Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:55 issue:2Supplement

Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation Antimicrobial Activity of Some New substituted 2-Mercapto-3-Phenyl-4(3H)-Quinazolinone
تحضيرو تشخيص و تقدير الفعالية المضادة للميكروبات لعدد من المعوضات الجديدة لـ2-ميركبتو-3-فنيل-4(3H)-كوينازولينون

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Abstract

This work includes synthesis of new heterocyclic derivatives of 2-mercpto-3-phenyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone bearing 1, 2, 4-triazole and acetylenic amines moieties by using two ways. The first way includes reaction of 2-mercpto-3-phenyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone (1) with ethyl-2-bromopropanoate in methanol as solvent to gives ester derivative (2). Then, compound (2) was converted to (hydrazide, simecarbazid, phenylsimecarbazide and thiosimecarbazide) derivatives through its reactions with (hydrazine hydrate, simecarbazid, phenylsimecarbazide and thiosimecarbazide) respectively to give compounds (3-6). Finally, the cyclization of compounds (4-6) in alkaline media (4N-NaOH) gave the corresponding substituted triazole derivatives (7-9) respectively. While, compound (3) reacted with CS2 in alkaline media (20%KOH) to gives compound (10) that reacted directly with hydrazine hydrate to gives compound (11). The second way includes reaction of compound (1) with propargylbromide to gives compound (12). Then, compound (12) reacted with different secondary amines (by Mannich reaction) to give compounds (13 a-m). The structure of newly synthesized compounds were identified by spectral methods their [FTIR and some of them by 1HNMR, 13C-NMR] and measurements some of its physical properties and some specific reactions. Furthermore were studied the effects of the preparing compounds on some strains of bacteria and fungicidal


Article
New Turbidimetric-Continuous Flow Injection Analysis Method for The Determination of Chlorpromazine HCl in Pharmaceutical Preparation Using Linear Array Ayah 5SX1-T-1D-CFI Analyser
طريقة جديدة التعكرية-الحقن الجرياني المستمر لتقدير الدواء الكلوربرمازين في المستحضرات الصيدلانية باستخدام Linear Array Ayah 5SX1-T-1D-CFI Analyser

Authors: Issam M.A. Shakir --- Mohammad K. Hammood
Pages: 594-605
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Abstract

A new turbidimetric-flow injection method is described for the determination of chlorpromazine HCl in pure and pharmaceutical preparation. The method is characterized by simplicity, sensitivity and fast, it is based on formation of ion pair compound between chlorpromazine HCl and Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) in an acid medium for the formation of greenish yellow precipitate. This precipitate was determined using homemade Linear Array Ayah 5SX1-T-1D continuous flow injection analyser. Optimum concentrations of chemical reactants, physical instrumental conditions have been investigated. The linear dynamic range of chlorpromazine HCl was 3-30 mmol.L-1 while correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9929 and percentage linearity (%r2) C.O.D was 98.59%. Limit of Detection (S/N=3) 3×10-7 M/sample equivalent to 0.12 g/sample from the stepwise dilution of minimum concentration for the lowest concentration in the linear dynamic range of the calibration graph with R.S.D.% (n=6) < 2% for concentration 8 and 10 mmol.L-1. The method was applied successfully for the determination of chlorpromazine HCl in pharmaceutical drugs. A comparison was made between the developed method with the official method via the use of paired t-test. It shows that there were no significant differences between either methods. Therefore the newly developed method (K3[Fe(CN)6]-HCl-Chlorpromazine HCl) can be adopted as an alternative method for determination of Chlorpromazine HCl.


Article
Theoretical Study of Electronic Properties and Vibration Frequencies for Tri-Rings Layer (6, 0) Linear (Zigzag) SWCNT
دراسة نظرية للصفات الالكترونية ولترددات اهتزاز انبوب النانوكاربون نوع (6,0) زكزاك ثلاثي الطبقات

