

The study was carried out to detection the characteristics of the soil units in the fields college in Al- Rasheedyia region to reach well management for these soils , as well as this study consist a basic of data for all studies carried out in this location especially in plant production . Detailed survey have been done for these soils, two sites were chosen to representative the soils, then two profiles dugs .The results shows that these soils are recent and weak development , the profile characterized that is from the kind of AC horizon and formed from recent sediment . the texture characterized that loamy in profile 1 and silty loam in profile 2. Sand range from 267.2 – 567.7 gm. Kgm-1 , silt range between 342.5 – 589.5 gm. Kgm-1 ,were the clay range between 89.8 – 241.3 gm. Kgm-1 . Bulk density shows high value , especially the surface soils ,this reverse bad management . Organic matter regarded enough and decreasing with depth ,and range between 21.0 – 5.1 gm . kgm-1 . Electric conductivity value is relatively high, and range from 3.380 – 6.640 Ds . m-1 . Nitrogen is found with enough amount, whereas phosphorus found in very little amount, calcium & magnesium shows relatively high content but with reversible behavior . Sodium content is the higher between the other soluble cations and range between 228 – 772 Me . L-1 .Sulphate exhibit higher content between the other anions and range from 285 to 550 Me. L-1. these soils are classified according to U.S.Soil classification system ( 7th approximation ) in Entisols order , also most of these soils classified in class І in land capability classes ,few part of these soils put under class П .

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Article
PERFORMANCE OF MAGNETIZED IRRIGATION WATER ON TRIFLURALINE EFFICIENCY FOR WEED CONTROL AND THEIR IMPACT ON REDUCING ENVERONMENTAL CONTAMINATION
أداء مياه الري المغنطة في كفاءة مبيد الترايفلورالين لمكافحة الأدغال وأثرها في تقليل التلوث البيئي

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Department of Field Crop Sciences - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad, during summer season of 2008 and 2009 to investigate the performance of magnetization of irrigation water on improvement of trifluralin efficiency for weed control and their impact on reducing environmental contamination. A randomized complete block design arranged according to split-plot was used with three replicates. The study consisted four levels of magnetic water strength (0, 500, 1000 and 2000 Gauss ) as main treatments and five rate of application of trifluralin (0, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 l.ha-1) and weed free as sub treatments. The results showed significant effect of magnetic water on most characters studied. Magnetic water strength of 500 Gauss caused greater reduction in weed densities at both seasons on` 30 and 60 days after planting which were 15.62 and 19.67 plants.m-2 as compared with 29.85 and 28.93 plants.m-2 with normal water treatment at 2008 season, and 40.50 and 27.06 plant. m-2 as compared with 50.44 and 36.94 plants.m-2 at 2009season. Also this strength caused greater percentage of weed control on 90 days after planting at both seasons and recorded 64.57% as compared with 48.47% for normal water treatment at 2008 season and 63.02% as compared with 50.40% at 2009 season.. Closer impact resulted between lower application rate of herbicide (1.2 l.ha-1) and highest application rate (2.4 and 3.6 l.ha-1) on weed control percentage. It was concluded that magnetic water technique may lead to improve efficiency of lower rates of trifluralin herbicide application and this may reduce environmental contamination.

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Article
Silks Viability of Maize Based on Kernel Numbers
حيوية حرائر الذرة الصفراء بدالة عدد الحبوب

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الخلاصة

A Viability of silks for four genotypes of maize was estimated. Five dates of pollination (2, 4, 6,8,10 days) were used during fall 2010 and spring 2011 season respectively. The aim of this research was determination the optimum date for crossing in term of best readiness of silks to receive the pollen grains and attainment highest grain number. The results showed that the optimum age of pollination for gaining highest number of grains 4-6 and 2-4 days of silking for fall and spring seasons respectively. Number of grans was declined significantly by 24% and 12% for both seasons consecutively when the pollination was delayed about the optimum ages. Also, the results indicated that the ideal age of silks, which are in peak for receiving pollen grains, was earlier for spring season by 2 days as compare with fall season. The main goal for the breeders when make crossing is gaining highest number of grains with lower effort and that could be done by adherence the optimum date and avoiding the delay.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Combining ability evaluation in maize lines and their diallel crosses
تقييم المقدرة الاتحادية في سلالات من الذرة الصفراء وهجنها التبادلية

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الخلاصة

A half diallel cross comprising nine inbred lines (CA21R, ZM41R, INBRED6, ZM51, INBRED12, IK8, OH40, ZM49R and INBRED21) was studied for six traits (days to 50% tasselling, plant height, leaf area, number of rows per ear, number of grains per row and grain yield per plant), to determine the nature of gene action in parents and hybrid population. The analysis of variance revealed that mean square of general combining ability (gca) and specific combining ability (sca) was significant for all characters except leaf area in case of gca, indicated the presence of additive as well as non additive gene effects for controlling the traits. However, relative magnitude of these variances indicated that dominance gene effects were more prominent for all studied characters. Parent ZM41R was the best general combiner for all characters except number of days to 50% tasselling. The crosses (CA21R x INBRED12), (ZM41R x ZM49R), (INBRED6 x ZM51), (INBRED6 x INBRED21) and (ZM51 x OH40) showing significant sca effects for larger number of traits including grain yield per plant and could be utilized for developing high yielding hybrid varieties as well as for exploiting hybrid vigor. The range of narrow sense heritability was from 2.819% to 29.334%, respectively, for leaf area and grain yield.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
GENETIC ARCHITECTURE OF SOME QUANTITATIVE TRAITS OF COTTON
البنية الوراثية لبعض الصفات الكمية في القطن

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الخلاصة

The upland cotton varieties Coker310, SP8886, Lachata, Montana, Halab33, AC22, Cord26, Iranian16, Line S230 and Chrip-AM539 were used in half diallel cross and 45 single crosses obtained. Varieties and their diallel crosses were planted at two locations, the first at the farm of College and Forestry, Mosul University in 19/4/2010, ant the second at Al-Hawiga, Kirkuk Governorate in 20/4/2010 using randomized complete block design with three replications. Data recorded for plant height, number of fruiting branches, number of bolls, boll weight, earliness and seed cotton yield per plant, and combining analysis of variance carried out according to the method of the used design, and then analyzed according to Jinks-Hayman method for diallel crosses. Components of genetic variance and narrow sense heritability were estimated and graphic analysis done to detect the nature of gene action for studied characters. The results showed that mean square of genotypes and genotypes x location interaction was highly significant for all characters. The additive and non additive genetic variance components was significant from zero for all characters except earliness, as well as non significant of additive genetic variance for seed cotton yield per plant. The values of dominance components appeared more than additive one for all characters indicating that the dominance genetic variance was more important in the inheritance of these characters. Graphic analysis suggested the presence of complete dominance for plant height and boll weight, partial dominance for seed cotton yield per plant and over dominance for other characters. Narrow sense heritability ranged from 7.92% for seed cotton yield per plant seed cotton yield per plant to 32.7% for boll weight, and it was low for number of fruiting branches, earliness and seed cotton yield per plant and moderate for other characters

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Article
Effect of boron spray and nitrogen fertilization on growth and yield of fennel (foeniculum vulgare Mill.)
تاثير رش البورون والتسميد النيتروجيني في نمو وحاصل نبات الحبة الحلوة (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

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الخلاصة

A factorial field experiment was conducted to study the effect of boron spray at elongation stage( 0 , 40 , 80 mgB/L), and nitrogen fertilization levels( 0 , 92, 184 kgN/ha) as urea (46%N) on growth and yield of fennel (local var.) by using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 4 replicates. The results showed as follow: Boron spray at elongation stage caused significant increase in plant height, wet and dry vegetative weight, no. of seeds per umbel and total yield as compared with control plants, but there were no significant differences between its concentrations. Nitrogen fertilization had a significant effect on all parameters studied with superior in level 92kgN/ha on plant height, no. of branches per plant, wet and dry vegetative weight, no. of seeds per umbel, weight of 1000 seeds, and total yield. The interaction had a significant effect with superior effect in 40 mgB/L plus 92 kgN/ha for most parameters studied.

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Article
GENERAL AND SPECIFIC COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR GRAIN YIELD IN MAIZE USING DIALLEL CROSS
تحليل قابلية الاتحاد العامة والخاصة لصفة حاصل الحبوب في الذرة الصفراء ومكوناته باستخدام التضريب التبادلي

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الخلاصة

The objective of this study was to investigate the general combining ability of parents and specific combining ability of hybrids, heterobeltiosis and also the genetic behavior for characters (number of ears per plant, ear length, ear diameter, number of rows per ear, number of grains per ear, number of grains per plant, 100 grain weight and grain yield per plant) in the population obtained by half diallel cross among pure lines of maize IK8, ZP-301, ZP-707, UN44052, OH40 and HS. The fifteen F1 and six parents were planted at Farm of College of Agriculture and Forestry through spring season, 2012 using randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that mean square of genotypes was highly significant for all studied characters. Analysis of variance according method 2 of Griffing revealed that mean square of general and specific combining abilities was highly significant for all characters indicated the presence of additive as well as non additive gene effects for controlling these characters. However, the ratio between components of general and specific combining ability was less than one, indicated that dominance gene effects were more prominent for all the characters. Parents ZP-301, UN44052 and OH40 characterized by significant desirable general combining ability effects for all characters, and the hybrids (IK8 x ZP-707) and (ZP-301 x UN44052) showed significant desirable specific characters for all characters. and could be exploited for hybrid vigor. Heterobeltiosis shown for all studied characters by hybrids (IK8 x ZP-707), (IK8 x OH40) and (ZP-301 x UN44052), accordingly hybrids with good performance can be used in the development of varieties with high productivity

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Article
GENERAL AND SPECIFIC COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR GRAIN YIELD IN MAIZE USING DIALLEL CROSS
تحليل قابلية الاتحاد العامة والخاصة لصفة حاصل الحبوب في الذرة الصفراء ومكوناته باستخدام التضريب التبادلي

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الخلاصة

The objective of this study was to investigate the general combining ability of parents and specific combining ability of hybrids, heterobeltiosis and also the genetic behavior for characters (number of ears per plant, ear length, ear diameter, number of rows per ear, number of grains per ear, number of grains per plant, 100 grain weight and grain yield per plant) in the population obtained by half diallel cross among pure lines of maize IK8, ZP-301, ZP-707, UN44052, OH40 and HS. The fifteen F1 and six parents were planted at Farm of College of Agriculture and Forestry through spring season, 2012 using randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that mean square of genotypes was highly significant for all studied characters. Analysis of variance according method 2 of Griffing revealed that mean square of general and specific combining abilities was highly significant for all characters indicated the presence of additive as well as non additive gene effects for controlling these characters. However, the ratio between components of general and specific combining ability was less than one, indicated that dominance gene effects were more prominent for all the characters. Parents ZP-301, UN44052 and OH40 characterized by significant desirable general combining ability effects for all characters, and the hybrids (IK8 x ZP-707) and (ZP-301 x UN44052) showed significant desirable specific characters for all characters. and could be exploited for hybrid vigor. Heterobeltiosis shown for all studied characters by hybrids (IK8 x ZP-707), (IK8 x OH40) and (ZP-301 x UN44052), accordingly hybrids with good performance can be used in the development of varieties with high productivity

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Article
Effect of Some Physical Factors in Some Quality Characteristics in Wheat Triticum aestivum L.
تأثير بعض العوامل الفيزيائية في بعض الصفات النوعية للحنطة الناعمة Triticum aestivum L.

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out at the Collage of Agriculture, Tikrit University through 2006- 2007, to investigate the effect of some physical factors in some quality characteristics of bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. aiming at supplementing some information regarding optimum safe storage conditions, as well as the ways of reducing losses during storage. Four moisture content levels (10,12, 14, and 16%) MC, and three storage periods (60, 120, and 180 days) used, samples stored in incubator at(28c.) in tightly polyethylene bags with three replicates .The traits studied included (germination percentage, 1000 kernel weight, and specific gravity), A factorial experiment in R.C.B.D was applied, using Duncan Multiple new Range Test (DMRT) at (p <0.05) for treatments means comparisons. The results obtained showed non- significant differences between all treatments at (10%, and 12%) MC, for all the studied traits, while significant differences between treatments stored at(14%,&16%)MC. was noted, showing high degradation in germination percentage, 1000 seed weight, and hectoliter weight by increasing of MC, and time of storage

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Article
تأثير رطوبة التربة وعمق الحراثة في بعض المؤشرات الفنية لاداء الوحدة المكنية عند استعمال المحراث الحفار .

المؤلفون: سيف احمد روضان
الصفحات: 687-692
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الخلاصة

An experiment in the fields of the faculty of agriculture university of Baghdad in Abu-Ghraib for the impact of moisture content and depth of tillage in some performance indicators for the unit gained (tractor-plow) and qualities that have been studied is to calculate the towing capacity and drag force and the percentage of slipping and consumption fuel. The results indicate that when increasing soil moisture led to an increase in the percentage of slipping and also led to an increase in fuel consumption and towing capacity as well as to low soil moisture without a degree althely led to an increase in the proportion of same qualities the study found that when increasing the depth of tillage led to high in the percentage of slip and fuel consumption and towing capacity and traction. Put down deep tillage led to the low percentage of slip, fuel consumption and towing capacity and drag force and calculated in this research that best combination obtained are when you use the content moisture of the soil between (11.13%) with use of deep plowing (12-15) cm where to get the lowest rate of towing capacity amounting (8.4) hp and less powerful pull of amounting (940.1) kgf and less fuel consumption and of (50.8) L.ha and the lowest percentage of slip and amounting (4.6%)

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Tillage Systems, Space and Planting Method, Digger Methods and Interaction them in undamaged tubers ratio of Potato Productivity.
تأثير نظم الحراثة وطريقة ومسافات الزراعة والقلع وتداخلهما في نسبة البطاطا المقلوعة.

