Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:55 issue:3B

Article
Spectral Characterization and Charge – Transfer Complexes of Some Schiff Bases Derived from Aminopyridines and Hydroxyacetophenones
Charge–transfer complexes, acetophenone, aminopyridine, Schiff bases

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Abstract

The molecular structures of acetophenonylidine-4-aminopyridine (I), 2, 6-dihydroxyacetophenonlidine-4-aminopyridine (II), 2, 4, 6- trihydroxyaceto phenonylidine-4-aminopyridine (III) and 2, 6-dihydroxyacetophenonylidine-2-aminopyridine (IV) have been investigated by IR and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The IR data indicate that the hydroxyl groups of these Schiff bases exist as tautomeric mixtures of free and bonded with the azomethine groups. The electronic spectra, effect of polar and nonpolar solvents, and the effect of acidity and basicity on the electronic spectra were studied and discussed. Their charge-transfer (CT) complexes with chloranil in chloroform solvent were also investigated; these complexes absorb light at 398-533 nm. The ionization potentials of Schiff bases, the equilibrium constants , molar extinction coefficients of CT complexes and the dissociation energies of the complexes excited states were estimated and discussed, the values are 8.38 – 8.98 eV , 138 – 560 mol-1 dm3 , 530 – 1430 m2 mol-1 and 4.68 – 4.75 eV , respectively .


Article
A new mode for an on-line determination of Amiloride in pure and pharmaceutical preparation using CFIA with homemade Ayah 3SBGRx3- 3D solar cell microphtometer analyzer
نمط جديد للتقدير الأني للأميلورايد في المستحضرات الصيدلانية والنقية بأستخدام التحليل بالحقن الجرياني المستمر عن طريق استخدام محلل طيفي مايكروي مصنع محليا Ayah 3SBGR x3-3D solar cell.

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A new, simple, accurate, fast and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the analysis of amiloride in pure and pharmaceutical formulations by continuous flow injection analysis. The method was based on the oxidation of the drug with Ce(IV)sulfate in acidic medium to formed a pinkish-red color species which determined using homemade Ayah 3SBGR x3-3D solar cell flow injection photometer. Optimum conditions were obtained using a high intensity green light emitted diode as a source. The linear dynamic range for the instrument response versus amiloride concentration was 0.0005- 10 mmol.L-1 while the L.O.D was of 9.471 ng / sample. The correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9824 while percentage linearity (r2%) was 96.50%. RSD% for the repeatability (n=8) was lower than 1.5% for the determination of amiloride, at concentration of 0.5 mmol.L-1. The method was applied successfully for the determination of amiloride in pharmaceutical preparation. A comparison was made between the newly developed method and the classical method (UV-Vis spectrophotometry at wave length 540nm) of analysis using the standard additions method via the use of paired t-test. It showed that there was no significant difference between the quoted value of each individual company with calculated t-value at 95% confidence interval from developed method, in addition to comparison between two methods and calculate t-value, it was noticed that there no significant difference between two methods at 99% but a significant difference at 95% confidence level.


Article
New Approach for the On-Line Spectrophotometric Determination of Folic Acid in Pure and Pharmaceutical Preparation via Oxidation by Cerium(IV) Sulphate Using Ayah 3Sx3-3D-Solar Cell CFI Spectrophotometer Analyzer
نمط جديد للتقدير الاني الطيفي لحامض الفوليك في المستحضرات الصيدلانية والنقية من خلال الاكسدة بكبريتات السيريوم (IV) بأستخدام المحلل الطيفي للحقن الجوياني المستمر Ayah 3Sx3-3D-solar cell

Authors: Aktham N. Jasim اكثم نصيف جاسم
Pages: 1153-1163
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A newly photometric analytical method characterized by its speed and sensitivity was developed for the determination of folic acid in pure and pharmaceutical samples via its oxidation to reddish-orange coloured complex through oxidation by cerium (IV) sulphate in aqua medium using homemade Ayah 3Sx3-3D-solar cell CFI photometer. The colored species were determined using supper bright green light emitting diode (LED) as a source. A 100µl was taken as a best sample volume for the determination of folic acid. The linearity of calibration curve for the instrument response versus folic acid concentration was 0.005-20 mmol.L-1 while the L.O.D. was 0.5  mol.L-1 from the stepwise dilution for the minimum concentration of lowest concentration in the linear dynamic range of the calibration graph. The correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9994 while the percentage linearity (r2%) was 99.88%. The method was applied successfully for the determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical preparation. RSD% for 8 mmo.L-1 (n=6) less than 1% . Using paired t-test it was shown that there was no significant difference between the proposed method and official method (Quoted value- 5mg) and on that basis the new method can be accepted as an alternative analytical method.