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DFT (3-21G, 6-31G and 6-311G/ B3LYP) and Semi-empirical PM3 methods were applied for calculating the vibration frequencies and absorption intensities for normal coordinates (3N-6) of the Tri-rings layer (6,0) Zigzag single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) at their equilibrium geometries which was found to have D6h symmetry point group with C-C bond alternation in all tube rings.as well as mono ring layer. Assignments of the modes of vibration were done depending on the pictures of their modes applying by Gaussian 03 program. The whole relations for the vibration modes were also done including (CH stretching, CC stretching, deformation in plane of the molecule (δCH, δring and δCCC), deformation out of plane of the molecule (CH and ring (CCC). Also include the assignment of puckering, breathing and clock-anticlockwise bending vibrations. Comparison for the geometry (the relations for axial bonds, which are the vertical C-C bonds (linear bonds) in the rings layer and for circumferential bonds which are the outer ring bonds), electronic properties and IR active vibration frequencies (asymmetric modes) of (Mono and Tri) rings layer were done. Clear relationships were found in the results of an odd layer number (Mono and Tri-rings layer). The theoretical results allow a comparative view of the charge density at the carbon atoms too.


Article
Determination of Relative Reactivity of HSAB Complexes Using DFT Theory
تحديد الفعالية النسبية لبعض معقدات HSAB باستخدام نظرية الدوال المكثفة

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Abstract

Based on the density functional theory (DFT) , the stability of molecular complexes has been predicted according to hard-soft acid base (HSAB) theory. Relative stability of products and reactivity of soft base sulfide derivatives with halogens (Iodine , Bromine , Chlorine) as soft acid was studied to determine the relative ability of these reactants causing the reaction to be more spontaneous. DFT at the levels of B3LYP/3-21G and B3LYP/3-21G (d) was used to study HOMO LUMO energy gaps , bonds length and total energy to calculate the softness sequence of each type of acid or base mentioned in this work. All cases studied prove that iodine can be considered as the most softness acid and ethyl methyl sulfide≈ dimethyl sulfide the most softness bases.

Keywords

DFT --- HSAB --- stability --- reactivity --- halogens


Article
Normal and Reverse Flow Injection- Spectrophotometric Determination of Vancomycin Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations Using 2, 4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine
التقدير الطيفي - الحقن الجرياني الاعتيادي و العكوس للفانكومايسين هايدروكلورايد في المستحضرات الصيدلانية باستخدام 2,4 - ثنائي نايتروفنيل هيدارزين

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Abstract

Simple and sensitive batch and flow injection methods (normal and reverse flow injection analysis (nFIA and rFIA)) for spectrophotometric determination of vancomycin hydrochloride (VHC) in pharmaceutical preparations were proposed and optimized. Both methods are based on the oxidative - coupling reaction between vancomycin hydrochloride and 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) in the presence of sodium periodate in alkaline medium to form a yellow water-soluble product that is stable and has a maximum absorption at 461 nm. Beer’s law was obeyed over the range of 1- 40, 0.5-120 and 0.5-150 µg.mL-1; the limits of detection were 0.537, 0.0823 and 0.233 µg.mL-1 for batch, normal and reverse flow injection methods respectively. The sampling rates were 124 and 120 injections per hour for normal and reverse flow injection methods respectively. The effects of chemical and physical parameters have been carefully considered and the proposed procedures were successfully applied to the determination of vancomycin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations.


Article
Isolation and Identification of Fungal Propagation in Stored Maize and detection of aflatoxin B1 Using TLC and ELISA Technique
عزل وتشخيص الفطريات المرافقة للذرة الصفراء المخزونة والكشف عن Aflatoxin B1 بأستخدام تقنيتيELISA و TLC

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Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by fungi Aspergillus flavus in food and animals feed. It is considered as a carcinogenic toxin for human and animals. The current study is designed to investigate the incidence of mycoflora in twenty four samples of local stored maize collected from Iraqi governorates; investigate the presence of aflatoxin B1 on these samples using TLC and ELISA techniques. The fungi recovered from maize samples were Aspergillus flavus (18.57 % ), Fusarium spp. (12.8 % ), A. ocraceus (9.96 % ) , A. terrus (9.07 % ), A. fumigatus (8.46 % ) , Alternaria spp. (6.40 % ) Rhizopus spp. (4.98 % ), A. niger spp., A. oryzae spp. (4.80 % ), Penicillium spp. (4.53 %) A. versicolor spp., Rhizoctonia spp. (4.27 %), A. tamari and Mucor spp. (3.20 %). Aflatoxin B1 was present in twelve samples of stored maize collected from Iraqi governorate and the concentration of toxin ranged between 2.30 to 30 ppb using TLC technique and 270 to 500 ppb using ELISA technique.