المؤلفون: كمال محسن القزاز --- هلال كاظم الزوبعي
الصفحات: 693-704
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الخلاصة

This work was conducted to study the effect of tillage system and planting methods on productivity of potato crop c.v Desiree in two different locations soil silty clay and clay . Three types of tillage treatment were used in the experiment : moldboard plow with one way path , two-way path of moldboard perpendicular to each other ,and chisel with moldboard perpendicular on each other . Two planting methods were also used ,mechanical planting by and planting by hand . Two planting distances were used (i.e.20 and 3o cm) . Three treatments of harvesting were used including potato digger chain , potato digger frequency and hand lifting . Randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used with a split-split plot design and three replicates. A statistical analysis system (SAS) program was used on computer to data analysis to test the differences between treatments and their interactions with LSD at 0.05 level of error probability . Harvest properties of potato was studied tuber lifted ratio. The results can be summarized on the following : 1- using mechanical planting methods planting methods caused a significant increase in total yield (tons/dounum). 2- Using tillage system of chisel plow perpendicular with moldboard plowing gave a higher mean for practical productivity. 3- Planting with a distance of 20 cm resulted in a significant increase in the mean of total potato yield 4- Using the chain digger in harvesting potatoes resulted in a higher mean value of total potato harvested . 5- There was a significant effect of the interaction between planting method and the three tillage systems in the mean yield . 6- The Interaction between the mechanical planting method and the 20 cm planting chitance gave a significant higher value of the mean number of tubers / plant (5.4 and 4.4 tubers / plant for the 1st and the 2nd locations respectively) in comparison with the other treatments . It also gave a higher mean of total yield for both locations : (6.40 and 4.70 tons/dounum for 1st and 2nd location , respectively) . 7- The interaction between the tillage system of chisel plow perpendicular with moldboard plowing and planting distance of 30 cm resulted in a significant increase in the average of one tuber weight (78.8 and 64.4 g for the first and second location , respectively) in comparison with the other treatments . Also the interaction between the above tillage system with planting distance of 20 cm gave the highest average of total yield (6.16 and 4.67 tons/dounum for the 1st and 2nd location) in comparison to the other treatments . 8- The interaction between the mechanical planting and the tillage system and the planting distance of 20 cm showed a significant in crease in the number of tubers/plant and the average total yield (tans/dounum) in comparison to the other treatments for both location . 9- The interaction between planting method (mechanical and by hand) and the harvesting method by using potato digger frequency resulted in a higher value of average total yield . 10- The interaction between planting methods (mechanical and by hand) and the hang lifting harvest gave the lowest quantitative loss percentages (0.93 and 1.18 for the first location and 1.55 and 2.11 for the 2nd location) in comparison to the other treatments . 11- The interaction between the tillage system of chisel plow perpendicular to moldboard plowing and the harvesting digger chain the highest average percentage of undamaged tubers (91.9 %) and the lowest percentage of qualitction loss (6.2%) for the first location in comparison to the other treatments. 12- The interaction between the planting distance of 20 cm and the harvesting of digger chain gave the highest average of undamaged tubers (92.3%) and the lowest average qualitative loss (6.05%) for the first location in comparison to the other treatment . 13- The interaction between the planting method (mechanical and by hand) and the three tillage systems and the harvesting method of digger frequency gave the lowest value of undamaged tubers and the highest values of qualitative and qualitative losses for both soils . 14- The interaction between tillage method of one path moldboard plowing and planting distance of 30 cm and the harvesting method of digger frequency the lowest value of the undamaged tubers (56.2%) and the highest value of qualitative loss (37.9%) and the qualitative loss (5.79%) for the first location in comparison to other treatments . 15- The interaction between the planting method (mechanical and by hand) and the three tillage systems and the two planting distance (20 and 30 cm) and the digger frequency gave a significant lowest values of the percent undamaged tubers and the highest values of qualitative and qualitative losses for both soils . 16- The interaction between the mechanical planting methods and the tillage system of chisel plow perpendicular to moldboard plowing and the planting distance of 20 cm and the hand lifting harvest the lowest value of qualitative loss (0.41%) for the first location (silty clay soil) in comparison to other treatment .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
تأثير إضافة أجنحة إلى المحاريث الضحلة وعمق الحراثة على أداء المحراث تحت سطح التربة في تربة طينية

المؤلفون: مرتضى عبد العظيم عبد النبي الفارس
الصفحات: 705-711
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الخلاصة

This study carried out in the province of Basrah using subsoiler plow provider with wings and shallow tines. A subsoiler was Manufacturer in the Department of Mechanization, Agricultural college, Basrah University to study effect of adding wings on foot shallow tines and deep tillage on the draft force, disturbed area, specific resistance and the energy utilization efficiency to subsoiler plow in clay soil. Results showed an increase draft force when increasing the depth of tillage to subsoiler plow as it increased by 8.57 kN while draft force increased by 8.58 kN when adding wings to shallow tines as the operating depth increase from 40 to 60 cm. the increase in the disturbed area for the same increase in the operating depth by 0.24-0.26 m2 respectively before and after the addition of wings. Decreased specific resistance by 26.42 and 26.5 kNm-2 increased the energy utilization efficiency when increasing depth from 40 to 60 cm in both cases, the increase was by 4.4 m3MJ-1 before adding the wings and 4.76 m3MJ-1 when adding the wings to shallow tines.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF SOME RAPESEED GENOTYPES (Brassica napusL.)
تأثير التسميد النتروجيني في حاصل ونوعية بعض التراكيب الوراثية في محصول السلجم Brassica napusL.

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الخلاصة

Experiment was carried out at the experimental farm of the College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad – Abu Ghraib during the autumn season of 2001-2002. The main objective was to find out the effect of nitrogen levels (0, 220, 240 and 260 kg N.ha-1 on yield and yield components of four rapeseed genotypes (Bristol, RPC 1991, Pactol and RpGp 902). The layout of the experiment was a spilt-plot in a RCBD with four replications. The genotypes considered main plots whereas nitrogen levels considered the sub-plots treats. The traits studied were plant height, days from planting to 50 % flowering, days from planting to full maturity stage, number of fruit branches per plant, area of pods, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 1000 seeds weight, dry weight, seed yield, percentage of oil and protein in seeds.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Study the chemical composition and functional properties for protein concentrate preparing from chicken by – products by using sodium chloride
دراسة التركيب الكيميائي والخواص الوظيفية للمركز البروتيني المحضر من مخلفات الطيور الداجنة باستخدام كلوريد الصوديوم

المؤلفون: منير عبود جاسم --- حيدر إبراهيم علي
الصفحات: 724-728
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الخلاصة

Protein concentrate was prepared from heads and legs of chicken by using sodium chloride (1%) & (2%). The product was yellow in color and had very faint odor of dried chicken. The yield of the product was (6.8%) and (7.3%) respectively the protein content was (78%) and (78.66%). The product, which was tested under various conditions, had good functional properties such as water absorption, fat binding, viscosity, gelatinization, foaming, solubility and emulsion stability. The product compared with commercial proteins such as egg albumin and casein.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Temperature, Light and Preservatives on the Preservation and organoleptic properties of the Locally Produced Garlic Juice.
تأثيرالموادالحافظة والضوء والحرارة في عصير الثوم والصفات الحسية للعصير المنتج محليا .

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الخلاصة

This study was performed to determine garlic juice extraction and production ability commercially an its preservation under different storage conditions which involved the storage at room temperature and cooled storage besides using preservatives like ( natamycin and hydrogyn peroxide ) and studying of lighting effect on the product's organoleptic properties through the organoleptic evaluation of product's color and flavor. A quantity of garlic juice was extracted and divided into two parts, the first part contained four treatments : control treatment (T1) and the treatment (T2) which contain a definite concentration from the fungal antimicrobial (natamycin) and the treatment ( T3) which contain a definite concentration from hydrogyn peroxide and the treatment ( T4) which assimilated by preservation the juice in blinded conditions, all treatments of this part were stored in room temperature (25c°) . where the second part treatments are kept in refrigerator at (5c°) and the changes in treatments properties were supervised by the organoleptic evaluation for treatments color and flavor. The results showed exceeding the cooled storage over the storage in room temperature and there is no obvious differences in color and flavor among the treatments, where the un cooled results were obviously different between treatments (T1)( T4) and the treatments(T2, T3) for storage period and color and flavor changes where the storage period of control treatment and (T4) was short with color and flavor changes, and extend storage period for (T2, T3) and there was no differences between the two samples of treatment (T4) from lighting effects as compared with treatments (T2,T3, T4) respectively.


Article
Classification of some gypsiferous soils in Holy Karbala Province
تصنيف بعض الترب الجبسية في محافظة كربلاء المقدسة

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الخلاصة

The soil pedons were selected along study transect across the study region in Karbala Province, representing different geological formations ,physiographic location and level of ground water . The main objectives of the study are to identify the gypsic horizons and classification of study soils. Soil pedons were exposed and described according the survey manual used in Iraq . Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from all soil horizons were taken for physical and chemical analysis . The results of morphological , physical and chemical studies indicate the following :- The studied soils show some differences in the morphological and development mainly within their horizon type , thickness and sequences due to the local conditions for each pedon and dry climatic condition causing to form the soil order of arid region (Aridisols) and two sub orders(Gypsids)and(Calcids) and five soil series. The studied soils did not show a specific pattern for soil fractions distribution with depth which reflect the weakness in activity of pedogenic processes responsible for the formation of illuvial clay horizons due to the effect of alluvial parent material and dry climatic condition . Sand was the dominate soil fractions followed by silt and clay. The results indicate , that most of the studied soils are unsaline (EC<4dS m-1) , but one pedon with moderate salt content .The content of gypsum minerals increase within the subsurface horizons in comparison to the surface and C horizons which indicate the formation of gypsic horizon in most of the studied pedons . While , other pedons show the formation of calcic horizon which indicate the activity of decalcification and calcification processes . This was indicated by the morphological features of both secondary gypsum and contents accumulations in the studied pedons which ranged from fine soft powder , crystals and hard nodules in sand size . These accumulation present either in filling form or as cutans on the inside voids walls .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Influence of organic residue on chemical equilibrium phases resulted from phosphorous addition
تاثير المخلفات العضوية على اطوار الاتزان الكيميائي للتربة الناتج من اضافة الاسمدة الفوسفاتية

المؤلفون: اركان الشوك --- عبد سراب --- اياد علي محمد
الصفحات: 734-750
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الخلاصة

Lab. experiment was carried out in Al-Musaib tech. college to study the effect of organic residue and phosphours fertilizer on phosphours phases in three treatments included soil only , soil and organic residue 1:1 and organic residue only and five phosphors fertilizer levels (0 , 100 , 200 , 400 and 800 ) kg P hectar for eight weeks incubation period . Results of this study indicated the existence of octacalcium phosphate OCP , dicalcium phosphate DCP and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate DCPD in the soil treatment only and the existence of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate in the soil and organic residue treatment and the existence of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate with different degree of saturation in the organic residue treatment , also results of this study indicated clear effect of increasing the phosphorus fertilizer level on the existence of phosphorus phases in the whole treatments .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of some conditioners on properties of soil different texture and emergency and yield of wheat
تأثيراضافة بعض المحسنات في صفات ترب مختلفة النسجة وبزوغ بادرات وحاصل الحنطة

المؤلفون: ابتسام عبد الزهرة عبد الرسول
الصفحات: 751-761
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الخلاصة

Soils samples were collected from different sites in southern Iraq sedimentary soils of the surface layer depth of 0-20 cm.. The analysis showed that the soils include a wide range of particle sizes distribution such as sandy sandy loamy to Clay texture, the results showed that most soils have ability to form hard surface crust . Soils with a high content of (clay + silt) gave the highest values of modulus of rupture (MOR) (6366-5677) mill bar as Akkad control treatment soils (siltyclay)texture after and before agricultural .Positive and negative linear relationship between Clay and sand with MOR, the correlation coefficient highly significant (r = 0.682) and (r = 0.703), respectively . The biological experience of Conducted agricultural in poet experiment three replicates, the experience of its texture random to determine the impact toughness crust soils surface ratios germination of five soil different texture factory waste and organic material ,left treatment compared each soil without adding. Results showed that the ratios germination inversely proportional to the strength of the surface crust as ranged germination of 18% of the clay soils and 96% of sandy loam soils comparison. Adding Polymeric as conditions to the soil reduce the coefficient of (MOR) and reduced the appearance of rigid surface crust. And differing conditioners gave different germination rates for the same soil and transactions compared with the Control treatment and soils treatment with (Torellat, Brailat, organic matter Control treatment) respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of deep plowing in soil penetration resistance,soil hydraulic conductivity and barley(HordeumVulgare L.) growth .
تأثير الحراثة العميقة في مقاومة التربة للاختراق والايصالية المائية المشبعة ونمو الشعير (Hordeum vulgare L.)

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted on the Marsh land at the Al-Nasr irrigation project, Which is located at Al-Mudaina district , Basrah Province, south of Iraq . during the winter season of 2007/2008. The soil texture(planted S1 and unplanted S0) was silty clay. The aim was to Study the effect of deep plowing on soil penetration resistance , soil hydraulic conductivity and plant growth. The work included surface tillage by moldboard plough with 25 cm depth(C1),, and the subsurface tillage by subsoiler plough to a depth of 50 cm(C2) , then with moldboard plough . These two soils were planted with barley seeds (Hordeum Vulgare L.).The soil physical properties were determined for four growth stages including, Germination, branching , Flowering , and maturity . After the soil was prepared, it was divided into experimental units of 4*10 m.The experimental treatments were distributed into three replicates using the factorial experiment in complete randomized block design . The results indicated that the existing of impermeable layer at 30 cm depth caused an increase in penetration resistance (PR), and a decrease in the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of the two soil (S1 and S0) .using subsoiler plough (C2) resulted an increase in Ks , whereas the PR were decreased in comparison with (C1) treatment , these influences continuous until the end of growth season. The C2 caused an increase in dry matter of plants in comparison with C1 for both S1& S0.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Content of soil for some reign in Mesan Governorate from organic matter and carbonate minerals
محتوى ترب بعض مناطق محافظة ميسان من المادة العضوية ومعادن الكربونات

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الخلاصة

The study has been conducted to know the variation in organic mater and carbonate minerals content with different depth ( 0 -15,15- 30 and 30 – 45 ) for some reigns in Mesan ( Ali Al-kharbi , Kumet , Ali Al-Sharqi , Amara center , Majer Al-Kabeer , Kahlaa , Khalat Saleh and Azeer ) . The study locations were chosen to represent area to taken soil sample . The result showed that the organic matter content increased in surface horizons and decreased with depth . The highest OM value appeared in kumet reign ( 17 gm kg-1 soil ) . Whereas the value of other location were 11.5 – 15.1 gm kg-1 soil .Also the data showed that carbonate minerals content was highest in Majer Al-Kabeer (570 gm kg-1 soil ) . Whereas the value of other location were 350 – 520 gm kg-1 soil.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
تقييم كفاءة حامض السالسيلك Salicylic acid (SA) والفطر Trichoderma harzianum في مقاومة مرض تعفن الجذور في الباميا المتسبب عن الفطر Rhizoctonia solani

المؤلفون: ناجي سالم جاسم
الصفحات: 778-787
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الخلاصة

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
تأثير درجات الحرارة بين 33-42 سيليزية في موت الادوار المختلفة لحشرة عثة الملابس الناسجة Tineola bisselliella (Hum.) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae)

المؤلفون: ابتسام حمدان مانع
الصفحات: 788-792
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الخلاصة

All stage of Tineola bisselliella (Hum.) were exposed to temperature between (33 -42(ºc for periods varying between a few hours and a number of days under controlled at 70% of humidity. Complete mortality occurred ret 100% at 42cº for two hours being lethal to all stage of the insect. The eggs appear to be the most resistant stage. Life cycle is possible at 33cº.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Evaluation The Effect Of Two Plants Cowpea And Okra As Plant Traps For Some Cotton Pests
تقييم تأثير نباتي اللوبيا L.) Walp.)Vigna unguiculata والباميا Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench كمصائد نباتية لبعض آفات القطن

