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مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2014 المجلد: 45 العدد: 5

Article
MECHANISM OF PLANT SALINITY STRESS TOLERANCE
آلية تحمل النبات لشد الملوحة

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الخلاصة

Halophytes grown in some saline areas in Iraq and other countries could be propagated to be grown as green areas, green belts and for fodder. Field crops still suffer from low number of released cultivars tolerant to salinity stress. This could be attributed to difficulties in their breeding techniques and to low handling of such cultivars in the markets. Soil and water salinity cause osmosis to the plants, nutrient imbalance and cell toxicity. Halophytes are characterizing by morphological, histological, chemical and physiological traits different from those in cultivated crop cultivars. Accordingly, the mechanism of salt tolerance between these two groups of plants will be different. Some of these mechanisms is prevention of some ions to be absorbed by plant and/or translated, compartmentation of ions in the cell vacule on apoplast, and the ability of plants to survive well under salinity stress due to high ability of osmotic adjustment. The latter is considered as the best trait. However, the mentioned traits of plant salt tolerance are directly related to one or more of mechanisms; proteomic, metabolomics, genomic and/or transcriptomic. Plasma membrane, aquaporins, proteins and sugars are playing prime roles in salt tolerance. Meanwhile, DNA-methylation, histone modificated and RNAi have another dimension beside genotype genetic background. Low reactive oxygen spices (ROS), and/or ROS damage repair are importance in many crop species to be salt tolerant. Results of molecular analyses revealed that epigenetics plays an important role in salt stress tolerance. It was found in oats cultivars tested under salt stress that grain weight, number of tillers/m2 and longer time for maturity were positively correlated with plant salt tolerance. These traits could be used in selecting tolerant plants to salt stress.


Article
LEAF AREA ESTIMATION IN SUNFLOWER AND CAPITULAM DIAMETER– SEED YIELD REGRESSION
تقدير المساحة الورقية لنبات زهرة الشمس باعتماد لفة واحدة وعلاقة الحاصل بقطر القرص

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الخلاصة

To estimate sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)plant leaf area in a simple and quick formula , the maximum width of one whorl was multiplied by a constant and compared to a convential formula.. A field experiment was conuducted at the Dept. of Field Crop Sci./Coll.of Agric. of the Univ.of Baghdad in spring season of 2013. Two cultivars of sunflower were planted , the non-oil Shumoos and the oil Akmar .At anthesis , plant leaf area were estimated on a sample of each cultivar. The correlation coefficient was determined between plant leaf area and each whorl leaf area. The correlation was highly significant between whorl five in Shumoos cv. and whorl six in Akmar cv. ( r=0.857** and 0.863**, respectively) Regression relationship between capitulam seed yield and diameter was tested.The new formula to estimate plant leaf area in non- oil was = 4.04∑wi^2 w 5 and for oil cultivar 4.31∑wi^2 w6.The wi^= width of whorl 5 leaves (from the top ) and w5 and w6 are the numbers of whorls .The leaf area measurements were in a good fit up to ∝ =0.99 according to t-test analysis meanwhile, correlation and regression between capitulam seed yield and diameter were analyzed. The correlation coefficients were highly significant (r= 0.817** and 0.795** for non-oil and oil cvs., respectively) . The estimated seed yield and the observed were similar up to probability of 0.99 according to t-test analysis . The formula for non-oil cv. was: Y= -99 + 10.14 X and for oil cv. : Y=-99.9 + 8.42 X .The symbol Y= seed yield (gms) and (x) is the capitulum diameter (cm). It was concluded that these four formulae were very simple, accurate, and quick. We recommend using them in the field by sunflower researchers.


Article
THE GENETIC DIVERSITY BETWEEN MAIZE INBRED USING RAPD
التباعد الوراثي بين سلالات من الذرة الصفراء باستخدام RAPD

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الخلاصة

This study was carried at the Agricultural Research Laboratories during 2013. The objective was to investigate genetic diversity among 10 maize inbred lines. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) based on PCR with 12 primers. RAPD DNA markers were used to evaluate trends in genetic diversity among inbreds. All of the RAPD primers used for initial screening were found to be polymorphic. A total of 108 DNA bands were generated by 11 random primers with an average of 10.7 per primer. The number 0f amplified bands produced per primer ranged from 5 for OPAV-03 primer to 17 for OPAW-10 with molecular length ranged from 160 bp to 1800 bp. The total number of polymorphic bands and % were 74 and 62.7%, respectively. Maximum level of polymorphism was 80% observed with the primer OPAK -15, while primer OPAW-11 showed the lowest percentage. Based on the bivariate (1-0) data and genetic similarity with the use of UPGMA cluster method, the dendrogram separated the studied populations into A and B. Cluster compared among lines into dendrogram, showed BK104 highest genetic diversity with other inbreds.The high genetic diversity was found between BK104 and BK164. The highest genetic similarities 0.839 was observed between BK164 and BK147. While the highest genetic diversity was found between inbred line BK104, BK128 and BK104, BK164 (0.377, 0.396), respectively. The results indicated that DNA molecular markers were highly efficient in detecting the purity and genetic relationship among maize inbred lines.