Keywords

Mycoflora --- Stored Maize --- TLC --- ELISA


Article
Laboratory Studies on the Effects of the Entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill, on the Homaira insect, Batrachedra amydraula (Lepidoptera : Cosmopterygidae
دراسات مختبرية حول تأثير الفطر Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) في حشرة الحميرة Batrachedra amydraula (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterygidae)

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This study was conducted to evaluate the pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana to the Homaira insect Batrachedra. amydraula under laboratory conditions. The dilution 1 x 10-2 showed a significant and high mortality rates on the eggs, first and fifth instars of the homaira larvae which reaches 100%, 96.19% and 91.20% after 7 days from treatment. However mortality rates found to be decreased to 88.97% for fifth instar after 10 days from treatment, while results showed parasitism potentially reaches 94.50% in pupae and 90.22% in adults.


Article
Biochemical Study on Pleural Effusion Fluid in Tuberculous and non-Tuberculous in Iraqi Patients
دراسة كيميائية حياتية لسائل غشاء الجنب الالتهابي التدرني و غير التدرني في المرضى العراقيين

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Abstract

Seventy exudative lymphocytic pleural fluid specimens of patients with suspected tuberculous pleural effusion submitted to the National Reference Laboratory of tuberculosis/Baghdad from October 2012 to February 2013. These effusions were due to tuberculosis pleuritis (n=12) and non-tuberculosis pleuritis (n=58). The following parameters were analyzed: protein concentration, glucose concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration and adenosine deaminase activity (ADA). As a result, the protein concentration was higher in TPE patients (8.80 ± 0.89 g/dl) than it's concentration in non-TPE patients (7.61 ± 0.54 g/dl), as well as LDH concentration was (3366.58 ± 284.28 U/L) in TPE patients and (3024.12 ± 116.84 U/L) in non-TPE patients and ADA activity was higher in the TPE patients (226.05 ± 16.90 U/L) than (153.06 ± 9.37 U/L) in non-TPE too. Whereas glucose was the unique parameter that it's concentration is lower in TPE patients than it's concentration in non-TPE patients (27.23 ± 4.81 mg/dl) and (199.80 ± 18.51 mg/dl) respectively. As a conclusion, the combination of the two parameters, protein level > 5 g/dl and glucose level < 60 mg /dl may be diagnostic for tuberculous pleural effusion. The higher level of ADA, greater the chance of the patient having TB while lower the level lesser the chance of the patient having TB. LDH measurement is a sensitive, but rather non-specific inflammatory marker.


Article
Some Protozoan Species Inhabiting the East Bank Sediment of River Tigris in Baghdad City
بعض انواع الابتدائيات المستوطنة في رواسب الضفة الشرقية لنهر دجلة في مدينة بغداد

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There are no researches in Iraq concerned identification and ecology of protozoa in sediment. The present study has been dealt with free-living protozoa community of the Tigris river bank sediment in Baghdad city. Variable species of vegetation (reeds and wild grasses) were observed to grow at both sides of the river. For the present study three sites were chosen at the east side of river Tigris. Monthly samples were collected from the sediment of each site over a period from January to October 2012.Total of 22 taxa were found, 12 of ciliates, 5 of each flagellates and sarcodines in the sediment samples. The highest numbers of protozoan 15 taxa were recorded from each of the sites 1&3 and little less taxa (13) were found in site 2. Among ciliates community Cyclidium sp. and Uronema marinum were found constantly in all investigated sites, meanwhile Cinetochilum sp. and Stylonychia sp. were belonged to accessory taxa. Among the testacies community Actinophrys sol was the only accessory species in all investigated sites. In general the soil at all sites was predominately by ciliates, meanwhile all flagellates species were absence in site 2.