المؤلفون: سعاد أرديني عبد الله
الصفحات: 793-798
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الخلاصة

The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. and okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench as plant traps on some cotton pests. Three treatments were used: the first treatment which included eight lines cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. with four lines cowpea (as plant traps) on both sides; The second treatment which included eight lines cotton with four lines okra (as plant traps) on both sides; and the third treatment which included eight lines cotton as control (check). The results showed significant difference of the infestation percentage of the beet army worm Spodoptera exigua Hbn., This pest and the spiny bollworm Earias insulana Boisd. Showed more preference to the okra plants. The infestation percentage increased to 83.3% and the larva number was increased and reached 11.6 larvae/ plant. But in the cotton plants of the first treatment, the infestation percentage of the first insect decreased, with an average of 29.53% and also the larva number of the second insect, and reached one larva/plant. In addition to this, the cowpea plants showed no infestation by the spiny bollworm. Furthermore, the results asserted declared that strawberry spider mite Tetranychus turkestani (Ugarov&Nikolski) and the cotton thrips Thrips tabaci Lind. Showed more preference to the cowpea which reached 35.3 and 22.6 individual/plant, respectively. while the okra plants showed no infestation by the strawberry spider mite. Moreover, the cotton with four lines okra and cotton plants in control, showed more preference to cotton white fly Bemisia tabaci Gennas; it reached 25.3, 24.3 individual/plant, respectively. Results also indicated that the effect of spray plant traps (cowpea and okra) in the first and second treatments, respectively with the mixture of IGR Match and Polo insecticide on cotton yield, showed that the cotton plants in the first treatment gave the highest yield in the first and second picking with an average of 812.48, 809.5 Kg/Donem, respectively, as compared to control, which gave a low yield with an average of 681.45 Kg/Donem.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Laboratory study about the affect of two fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals.)Vuill. and Paecilomyces farinosus (Holm.) Brown & Smith on the eggs of the Sunn Pest Eurygaster integriceps Put. and eggs parasitoid Trissolcus spp
دراسة مختبرية حول تأثير الفطرين Beauveria bassiana (Bals.)Vuill. وPaecilomyces farinosus (Holm.) Brown & Smith في بيض حشرة السونة Eurygaster integriceps Put. وطفيل البيض Trissolcus spp

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الخلاصة

The treating result of Sunn Pest Eurygaster integriceps Put. Eggs with the fourth concentration 1×105, 1×106, 1×107 & 1×108 spore/ml of the two fungi B.bassiana and P.farinosus in the incubator at 27 co and 70 % relative humidity, showed that the parasitism for the first fungi was 90.47, 92.87, 100.00 & 100.00 % and 88.10, 95.24, 97.62 & 100.00 % for the second. No hatching occurred when the eggs treated with two concentration of sporal suspension of B.bassiana 1×107, 1×108 spore/ml and 1×108 spore/ml of P.farinosus. The percentage of eggs in which embryonic development has occurred in without hatching with the two concentration 1×105& 1×106 spore/ml of B.bassiana was reached 19.05 & 7.41 %, respectively. The incubation period in the incubator were estimated to be 9 – 12 day. In the laboratory, the parasitism rate after 13 day when the eggs treated with the 1×106, 1×107 & 1×108 spore/ml for both fungi, which were estimated 100.00, 97.62 & 100.00 % and 95.24, 97.62 & 97.62 % , respectively. There was no hatching occurred when used two concentration 1×106 & 1×108 spore/ml of B.bassiana. The lowest hatching percentage in 1×107 spore/ml and the eggs in which embryonic development has occurred in without hatching in 1×108 spore/ml which estimated at 2.38 % of B.bassiana. The incubation period which estimated at 9 – 12.5 day. Both fungi B.bassiana and P.farinosus highly affected the Sunn Pest eggs parasite (Trissolcus spp) which were estimated to be 100 and 33.33% respectively.

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Article
Isolation and identification of the Nuclear Polyhydrosis Virus (NPV) from the cotton leaf worm larvae Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd
عزل وتشخيص الفايروس متعدد الاسطح الموجود بالنواة N.P.V من يرقات دودة ورق القطن Sopdoptera littoralis (Boisd)

المؤلفون: حسام الدين عبدالله محمد صالح
الصفحات: 806-810
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الخلاصة

Cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) larvae reared in lab on tomato leafs, showed illness symptoms which were: slow mobility, stop feeding, swelling and discoloration into pale white. Spodoptera Nuclear Poly Hydrosis Virus was isolated and identified using the electron transmission microscope by the negative staining method and proved to be responsible for the larvae's mortality. Three concentrates of viral suspension were used (25,50,75 %) for the bioassay and the polyhydric inclusion bodies appeared. Toxicity lines were drawn after 24 and 72 hours using the (Log. Dose-propit). The LC50s for the virus were 0.20 % and 0.07 % and the slopes were 1.86 , 1.62 consequently.

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Article
Toxicity test of some Insecticides on the citrus whitefly Acaudaleyrodes citri (Priesner & Hosny) [Homoptera: Aleyrodidae]
اختبار سمية بعض المبيدات الحشرية على ذبابة الحمضيات البيضاء Acaudaleyrodes citri (Pri. & Hos.) [Homoptera: Aleyrodidae]

المؤلفون: حازم أحمد قاسم
الصفحات: 811-816
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الخلاصة

The result of toxicity studies of the insecticides Supradvathion , Cypermethrin , Dichlorovos and Patriote on the whitefly Acaudaleyrodes citri (Pri.&Hos.) showed the existence of difference in the values of LC50 . The toxicity varied according to the type of the insecticide . The Cypermethrin showed a very high effect on the insect compared with the Dichlorovos insecticide which come in the second position and then Supradvathion insecticide , whereas the Patriote insecticide was the lowest , where values of LC50 reached 0.14 , 0.29 , 0.44 and 0.54 respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Extraction and purification Listeriolysin O of bacteria Listeria monocytodenes isolated from different Food materials
استخلاص و تنقية Listeriolysin O من بكتريا Listeria monocytogenes و المعزوله من مواد غذائيه مختلفه

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الخلاصة

The bacteria Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from food samples different proportions of isolation as following:; 3.33% from freezing chicken meat; 10% in fish breeding aquarium and 10% from living fish gills. The isolates were diagnosed by biochemical tests and cultured on differential culture media.The sensitivity of isolates to different antibiotics were tests,it was appeared that all isolates were resist in prportion(100% to bacitracin; trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and sensitive in proportion 100% to chloramphenicol and amoxicillin and (30%) to pencillin G.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effeced of Allelopath of rice for germination and groth of wheat plant
التأثير الاليلوباثي لنبات الرز .Oryza sativa L في إنبات ونمو نبات الحنطة Triticum aestivum L.

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الخلاصة

In this study the researcher investigated the effectiveness of rice in inhabiting the vegetation of wheat ( tammooz type ) via two experiences ( a laboratory , green house , ). the laboratory experience includes the vegetation of wheat in ptre dishes that are treated with the water extract of rice with concentrations of ( 0 , 20 , 40 and60 ) . the green house experience deals with the vegetation of wheat in plastic pots after treation it with rice extract with concentrations of ( 0 , 20 , 40 and 60). The water extract of rice in the first and second experiences shows an inhabiting effect via the decrease of the percentage of the vegetation, the vegetation and root length.

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Article
Inter-specific attraction in two species of Blattillid cockroach, German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) and Brownbanded cockroach Supella supellectilium (Dictyopptera : Blattellidae)
التجاذب مابين نوعي الصرصر الالماني Blattella germanica (L.) والصرصر ذي الحزامين البنيين Supella supellectillium (S.)(Dictyoptera:Blattellidae )

المؤلفون: مكي حمد عبد علي --- رعد فاضل احمد
الصفحات: 829-836
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الخلاصة

Studies on the inter-specific attraction between individuals of German cockroach Blattella germanica and Brown banded cockroach Supella Supellictelium revealed that a significant rates of individuals of each species attracted and aggregated in harborage contaminated with their own fecal extract which contains aggregation pheromone or with their own odors and feces in comparison to that in control . On other hand, it was found that the rate of individuals number of each species attracted and aggregated on harborage contaminated with odor and feces or treated with fecal extract of another species, was 21.3 individual / harborage in comparsion to the rate of 12.6 and 13.6 individuals/harborage in control respectively. in free choice test, the results showed that individuals of each species preferred to attract and aggregate in harborage contaminated with their own aggregation pheromone or with aggregation pheromone of another species. Thus, the aggregation pheromone of two species could act as pheromone for its own species individuals or kairomones for the individuals of the another species. Also the results showed a highly positive aggregation index (AI) for both species when the individuals response was tested on harborage treated with their own pheromone or with pheromone of another species. The segregation index (SI) of two species observed in two types of harborages showed the gathering of the two species individuals in one harborage, thus, no segregation occurred among them.

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Article
Effect of two wheat varieties Karonea & Tellafar 3 and the level of urea fertilizer in the infestation of wheat leaf miner larvae Syringopais temperatella Led.
تأثير صنفي الحنطة ( كارونية و تلعفر 3) وكمية سماد اليوريا في الإصابة بحشرة حفار أوراق الحنطة Syringopais temperatella Led.

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الخلاصة

It was observed from results of the effect of wheat varieties and the level of urea fertilizer in the infestation of (wheat leaf miner larvae), that the durum wheat variety (Karonea) was more tolerant to the infestation, where the lowest percentage of infestation was recorded for the infested plants and leaves at the first date of sampling in 15 / 3/2008 besides the number of canals that contain living larvae at 12/4/2008 especially when adding the recommended quantity of Urea fertilizer (control) which was 20 kg/Donem with a percentage of (80.00 and 50.38)% and (12.67 tunnel / 20 plant) , respectively , this was positively reflected in the dry weight of wheat plants. Thus, the highest weight was recorded with adding the recommended quantity with an average of (0.27mg/ 20 plant), while the variety of soft wheat variety (Tellafar 3) was lower in resistance to infestation, and the percentage of the infested plants and leaves was higher than those in the (Karonea) variety with a percentage of (88.33 and 67.28) % , respectively, besides it was characterized by a largest number of canals with living larvae at 29/3/2008 with an average of (53.33 tunnel/20plant), besides, the increase in Urea fertilizer added at a rate of (25kg / Donem), was proportional to the infestation and inversely with the dry weight of wheat plants in both varieties especially in the variety (Tellafar 3) as all the wheat plants were infested starting from 22/3 until 12/4/2008 besides all the leaves were infested and the largest number of canals containing living larvae at the date of 29/3/2008 with an average of (830.76 larvae /20 plant), and the lowest weight was shown for the variety mentioned above with an average of (0.11 mg / 20 plant) especially when adding an additional rate of urea fertilizer .

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Article
STUDY ON SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CITRUS MEALYBUG Planococcus citri Risso (Hemiptera :Pseudococcidae )IN LABORATORY.
دراسة بعض الجوانب الحياتية لبق الحمضيات الدقيقي Planococcus citri Risso (Hemiptera :Pseudococcidae) مختبرياً.

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الخلاصة

The lab. Studies on the biological aspects of mealybug Planococcus citri found that the female nymphal stage develops through three instars. The first is a wandering and called crawlers . This instar covered with wax after 2-3 days from feeding .In this instar it is hard to distinguish between male and female. The average of body length and width of this instar were 0.5 mm and 0.21 mm, respectively .It was also found that the growth period of the first instar was 5 days at 25±2 oC and 65 ±5% RH. The second nymphal instar was found the average ofbody length and width were 0.87 and 0.47 mm ,respectively ,while the average of growth period reached to 5.5 days. The body of 2nd instar is surrounded by waxy appendages , equal in length except the posterior pair was longer than the others . The 3rd nymphal instar is bigger than the second .The average of body length and width were 1.39 mm and 0.84 mm respectively,while the average of growth period reached to 5.5 days . The male nymphal stage passes through four nymphal instars .The wing buds could be seen at the second instar .The color of 2nd instar is brownish grey.This period of growth starts to sercted waxes filegment around the body. The length and width of the body averaged 0.82 mm and 0.36 mm,respectively ,and the average of growth period reached to 4.5 days. The average length and width of the body of the 3rd male nymphal instar were 0.98 mm and 0.30 mm ,respectively ,while the average period of this instar was 5.5 days. The 4th male nymphal instar, which is reddish brown in color with incomplete black wings .The average of length and width of the body were 1.11 mm and 0.36 mm ,respectively.while the average of growth period of this instar reached to 4.5 days. Adult male has apair of wings in the mesothorax and the average of length and width of the body were 1.13 mm and 0.24 mm ,respectively. The body length and width of adult female were 2.52 mm and 1.65 mm in average. . The female lay 431.31 eggs under the condition of 25 ± 2 oC and 65 ±5 RH .The average of length and width of egg were 0.31 mm and 0.18 mm,respectively .

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Article
The Efficiency of Some Biorational Fungicides in Controlling The White Mold on Eggplant in Greenhouse Conditions
كفاءة بعض المبيدات الصديقة للبيئة في مكافحة مرض العفن الابيض على الباذنجان في ظروف البيت الزجاجي

المؤلفون: صالح حسن سمير --- رباب علي نعمه
الصفحات: 853-860
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الخلاصة

The study included evaluation the efficiency of some biorational Funngicides compared to some chemical fungicides against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causal agent of white rot in eggplants in greenhouse conditions . SSR1 Isolate showed highest disease severity 79.3 % in eggplant in greenhouse conditions compared to control 100% . The lower disease severity was achieved with Switch and Flint treatments 25% for both compared to 100% in control treatment . Also, Flint treatment was superior compared to the treatments in fresh and dry weight of root and vegetative part 54.9 , 7.55 , 26.9 and 3.36 g. respectively.