Article
Effect of Orange Peel (Citrus sinensis) (L) extrcts and powder on confused flour beetle Tribolum confusum (Coleoptera: Teneberionidae)
تاثير خلاصة ومسحوق قشور البرتقال Citrus sinensis على بالغات خنفساء الطحين المحيرة Tribolium confusum (DUV) (Coleoptera: Teneberionidae) .

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This study was carried out to determine the effect of extras of orange peel of (Citrus sinensis) in concentrations (1,5, 10) % as well as stomachic effect for the powder of the plant with doses of 5,10 , 15/gm on the biological activities of the adults of Tribolim confusum . The effect of powder from the adults has been evaluated using different concentrations of the orange peel. The results showed that the powder have significant effect on the mortality rates of adults. and caused reduction in number of adults after 3 days with 5,10,15/gm killed (30,40, 43.3)% respectively. The use of different doses of Citrus sinensis peels powder not impact significantly after just one day. The extract of essential oil also caused growth inhibition in adults and showed that extracts were more effective than the powder. Increasing the essential oil concentration and exposure time lead to increased the mortality rate of adult. The mortality reaches to 100% after 3 days when insect tested with 10% of extract. Generally, the results of this study showed effect of any form of Citrus sinensis peel on adult of Tribolium confusum compared with control treatment. the effectiveness of orange peel powder is probably due to silica or silica like component, which are abrasive and the ability of the particles to adhere to the grain. Citrus sinensis peel oil was superior to untreated and powder using 99.00% reduction in adult emergence at use 0.75g.


Article
Role of Proteus mirabilis DNA in Comparison to Candida albicans DNA in Rats’ Joints Infection
دور دنا بكتريا Proteus mirabilis مقارنه بدنا الخميره Candida albicans في اصابه مفاصل الجرذان

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In This study a comparison between Proteus mirabilis DNA and Candida albicans DNA in Arthritis. Fourteen Proteus isolates (11.6%) were collected from 120 specimens collected from midstream urine of patients of both sex and different ages attending different hospitals in Baghdad. Antibiotic sensitivity assay showed that All Proteus mirabilis recovered from UTI developed multidrug resistance and variable degree of resistance. Histopathological changes in model treated with Proteus mirabilis DNA revealed congestion, inflammatory cells infiltration, oedema, hemorrhagic exudates as well as necrotic cells. Furthermore, articular joints damage has been noticed with articular tissue in ligament and lining epithelium. In addition, an aggregation of lymphocyte was observed as well. While rats treated with Candida albicans DNA depict a congestion and a mild infiltration of inflammatory cells with oedema and augmented infiltration reaction inside the joint space. Serum Interleukine-6 (IL-6) levels peaked within 24 hours after injection of P. mirabilis DNA intraarticularly, while serum IL-6 levels did not increase in rats injected with C. albicans DNA and TE. The serum level of Anti-double strand antibody IgM (Anti-ds Ab) was assessed after 14 days and results revealed that Anti-ds Ab concentration was significantly higher (P< 0.01) in the animal model treated with Proteus mirabilis DNA than those treated with Candida albicans DNA. Total white blood cell count has been assessed, Animal model treated with 30µg/100 µl P. mirabilis DNA showed a significant (P< 0.05) increasing in total count of WBC, while there were insignificant differences between animals treated with 30µg/100 µl C. albicans and control animal.


Article
The Prevalence of Autoimmune Thyroiditis in A sample of Infertile Iraqi Women
تكرار حالات التهاب الدرقية المناعي الذاتي في عينه من النساء العراقيات غير الخصيبات

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In the present study, the aim was made to identify the relationship between thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and female infertility. The study was performed on 30 infertile women and 22 age-matched healthy fertile control age (33 ± 5 years). Overall, serum prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) assay is the key test for the diagnosis and management of hypo and hyperthyroidism. Anti-TPO Ab and anti-TG Ab were measured. The mean ± SE of serum PRL (31.080 ± 3.06) ng/ml was significantly (P<0.05) higher in infertile group compared with control (16.191±1.36) ng/ml. Serum TSH was significantly (P<0.05) higher in infertile group (5.689 ± 1.12) µIU/ml compared to control group (2.282 ± 0.18) µIU/ml. The prevalence of positive thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) was higher infertile women (248.439 ± 88.77) IU/ml than that of the control (15.118 ± 2.75) IU/ml. Also there was significant differences (P<0.05) in Anti-TG Ab titration in infertile women (360.139 ± 210.32) IU/ml compared to control (31.636±4.69) IU/ml. However, when thyroid antibodies were positive, hypothyroidism was more frequent in infertile women as compared to the control group. In the other hand, a significant (P<0.01) positive correlation between TSH hormone and Anti TPO Ab r = 0.37, while non-significant correlation was found between Anti- TG Ab and TSH. The present study demonstrated that autoimmune thyroiditis in infertile women is higher than that in healthy fertile controls.