Article
The Cytotoxicity Effect of Pyocyanin on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line (HepG2)
التاثير السمي للبايوسيانين على خطوط خلايا الكبد السرطانيه

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Abstract

Ninety eight specimens were collected from patients referring different hospitals in Baghdad in period from August to November in 2012. Specimens including (swabs from (Sputum, burn, wound, urine, ear, and eye).Sixty six isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolates were identified according to morphological, cultural, biochemical characteristics and API 20E test. 90% of P. aeruginosa isolates produced pyocyanin pigment on King A medium in different amounts, whereas other isolates were produced other types of pigments such as (pyoverdine-yellow, pyorubin-red, and pyomelanin-black) on King B medium and also in different amounts.Quantitative assay of pyocyanin production was conducted. The results were shown that the isolate of sputum from cystic fibrosis (CF) was greatest in production of pyocyanin. Pyocyanin purified and thier cytotoxicity effect on HepG2 cell line were studied in vitro. The results were shown that pyocyanin has cytotoxic effect on HepG2 cell line caused inhibition in growth of the cell line, the inhibition rate ranged from 7% to 84%.


Article
Determination of Heavy Metals in Imported Canned Fish that Sold in Baghdad Markets
تحديد المعادن الثقيلة في الأسماك المعلبة المستوردة التي تباع في أسواق بغداد

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The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Hg and Cu were determined in twenty sample of canned fish, samples were collected with different origin with two meals from local markets at Baghdad city for the period (October 2012-February 2013),results of study were appeared variation in mercury concentration of canned fish between November and February .The highest concentration of mercury (0.1 mg/kg) was observed in “Hawesta” brand and “Ocean wave” ” brand , the lowest average concentration for mercury 0.01ppm in “Habar”,”Durra” and ”Sayad” brand during( Nov.2012-Feb.2013 ) and have not recorded any concentration for mercury in “Yasmine” brand during (Nov. 2012-Feb. 2013).The maximum level of zinc reached in November. rather than in Febreuary ,Zn concentration varied from (6.46-18.6 mg/kg ) and the lowest concentration of Zn in canned fish from (0.010 - 0.370mg/kg). The results findings acceptable limit with Iraq standard.In this study we showed the concentration of copper varied from (0.073-10.216 mg/kg) .The highest concentration of copper (10.216mg/kg) was observed in “Habar” brand the lowest concentration of copper (0.073mg/kg) was observed in “Durra” brand , “Founty”and”Herring fillets” were recorded 0.19 mg/kg and 0.16 mg/kg.


Article
Effect of Two Species of Cyanobacteria as Biofertilizers on Characteristics and Yield of Chickpea Plant
تاثير نوعين من الطحالب الخضر المزرقة كاسمدة حيوية على صفات وانتاجية نبات الحمص

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The cyanobacteria strains were used in bioreactors to produce biomass. The total biomass after one month in suitable conditions such as efficient gas exchange, powerful light source and suitable medium composition was 7.99 mg/ml for N. commune and 5.83mg/ml for A. circinalis. These algae were applied alone or mixed in two rates (5 or 10 ml/ 100 g compost); Azotobacter chroococcum was used before 7 days of harvesting or with other cyanobacteria species. The total Nitrogen showed 1.84% with Azotobacter, however the nitrogen in mix culture was 1.80% mean while, the control treatment was 1.49%.. These results indicate that we can reduce chemical fertilizers by 1/4 or may 1/2 dose of normal requirement on growth and yield of chickpea plant.


Article
Evaluation Cytotoxic Effect of Nostoc sp. and Scenedesmus acuminatus Extracts on Cell Line Hep -2 in vitro
تقييم التاثير السمي لمستخلص الطحلبين Nostoc sp. و Scenedesmus acuminatus في خط خلايا سرطان الحنجرة البشري Hep-2

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In this Study, isolate and identification two types of algae Scenedesmus acuminatus (Lag.) Chodat belonging to Division of green –algae and Nostoc sp. Of the belong to Division of cyanobacteria from fountain pool at the University of Al- Mustansiriya. Use culture medium Chu- 10 for growth of algae on batch culture in the laboratory conditions (25 ˚ c ±2 and light intensity 200 μE/m²/sec the light:dark regime was used 16:8 hrs). Harvested culture after fourteen days of age farm. Use methanol 95% to extract active compound from raw dry biomass, Tested the effectiveness of the efficiency of the cell extract toward the cell line (human larynx cancer) Hep-2 from biotechnology center at the University of Alnahrain university and different concentrations (125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 μg / mL) The study showed that the extract of green algae Scenedesmus acuminatus better the effectiveness of the extract blue green alga Nostoc sp. toward the cell line Hep -2 found that the extract has a toxic effect of all concentrations had a higher effectHigher toxic effect of the extract at concentration Senedesmus acuminatus 1000 μg / mL by 69.19%, while the toxic effect was higher when the concentration 4000 μg / mL by 55.4% to blue-green alga extract Nostoc sp. Did not show inhibitory effect at concentrations of a few under study.