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Article
The Efficiency of Some Insect Growth Regulators Added to The Termites Media to Cause The Mortality to Termites Workers Microcerotermes diversus (Silv.) ( Isoptera : Termitidae ) At Natural Laboratory Conditions and Incubator Conditions
كفاءة بعض منظمات النمو الحشرية المضافة الى الوسط الغذائي في إحداث الهلاك لشغالات الأرضة ( Isoptera : Termitidae ) Microcerotermes diversus (Silv.) تحت ظروف المختبر الطبيعية وظروف الحاضنة

المؤلفون: راضي فاضل الجصاني --- مصطفى ضاري المرسومي
الصفحات: 861-876
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of different insect growth regulators with concentrations (250,500,1000,2000) ppm for Alsystin (Triflumuron) , Dimilin (Diflubenzuron) and (200, 250, 300) ppm for Nemsis (Chlorfluazuron) in causing the mortality to termite workers feed on treated media with the insect growth regulators in the natural laboratory conditions and incubator conditions at a temperature of 30 ± 5 C and Relative humidity 80 ± 10% in 2011 - 2012.The study results showed a great effectiveness of all the insect growth regulators Alsystin , Dimilin and Nemsis in causing the mortality to termite workers for all tested concentrations and for both experiment conditions as all concentrations characterized to cause a gradual killing at the beginning of the treatment and then increased with increasing of exposure time. For the experiments carried out in the laboratory conditions the increasing of the concentration effect in increasing the effectiveness of the Alsystin and Nemsis but the increasing of Dimilin concentrations didn’t impact in increasing the proportion of mortality during the experiment time As for the experiments conducted in the incubator conditions the increasing of the concentrations didn’t effect in increasing the rates of mortality for all insect growth regulators. The study results showed that the efficiency of Alsystin , Dimilin and Nemsis in causing less of mortality over time In the twelfth week of fourth infection killing rates were 42%, 32%, 33.50%, 52% for the concentrations (250, 500, 1000, 2000) ppm, respectively, for Alsystin while the killing rates of Dimilin were (73.33%, 54.67%,68.33%, 70%) for the same concentrations while the killing rates cosed by Nemsis were 72%, 64%, 64% for concentrations (200, 250, 300) ppm, respectively, but the efficiency of these growth regulators but they were more efficiency and faster in causing a killing when the temperature is relatively stable in the conditions of the incubator compared to fluctuations in temperature at laboratory conditions during subsequent exposition, the effective of Dimilin and Nemsis in causing mortality continued 157 - 241 days and for Alsystin 157 days in laboratory conditions when it continued 237 days in the incubator conditions for all insect growth regulators.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The Efficiency of Some Insect Growth Regulators Added to The Termites Media to Cause The Mortality to Termites Workers Microcerotermes diversus (Silv.) ( Isoptera : Termitidae ) At Natural Laboratory Conditions and Incubator Conditions
كفاءة بعض منظمات النمو الحشرية المضافة الى الوسط الغذائي في إحداث الهلاك لشغالات الأرضة ( Isoptera : Termitidae ) Microcerotermes diversus (Silv.) تحت ظروف المختبر الطبيعية وظروف الحاضنة

المؤلفون: راضي فاضل الجصاني --- مصطفى ضاري المرسومي
الصفحات: 861-876
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الخلاصة

The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of different insect growth regulators with concentrations (250,500,1000,2000) ppm for Alsystin (Triflumuron) , Dimilin (Diflubenzuron) and (200, 250, 300) ppm for Nemsis (Chlorfluazuron) in causing the mortality to termite workers feed on treated media with the insect growth regulators in the natural laboratory conditions and incubator conditions at a temperature of 30 ± 5 C and Relative humidity 80 ± 10% in 2011 - 2012.The study results showed a great effectiveness of all the insect growth regulators Alsystin , Dimilin and Nemsis in causing the mortality to termite workers for all tested concentrations and for both experiment conditions as all concentrations characterized to cause a gradual killing at the beginning of the treatment and then increased with increasing of exposure time. For the experiments carried out in the laboratory conditions the increasing of the concentration effect in increasing the effectiveness of the Alsystin and Nemsis but the increasing of Dimilin concentrations didn’t impact in increasing the proportion of mortality during the experiment time As for the experiments conducted in the incubator conditions the increasing of the concentrations didn’t effect in increasing the rates of mortality for all insect growth regulators. The study results showed that the efficiency of Alsystin , Dimilin and Nemsis in causing less of mortality over time In the twelfth week of fourth infection killing rates were 42%, 32%, 33.50%, 52% for the concentrations (250, 500, 1000, 2000) ppm, respectively, for Alsystin while the killing rates of Dimilin were (73.33%, 54.67%,68.33%, 70%) for the same concentrations while the killing rates cosed by Nemsis were 72%, 64%, 64% for concentrations (200, 250, 300) ppm, respectively, but the efficiency of these growth regulators but they were more efficiency and faster in causing a killing when the temperature is relatively stable in the conditions of the incubator compared to fluctuations in temperature at laboratory conditions during subsequent exposition, the effective of Dimilin and Nemsis in causing mortality continued 157 - 241 days and for Alsystin 157 days in laboratory conditions when it continued 237 days in the incubator conditions for all insect growth regulators.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The Effect Of Host Kind And Sub-Lethal Concentration Of Some Insect Growth Inhibitors On Some Biological Parameters Of Plodia interpunctella (Hub.) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)
تأثير نوع العائل الغذائي والتركيز تحت القاتل من بعض مثبطات نمو الحشرات في بعض المقاييس الحياتية لعثة الطحين الهندية Plodia interpunctella (Hub.)(Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)

المؤلفون: نزار مصطفى الملاح --- محمود ثلاج ابراهيم
الصفحات: 877-885
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الخلاصة

The results of the recent study showed that Lufenuron Lc25 inhibit the insect growth completely on almond and pistachio while the hosts treated by the Cyromazin and Buprofezin Lc25 exhibit the lowest insect population density rate reached 7.13 , 9.06 for the insect reached on Pistachio treated by Cyromazin and Buprofezin respectively , in comparison with control and the growth rate reached 33.9 and 23.88 respectively . The results also revealed that the highest mean lose in cashew treated by Lufenuron , in comparison with control which reached 21.86gm and the lowest mean loss in food reached 1.16 and 1.5 gm on almond and Pistachio treated with Lufenuron respectively comparing with 20 and 18.43 gm in control respectively . The highest mean of the reduction rate in insect population reached 83.88% on Pistachio treated by Cyromazin and 67.38% on almond treated with Buprofezin respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The Quantitive Estimation of Free Formic Acid Extracted from of the species Ant Workers, Messor rufitarsis (Fab.) and Crematogaster auberti Emery
التقدير الكمي لحامض الفورميك الحر المستخلص من شغالات نوعي النمل rufitarsis (Fab.) Messor و Crematogaster auberti Emery

المؤلفون: سعاد أرديني عبدالله --- ندى صبيح عثمان
الصفحات: 886-891
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الخلاصة

The extraction, classification (diagnosing) and estimation of free formic acid from of the species ant workers, Messor rufitarsis and Crematogaster auberti, had been done. The first species was gathered from the College of Agriculture and Forestry fields and the second from Citrus trees infested by Aphids from a house garden of an area of (400 m2) in AL-wahda district in Mosul city, to diagnose free formic acid that is presented in the extract solution from the above two species of ant two methods were used : The first one was: qualitative method of component, estimate, (retention time Rt) and the second: quantitive method, estimation under peak area. The specific diagnose for formic acid showed that in two extract solutions, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The two methods ( direct and potentiometric titration) were used for estimation. The results exemplified the appearance of the peak for the pure formic acid (standard) had happened at seizing time 3.459 minutes, the peak recorded with the first species of ant M. rufitarsis was at 3.407 minute, and with the second species of ant C. auberti, it was at 3.342 minute, the percentages of free formic acid reached (0.398 and 0.760)% in both of ant species respectively

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Article
EFFECT OF HIVE COLOR IN SOME BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF HONEYBEE COLONIES Apis mellifera L. DURING SPRING &EARLY SUMMER SEASONS IN THE AIR CONDITION FOR ERBIL GOVERNORATE IN NORTH IRAQ
تأثير لون الخلية في بعض الصفات الحيوية لطوائف نحل العسل Apis mellifera L. خلال موسمي الربيع والصيف المبكرفي الظروف الجوية لمحافظة أربيل في شمال العراق

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الخلاصة

The study was conducted in Erbil Agriculture Directorate/ plant protection department/ Ain Kawa on colonies of hybrid honeybees Apis mellifera L. kept within mode of Italian hive ,Results of hive color effect in honeybee population showed significant impact of white color treatment with their mean of 47.10 frame bees comparing with the lowest mean 71.9 frame bees, which scored in the treatment of brownish color treatment (control), but for the mean of worker brood did not show significant differences between the various treatments and higher mean was 525,04 square inch, which scored in the white color treatment compared with the lowest mean 484, 48 square inch, which scored in the blue color treatment, also their was no significant differences in the drone brood character between the various Treatment, the highest mean was18, 69 square inch compared to the lowest mean 9.43 square inch , who recorded in the blue treatment, also white color treatment had significant impact recorded the highest mean of pollen 149.64 square inch compared to the brownish color treatment (control), which recorded the lowest mean of 75.49 square inch, while their was no any significant differences between the various treatments in the mean of honey production and the highest mean was 446.93 square inch, who scored in the treatment of white color compared with lowest mean 371.7 square inch, who scored in the brownish color treatment (control).

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Article
Efficacy of onion seed treatment with some insecticides and two local isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill on onion maggot, Delia alliaria Fonseca in Nursery
تأثير معاملة بذور البصل ببعض المبيدات وعزلتين من الفطر Bals.) Vuill) Beauveria bassiana في اﻹصابة بذبابة البصل Fonseca Delia alliaria في المشتل

المؤلفون: فريال بهجت هرمز --- حميد حسين الكربولي
الصفحات: 901-905
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at the field of the College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad Abu – Ghraib to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment of onion seeds before planting in the nursery with bio-pesticide Spinosad and two local isolates from Beauveria bassiana (BSA3 and BSA1) compared with IGR’ Trigard and Insecticide Cruiser. Results of Seed treatment revealed that Spinosad significantly reduced infestation rate by the onion maggot, D. alliaria to lowest rate of 4.06 %, followed by 5.06 %, 6.64 % and15.73 % for Cruiser, Trigard and control treatment respectively. This means that seed treatment with Spinosad have been reduced incidence of infestation by approximately 75 %. As for the seed treatment with B. bassiana, Isolate BSA3 significantly reduced the infestation rate by the means of 11% followed 13.4 % for BSA1 isolate compared with 17.95% for the control treatment, this means that the seed treatment with these two isolates had reduced infestation rates by 38 % and 24 %for the isolate BSA3 and BSA1 respectively. The role of onion seed treatment with Spinosad and B. bassiana isolate especially in organic agriculture, also discussed.

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Article
تأثير التداخل بين المادة العضوية ولقاح الفطر Trichoderma harzianum في معايير نمو وأنتاجية نبات الطماطة esculentum Lycopersicon

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الخلاصة

The interaction effect between organic agriculture and fungus inoculum T. harzianum on growth parameter and productivity of Tomato plant A field experiment was conducted in loamy sand soil at Al-najaf – province ,desert reigon.to study the effect of inter action between organic matter levels and the activity of T.harzianum fungus in planting Tomato crop. Three levels of organic matter were used 15, 30, 60 Ton/ha with three levels of T. harzianum inocculum 0 , 1 , 2gm/ m2 used RCBD Desigin . salt wells water was used with drip irrigation method . The aim of this study is to evaluate the population of T.h during7, 35, 63, 91, 119, 147 days and its role in improvement the growth parameter and productivity of Tomato plant . results showed superior fungus treatment at level of 2 gm/m2 of inoculum in increasing plant production which reached to 20.5 Ton /ha compared with the control which gives 15 Ton/ ha , while the interaction treatement at 30 Ton/ha level of organic matter and 1gm/m2 of inoculcm gives 25Ton /ha of Tomato compared with same level of orgainic matter alon which give 16 Ton/ha.Al so the inoculutm treatment have an increase in length of tomato plant which reached to 72, 85, 83cm for the treatment 0, 1, 2gm/ m2 respectively . results al so showed that the time affected on the population of fungus which give CFU 0.1 *1O6 for each gm/ dry soil after 7days 0f inoculation while after 147days became 1.5*103 CFU/gm of dry soil.

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Article
Efect of nitrogen fixing bacteria and Trichoderma on growth and yield of some vegetables
تاثير البكتريا المثبتة للنتروجين والمبيد الاحيائي للفطر Trichoderma على نمو وانتاجية بعض الخضر

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الخلاصة

Field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Research site in Baghdad using nitrogen fixing bacteria (Azotobacter)and Trichoderma during planting of tomata and eggplant crops.Results showed a clear differnce of growth and yield parameters for all treatments used. The treatment of the mixture of Azotobacter and Trichoderma was the best which increased the dry weight to 240g/plant and yield to 2050g/plant comparing with control (175,1100/plant)respectivelly for tomata,while dry weight and yield for eggplant increased to 200,1900g/plant comparing to control treatment which recorded 110,1300g/plant respectivelly.

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Article
COMBINATION EFFECT BETWEEN OCHRA A AND DON MYCOTOXINS IN BODYS WEIGHT , MORTALITY , SOME BLOODS CHARACTERS AND PROPORTIONAL WEIGHT FOR INTERNAL ORGANS FOR JAPANESE QUAIL
تأثير التداخل بين سمي الاوكرا A والـ DON في وزن الجسم ونسبة الهلاكات وبعض صفات الدم والوزن النسبي للأعضاء الداخلية لطيور السمان .

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الخلاصة

The research included the study interaction effect between two mycotoxins ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in Japanese quail diet . The contamination of diet with 2ppm ochratoxin A and 10 ppm DON caused significant reduction in Coturnix japonica weight, 28.3 and 21.6% accompanying with increase of broiler death, 28.6 and 21.6% compared with control . The mycotoxins caused increasing in kidney , liver , heart , gizzard , by (198.41 , 150.8%) , (156.52 , 141.1% ) , (191.67, 168.75%) and ( 158.3 , 149.75%) respectively .No significant (P<0.05) decrease in fabricius gland by the two mycotoxins was observed . Significant (P<0.05) decreases were registered in compact cell , Hemoglobin ratio and in number of red blood cells , while significant (P<0.05) increase in number of white blood cells and Heterophil / Lymphocyte cells ratio were observed. The mycotoxins caused significant (P<0.05) decrease in total protein and significant (P<0.05) increase in uric acid in plasma. The presence of both of the two mycotoxins in the diet at the same concentration caused higher decrease in poultry weight , 32.23% and higher death percentage 35.7 % compared with 28.6% by ochratoxin A and 21.5% by DON of each separately respectively . similar effects were observed in blood constituents and internal organs weight .

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Article
Effect of Dust Mite Oligonychusafrasiaticus (McG.) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on the some Natural Characters of fruits of date palm Phoenix dactyliferaL. (Zahdivariety)Before and After AcaricidesAmitraz sprayer.
تأثير حلم الغبار ( Acari:Tetranychidae) Oligonychusafrasiaticus(McG.)على بعض الصفات الطبيعية لثمرة النخيل Phoenix dactyliferaL.( صنف زهدي ) قبل وبعد رش المبيد Amitraz

المؤلفون: طه موسى محمد منصور السويدي
الصفحات: 930-936
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الخلاصة

The dust mite Oligonychusafrasiaticus(McG.) (Acar: Tetranychidae) is an important pest of the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. in the Asia and Africa. This experiment carried out in the Agricultural Collage fields - Karbala University -Hussainyia region , for study the effect the dust mite Oligonychusafrasiaticus(McG.)on the some natural characters of fruits of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. (Zahdi variety) before and after Amitraz sprayer during the growing season of 2011 and 2012 , respectively . The results of this study , the highest mean of individuals was 22.5 mites 10 fruits/ cluster before Amitraz sprayer during season 2011, meanwhile , the highestmean was 13.6 / 10 fruits /cluster after Amitraz sprayer during season 2012 . therefore , the population density declined gradually after Amitrazsprayer was effected on the some natural characters which was studied in this research as (length (cm) , width (cm) , length: width (fruit form) , weight (g) , size (cm3) , thickness (mm) of fruits of date palm and dry weight of 100 grams of fruits (without cup and seeds).