Article
Production of Tannase from Aspergillus niger under solid state fermentation
انتاج انزيم التانييز من فطر (Aspergillus niger ) بتخمر الاوساط الصلبة

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Thirteen A.niger isolates were obtained from soil and food samples and screened on tannic acid agar for their ability to produce tannase. There isolates revealed large tannic acid hydrolysis zones, these isolates were cultured in liquid and solid substrate fermentation media to examine their production of tannase quantitatively .Solid substrate medium was more efficient than liquid medium ,and A.niger Ass19 gave the highest tannase productivity. Different kinds of SSF media and cultured conditions were performed to determine their effect on tannase production. The maximum yield of tannase was obtained in wheat bran with tea leaves hydrated with citrate buffer pH 5.5 at 1:3 (w/v) hydration ratio inoculated with 2108 fungal spores and incubated at 28C for 72hr .the tannase productivity was 8200 U/mg at these conditions.

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Article
The efficiency of Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil extract on some physiological and histological aspects in mice infected with hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus
كفاءة المستخلص الزيتي لنبات الدارسين Cinnamomum zeylanicum على بعض الجوانب الفسلجية والنسجية في الفئران المخمجة بالأكياس المائية العذرية للمشوكة الحبيبية Echinococcus granulosus

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The study aimed to determine the effect of the Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil extract on some aspects of physiological and histological in mice infected with larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, and Assess the efficiency the Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil extract against experimental infection with protoscolices as of hydatid cysts . A total of 40 mice were divided into 4 equal groups. Each mouse in the first, second, and third groups were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with 2000 protoscolices, whereas mice in the fourth group were left as negative control (Injected with normal saline) non-infected control. Four months post infection, mice in the second and third group treated with concentrations (0.03 and 0.04 mg) of Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil extract respectively in every day for two week. Mice in the first group were untreated and considered as control group. Morphological and histopathological changes in cysts and infected organs were studied. Some blood parameter were measured including the Red and white blood count , pocket cell volume and the percentage of hemoglobin, liver enzymes also measured, including glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase(GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) . Level of sugar was also measured in the blood serum. Preliminary results in infected mice showed that the zeylanicum oil extract at both doses was effective in stopping the viability of protoscolices compared with the positive control mice. The study also showed a significant increase (P <0.05) in the number of red blood cells and the packet cell volume and hemoglobin percentage in the treated mice, especially those treated with a concentration of 0.04 mg compared to positive control mice . Also we record a significant decrease ( P <0.05) in the number of white blood cells in treated mice compared to control positive mice. Moreover record a significant decrease (P <0.05) in the enzymatic activity of the enzyme GOT and GPT and a significant increase (P <0.05) to the level of sugar in the blood of mice treated with extract of zeylanicum compared to the positive control mice. The results of the histological examination of the liver and spleen occurrence of infiltration and degeneration of the cells and the lack of cellular pattern of positive control mice compared with mice treated with zeylanicum oil extract at both concentrations. And it can be concluded that zeylanicum oil extract contains material studying at her efficiency in the effective elimination of primates initial in-vivo also have the ability to reduce some of the side effects of this parasite in vivo. It is hoped that the plant will be studying the importance of addressing the disease in hydatidosis an alternative to chemical treatments and surgeries.