Article
The Investigation of Total Trihalomethanes Concentration in Drinking Water in Al-Dora and Al-Rasheed plants in Baghdad
التحري عن تراكيز ثلاثي الهالوميثانات الكلية في مياه الشرب في محطتي الدورة والرشيد في بغداد

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During period from September 2012 to August 2013, concentration of total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) was assessed in drinking water in Al-Dora and Al-Rasheed purification plants. 216 samples were collected from final basins of chlorination in purification plants and from sites that distributed among residential areas fed by the project. TTHMs concentration did not exceed (0.15 ppm) which is the maximum limits according to Iraqi standard specification for drinking water. The highest value was in July (0.12 ppm) and the lowest value was in November (0.01 ppm).


Article
Study of the Interaction Effect Between Parsley Petroselinum crispum and Cadmium on Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Catalase Activity of Albino Mice Males' Liver and Kidney
دراسة التأثير التداخلي بين نبات المعدنوس Petroselinum crispum والكادميوم على صورة الدهون وبيروكسدة الدهون وفعالية إنزيم الكاتاليز في كبد وكلى ذكور الفئران البيض.

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This study was designed to investigate the effect of different cadmium concentrations on albino mice males' oxidative balance through lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and catalase (CAT) activity estimation in liver and kidney. Parsley Petroselinum crispum was chosen to detect its effect as a natural antioxidant. Five groups of albino mice males (10 mice each) were treated with (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 7.5) mg Cd/kg b.w. orally by using gavages needle for 60 days according to 5 days/week protocol, another five mice groups were treated with the same cadmium concentrations mentioned above and 0.1 ml of parsley Petroselinum crispum juice. The results showed an adverse effect of cadmium on mice oxidative balance, while parsley showed an effective antioxidant effect which was revealed through lipid profile protection, MDA concentrations decrease and CAT activity increase.


Article
Cloning of Copper resistance gene (copA) that Presence in Novel Genomic Island of Acinetobacter baumannii A92
كلونه جين النحاس المتواجد في الجزيرة الوراثية الفريده المتواجدة في بكتريا Acinetobacter baumannii A92

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This study was aimed to detect weather copA gene(copper resistance gene ) presence in A.baumannii A92 genome(AbaR genomic islands). The full genomic sequence of A.baumannii A92 not published in NCBI genome similarity was detected between two strains so the sequence of A.baumanniiIS-116(Genebank-AMGF0100000.1 ) was used to design the primers that were used for amplify of copA gene of A.baumannii A92. Two primers contain two sites for restriction enzymes (KpnI,XohI) and PWSK29 vector were used in the cloning, double digestion has been performed for vector and gene. Then the re-ligation was completed to form recombinant molecule,after that, transformation have been performed for the recombinant molecule by using chemical competent E.coli DH5α. Finally ,the transformant cells were incubated for 16-18hr at 37°C, the white positive colony that contain recombinant vector was appeared . After that, the success of cloning was confirmed by using colony PCR method for white colony by using copA-F with M13-R(universal primer) primers ,the results of colony PCR confirmed the presence of insert gene by appearing of inserted band.


Article
Weibull Parameters and Wind Power Assessment for Three Locations in Iraq
تقدير معاملات ويبل وقدرة الرياح لثلاث مواقع في العراق

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In this research, we built a program to assess Weibull parameters and wind power of three separate locations in Iraq: Baghdad, Basrah and Dhi-qar for two years 2009 and 2010, after collecting and setting the data available from the website "Weather Under Ground" for each of the stations Baghdad, Basrah and Dhi-qar. Weibull parameters (shape parameter and scale parameter) were estimated using maximum likelihood estimation method (MLE) and least squares method (LSM). Also, the annual wind speed frequencies were calculated noting speed most readily available through the above two years. Then, we plotted Weibull distribution function and calculate the most significant quantities represented by mean wind speed, standard deviation of the values, the highest value and the lowest value during those years.