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Article
Effect of Nomuraea rileyi, Bacillus thuringiensis on larvae and Adult Wax Moth Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
تأثير الفطر Nmouraea rileyi والبكتريا Bacillus thuringiensis في يرقات و بالغات دودة الشمع الكبرى Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae: ( Lepidoptera

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الخلاصة

A laboratory study was done in the college of Agriculture, University of Baghdad to explain the impact of the pathogens, Nomuraea rileyi(which was isolated laboratory of larvae infected by naturally) with 159.1×105 spores,Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki with concentration recommended on larvae and adult wax moth Galleria mellonella. Results showed that when treated the larvae and adults wax mouth Galleria mellonella results to outweigh the treatment of larvae fungus on its treatment with bacteria which gave Add the fungi to food in increasing the proportion of larvae dead and which achieved percentage kill the larvae reached 61.43% for the treatment of spray-Fitr on larvae which achieved percentage killed was 50.71%, and excelled treatment add bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis Kurstaki to food in increasing the proportion of dead larvae, which achieved a death rate of larvae reached 53.3%, while in the treatment of direct spraying bacteria commentator on larvae achieved a rate of 28.6%. Results also indicated that B. thuringiensis Kurstaki had the height impact on adults (females) treatment has reached the age of female treatment 1.33, 4.33 days, respectively in the treatment of (male treated with female treated) and ages of females 1.33, 4.67 days, respectively in the treatment of (male un treated with female treatment). Results also showed that the impact on members of the second generation was significant compared to other factors where the average life span of females in both )0.0 ( day on the percentage of eggs is un hatching 100 . While transaction gave Nomuraea rileyi adult lower the average age for females was 13.00 days in treatment healthy males with females (male un treated with female treatment.

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Article
Trogoderma granarium (Everts.) ( Dermestidae: Coleoptera )
تأثير مستويات مختلفة من كثافة يرقات خنفساء الحبوب الشعرية في بعض أنواع حبوب الذرة

المؤلفون: احمد صلاح عمر --- محمد عبد الكريم محمد
الصفحات: 946-952
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الخلاصة

The results cleared that sorghum seed was more ability to infestation by insect which reached general mean 124.11 insects then forage corn 55.38 insect then pop corn 37.17 insect , the general mean of insect numbers were 53.70 and 90.74 insects for two storage periods respectively , and the general mean of insect numbers were 40.55 , 60.39 an 111.72 insects for levels of infestation respectively . According for loss of weight and loss percentage were the general mean reached ( 0.78 gm. and 3.14%) for pop corn seeds and ( 1.5 gm. and 5.98%) forage corn seeds and( 3.11 and 12.37 % ) for sorghum seeds respectively , but for storage period , the mean of loss weight was 1.21 and 2.37 gm . with the loss percentage was 4.86 and 9.47 for 2 and 4 months of storage respectively , it was found that the loss weight and loss percentage increased with increasing level of infestation and the general mean reached 0.75 and 1.85 and 3.29 gm. with the loss percentage 2.91 and 7.40 and 11.18 % for levels infestation respectively . The insect infestation effect with storage period and level infestation was higher on the physical characteristics under study . The general mean of germination percentage decreased from 80% before infestation to 22.96 % after infestation for all corn seeds . then the size of 100 seed from 11.65 ml. to 8.88 ml. and the weight of 1000 seed decreased too from 121.62 to 101.79 gm .

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Article
First Record of Important Natural Enemies on Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Greenhouses in Middle of Iraq*
تسجيل أول للأعداء الطبيعية المهمة لحفار الطماطة Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)في البيوت البلاستيكية في وسط العراق*

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الخلاصة

A survey was conducted for natural enemies of Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) on selected Tomato greenhouses at Abu-Ghraib/ Baghdad Province and Kut,Ahrar and Sweera / Wasit Province during the season of 2011-2012. All samples were identified by British Natural History Museum. According to the Museum report, five Hymenopterous parasitoids were identified on Tuta absoluta;They were namely : two egg parasitoids Trichogramma pintoi(Trchogrammatidae) and Telenomus sp.(Platygastridae); two larval parasitoids Bracon (Habrobracon)sp.(Braconidae) and Closterocerus sp.(Eulophidae) ; pupal parasitoid Proconura sp.(Chalcididae) .This is the first record for Iraq except of the second one and all of them for Tuta absoluta as well. Furthermore four predators were identified; Hemipterous predators: Nesidiocoris tenius (Miridae), Orius albidipennis(Anthocoridae), Metacanthus lineata (Berytidae) and Neuropterous predator Chrysoperla carnea (Chrysopidae).The third predator was considered as the first record in Iraq yet all of them for Tuta absoluta as well.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Evaluation of the population density of the Potato tuber moth , Phthorimea operculella (Zeller) ( Lepidoptera : Gelechiidae ) with pheromone traps
تقدير الكثافة العددية لعثة درنات البطاطا Phthorimea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera : Gelechiidae) باستخدام المصائد الفرمونية

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الخلاصة

Field studies was conducted at the college of Agriculture ,Abu- Ghraib, Baghdad to evaluate the efficacy of the pheromone traps to estimate population density and the numbers of generations of the potato tuber moth , Phthorimea operculella (Zeller) during the autumn and spring seasons . Results showed the presence of two generation of the insect during the autumn season reaching it peaks of 13 and 42 adult/trap during months of November and December respectively. There have been 3 peaks (generations ) of the insect on the spring season, hitting peaks of 44, 59 , and 73 moth /trap during months of April , May and June respectively , and that the population density reached twice what is it in autumn , The use of pheromone traps through the spring season had significantly reduced infestation rates by the tuber moth to 29% and 44%for the two cultivars Fibula and Dezeri respectively .These results encourages the introduction of pheromone traps as a part of integrated pest management (IPM) program for the pest after conducting detailed studies in the future .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Efficiency of some inoculation methods of two isolates of Fusarium nygami on the systemic infection and the percentage of the fungus in sorghum under field conditions
تقويم كفاءة بعض طرق العدوى بعزلتين من الفطر Fusarium nygamai في الاصابة الجهازية والنسبة المئوية لوجود الفطر في حبوب الذرة البيضاء تحت ظروف الحقل

المؤلفون: حرية حسين الجبوري --- كامل سلمان جبر
الصفحات: 967-974
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of three inoculation methods (spraying the flowering inflorescence with fungal suspension, stalk injection, and soil contamination with fungal suspension) with Fusarium nygami isolates FNK2 and FNK14 on the systemic infection of sorghum and seed transmission under field condition. Results showed significant differences between inoculation methods with Fusarium nygami isolates FNK2 and FNK14 separately in systemic and seed infection with the two isolates except that of soil contamination with spore suspension of the two isolates, where no significant differences compared with control treatment. spraying the flowering inflorescence with fungal suspension was found to be more efficient than the other methods,with percentage of seed infection 48.5 and 40% in spring season, 52and 61% in fall season for two isolates respectively compared to zero infection in control treatment in both seasons.The three inoculation methods caused significant decrease in dry weight of plants , 62 - 96 g / plant, 74 -105 g / plant in spring seasons, 53-87 g / plant,64 -95 g / plant in fall for the two isolates respectively , compared with 124 g / plant and 112 g /plant in control plant for the two seasons respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Evalution of Trichodirma viride and magnatic field against Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani on cucumber seedling
تقييم كفاءة الفطر Trichoderma viride والمجال المغناطيسي ضد الفطرين Pythium aphanidermatum و Rhizoctonia solani في بادرات الخيار

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الخلاصة

This study was carried out to determine the efficiency of Trichoderma viride and seeds magnetization against Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani causative agents of seedling damping off on cucumber (Al-Mokhtar var.) in both of cultural medium(PDA) and in pots. Results showed that T. viride induce high reduction in seedling damping off disease caused by the two fungi. The percentage of healthy plants in T. viride treated soil and inoculated with P. aphanidermatum were 90.5% and 83.3% after 7 and 30 days respectively compared with 95.2% in control seedlings. The healthy plants in the soil treated with T.viride and inoculated with R. solani were 81.0% and 66.7% compared with 56.7% and 38.3% in inoculated soil by R.solani only after 7 and 30 days respectively.Seed magnetization at 250 G induced promotions in all of growth parameters. Germination percentage and seedling viability were 94.0% and 2280 compared to 86.0% and 1605 in control seedlings respectively. The percentage of healthy seedling in inoculated soil with P. aphanidermatum and R. solani , grown from magnetized seeds were 85.7% and 76.2% after 7 and 30 days with significant differences compared to inoculated treatments with the two pathogens. These results indicated that T.viride was more efficient than magnetization against the two pathogenic fungi, while magnetization seeds improved seedling growth parameters. The treatment of soil with T.viride and passed the seeds through magnetic field may constitute an important factor in management of seedling damping off disease program.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect Of Treatment Method, And Oil kind On Activation Of Alpha-cypermethrin Toxicity To Khapra Larvae (Trigoderma granarium E.)
تأثير طريقة المعاملة ونوع الزيت في تنشيط سمية المبيد الفاسايبرمثرين ليرقات الخابرا (Trigoderma granarium E.)

المؤلفون: بتول عبدالله كرسو --- نزار مصطفى الملاح
الصفحات: 984-993
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الخلاصة

The results of studying the effect of treatment method, and oil kind on activation of Alpha- cypermethrin toxicity to khapra larvae revealed that treating the substrate with alpha- cypermethrin mixed separately with oils of sunflower, Sesame , Groundnut , Soybean and Almond in ration of 1:1 achieved the highest mean mortality percentage reached 63.15 % in comparison with 51.75 for surface treatment . The activation efficiency of mixture were varied according to the oil kind and treatment method , the highest activation and synergism percentage were obtained from treating the substrate with a mixture of Alpa- cypermethrin and Soybean oil reached 2.08 and 1.95 respectively however the mixture of Alpha- cypermethrin and Sunflower oil showed an antagonistic effect on toxicity of insecticide to the larvae on treated substrate

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Some Intergrated Control aspects for Cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) Under Labrotary Condition
دراسة بعض أوجه التكامل في مكافحة دودة ورق القطن Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.) (Noctuidae : Lepidoptera) مختبريا

المؤلفون: زهراء عبد المعطي الغضبان
الصفحات: 994-1001
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الخلاصة

Intergrated pest management (IPM) system study to evaluate biocontrol agents B.bsssiana and Avaunt insecticide (oxidiazine group) for cotton leaf worm control was conducted at the college of Agriculture University of Baghdad .Result showed that larval stage was the most susceptible to Avaunt that cause 100% mortality at the concentration of 0.15 m/l in 1st and 2 nd instar within six days at treatment . Similar percent was observed in 4 th. and 5 th. Instar within eight days of treatment as well as the bioagent B.bassiana caused 100% mortality at the concentration of 1x106 spore / ml with 12 days. No significant difference was observed between Avaunt at 1/2 rate combined with B.bassiana and Avaunt treatment alone. Combination of Avaunt with bio control agent caused complete larval mortality 8days after treatment , while Avaunt caused complete mortality 6 days after treatment and pupal stage showed less sensitive than larval stage .Percentage of adult emergence was 4.7,48,28% 18 days after application of Avaunt ,Avaunt +fungus , Fungus compared with 100% adult emergence in control treatment . Adult mortality was 8.9,85,82 % after 6 days after treatment with Avaunt, Avant + Fungus, Fungus respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Population density and integration betwween some predators and pesticides to control the two spotted spider mite on cotton in the field.
الكثافة السكانية، والتكامل بين بعض المفترسات والمبيدات في مكافحة الحلم ذي البقعتين Tetranychus urticae Koch على القطن

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الخلاصة

The two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch ( Tetranychidae:Acari ) is considered as an important and economic pest on cotton in Iraq. Field studies were undertaken to evaluate the population density and efficacy of the predators Stethorus gilvifrons (Muls.) and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Perg.) in combination with the pesticides ; Abamectin, Propargite and Naturell against this species of mite. Results indicated that the infection with mites was started in April and increased gradually and reached peak period during third week of August. Mean number of egg, moving immature stages and adults were 242.11, 153.43, 76.32/leaf recorder for the three stages respectively. Assoccated with appearance of the predators. A complete control of mite was obtained with the integration of each predator and any of the pesticides. A hundred percent mortality was recorded after one day of treatment without any obvious negative effect of the three pesticides on the predators. The use of the pradatores alone resulted in , 77.12 and 61.42% respectively while a percent of 82.37,84.15 and 76.21% mortalities were obtained with the three pesticides respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control treatment. Therefore the use of any mean of integration with proper timing would assists the role of natural enemies in field protection and yield improvement .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The Application Of Microwaves Ray To Controlling The Adults Of Some Stored Grain Insects
استخدام الأشعة المايكروية في مكافحة أنواع من بالغات بعض حشرات المخازن

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الخلاصة

The results of the application of microwaves ray to controlling the adults of Lesser grain borer , Saw-toothed grain beetle and Confused flour beetle ,revealed that the microwaves ray produced a superior killing to the adults of the three species and as Increasing the energy levied from 200 , 400 , 600 , 800 Watt . Increased the mortality percentage and reached 28.33 , 60 , 75.83 and 81.67% respectively for the Lesser grain borer and 1.67 , 46.07 , 88.33 and 81.67% for Saw-toothed grain beetle respectively and for Confused flour beetle reached 10.84 , 35.83 , 79.17 and 94.17% respectively . The effect of exposure periods ( 15 , 30 , 45 , 60 ) Sec. showed a clear effect in increasing the mortality percentage in insect adults and reached 33.33 , 65 , 70 and 79.17% for Lesser grain borer and 35 , 47.5 , 65.83 and 70% for Saw-toothed grain beetle and 37.5 , 47.5 , 70 and 65% for Confused flour beetle respectively . The result also exhibited that the energy levied of 600 Watt with an exposure period for 45 Sec. produce a 100% mortality to the adults of the three species .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of artificial foods on the predator eleven spotted ladybird Coccinella undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on same biological charactaries
تأثير التغذيه الصناعيه في بعض الصفات الحيويه للمفترسCoccinella undecimpunctata Coleoptera : Coccinellidae))