Article
Crystal Violet Binding Assay for Assessment of Biofilm Formation by Klebsiella pneumoniae on Catheter, Glass and Stainless-steel Surfaces
أختبـار ربـط البـلور البنفسـجي لتقديـر تكـون الغشـاء الحيوي لبكتريـا Klebsiella pneumoniae على اسطح القثطار البولي و الزجاج و الفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ

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In this paper, quantified study of the biofilm formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from urine specimen of patient suffering from acute urinary tract infection (UTI) on catheter, stainless-steel and glass coupon surfaces, as well as determine the relationship between time contact and biofilm progression using crystal-violet binding assay based on the values of optical density at 620nm of the crystal violet stain which bonded total biofilm biomass by resolubizing with 99.9% ethanol at the specific interval times. The result showed biofilm formed on three tested surfaces but in different degrees. According to obtained data, the catheter coupons presents a higher capability to attract bacteria cell and biofilm formation followed by glass surfaces while stainless-steel surfaces regard as a less attractive surfaces in bacterial adhesion and biofilm progression. The attachment of the bacterial cells on the fresh produce surfaces increase with the contact time but the increase reached a maximum at time 48h. in which, the optical densities of catheter, glass and stainless-steel coupon surfaces were (0.169 nm), (0.085 nm) and (0.07 nm) respectively. The statical analysis showed significant differences between substratum type's adherence and biofilm progression.


Article
The Effect of Hyperthyroidism on Leptin and Immunoglobuline E Levels in Asthma Patients
تأثير فرط الغده الدرقيه على مستويات اللبتين والكلوبيولين المناعي اي في مرضى الربو

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This study aimed to explain the relationship between hyperthyroidism and asthma by indicating the effect of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) on leptin and IgE levels.To determine whether T3 and T4 alters serum leptin and IgE levels, twenty newly diagnosis hyperthyroidism patients,twenty asthma patients, ten asthma with hyperthyroidism patients and ten (healthy) as a control were studied. Serum samples were collected to measure the leptin and IgE levels in addition to T3,T4 and TSH Levels. The results revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in leptin and IgE levels in hyperthyroidism, asthma and hyperthyroidism with asthma patients compared with the control group.These results indicated that elevation in T3 and T4 induced asthma,by affected these hormones on differenation of adipocyte tissue that cause increase of leptin hormone and increase O2 consumes from cells and make immune cell in activated state results increase IgE level.This study concluded there is a relationship between hyperthyroidism and asthma through increase Leptin and IgE.


Article
Changes in Immune Markers for Prostate Cancer Patients Pre and Post-operation
التغييرات الحاصلة في بعض المعلمات المناعية لمرضى سرطان البروستات قبل وبعد الجراحة

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This study includes 15 male healthy and 30 male patients diagnosed with prostate cancer inciude (18 cases in stages I & II and 12 cases in III – stage). All the patients were suffered from urinary tract infection ( UTI) . The mean age is (57.33± 5.02) years range ( 45-63) years, as cases and controls Patients with prostate cancer were treated admits an Educational Baghdad Hospital, and Central Public Health Laboratory and Radiation and Nuclear Medicine Hospital in Baghdad, during period 1/6/2008 to 1/12/2010 are included in this study. The markers Prostate-specific antigen (CA PSA), Interleukins ( IL -1 , IL-2, IL-3, IL-5) and Immunoglobulins ( IgG, IgM, IgE) are estimated by using ELISA method. The Clean-Catch midstream urine of the patients were collected, and cultured on blood agar and MacConky agar to isolation of the pathogenic bacteria causes and associated with prostate cancer. The isolated bacteria were identified according to morphological and using biochemical tests. The aim of this study is to fined out changes in some immune markers in prostate cancer patients and if any correlation exists between the tumor marker in patients serum pre and post-operation, and the bacterial pathogens of the UTI and its correlation with prostate cancer risk. The results show , a significant difference in CAPSA levels between healthy control and prostate cancer patients ( stages I , II , III ) pre-operation ( P >0.05 ), while no appear significant difference between healthy and patients post-operation , The comparison between prostate cancer pre and post-operation was showed a significant difference ( t=7.042,P > 0.05 ) with positive correlation. However , statistical analysis shows a significant difference in interleukins ( IL–1 , IL–2 , IL -3 , IL-5 ) between healthy and prostate cancer patients pre-operation, whereas no significant difference between them in post-operation , only IL-5 , also is increased significantly (P<0.05 ) and positive correlations in interleukins levels at prostate cancer patients pre and post-operation. The results show a significant difference in immunoglobulins (IgG, IgE, IgM ) between healthy control compared with prostate cancer patients pre-operation, but no significant difference post-operation. By comparing between prostate cancer pre and post-operation a significant correlation(P>0.05) but only IgM has no correlation( r=0.149,P=0. 432) were appeared. In this study 30(100%) patients are shown to be urine culture positive. Were inciude E. coli with frequency rate of 43.33%, Pseudomonas aerginosa (16.66 %), Klebsiella spp. (16.66%), Enterobacter spp. (10 %), , Acinetobacter spp. (3.33%), Serratia spp. (3.33%), and Staphylococci spp. (6.66%).