Article
Characterization and Classification of Radioactive Wastes from Disposal Silo
توصيف وتصنيف النفايات المشعة في مخازن الطمر

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In the present work, classification of radioactive wastes based on Annual Intake (AI) values is studied. Where the characterization of radionuclides was done by hand held GeLi detector with an overall efficiency better than 42%. It was noted the most predominant contaminant are Cs-137, Co-60 and Pa-234.The radioactive waste in disposal silo has been divided into five categories according to the harmful effect of radionuclides.For the purpose of storageradioactive wastein a safe manner, it wassuggesteda new method by shielding radioactive waste in each category with concrete;where the thickness of shielding is the time required to reduce the annual dose to 10%.


Article
Geochemical Correlation of Mishrif Formation in AL-Nasiriyah Oil Field/ South of Iraq
المضاهاة الجيوكيميائية لتكوين المشرف في حقل الناصرية النفطي في جنوب العراق

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Gas Chromatography GC, Gas Chromatography–Mass spectrometry GC/MS techniques used for analysis of the crude oils that taken from (10) producing wells in Nasiriyah oil field including (NS-1, NS-3, NS-4, NS-5, NS-6, NS-7, NS-8, NS-9, NS-10, and NS-12) from Mishrif reservoir . This reservoir is one of the important reservoirs in Al-Nasiriyah oil field, and it will be the main subject in the current study in order to provide information of crude oil analysis in this area, also to provide information on its characterizations. Mishrif Formation is one of the principle carbonate reservoir in central and southern Iraq. It is part of the wasia group and widespread throughout the Arabian gulf, It is deposited during Cenomanian-Early Turonian cycle with equivalence to Upper Sarvak reservoirs in Iran and the Natih Formation in Oman,This formation in central and southern Iraq is represented in many oil fields such as, Buzergan, Amara, Halfaya, Majnoon, Rumaila, West Qurna, and Nasiriyah. The analysis of various bulk parameters such as (API gravity ,Sulfur content ,Crude oil compositions and Stable carbon isotope compositions (δ 13C ‰))and biomarker parameters such as (Alkanes and Acyclic Isoprenoid Ratios, Terpanes ,and Steranes) shows that the all oil samples are represented one group, non-biodegraded, marine, and non-waxy deposits derived from carbonate source rocks deposited in anoxic marine environment, these oils are from Jurassic, with similar level of thermal maturity ,Hence the most appropriate sources for this crude oil may be Sargelu Formation.


Article
Assessment of Groundwater in Al-Hawija (Kirkuk Governorate) for Irrigation Purposes
تقدير صلاحية المياه الجوفية في الحويجة (محافظة كركوك) لاغراض الري

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The study area is located in Kirkuk governorate - northern Iraq, It covers an area of 630 km2.Twenty eight groundwater samples were collected from the study area during October 2012. pH, electrical conductivity(EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical analysis of major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl, SO42 and HCO3) were determined. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), sodium percent (Na%) and electrical conductivity were used to evaluate the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose. The groundwater samples mostly have no harmful effects and no hazard in terms of SAR and RSC respectively, and permissible in terms ofNa%, but they are poor, very poor and marginal as irrigation water.

Keywords

Al-Hawija --- irrigation --- groundwater


Article
Using Ultrasonic Technique to Measure Some Petrophysical Properties of Yamama Formation at Ratawi-7 Oil Well Core Samples, Southern Iraq
استخدام تقنية الموجات فوق الصوتية لحساب بعض الخواص البتروفيزياوية لنماذج اللباب لتكوين اليمامة في بئررطاوي-7 النفطي ،جنوب العراق

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Twenty nine core samples were taken from Ratawi 7 Oil well according to the presence of oil in formation and availability of core samples. This well is located in the province of Basra/southern Iraq. The samples were collected from Yamama Formation. The core samples are taken from the well at different depths, ranging between (3663m-3676m). The range of Vp for these core samples is (668-4017 m/sec) and its average is (1779 m/sec), While the range of Vs is (291-1854 m/sec) and its average is (796 m/sec). In the current study the ultrasonic method is conducted to measure Vp, Vs as well as some petrophysical properties for core samples and some elastic moduli such as (Young's modulus, Bulk modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and Lame's constant) depending on the values of Vp and Vs as well as to density. The relationship between seismic wave velocities and elastic moduli and petrophysical properties are plotted. The average of densities for this well is (2661 kg/m3). The average of porosities which calculated depending on Vs values for this well is (22.08%). Two core samples from Rt7c1 well are selected to conduct laboratory measurements for porosity and compare it with the results of porosity which calculated from Vs, the results show that the values of porosities are similar as shown in the following table: Well No. Sample No. Porosities values from Vs Porosities from laboratory Rt-7 c1 1 30.3% 33% Rt-7 c1 16 14.42% 14%