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الخلاصة

A series of laboratary experiments carried in Biological Control Depattment – Technical Collage / Al – Mussiab in Babylon Gov. during the period 2008 / 2009 to determine the ability of the predator C. undecimpunctata to feed on artificial foods , the results showed :- The larvae feed on a mixture nutrition of children (Dialack) and mixture of sheep liver had died several days after the beginning of the feeding and had faild to reach to the next instar and was not be able to reach into the pupal instar , while all those larvae feed on either a mixture of sheep liver with quial eggs or quial eggs mix. had completed their life naturally . the longest duration of the 1st , 2nd , 3rd and 4th larval stage were 2.83 ,3.17 , 3.67 and 4.17 days respectivily when feeding on quial eggs mix . As for the pupal stage was completed the period of its development during 6.67 and 5.00 days when feed on mixture of sheep liver and quial eggs respectivily , although the average length of life of adult predator C. undecimpunctata that had been feed on a mixture quial eggs was increased significantly and reached to 34 days old which was different from the other treatment. While the shortest duration of adult reached 27.33 days when it comming from lavae stages feed on sheep liver .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Evaluate the efficiency of soaking tomato seed in β-aminobutyric acid and Bion to protect tomato plants from Tomato mosaic virus infection
تقييم كفاءة غمر بذور الطماطة بحامض البيوتريك والمنشط النباتي بايون لحماية نباتات الطماطة من الاصابة بفايروس موزائيك الطماطة

المؤلفون: باسم حسن خضير --- ميسر مجيد جرجيس
الصفحات: 1023-1030
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of β-aminobutyric and Bion in protecting tomato plant from tomato mosaic virus infection when soaking tomato seeds in these compounds. This study was included experiments conducted in the glass house and in the plastic house at Department of plant protection, College of Agriculture- University of Baghdad. The glass house experiments included the biological and serological detection of the virus by using ELISA and preparation of pure isolate from the virus by using the single local lesion technique. While the plastic house experiments included the evaluation of performance of β-aminobutyric and Bion in reducing virus multiplication by biological and serological assay and the estimation of peroxidase activity and also percentage of virus infection was recorded. BABA 1% was showed the highest percentage of inhibition in number of local lesions formation on N. glutinosa which was reached 69.56%, and the size reduction of local lesion was 36.3% while there was no significant differences in 1% Bion treatment. Results of ELISA absorbance value were showed superiority of 1% BABA on 1% Bion and control which were 0.047, 0.113, 0.118 respectively, these results confirmed the results of the biological evaluation of the virus. BABA 1% was showed significant difference in the change of peroxidase absorption which was 99.85 while Bion 1% was not showed a significant difference. BABA 1% was caused a significant reduction percentage of ToMV infection which was 22.21% while Bion 1% was not significantly reduced virus infection percentage.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Attractiveness and Repellency Strength On larvae and Adults Of Colorado Potato Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say(Chrysomelidae : Coleoptera)
تأثير قوة الجذب والطرد لمستخلصات أوراق الفلفل والطماطة في يرقات وكاملات خنفساء كولورادو البطاطا Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say(Chrysomelidae : Coleoptera)

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الخلاصة

The results of the recent study should that the Pepper and Tomato leaves extracts hadnot attractive effect to the larvae of Colorado potato beetle (CPB) and showed a low attractive strength to the adult of CPB., while the extracts revealed a superior repellency strength to the larvae and adults of CPB and the Value of balance cames to confirm this results which is negative and trend to be repellency . The alcoholic exracts of leaves pepper produced the highest mean repellency strength to the larvae and adults of insect which reached 35.30 and 87.76 respectivley at 8% concentration , while the water extract of tomato leaves gave a higher mean repellency strength to larvae and adults at 8% concentration .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Evaluation of Chickpea Genotypes for Resistance to Ascochyta blight
حساسية أصناف من الحمص للإصابة بلفحة الاسكوكايتا

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الخلاصة

Results of the survey carried out in three regions in Ninevah province during the season of 2011 , showed that disease incidence and score of Ascochyta blight of Chickpea wilt were gradually different from region to another. The highly disease incidence and score were in Fyda which reached 70% and 5.8 respectively .Results of isolation and diagnosis showed that the the disease caused Chickpea wilt caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr .Results of screening twenty genotypes of chickpea for susceptibility to Ascochyte blight indicated that five genotypes were resistant (FLIP05-85C, FLIP 05-113, FLIP 06-156 , FLIP o6-93 and FLIP 06-102C ) six were moderately resistance (FLIP03-72C , FLIP05-57C , FLIP05 -74C, FLIP05-90C و FLIP05-154C and Dijla ),six were susceptible ( FLIP97-220 , FLIP04-22C , FLIP05-18C , FLIP05-44C, FLIP05- 17C and Rafidane) and three were highly susceptible to Ascochyta blight (FLIP05-50C , ILC 263 and local)

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Toxicity of the Chitin Synthesis InhibitorsCyromazine and Flufenoxuron on Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica and Citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans
سمية مثبطي النمو الحشري Cyromazine وFlufenoxuron لديدان تعقد الجذور Meloidogyne javanica وديدان الحمضيات Tylenchulus semipenetrans

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الخلاصة

The chitin synthesis inhibitors ,Cyromazine and Flufenoxuron were toxic to the Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica and Citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans at 12.5 , 25 ,50 and 75 ppm , The highest toxic effect was when Cyromazine was used easing 49.9 and 54% toxicity to second juveniles of M.javanica and T.semipenetrans respectively. Cyromazine showed the highest reduction (80.5 and 84.2%) egg hatching for Root-knot nematode and citrus nematode respectively. It was observed that mean killing percentage of second stage juveniles and egg hatching were increased with increased test concentration of both chitin synthesis inhibitors

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Extraction of oil from fish and their by-products and studying their chemical properties - Iodine Number –
استخلاص الزيوت من الأسماك ومخلفاتها ودراسة صفاتها الكيميائية - قيمة اليود -

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الخلاصة

Four kinds of fish were used in this study: Bigeye Ilisha megaloptera ,Jaffout Nematalosa nasus,Suboor Tenualosa ilisha and Carp Cyprinus carpio. They were in complet,without heads and viscerals and its by-prouduct.All those samples were in tow types of condition (fresh and frozen).The four kinds of fish were purchas from local market in Basrah city at the south Iraq, The complet fishes after were reached to the laboratory and after they were frozen for one month at -20C°. and analysis the degree of freshness through iodine number. The percent extercd oil for whole fish,fish without head and viscerals and by-produect were (6.08,4.16,4.59)%, (5.86, 3.88,4.22)% consecutively form fresh and frozen Bigeye; (10.71,7.85,7.87)%, (10.18, 2.26, 7.29)% consecutively form fresh and frozen Jaffout; (13.52,11.85,15.98)% , (13.01, 11.25, 15.29)% consecutively form fresh and frozen Suboor and (5.61, 5.68, 7.22)%, (5.16, 5.18, 7.08)% consecutively form fresh and frozen Carp as well as (14.25, 9.62 ,3.56)% and (13.85, 7.75, 1.07)%, for mixture of full, without heads and vescera and by-prodect for four kinds of fish. Crud oils were compared with vegetable oil (olive oil) and animal fat (mutton tial fat mutton). Results were analyzed statistically by using the SPSS program with using (CRD) Completely Randomized Design for dipilcates. The study factors were tested by using Revised Least Significant Different test (R-L.S.D) under significal level (0.05). Results were as fallowed: It was observed that type of fish, type of treatment, shape of sample, introdaction between type of treatment and shapes of fishs and source of oil have unsignificant difference on iodine number.The results also showed that The introdaction between type of fish and shapes of fishs effect of tri-introdaction aming type of fish ,type of treatmen and shape of fish has significant difference.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Using of Barely grass Juice as an antimicrobial against contaminating microorganisms in Soft Cheese
إمكانية استعمال عصير عشبة الشعير كمادة مثبطة لنمو الأحياء المجهرية الملوثة للجبن الطري

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الخلاصة

This study was subjected to examine the antimicrobial activities of barely grass juice against some micro organisms.The juice was prepared in different concentrations(25,50,75,100 ) % .The inhibitory activity of the juice evaluated on some bacterial tested isolates which include (S.aureus,Ps.aerogenese,Ps.flourescences,E.coli) in addition to the yeast(Kl.servicieae)using the well diffusion method .The obtained results showed , that the concentrate juice value(100)% was giving highly inhibitory effect,specially against Ps.flourescences bacteria in diameter inhibition zone was17mm while the yeast(Kl.servicieae)showed lower sensitive toward the same concentrate in diameter inhibition zone was 15mm.Barely grass juice added separately in concentrations(75,100)% to soft cheese curd in proportions of (2,4,6 )% and the inhibitory effect has been estimated against the tested micro organisms. Both concentrations redact the total viable count of bacteria comparison to the control cheese sample till 12 days of storage . results showed, there was no growth of coliform bacteria in treatments of juice with con.(100)%,the same results was obtained with yeasts and molds in proportions(4,6)%and concentration treatment 75% of 6% ,while the other treatments showed a very little growth of yeasts and molds in8and12days of storage comparative with the samples of cheese without juice(control treatment) .The sensory results for the soft cheese with Barelygrass juice showed the customer´s accept and keeping the cheese with sensory accepted properties for color,flavor,texture and cohesive properties.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect flour extraction rates in the chemical characteristics and rheological and sensory quality of bread product
تأثير نسب استخلاص الطحيـــن في الصفات الكيمياوية والريولوجية والحسية في نوعية الخبـــز المنتج

المؤلفون: سالم صالح التميمي
الصفحات: 1070-1076
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الخلاصة

This study aimed to determine the effect of extraction flour 72% And it was obtained with flour extraction rates( 80,85,90,%100 ) Mix bran with flour, In chemical composition and rheological and sensory qualities of flour and bread resulting from the impact on consumer. Showed the results of the chemical composition of the flour to get a clear reduction in the percentage of high humidity flour extraction rate reaching 12.4% in a flour extraction rate of 72% and decreased gradually to reach 10.7% in the flour with a 100% recovery rate, while the percentage of ash and protein, wet glutin and fat gradually increase extraction ratio reached respectively ( 0.55, 10.57.24.5,1.3% ) in a flour extraction rate of 72% and increased gradually to reach in a flour extraction rate 100%, (1.15 , 12.53 ,27.1,4.77%) respectively . The results also showed lower values falling number gradually increase extraction rate of flour has fallen of 526 seconds for flour a percentage extraction of 72% to reach to 479 seconds for flour a percentage extraction 100% while the increased values of the degree of color high extraction rate of flour rose from 1.22 to flour 72% extraction rate of up to 13.3 in the flour with a 100% extraction rate The results showed farinograph high percentage of water absorption of the high proportion of flour extraction increased from 62.1% for the flour with 72% extraction ratio Call to 68.8% in the flour with a 100% recovery rate also increased the time evolution of the dough gradually increase the proportion of extraction of 3minutes of the flour with 72% extraction ratio of up to 4.3 minutes for the flour is 100% extraction rate, While the time stability of the dough from the 8.2 Exact flour with 72% extraction rate of up to 2.5 minutes for a flour extraction rate 100% The results of sensory evaluation showed laboratory for bread (Arum) low values of all sensory qualities except recipe bulge high extraction rate of flour.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Influence of the baking process on Nutritive value of local breads
تأثير ظروف عملية الخبز على القيمة الغذائية لانواع الخبز المحلي

المؤلفون: كامل مهدي الاسدي --- فاروق فاضل النوري
الصفحات: 1077-1085
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الخلاصة

- Available lysine was derinterminal by Trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid ( TNBS) method in wheat flour and five types of local breads in Iraq . The percentag of lysine were, 5.17 .13.2. 5.30, 3.95.and 7.67 % for each of the electric Samun and Stone Samun, laboratory Samun , Arabic bread and Altnor bread, respectively, . The losses of lysine in crust wer higher than crumb ranged between 7,8-10.9% - Studied the nutritional value of proteins these types of local breads during using laboratory animals to estimat nutritive value of bread.( PER-AND-weight of livers and it,s protein and fat ) The percentag of PER were, 5.17 .13.2. 5.30, 3.95.and 7.67 % for each of the electric Samun and Stone Samun, laboratory Samun , Arabic bread and Altnor bread, respectively, - And the value of AND is lower than each athers - The percentag the fat of animals liver which had feed on Stone Samun - The correlation coefficient between (PER ) valuse and the lysine in all bread was highly significant (r= 0.91 )

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Extract of Pectin from Some Fruit and Vegetable by Product and Study Their Physical Properties
استخلاص البكتين من مخلفات وثمار بعض الفواكه والخضروات ودراسة خواصه الفيزيائية

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الخلاصة

This study considered of extract pectin from some fruit and vegetable by–produce as a citrus peel(Orange, lemon, mandarin, bitter orange)and peel pomeagranate and pomes turnip, gardenor table beet,cauliflower and peel watermelon cucumismelon and head of sunflower. By use deferent solvents such as ammonium oxalate 1%, citric acid 2 Molar, oxalic acid 2%, Hydrochloric acid 0.5 N and distilled water acidified with hydrochloric acid in 90 C and 90 mints, the results showed that the highest yield were obtained when using ammonium oxalate for all the samples .After extraction process by different solution ammonium oxalate solution was the best to extract pectin from samples use(fruit and vegetable)at,45,90time and45,90 mint. The physical characterization of pectin: The Showed results of relative viscosity of highest value of viscosity at extraction pectin as 45 c-45 mint ,that sample and highest molecular weight in pectin which extract at 90c and 90 mint as sample peel citru The setting time of pectin showed a mixture of citrus peel give time of ll mint compared to a pectin which showed 13 mint either pectin peel pomegranate and head of sunflower the time of 12 and 25 mint respectively .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Preparation of Therapeutic Foods for Infants to Avoid Malnutrition and Studying the shelf life of selected formulas
تحضير اغذية اطفال علاجية للوقاية من سوء التغذية و دراسة القابلية الخزنية للخلطات الغذائية المختارة

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الخلاصة

This study was aimed to prepare a therapeutic ready to use foods for infants which carries the same specifications of the therapeutic food F100 for home preparation as suitable substitute, to rehabilitate and to avoid infants malnutrition with good appetite in between 6 – 24 month of age. Various proportions of whole powdered milk, germinated and ungerminated rice flour, dried apples and dehydrated potatoes were used to construct food formulas and studying the shelf life of the selected formulas . The results revealed that both food formulas (8) and (11) have good shelf life for up to two month at cold storage at (4-5)0 C and room temperature (27 2) 0 C, which is estimated by the number of Thiobarbituric acid. Microbial tests showed accepted results in aspect of total number of the aerobic bacteria in both formulas (8) and (11) stored under cold storage at (4-5) 0 C and at room temperature (27 2) 0 C for a period of two months. The two chosen formulas showed that they were free of Coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus bacteria and Lipolytic bacteria.