Article
Prevalence of bacterial types in Wagner grade three of diabetic foot ulcer
انتشار انواع البكتريا في قروح الدرجه الثالثه لاقدام مرضى السكري

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Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is one of the chronic wound infection and leads to non-traumatic lower limb amputation. Advances in diabetes research are significant and much needed because diabetes is on the rise worldwide and is considered by some experts already to be at an epidemic level. Among diabetic patients 70% were males and 30% were females. Aerobic bacteria 104(82%) were the most frequently isolated than anaerobic bacteria 23(18%). Among aerobes Gram negative bacteria 67(64.4%) were more commonly isolated than Gram positive 37(35.5%). The three most frequently found that S. aureus 28(22%) followed by P. mirabilis 22(17.3%) then E. coli 14(11%). Among anaerobic bacteria Gram negative bacteria 16(69.5%) were predominantly isolated than Gram positive bacteria 7(30.4%). The most probably isolated Veilonella spp. 10(7.9%) followed by Peptostreptococcus anaerobius 6(4.7%).


Article
Study of Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis in Hemodialysis Patients in Baghdad Hospitals
دراسة في الوبائيه المصليه لداء المقوسات الكونديه لمرضى غسل الكلى في مستشفيات بغداد

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This study aims to assess some seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients undergoing hemodialysis in dialysis centers in some Baghdad hospitals, by testing the blood samples with enzyme linked Immunosorbant assay (ELISA) IgG and IgM, to determine the incidence of toxoplasmosis in hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis patients infected with Toxoplasma. gondii were appeared with 129(32.25%) seropositive anti-Toxoplasma IgG. The age groups (43-51) year and (52-60) years of hemodialysis patients showed the highest percentage of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. An increase of the seropositivity rate was detected with increasing length of time on hemodialysis treatment. Females had the highest significant percentage of anti-Toxoplasma IgG 72 (55.81%) than males 57 (44.18%). Domestic poultry breeder had high percentage 71(55.03%) and 8 (57.14%) of anti-Toxoplasma (IgG+&IgM+) antibodies respectively in comparison with patients who do not breed domestic poultry.


Article
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Schizophrenic Patients in Iraq using ELISA test
الانتشار المصلي لطفيلي المقوسات الكوندية في مرضى انفصام الشخصية في العراق باستخدام اختبار الاليزا .

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Toxoplasmosis is a widespread infection of great importance, and that the disease does not show any clinical specific signs . this study was performed on 200 patients with schizophrenia were collected from :Al-Rashad Teaching Hospitals and 100 healthy individuals, considered as control group, the samples were collected during the period of December 2012 until the end of February, 2013. Antibodies against T. gondii parasite in the serum were detected by using latex agglutination test (LAT) and showed a percentage of positive antibodies in schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals (control) 143(71.5%) and 45( 45%) respectively.While using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) the positive blood sera in LAT test of the schizophrenic patients showed 114(79.7%) IgG against T. gondii compared to 33(73.3%) of the healthy individuals with no significant differences. Also detection of IgM in the sera of the schizophrenic patients showed 6(4.19%) compared to0 (0 %) of healthy individuals with significant differences between them.


Article
Species Identification and Strain Differentiation of Dermatophyte by (GACA)4-Primer based PCR
تشخيص انواع الفطريات الجلدية وتمايز سلالاتها باستخدام التفاعل التسلسلي (GACA)4للبوليمراز المعتمد على البادئ

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Dermatophytes are a group of morphologically and physiologically related molds some of which cause well defined infections: dermatophytoses (tineas or ringworm). The present study aims at identification of dermatophytes species and varieties from patients in Wasit province-Iraq using molecular approach based PCR fingerprint. The short oligonucleotide (GACA)4 is a microsatellite primer was used in this study for identification of dermatophyte isolates. The results identified different species and varieties among dermatophytes. The numbers of resulting PCR bands ranged from 1 to 4 (size range, 600bp to 1600bp) for each species. The resulting patterns were distinct for Trichophyton and Microsporum species and varieties. Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton verrucosum revealed distinguishable profiles with four largest bands (800bp to 1900bp) among Trichophyton species. (GACA)4 is able to amplify all species of Microsporum producing intraspecies variation which is observed with Microsporum canis (rough strain) and Microsporum canis (smooth strain), all of which had different band pattern. We conclude that (GACA)4-based PCR has utility as a rapid method for identification of dermatophytes species as well as its utility for differentiation of Trichophyton and Microspmoru species and varieties.