Article
HETEROSIS AND CYTOPLASM EFFECT IN MAIZE USING DIALLEL CROSSES
قوة الهجين والتأثير السايتوبلازمي في الذرة الصفراء باستخدام التضريب التبادلي

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الخلاصة

The objective of the experiment was to diagnose a single hybrid or more produced from 10 inbreds. The experiment was conducted spring and fall of 2012 and 2013. Ten inbred lines of maize (BK164, BK147, BK129, BK128, BK127, BK121, BK115, BK110, BK110, BK105 and BK104) were used in this study. The inbreds were used in full diallel cross. Parents, crosses, reciprocals and the two cultivars of maize (Buhoth 106 and 5018) were evaluated using RCBD with three replicates. The results were showed difference among all the traits and years. The crosses BK164 X BK104 and reciprocal cross BK128 X BK110 were produced highest grain yield 229.1 and 245.8 gm.plant-1 and 217.7 and 238.9) gm.plant-1 in both fall seasons, respectively. While in spring the reciprocal cross BK115 X BK129 and diallel crosses, BK164XBK105 were produced higher grain yield. The results showed importance of cytoplasm inheritance in all the studied characters. This research need crop management studies.


Article
FOLIAR APPLICATION OF BORON, GRAIN YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF SORGHUM
رش البورون وحاصل الحبوب ومكوناته للذرة البيضاء

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الخلاصة

This experiment was carried out at the experimental station of the Coll. of Agric., in Abu-Ghraib, Univ. of Baghdad during spring and autumn seasons of 2012. The main objective was to find out the effect of boron concentration (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200) mg.l-1 and three times of foliar application (vegetative growth, 25% flowering and 75% flowering) on grain yield and its major components of Sorghum cv. Abu Sabeen. Layout of the experiment was a split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Boron concentrations were used as main plot, while times of foliar application of boron were used as a sub-plot. Result showed that addition of boron at a conc. More than 50 mg.l-1 (100, 150 and 200) resulted in a significant increment in mean of plant height, leaf area, No. of grain.head-1, weight of 1000 grain, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index, while No. of heads per hectare was not significantly influenced by boron conc.in spring and autumn seasons. Highest grain yield (4.57 and 5.02) t.ha-1 was obtained when plants sprayed with 150 mg.l-1. Foliar application at time of vegetative growth gave highest No. of grain.head-1 and weight of 1000 grain, while foliar application at time of 25% flowering gave highest leaf area. There were no significant effect of time of foliar application on plant height, No. of head per hectare, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index. The higher grain yield in spring and autumn seasons (4.74 and 5.24) t.ha-1 respectively were obtained when plants of sorghum sprayed with boron at conc. of 150 mg.l-1 at 25% of flowering.


Article
RESPONSE OF BREAD WHEAT SHAAM-6 CULTIVER TO GROUND ADDED POTASSIUM AND FOLIAR BORON APPLICATION
استجابة حنطة الخبز صنف شام-6 للبوتاسيوم الارضي والبورون الورقي صفات الحاصل ومكوناته