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Article
Effect of ohmic heating on the thermophysical properties for cow milk Second part
تأثير التسخين الأومي على الخواص الفيزيوحرارية لحليب الأبقار الجزء الثاني

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الخلاصة

The application ohmic heating is a modern technologies in food processing, working on preventing the formation of deposits inside the heating pipes which have negative effects on the heating process, leads to reduce heat transfer coefficient poor quality of pasteurized milk and it’s contamination. Temperature were measured for different ohmic heating and variation temperature of the milk , heat conductivity , specific heat, density , thermal diffusivity and viscosity of the milk, were calculated The effect of differences in various voltage beside the conventional pasteurization (H.T.S.T.) on denaturized whey proteins. Results showed the following: the temperature of milk under process was fixed depending on the presence electrical valve that controls on the temperature at 72. ° C. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity in the milk was increased with increasing temperature ohmic heating at all voltages different and with conventional pasteurization. The viscosity and density of milk was decreased with increasing temperature milk treated by ohmic heating at all voltages and with conventional pasteurization. The effect of ohmic heating at 220, 110, 80 V and showed that the separated whey bands by electrophoresis showed that the ohmic heating at 80 V didn’t affect the denaturized whey proteins compared with the heating by V 220 ,110 V, which had significant effect on whey proteins and clear because of the severity of heating.


Article
تأثير إضافة حبة البركة إلى خلطات بعض المنتجات المخبوزة

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الخلاصة

In this study bread and biscuit were enriched with black seed ,by adding either whole seed or seed flour in the ratio of 2.5 g and 5g to the standard mix of those products . Studying of the chemical analysis for these products ( Bread and Biscuit ) shows un increase ratio of fiber , ash , protein and lipid while the percentage of moisture and carbohydrate were lower in all treatment when comparing with the standard . In addition , results from sensory evaluation for bread were effected by adding of the black seed. So , It can be suggested that we could add 2.5 gm of whole black seed to the bread mix and still have great acceptability for consumer . Moreover , Biscuit sensory evaluation showed some changes in spread factors with some crackers in the upper face of black seed .There was very good acceptability which is range between ( 6.8 – 7 degree ) from 10 for biscuit sample with 5 gm black seed addition .


Article
Study chemical composition and inhibitor effect of Fenugreek seeds extracts aqueous and alcoholic on some positive and gram negative bacteria
دراسة المكونات الكيميائية والتأثير التثبيطي للمستخلص المائي والكحولي لمسحوق بذور نبات الحلبة على بعض البكتريا الموجبة والسالبة لصبغة كرام

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الخلاصة

The chemical composition, trace element total phenols and the inhibitory effect of Fenugreek seeds extracts aqueous and alcoholic on five bacteria gram positive and gram negative were studied. It was found that the extract method effect of total phenolic content for Fenugreek seeds ,Aqueous extract prepared by soaking was showed the highest value of total phenols 2.77mg/g compared to alcoholic extract (ethanol, chloroform, Hexane) 0.78 ,0.74 ,0.62 mg/g respectively and aqueous extract by boiling 2.32mg/g and alcoholic extract were studied on Bacillus subtilis ,Escherichia coli ,Staphylococcus aureus ,Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococcus roseus .The ratio of inhibitor of Fenugreek seeds extract different between bacteria types and extract method ,soaking extract gave highest ratio 98.6% compared to other methods except E.coil don’t effect any aqueous and alcoholic extracts from Fenugreek seeds powder .The results showed significant variation in hexane extract and soaking extract and showed significant variation in all types of bacteria .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of Ohmic Heating in the Eliminatiin of Microorganisms
تأثير التسخين الأومي في القضاء على الأحياء المجهرية الجزء الثالث

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الخلاصة

Experiment was conducted to study the effect of ohmicheating on the elimination of microorganisms, and the percentage of remained phosphatase, microorganisms, coliform and Staphylococcus. The rateof microbial death after treatments and the results showed that all of these percentages were decreased significantly withincreasing heating time and the ohmic heating atdifferent voltages 80,110,220V and also with conventional pasteurization which were for0.766,0.783 and 0.766 min.respectively and in the holding tube was 0.25 min for all treatments.


Article
Evaluation of honey quality that available in locally markets
تقييم جودة العسل المتوافر في الأسواق المحلية

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الخلاصة

This study were included quality tests for 12 locally and imported honey samples that available in the markets of Baghdad city. The results showed a variable percentage of moisture, the Hi4 and Hi5 sample recorded 19.9% and 16.4% respectively, the percentage of ash in the Hi2, Hi5, Hi6 and Hi1 samples were 0.4251, 0.3976, 0.3937 and 0.1964% respectively, samples were contained iron, copper and magnesium in varying percents, the highest percentage of iron was 1.7225 ppm observed in Hl10 sample, while the lowest percentage 0.3058 pmm in Hi7 sample, the highest percentage of copper 0.4219 ppm it was found in Hl8 sample, while the lowest percentage 0.0334 ppm in Hl10 sample, and the highest percentage of magnesium 3.9120 ppm was recorded in Hl10 sample, while the lowest percent 1.0056 ppm in Hi7 sample, while all samples not had both of lead, cadmium and cobalt, the value of pH were between 2.6-3.5 Hi3, Hi2 and Hl12 respectively, the results for total acidity were 15.5-18.3 ml. eq./kg Hi3 and Hl12, the samples recorded different degree of polarization, the highest degree 20.71 was observed in Hi1 sample, while the lower degree 8.60 in Hl8 sample, and when determine activity Diastase, we observed the enzyme was active in Hi1, Hi5, Hl8, Hl10, Hl11 and Hl12, while was not as well as in Hi2, Hi3, Hi4, Hi6, Hi7 and Hl9, the results also showed a variation in the total fructose and glucose in honey samples, the highest value 77.6% was recorded in Hl8 sample, but the lowest value 68.4% in Hi1 sample, while the other samples given different percentage, the total fructose and glucose in Hi3, Hi5, Hi6 and Hi7 were 72.9, 70.8, 72.7 and 72.6% respectively, while the total was 74.7, 74.8, 76.8, 75.8, 75.3 and 76.3% in Hi2, Hi4, Hl9, Hl10, Hl11 and Hl12 respectively.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Estimation of Curdling Efficiency for Different Types of Locally produce and Imported yoghurts
تقدير الفعالية التخثرية لأنواع مختلفة من اللبن الرائب المحلي والمستورد المتوافر في الأسواق

المؤلفون: بهاء نظام عيسى الموسوي
الصفحات: 1147-1152
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الخلاصة

The study included 8 samples of yoghurt for different brands, five of them local and three are imported and capacities grains of different products of the types of yogurt prevailing in the local markets of Baghdad city ranged between (150 - 1000) g, results showed the failure of both samples Y3 and Y5 in the nature of the clotting and the texture strength after 3 hours of cuddling on the temperature 42o due to the weak efficiency indices of coagulation and the lack of biological activity of the starter bacteria, it used to who made them, while other samples was shown good coagulation and strength texture with titrable acidity ranged between 1.15-1.80 calculated as lactic acid to give an indication on the strength of starters and the quality and safety of industrial technology lines which reflect the qualities of the clot resulting products curd strength indices of coagulation by bacterial activity, it as a practical indicators and quick to learn the evolution of acidity corrective and how vital and active bacteria started it manufactured them originally, on the other hand turned out non-conformity of the six samples due to the requirements in significance card approved within the Iraqi standard of product yogurt numbered (m s p / 610/1985).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Studying of physical and chemical Properties of wheat germ oil and Its use in Cookies
دراسة الخواص الفيزيائية والكيميائية لزيت جنين الحنطة وإدخاله في صناعة البسكت

المؤلفون: بشرى بدر جراد --- علي أحمد ساهي
الصفحات: 1153-1162
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الخلاصة

The study includes extraction of oil from wheat germ flour using chloroform–methanol and water and studying physical and chemical properties. The results of Chemical composition of wheat germ obtained can be summarized as follow: Wheat germ have moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate, it contained 9.84% , 27.93 , 10.18 , 4.56% and 47.49% respectively. The results of physical properties of crude and refined were showed that The value of refractive index was 1.4751,1.4752 respectively, Specific gravity was0.932,0.9288 respectively, the viscosity was 32, 33, 29, 57 cent poise respectively, whereas color intensity was0,166,0.098 respectively and melting point 22C, 21C respectively. The results of chemical analysis were as follow:acid value 0.89,0.22 mg/g respectively, the percentage of free fatty acids was 0.44% ,0.11% respectively whereas the peroxide value was 2.4, 0.89 meq/kg oil respectively, iodine number 124,126mg/100g respectively and saponification number 181, 179.54 mg/g respectively . Results of determination phospholipids using TLC and silica gel showed that the maximum percentage of phosphotidy choline was 60% followed by phosphotidy lnositol and phosphotidy ethaol amine which they recorded 18% and 15% respectively The results of sensory evalution showed non significant difference between the cookies making of wheat germ oil and cookies making from sunflower oil in colour, flavor, texture, taste, crispiness, overall acceptability.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The Optimal condition for production of bacterial cellulose from date syrup by Acetobacter xylinun SA1
دراســة الظــروف المثلى لانتــــاج السيليلــوز البكتيــري مـــن عصـــير التمـــربأستخــــدام بكترياA. xylinum. SA1 المعزولة محليا

المؤلفون: سنان محمد جاسم --- الهام اسماعيل الشمري
الصفحات: 1163-1175
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الخلاصة

In this experiment , the optimal conditions for the production of cellulose from Acetobacter xylinun SA1 strain was studied using date syrup as amedia of production . It found that the concentration of 10% was the best for the total polysaccharides which were found in the date syrup. Moreover, the mount of cellulose production was 4.2g/l. Also this study proved that the best pH for cellulose production was 6.5 as the cellulose production 4.5g/l.Furthermore, the best tempreture for the production of cellulose from bacteria was 30 c˚. This study also showed that using of 8% of inoculation volume led to an increase in the amount of cellulose production 6.4g/l . In contrast, it was noted that the use of a vibrator at 150rpm/ min decreased the cellulose production 3.9g/l. Some soluble polysaccharides which included carboxy methyl cellulose (cmc) and agar and sodium algenate were added to the media as a trial of following their impact. It found that the addition of carboxy methyl cellulose at a concentration of 0.3% led to a pronounced increase in the amount of cellulose production 10.9g/l. In addition, it was noted that the highest productivity of cellulose was 18.7g/l at 14 day of the incubation.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF ADDITION MUSTARD AND ITS OIL IN IMPROVING THE SENSORE EVALUATION AND SHELF LIFE OF IRAQI SOFT CHEESE
دراسة تاثير اضافة مسحوق الخردل وزيته في تحسين الصفات الحسية والخزنية للجين الطري العراقي

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الخلاصة

In order to evaluated the effects of addition powder mustard and its oil in improving the sensory equality and prolong the shelf life of Iraqi soft cheese This study was carried out and consisted four different soft parameters the powder of mustard was added in two levels 0.1 and 0.20 (g / 100 g) which reveled to treatments T1 and T2, mustard oil also added in two levels 0.1 , 20, (g / 100 g) which reveled to treatments T3 and T4 in addition to the control treatment C. results reveled that their was no significant differences in the sensory evaluation which conducted after processing directly in the characters color ,taste ,flavor ,texture and bitterness between the control soft cheese and the cheese of treatments and the cheese of treatments stay more acceptable than control cheese in all periods of storage , especially cheese of treatments T3 and T4, and contributed powder mustard and its oil reducing the numbers of total count bacteria , psychrophilic bacteria ,mold and yeast and coliform bacteria in period of storage cheese 15-day


Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF ADDITION MUSTARD AND ITS OIL IN IMPROVING THE SENSORE EVALUATION AND SHELF LIFE OF IRAQI SOFT CHEESE
دراسة تاثير اضافة مسحوق الخردل وزيته في تحسين الصفات الحسية والخزنية للجين الطري العراقي

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الخلاصة

In order to evaluated the effects of addition powder mustard and its oil in improving the sensory equality and prolong the shelf life of Iraqi soft cheese This study was carried out and consisted four different soft parameters the powder of mustard was added in two levels 0.1 and 0.20 (g / 100 g) which reveled to treatments T1 and T2, mustard oil also added in two levels 0.1 , 20, (g / 100 g) which reveled to treatments T3 and T4 in addition to the control treatment C. results reveled that their was no significant differences in the sensory evaluation which conducted after processing directly in the characters color ,taste ,flavor ,texture and bitterness between the control soft cheese and the cheese of treatments and the cheese of treatments stay more acceptable than control cheese in all periods of storage , especially cheese of treatments T3 and T4, and contributed powder mustard and its oil reducing the numbers of total count bacteria , psychrophilic bacteria ,mold and yeast and coliform bacteria in period of storage cheese 15-day


Article
Studying effect of Salting and Drying on quality Properties for powder of flesh and by-products of shrimp Metapenaeus affinis
دراسة تاثير التمليح والتجفيف على الخواص النوعية للمسحوق المصنع من لحم ومخلفات الروبيان Metapenaeus affinis

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الخلاصة

Shrimp Metapenaeus affinis was used, which obtained from the local markets in Basrah city. In this stady we knowedged about how handling shrimp, it was blanching shrimp to knowed the best period for blanching, (5) mint was the best. after that we prepared seven samples (shrimp peeleding blanching or salting blanching and peeleding without salting, shrimp blanching. Peeleding and salting concentration with 10% and 15%, shrimp peeleding and salting with 10% and 15% , shrimp keeping with salt and vinegar. After that the samples were dryed at (60-65) temperature in oven for eihgt hour. It was observed that the sample which blanching, peeleding and keeping with salt and vinegar was the best. Following with the sample which blanching peeledding and salting with 15% and 10%. These samples were kept good specifity properties. Powder of by- products was making, and it’s properties was compared with the flesh powder.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
عزل وغربلة وتشخيص خميرة Kluyveromyces marxianus

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الخلاصة

Twenty one isolates of lactose fermenting yeast were obtained from local yoghurt by using Davis's Yeast Salt agar which contained only the lactose as a carbon and energy source by following some initial cultured and microscopic tests. They had been subjected to qualitative and quantitative screening to choose the best isolate in biomass production. It was clear that isolates D1,D3,E3,F1,F2,F3 were have grown very slowly so they were ignored. The most rapid isolates have been selected for quantitative screening. Presence of lactose as the only carbon source had supply a selective pressure in reject yeasts that couldn’t consume lactose. Diagnostic results showed that the best isolate was Kluyveromyces marxianus, and marked with (A1).