Article
Amplification and cloning the gene of bovine leukocyte α-A-interferon in cells of Escherichia Coli
تضخيم وكلونة جين الانترفيرون الفا من كريات الدم البيضاء للأبقار في بكتريا القولون Escherichia Coli

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Interferon’s plays a role in innate immune responses through upregulation of costimulatory molecules and induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Interferon alpha (IFN α) type of Interferons. The present study characterized IFNα cDNA . The interferon’s play a great role in protection from infections, caused by microorganisms, and have powerful antiproliferative and immunomodulation activity. In this study DNA was isolated from bovine blood leukocyte, which was used in the quality of matrix for amplification of α-interferon gene with the use of PCR, and isolation of gene α-interferon and transformation in vector pUC18 and expression vector pET24b (+). All plasmids contained an additional DNA fragment size corresponding to the gene of bovine α-A-interferon.


Article
Autoantibodies Status in a Sample of Iraqi Celiac Disease Patients
حالات الاضداد الذاتية في عينة دم المرضى العراقيين المصابين بحساسية الحنطة

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Fifty celiac disease (CD) patients (21 males and 29 females) with an age range of 2-35 years and 25 apparently healthy controls were investigated for 10 autoantibodies (anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA antibody; ATA, anti-tissue transglutaminase IgG antibody; ATG, anti-gliadine IgA antibody; AGA, anti-gliadine IgG antibody; AGG, anti-nuclear antibody; ANA, anti-double strand DNA antibody; AdsDNA, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody; ATP, anti-phospholipid antibody; APP, anti-myeloperoxidase antibody; AMP and anti-proteinase 3 antibody; AP3) in their sera. Six autoantibodies (ATA, ATG, AGA, AGG, AMP and AP3) showed significant variations between CD patients and controls. The first four antibodies were not detected in sera of controls, while in patients, their percentage frequencies were 44.0, 22.0, 56 and 72.0%, respectively. With respect to AMP autoantibody, 36.0% of patient's sera were positive for this autoantibody; while in controls, the corresponding frequency was much lower (7.70%). AP3 autoantibody behaved in a similar manner, and its frequency was higher in patients compared to controls (46.0 vs. 19.2%).Autoantibody AGG recorded the highest sensitivity and specificity (76.0)(100.0) respectively.


Article
Effect of Annealing temperature on the Structural, Optical and Sensitivity Properties of Nanostructure SnO2 Films to CO2 and NH3 Gas
تأثير حرارة التلدين على الخواص التركيبية والبصرية والتحسسية لأغشية SnO2 النانوية لغازي CO2 و NH3

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In this research, we studied the structural properties of SnO2 films nanostructure which prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method at room temperature on the rules of glass heated (400oC) with rate of spraying (2.5 ml/ min). The effect of annealing temperaturs (450,500,550,600 and 650oC) for two hours on those properties has been indicated. The results of x-ray diffraction showed that all of the prepared films were polycrystalline with tetragonal type and orientation was (110) for all models before and after annealing, and the annealing led to an increase in the grain size. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the (110) peaks of the films decreased from 1.492o to 1.064o with increasing annealing temperature .The surface morphology of the (SnO2) nanostructure films have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) which indicated that the grown films showed good crystalline and homogeneous surface . The Root Mean Square (RMS) values and surface roughness of the films decreased with increasing the annealing temperature. The optical properties of the films were studied by (UV-VIS-NIR) spectrophotometer in the wavelength range (300-1100 nm). The optical transmission results showed high transmittance (87%) at annealing a temperature (650oC). The energy gap for direct transmission was calculated before and after annealing. From the gas sensing measurements of SnO2 films for (CO2 , NH3), showed a good sensitivity at 50oC. It was found the that best sensitivity of SnO2 films at annealing temperature 650oC were (100%) for NH3 (98.78%).


Article
Calculation of FC F for Be9C l35 molecules
حساب معامل FCF لجزيئة Be9C l35

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Franck-Condon factors (FCF), which are proportional to peak intensities, were calculated as the square of the overlap between the initial and final state wavefunctions in order to calculate of molecule Be9Cl35 their overlap using numerical Integration for the vibrational band (′v =0 - 4) to (v″=0 –4) of the electronic transition A 2∏ - Χ 2 ∑ and by using an appropriate Potential for each of them .for vibrational ground and first excited states.this new vibrational level must be instantaneously compatible with the nuclear positions and momenta of the vibrational level of the molecule in the originating electronic state. In the semiclassical picture of vibrations (oscillations) of a simple harmonic oscillator, the necessary conditions can occur at the turning points, where the momentum is zero. This leads to, in general, an increase in the "allowed'' vibronic transitions and hence greatly influences the observed spectrum. For all but the simplest models for the electronic potentials, one must resort to a numerical calculation of the observed spectrum.