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Article
The Influence of Kaolinite and pH on Permeability in the Zubair Reservoir in the North Rumaila Oilfield, Southern Iraq
تأثير الكاؤلينايت والدالة الحامضية على النفاذية في مكمن الزبير النفطي ضمن حقل الرميلة الشمالي, جنوب العراق

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Abstract

This research involves the study of permeability declination as a result of kaolinite due to the changing in pH in the Zubair reservoir (Lower Cretaceous) during the secondary production by water injection method. Four wells and six core samples within the North Rumaila field are studied, Minerals have been diagnosed by XRD and this specific site of clay minerals was diagnosed within the core samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The core samples are also studied petrogrphically using the polarizing microscope and found that they mainly consist of quartz, while the predominant clay is kaolinite. The effect of pH on the values of permeability was examined through a series of laboratory experiments, as it has been tested in the cases of gradual sudden increase form acidic to alkaline. Petrophysical properties (porosity and initial permeability) were measured a prior to testing. After performing these tests, the final permeability was also measured as well as the rate of formation damage. The final permeability decreased gradually at a rate of 20-30% M Darcy during the injection out with solution of pH 3 to 11 with getting formation damage up to 25%. While in the case injection with sudden increase pH from acid to alkaline directly, there has been a rapid and substantial reduction in the final permeability as average of 28% -72%, with a formation damaged rate of 44%. The results confirmed that the reason of the decrease in the permeability is due to the kaolinite mineral which is subject to the dispersion phenomenon during the change in pH, and the acidic environment is suitable for the reservoir, and does not lead to a reduction in permeability.


Article
Neotectonics of Al-Thirthar, Al-Habbaniya , Al-Razzazah Depressions, Central Iraq, by using Remote Sensing Data.
نيوتكتونك منخفضات الثرثار والحبانية والرزازة, وسط العراق, باستخدام بيانات التحسس النائي

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Abstract

The object of this research is to reveal the neotectonics of Al-Thirthar, Al-Habbaniya, and Al-Razzazah depressions by using remote sensing data. The age of the exposed rocks ranges from Early Miocene to Holocene. The depressions represent the west margin of the Mesopotamia Zone along its boundary with Al-Salman Zone. The lineament map contains three major groups of lineaments. Two of them are trending east-west and northeast-southwest parallel to the transversal fault systems of Iraq territory. The third group is trending northwest-southeast. The lineament groups reveal the tectonic and structural effects to the extension and the shape of the depressions. The intersection of the lineaments divided the area into small fragments which contribute to develop the depressions. Some of geomorphological landforms reveal that the neotectonics of depression area are relatively weak.


Article
Magnetohydrodynyamic Flow for a Viscoclastic Fluid with the Generalized Oldroyd-B Model with Fractional Derivative
جريان ممغنط لمائع لزج-مطاطي من النمط أولدرويد-بي ذو المشتقات الكسرية

Authors: Dhefaf Rasan ضفاف ريسان
Pages: 802-810
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Abstract

This paper deals with the Magnetohydrodynyamic (Mill)) flow for a viscoclastic fluid of the generalized Oldroyd-B model. The fractional calculus approach is used to establish the constitutive relationship of the non-Newtonian fluid model. Exact analytic solutions for the velocity and shear stress fields in terms of the Fox H-function are obtained by using discrete Laplace transform. The effect of different parameter that controlled the motion and shear stress equations are studied through plotting using the MATHEMATICA-8 software


Article
Influence of MHD on Steady State Newtonian Fluid Flow in A vertical Channel With Porous Wall Using HAM
تأثير الحقل المغناطيسي على الجريان المستقر لمائع نيوتيني في قناة عموديه ذات HAM جدار مثقبه باستخدام طريقه

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to analyses steady state three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) flow of fluid injected uniformly into the vertical channel with porous wall through one side of the channel. The equations which were used to describe the flow are the momentum and energy equations, these equations were written to get their non-dimensional form. It is found that these equations are controlled by many dimensionless parameter, such as Hartmann number M, Reynolds number Re and Peclet number Pe. The homotopy analysis method(HAM) is employed to obtain a analytical solutions for velocity and heat transfer fields. The effect of each dimensionless parameters upon the normal and tangential velocity, pressure and temperature distributions are analyzed and shown about (15) graphs by using the Mathematica package.