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
الخصائص الفيزيوكيميائية للنشأ المستخلص من بعض اصناف الذرة البيضاء المحلية الطبيعي والمحور واستخدامه في خلطات اقراص الباراسيتامول

المؤلفون: آلاء غازي الهاشمي --- علي احمد ساهي
الصفحات: 1208-1217
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الخلاصة

The result of Chemical test of Starch extracted from three varieties of local sorghum showed that there were no significant differences between moisture content of starch for Kafir , Inqath and Local varieties respectively, it was (11.2 , 10.8 , 11.1 %) respectively while protein content was (0 %). Ash content increased significantly in Inqath starch (0.48 %). Fat content ranged as follows: Inqath (0.12 %) , Kafir (0.14 %) , Local (0.15 %) , control (0.19 %) , corn (0.27 %). It was observed that there were no significant differences in fiber content between local and corn starches (2 %) , which decreased in control starch (1 %). Amylose content increased significantly in local starch (28.32 %) , followed by kafir (28.13 %) while Amylopectin content increased significantly in kafir sorghum starch (74.87 %) , and decreased in local (71.87 %). Color results was ranged as follows, Inqath (-0.17 unit) , Kafir (-0.50 unit) , Local (0.70 unit). Degree of granulation increased significantly in, Inqath (37 %), However , there were no significant differences between local (34 %) , Kafir (35 %). There were no significant differences between pH results of sorghum starches .This investigation showed that the addition of the starch as disintegrate in paracetamol tablet, the rank order of crushing strength for the three mode was (external< internal – external < internal), and the rank order of effectiveness of the starches was (Inqath < corn < Kafir < local), this study showed an increasing in crushing strength as the starch concentration increased , and revealed that the acid starch improve the mechanical properties , increasing crushing strength, disintegration time , and decrease friability of tablet formulation prepared with acid starch in comparison with unmodified starch.

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Isolation ,Identification and Determination The Antioxidant Activity Of Phenolic Compound To Some Plants Extracts
فصل وتشخيص وتقدير الفعالية المضادة للأكسدة للمركبات الفينولية لبعض المستخلصات النباتية

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted on selected Legume such as Phoseolus vulgaris L., Phoseolus aureus, Lens calinaris, Cicer arietinum L., Pisum sativum L. to investigate antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total Flavonides, Reducing power, chelating Ions and scavenging hydrogen peroxide to the Legume ,the extraction process was done in to ways the first one with ethanolic (98% for 24 hours on Lab temperature) and the second using boiled distilled water for 30 minutes. The ethanolic extract of Phoseolus vulgaris L. shown superior there other total phenolic compound (27.16mg/g AGE Equv.).Total flavonides(30.38mg/g Rutin Equv.) in ethanolic extract of Phoseolus aureus than other extraction, the higher percentage of inhibition the per oxidation in linoleic acid system of ethanolic extract of Pisum sativum L., 64.17 % at 120mg/g. Also the ethanolic and water extracts of Pisum sativum L., show priority scavenging of Hydrogen peroxide there other Legume which were (80.39%,79.77%) respectively. Increasing the concentration led to increase of antioxidant activity. The extract of Pisum sativum L., was separated by Thin Layer chromatography and identification by Infra red spectroscopy and mass spectrometer.

الكلمات الدلالية

Antioxidant activity --- Legume --- reducing power --- phenolic compound


Article
The Effect of Irrigation Interval and Alternation of Irrigation water Salinity on some soil properties and Growth of Corn plant(Zea MaysL.) )) 2-Soil bulk density and Plant growth ((
تأثير فاصلة الري والتناوب في المياه مرتفعة الملوحة ومنخفضة الملوحة تحت منظومة الري بالتنقيط في بعض خصائص التربة ونمو نبات الذرة الصفراء Zea Mays L.)) 2- الكثافة الظاهرية للتربة وإنتاجية النبات

المؤلفون: داخل راضي نديوي --- سعدية مهدي صالح
الصفحات: 1229-1239
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الخلاصة

A study was conducted on field located at Abuelkasseb - Basra Provence during the growing season of 2008-2009 on silty clay loam texture soil (Typic torrifluvent Fine clay mixed calcareous hyper thermic.) in order to investigate the effect of alteration between saline water 7-8 dSm-1 and low saline water 1ــ 1.5 dSm-1 and interaction with irrigation interval of 1.2 and 3 days. under irrigation level of 100% EP and Leaching requirement of 20% . on soil bulk density and corn plant yield. The experiment was designed by Randomized Complete block design (R.C.B.D) with three replicate. The results of this study may summarized as follows: 1- Using saline irrigation water was increased the soil bulk density comparison with the treatments of its alternation with low saline irrigation water and using only low saline irrigation water. 2- Decreasing the irrigation interval was decreasing the soil bulk density. 3-The interaction between salinity irrigation water treatments and decreasing of irrigation intervals was positive for yield plant increasing

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Modeling Soil Temperature at different depths and times as a function of some climatic data Using Artificial Neural Network
نمذجة درجات حرارة التربة على اعماق واوقات مختلفة بدلالة بعض المعلومات المناخية باستخدام الشبكات العصبية الاصطناعية

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الخلاصة

In this study, implementation of artificial neural network model has been used to estimate soil temperatures at various depths and different measuring times, as a function of mean air temperature, number of sunshine hours, radiation, for any day of the year.ANN (artificial neural network ) of back propagation and fitness algorithms models . The data of soil temperature is taken from research department of soil and water / Nineveh province for the period from 1980 to 1983 and it include daily measurements of soil at depths of 5,10, 20, 30,50 and 100 cm and for three periods at 9, 12 and 15 clock for cultivated and bare soil. The data of two years was used to learn the network and the data of one year was used to test the network and compare its output with the measured data, three performance functions, namely root mean square errors (RMSE) and determination coefficient (R2), were used to evaluate the neural model , to find the adequacy between estimated data and the outputs of neural network for one year, the values of R2 ranging between 0.95 -0.99 and the values of RMSE decreased significantly for all cases of estimation. The results shows the possibility of using neural networks in the composition of the model that can be used in the estimation of deep soil temperatures through the use of surface soil temperature for three times of measurement, the successful use of neural networks in the composition of the model that can be used to estimate the deep soil temperatures through the use of soil-surface temperatures, which are measured at different time periods. Successful construction of General ANN model that predict soil temperature at any depth and time from soil surface temperature of any time have been made. The ability of constructing ANN of two dimension could estimate soil temperature with very high accuracy by adding time dimension and soil depth dimension.


Article
The Effect of Emitters Discharge and Alternation of Irrigation water Slanity on some soil properties and Growth of Corn plant ( Zea Mays L.) 1- Drip irrigation efficiency , Water Use Efficiency(WUE) and plant growth
تأثير تصريف المنقطات ومناوبة ملوحة ماء الري في بعض صفات الـــتربة ونمو نبات الذرة الصفراء Zea mays L. 2- كفاءة منظومة الري بالتنقيط وكفاءة استعمال المياه وانتاحية النبات

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in the field of Agricultural collage . university of Basra ,in karmat-ALl during the spring season 2009 in clay soil in order to investigate the effect of alternation of emitter discharge and irrigation water salinity by using drip irrigation system on some of vertical and horizontal water movement in soil Two emitter's discharge were used , Low discharge (L) (2.O L h -1) and high discharge (H) ( 10 L h -1 ). By using saline water(S) 5.5-6.O dS m -1 and Low saline water ( F ) 2.O- 2.2 dS m-1. These treatments were compined together to do 9 selective treatmeats combination as :- SL , 3SL – FL ,2SL-FL, SL-FL , SL-SH , 3SL-FH , 2SL-FH ,SL-FH, FL-FH , under irrigation level 100% Epan and leaching requirement of 20% . The experiment was designed by Randomized complete Block design (R.C.B.D) with three or replicates . The results of this study my summarized as follows : 1- Water use efficiency was increased under HED'S treatment and low saline irrigation water ,the values were 0.370 , 0.352 , 0.334 , 0.318 , 0.303 kg .cm-1 for FL-FH , SL-FH ,2SL-FH , 3SL-FH , SL-SH ; and 0.254 , 0.269,.0.277,0.277,0.289 kg .cm-1 FOR SL, 3SL-FL , 2SL-FL , SL-FL respectively . 2-The result showed the Significantly increasing in dry weight and corn cob weights were shown under the HED compared with LOD'S treatments , and the values increased with increasing the percentage of using low saline irrigation water .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
The Effect of Emitters Discharge and Alternation of Irrigation water Slanity on some soil properties and Growth of Corn plant ( Zea Mays L.) 1- Drip irrigation efficiency , Water Use Efficiency(WUE) and plant growth
تأثير تصريف المنقطات ومناوبة ملوحة ماء الري في بعض صفات الـــتربة ونمو نبات الذرة الصفراء Zea mays L. 2- كفاءة منظومة الري بالتنقيط وكفاءة استعمال المياه وانتاحية النبات

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted in the field of Agricultural collage . university of Basra ,in karmat-ALl during the spring season 2009 in clay soil in order to investigate the effect of alternation of emitter discharge and irrigation water salinity by using drip irrigation system on some of vertical and horizontal water movement in soil Two emitter's discharge were used , Low discharge (L) (2.O L h -1) and high discharge (H) ( 10 L h -1 ). By using saline water(S) 5.5-6.O dS m -1 and Low saline water ( F ) 2.O- 2.2 dS m-1. These treatments were compined together to do 9 selective treatmeats combination as :- SL , 3SL – FL ,2SL-FL, SL-FL , SL-SH , 3SL-FH , 2SL-FH ,SL-FH, FL-FH , under irrigation level 100% Epan and leaching requirement of 20% . The experiment was designed by Randomized complete Block design (R.C.B.D) with three or replicates . The results of this study my summarized as follows : 1- Water use efficiency was increased under HED'S treatment and low saline irrigation water ,the values were 0.370 , 0.352 , 0.334 , 0.318 , 0.303 kg .cm-1 for FL-FH , SL-FH ,2SL-FH , 3SL-FH , SL-SH ; and 0.254 , 0.269,.0.277,0.277,0.289 kg .cm-1 FOR SL, 3SL-FL , 2SL-FL , SL-FL respectively . 2-The result showed the Significantly increasing in dry weight and corn cob weights were shown under the HED compared with LOD'S treatments , and the values increased with increasing the percentage of using low saline irrigation water

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of soil mulching , irrigation and nitrogen levels on phosphorus and potassium up take by tomato plants .
تأثير تغطية سطح التربة ومستويات الري والتسميد النتروجيني في كمية الفسفور والبوتاسيوم الممتصة لنبات الطماطة

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was carried out in Agricultural Research Station in Burjisiah – AlZubair Region – Basrah Province during the growing season 2008-2009 on tomato (Lycopersicon Eseulentum Mill.) V. Super Red to investigate the effect of mulching, irrigation regimes, and nitrogen level. The mulching treatment are black plastic, textile bags, bladygrass shoot, dates palm leaves and control (without mulching). The irrigation regimes were 100% of the total evaporation for the American evaporation pan class A (EP 100%) and 60% from the total evaporation for the American evaporation pan class A(EP 60%). Nitrogen was added at levels of 0, 80, and 160 kg ha-1 in the form of urea (46% N). Field was plowing perpendicularly and then received manure and the tomato seedling was transplanted on 20/10/2007 to the field at age of five true leaves stage. Then plants were fertilized with nitrogen levels and phosphorus and potassium at levels of 80 P2O5 ha-1 and 120 K2O ha-1, then soil surface was mulched with so mentioned mulches at one layer then irrigated using the two levels mentioned before.After 160 days of transplanting , the fourth upper leaves were collected from plants of each experimental unit end analyzed for P and K concentrations . Plant dry weight was recorded at end of tomato season , then uptake of P and K were calculated . The results showed that soil mulching enhanced P and K conc. and P and K uptake by tomato plants compared with unmulchinged treatment with an increase of 48 and 32% for P and K uptake , respectively . Plastic mulch gave the highest P and K uptake as compared with other mulche types . Highest P and K conc. and P and K uptake were obtained with EP 100% compared with EP 60% . Data also revealed that increasing N level increased K conc. In leaves and P and K uptake significantly at all mulche treatments .

الكلمات الدلالية


Article
Effect of the type of filters and soil texture and the level of soil addition fertilizer Allergen and the overlap between them in the vocabulary maize crop growth
تأثير نوع المرشحات ونسجة التربة ومستوى إضافة السماد النتروجين والتداخل بينهم في مفردات نمو محصول الذرة الصفراء

المؤلفون: بيداء حميد جبرالخفاجي --- نجلة جبر الأميري
الصفحات: 1274-1292
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الخلاصة

Waste water was sampled on Jan.23,2010 from the primary collective tank from Hamdan Station/department of municipal Wastewater/Basra in addition to using portable water for comparison .It is accredited the Specification (1) in determining the Chemical, Physical and biological characteristics wastewater.This Biological experiment was implemented in the wooden canopy ,College of Agriculture,University of Basrah using plastic planting pot, it was use sand filters as primary processing for wastewater to remove pollutants prior to pass it through used filters upon incubating it for 14days,it was selected five types of filters to remove pollutants and recycle which are (wood sawyer, data palms fibers,coal, Ceratophyllun demersum L and Lemnaceae )as it was use as filters either a primary step in processing wastewater through passing these waters on directly or as a by- pass step by passing these waters on sand filters was used in this study.it used four leves of Nitrogen (0,120,240 and 360)Kg N/hectar-1. the Result showed irrigation with waters passed through Ceratophyllun demersum L+ sand filter leading to increase the plant dry weight for greenish and root total of corn plant and uptake content of nitrogen in greenish while the irrigation with untreated wastewater leading to increase the content of nitrogen in greenish and root total and uptake content of nitrogen in root total of corn plant. The Result showed clay salty significant effects on all studies traits more than sandy loam (dry weight ,content of nitrogen and uptake of nitrogen in greenish and root total of corn plant ) The Result showed nitrogen fertilizer level(N3)360 Kg N hactar-1 significant effects on all studies traits more than remainder levels(dry weight ,content of nitrogen and uptake of nitrogen in greenish and root total of corn plant)

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Article
Soil content of low molecular weight organic acids and biological properties for Date palm(Phoenix dactylifera) and Zizyphus (Ziziphus spinachriti) root zone (Rhizosphere) of some calcareous soil
محتوى الترب من الأحماض العضوية ذات الأوزان الجزيئية المنخفضة والخصائص الحيوية لمنطقة المحيط الجذري ( الرايزو سفير ) للنخيل Phoenix dactyliferaوالسدر Ziziphus spinachriti لبعض الترب الكلسية

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الخلاصة

Two sites(Abul– Khasseb and AL – Chabacy) in Basrah gavernorate were selected to study the effect of Date palm (Phoeninx dactylifera ) and Zizyphus (Zizyphus spinachriti) root Zone (Rhizosphere) ,and samples from bulk soil (as control) at three depths (0 – 30 ) , (30 – 60 ) and( 60 – 90 ) cm on different soils properties . Rhizosphere soils of Abul – Khasseb and AL – Chabacy were surpassed with high content of low molecular weight of organic acids (LMWOAs) as compared with bulk soils . Soils content of organic acids were as follow: Malic acid < Citric acid < Succinic acid < Maleic acid < Oxalic acid. Numbers of bacterial and fungi colonies were increased in rhizosphere zones of studied situations plants and depths as compared with bulk soil , to confirm the activity of this zone and its biological role in many changes and reactions

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