Article
Analysis of Burial History for Mesopotamian basin, southern Iraq
تحليل تاريخ الدفن لحوض وادي النهرين, جنوب العراق باستخدام برنامج PetroMode 1D

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Abstract

In this study, different oil fields in Mesopotamian basin, southern Iraq (Siba, Zubair, Nahr - Umr, Majnoon, Halfaya, Kumait, and Amara) were selected for studying burial history. PetroMod software 1D was used for basin constructing and to evaluate burial history of the basin. Results showed that in the upper Jurassic to the Recent, Mesopotamian Basin exhibited a complex subsidence history over a period of about 152 Ma.There are different periods of subsidence: high, moderate, and slow. High subsidence occurred at upper Jurassic- mid Cretaceous and at Miocene due to Tectonic subsidence. Slow subsidence occurred at upper Cretaceous and moderate subsidence at Paleogene. In the upper Jurassic, rapid subsidence is driven under the effect of sediment load during Suaily deposited. The average total subsidence values of the basement during the deposition of Suaily Formation is reached about 200 m. The highest subsidence rates during this time are observed northeast of the study area. Rapid subsidence in the lower Cretaceous, during deposition of Yammama, Ratawi, and Zubair formations. The average tectonic subsidence value of the basements during the deposition of Yammam Formation is reached to 300 m. The highest subsidence rates are observed trend to south west of the study area.


Article
Biostratigraphy of Lower Sarmord Formation in Kirkuk well no-109. Nouthern Iraq.
الطباقية الحياتية لتكوين السارمورد الاسفل في بئر كركوك-109 شمال العراق

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Abstract

The study includes biostratigraphy of the Lower Sarmord Formation in well Kirkuk-No-109. North of Iraq, two biozones had been distinguished as follow: 1- Choffatella decipiens SCHLUMBRGER Zone. 2- Orbitolina discoidea GARS Zone. The age of Formation in this study is determanid as Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian-early Aptian).


Article
The Effect of North Refineries Company on Soil pollution of Baiji City-Iraq
تاثير شركة مصافي الشمال على تلوث تربة مدينة بيجي – العراق

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Abstract

The average concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Co, Ni, Cr, Cd and Zn) in soil of North Refineries Company (NRC) at Baiji and around were determined in 29 selected locations using GPS. The pickings up of samples were carried out in three periods in 2012 in January, March and July. The concentration levels of determined heavy metals shows values within or lower than many researchers. The model of cumulative effect of the heavy metals, which was determined by GIS for the triple sampling periods show distribution of concentration towards wind directions and away from the site of NRC e.g. SE direction. This indicates the meteorological conditions represented by the wind direction and the rainfall, which plays an important role in distribution and deposition of pollutant metals via water drainage of the area.

Keywords

Soil Pollution --- Heavy Metals --- Baiji --- Iraq


Article
Effect of Magnetichydrodynamic on unsteady flow and heat transfer upon stretching sheet with non – uniform heat
تأثير الحقل المغناطيسي على جريان لامستقر وعلى انتقال الحرارة في صفيحة مطاطية ذات مصدر حراري غير منتظم

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Abstract

In this paper we study the effect of magnetichydrodynamic upon the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a permeable unsteady stretching sheet with non – uniform heat source / sink. It found that the momentum and energy equations are controlled by many different dimensionless parameters such as prandtle number , unsteadiness parameter , constant pressure , coefficient of the space dependent , the temperature dependent , and the MHD parameter . The analytic solutions are obtained by using suitable similarity transformations and homotopy analysis method (HAM). Furthermore, we analysis the effects of all dimensionless number, there are mentioned above, upon the velocity distribution and hest transfer distribution. This study is done through plotting (36) graph by using the Mathematica package


Article
Choosing Between Trimmed L-moment and L-moment Estimators of Extreme Value Distribution (Type- I)
اختيار أفضل طريقة تقدير من بين طريقة العزوم الخطية وطريقة العزوم الخطية المعممة لتقدير معالم توزيع القيمة المتطرفة (النوع الأول) .