Article
Quasi Duo Rings whose Every Simple Singular Modules is YJ-Injective
YJ-حلقات كوازي ديو والتي كل مقاس بسيط منفرد عليها غامر من النمط

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Abstract

In this paper , we give some characterizations and properties of Quasi duo rings whose every simple singular module is YJ-injective . and we study the relation between this rings and other rings , like NI-ring, non singular rings, generalized π-regular ring, strongly regular and n-regular ring .


Article
Some Results on Strongly Fully (m,n)- Stable Modules to Ideal
نتائج حول المقاسات تامة الاستقرارية من النمط (m,n) بقوة بالنسبة الى مثالي

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Abstract

Let R be a commutative ring with non-zero identity element .For two fixed positive integers m and n , a right R-module M is called strongly fully (m,n)- stable relative to an ideal A of R n x m if θ (N)⊆ N ∩ Mn A for each n- generated submodule of Mm and R- homomorphism θ :N→ Mm. In this paper I give some characterizations theorems and properties of strongly fully (m,n) –stable modules relative to an ideal A of R n x m.

Keywords

fully (m --- n) --- stable --- modules --- ideal


Article
The Determination and Classification of Low Mass Brown Dwarf Stars Using Metallicity Technique
تحديد وتصنيف نجوم الاقزام البنية ذات الكتل الواطئة بأستخدام تقنية نسبة عامل المعدنية

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Abstract

Low mass brown dwarf stars in the northern hemisphere were investigated; their population and metallicity have been determined using the spectroscopic technique. The classification of these stars was pointed out as belongs to population I, varies in metallicity range between -0.417 ≤ z ≤ 0.143.


Article
Calculate the Longitude and Orbital Motion for Amaletha, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto Satellites
حساب خط الطول وحركه الاقمار اماليثا و يوربا وجاينيميد و كاليستوa.

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Abstract

The orbital motion and longitude for some Jupiter's satellites (Amaletha, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) were calculated from two different locations Iraq and Syria. A program was designed, the input parameters were the desired year, month, day and the longitude of the location, the output parameters results were applied in form of a file, and this file includes the longitude, orbital motion, and local time of these satellites. A specific date 1-10-2013 was taken, the results of longitude was (20-336) º and orbital motion was (92-331) º for both Iraq and Syria location with observing time (05:24:14-15:18:10) for Iraq and (04:56:33-14:50:30) for Syria. The difference in time between the two locations was constant (00:45:00), these results were compared with the results of Gilbert in 1974, but he worked only on the longitude with respect to the universal time, which his values was (34-296)º.


Article
Using Remote Sensing Techniques to Assess Land Use/Land Cover Change in Laylan Sub-District, Kirkuk Province, Iraq
استخدام تقنيات التحسس النائي لتخمين التغيرات في استعمال الأرض وغطائها لمنطقة ليلان في محافظة كركوك ,العراق

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Abstract

In this study, Landsat (Thematic Mapper) TM and enhancement Thematic Mapper plus) ETM+ images obtained in 1990, 2000, and 2006 were used to Assess land use/land cover (LULC) changes in Laylan sub-district, Kirkuk province, Iraq, using Supervised Maximum Likelihood classification (MLC) ) methods. Aerial photographs, digital LULC maps, and topographic maps were utilized to assess classification accuracy. The aim of this study is to identify the changes that have occurred in land use in the city through different periods of time. Objective of the study is also to identify the factors affecting the distribution uses of land in the city. Five different land cover/use categories have been used, named Vegetation, sand, soil, salt soil, urban areas. The classifications showed that decrease of the grasslands areas, agricultural lands and vegetation in general and the increase of urban areas mixed soil. The results are being used to project future analyze landscape diversity and fragmentation, and examine different scenarios for more ecological management. The classifications have provided an economical and accurate way to quantify, map and analyze changes over time in land cover.

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