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Abstract

Trimmed Linear moments (TL-moments) are natural generalization of L-moments that do not require the mean of the underlying distribution to exist. It is known that the sample TL-moments is unbiased estimators to corresponding population TL-moment. Since different choices for the amount of trimming give different values of the estimators it is important to choose the estimator that has minimum mean squares error than others. Therefore, we derive an optimal choice for the amount of trimming from known distributions based on the minimum errors between the estimators. Moreover, we study simulation-based approach to choose an optimal amount of trimming and maximum like hood method by computing the estimators and mean squares error for range of trimming and choose the one which has minimum mean squares error .


Article
Bayesian Analysis of five Exponentiated Distributions under different Priors and loss functions
التحليل البيزي لخمسة من التوزيعات الأسيه تحت دوال لاحقه ودوال خساره مختلفه

Authors: Nada S. Karam ندى صباح كرم
Pages: 1353-1369
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Abstract

The paper is concerned with posterior analysis of five exponentiated (Weibull, Exponential, Inverted Weibull, Pareto, Gumbel) distrebutions. The expressions for Bayes estimators of the shape parameters have been derived under four different prior distributions assuming four different loss functions. The posterior predictive distributions have been obtained, and the comparison between estimators made by using the mean squared errors through generated different sample sizes by using simulation technique. In general, the performance of estimators under Chi-square prior using squared error loss function is the best.


Article
Centralizers With Nilpotent Values
المتمركزات مع قيم عديمة القوى

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Abstract

In this paper , it is shown that if R is a semiprime ring and T a centralizer of R such that 〖T(x)〗^n = 0 for all x∈R , where n≥1 is a fixed integer then T = 0.


Article
Segmenting the Dermatological Diseases Images by Developing the Range Operator
تقطيع صور الأمراض الجلدية بتطوير عامل المدى

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Abstract

Medical image segmentation is a frequent processing step in image medical understanding and computer aided diagnosis. In this paper, development of range operator in image segmentation is proposed depending on dermatology infection. Three different block sizes have been utilized on the range operator and the developed ones to enhance the behavior of the segmentation process of medical images. To exploit the concept of range filtering, the extraction of the texture content of medical image is proposed. Experiment is conducted on different medical images and textures to prove the efficacy of our proposed filter was good results.


Article
Monte Carlo Simulation of the Effective Solid Angle and the HPGe Response to Different Mono-Energetic Protons from Extended Source.
محاكاة مونت كارلو لحساب الزاوية الصلبة واستجابة كاشف الجرمانيوم عالي النقاوة لبروتونات احادية الطاقة من مصدر غير نقطي

Authors: Alaa B. Kadhim علاء باقر كاظم
Pages: 1383-1388
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Abstract

A program using Mont Carlo techniques has been written to calculate the effective solid angle of the detection system and simulate the response of the HPGe to mono-energetic protons from an extend source. It has been found that the fraction of the protons which leave through the cylindrical surface and deposit only part of their kinetic energy in the crystal increases with proton energy and the consequent increase in their range.

Keywords

Mon Carlo --- Response --- HPGe detector


Article
Calculation of ISON Cometary Tail Temperature
حساب درجة حرارة مذنب (SONI)

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Abstract

The ion tail temperature of the comet ISON was calculated by using magneto-hydrodynamic MHD laws. From these equations the focus is concentrating on determine the ion tail temperature from the relations of dynamic and static pressures results.MHD equations are numerically solved using Matlab simulation code using cubic volume element method, based on three dimensionl Cartesian coordinates that devided into equal 15x15x15 equally spaced mesh. The simulation was performed using 3-D Lax explicit method considering normalised physical propreties relative to those of the solar wind at 1 AU. The results explained that it is possible to deduce two types of temperature, the first being the isotropic temperature which is shown to vary slowly with distance from the cometary nucleus. The second type which is the dynamic temperature is shown to change continouosly and largely with distance from the cometary nucleus.


Article
Edge detection for Diabetic Retinopathy using fuzzy logic
كشف الحافة لأعتلال الشبيكة السكري باستخدام المنطق الضبابي

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Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy is an eye disease, because of pressure in eye nerve fiber. It is a major cause of blindness in middle as well as older age groups; therefore it is essential to diagnose it earlier. Some of the challenges are in the diagnosis of the disease is detection edges of the image, may be some important edges are missed outcome the noise around the corners. Wherefore, in order to reduce these effects in this paper, we proposed a new technique for edge detection using traditional operators in combination with fuzzy logic based on fuzzy inference system. The results show that the proposed fuzzy edge detection technique better than of traditional techniques, where vascular are markedly detected over the original.

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