المؤلفون: H. A.A. Baqer حيدر عبد الرزاق باقر
الصفحات: 479-487
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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 seasons at the experimental farm, Dept. of Field Crop, Coll. of Agriculture, Univ. of Baghdad to study the response of wheat Shaam-6 cultivar to boron foliar and potassium application on yield and yield components traits. RCBD with three replications used with split plots. The main plots potassium levels 0, 120 and 240 Kg K.ha.-1, and the sub-plots was boron foliar with three concentrations 0, 200 and 400 mg B. L-1. Results showed that significantly different between potassium treatments in all yield and yield components. traits potassium application in 120 Kg K.ha.-1 was superior in this traits and for both seasons respectively, number of spikes (389.00 and 457.00) spike.m-2, number of grains per spike(64.40 and 66.70) grain.spike-1, number of spikelets per spike (20.11 and 21.23) spikelets.spike-1, grains yield Mg.ha-1 (4.91 and 5.17) Mg.ha-1, Biological yield Mg.ha-1 (12.42 and 13.16) Mg.ha-1 and harvest index (38.93 and 39.00)%, except 1000 grain weight which acheiv potassium application in 240 Kg K.ha.-1 rate higher was (56.21, 54.43) gm for both seasons respectively. So the result showed significanily difgerent between boron concentration for all yield and components characteristics boron foliar with 200 mg.B-1 concentration gave higher rate for all characteristics number of spike (412.00, 495.00) spike.m-2, number of spikelets, in spike (19.40, 21.63) spikelets.spike-1, Grains yield Mgh-1 (5.06 , 5.27) Mg.ha-1 , biomass yield Mgh-1 (12.15, 13.09) Mg.ha-1 and harvest index% (40.90 , 39.91) % except of number of grain.spike-1 boron foliar with 400 mg.B-1 Concentration which gave higher rate (69.00, 67.60) spikem-2 with significant different between 0 and 400 mg.B-1 for both seasons. The interaction between two factors was no significant for all characteristics for both season except grain yield and harvest index for both season and K1B1 gave higher means for these traits (6.99 and 6.53) Mg.ha-1 and harvest index was(43.29 and 39.65)% for both season.


Article
THE GENETIC VARIATION BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR MARKERS IN CUCURBITA PEPO L. BY USING MULTIPLE CORRELATION AND PCA
التباين الوراثي بين المؤشرات المظهرية والجزيئية في قرع الكوسة باستخدام الارتباط المتعدد والمكونات الرئيسة

المؤلفون: M. S. Elias مريم سامي الياس
الصفحات: 488-494
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الخلاصة

A multiple correlation was used between 15 inbreds of Cucurbita pepo L., depending on the results of morphological markers, and then described clustering by using principal component analysis. It was found that M, C and F inbreds were with a low correlation, while the other inbreds associated with a highest correlation to each other of (r = 0.87**) .Result of PCA (based on morphological markers) divided to several clusters. The first cluster included the number of branches, number of female flowers, number of fruits per plant, yield per plant and the sex ratio. The second cluster included plant height, number of leafs and number of male flowers. The third cluster included the date of first harvest, fruit weight and number of nodes and the fourth cluster included the length and shape of the fruits, while we find not correlation to each of the markers of fruit diameter and the ratio of fruit set. The result of the PCA (based on the results of molecular markers) absence correlation A and B pure lines with others, while the others inbreds correlate with each other within one cluster divided several clusters. The first cluster included C and D pure lines. The second cluster included K, N and O pure lines. The third cluster included E, F, G, H and J inbreds. It was found that the correlation coefficient between the morphological markers and molecular markers of low correlation and non significant (r = 0.02), which shows a low correlation between cluster analysis of molecular markers and cluster analysis of morphological markers. Accordingly, finding correlation coefficients and principal component analysis were useful to have a comprehensive understanding of genetic variations among inbreds before crossing program.


Article
EFFECT OF LIQUORICE EXTRACT AND WHEY ON YIELD AND STORAGE LIFE OF KING OYSTER MUSHROOM
تأثير التغذية بمستخلص عرق السوس ومحلول الشرش في تحسين الانتاج والقابلية الخزنية للفطر الملوكي (King Oyster)

المؤلفون: Adyba N. Rustum اديبة نجم رستم
الصفحات: 495-503
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الخلاصة

Three experiments were conducted in the mushroom project, Dept. of Hort., College of Agric., Univ. of Baghdad from 15/1/2012 to 20/6/2013. Pure culture of Pleurotus eryngii was imported from China and reproduced on WFA medium then on poilled wheat grains then on moist and sterilized wheat straw. Liquorice extract of one of the following concentrations: 0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 6% was added to the growing mycelium. Whey solution of the following concentrations: 0%, 50% and 100% was also used as above. The results showed that the treatments with Liquorice root extract or whey solution significantly increased fresh and dry yield and the biological efficiency of the king oyster mushroom. Treatments with 6% of Liquorice extract significantly increased the fresh yield from 620.2 to 835.7 g / kg of substrate and dry yield from 63.22 to 100.94 g/kg of substrate. Treatment with 50% of whey solution significantly increased fresh yield from 620.2 to 706.2 g/kg of substrate and increased dry yield from 63.22 to 74.24 g/kg of substrate significantly. The Percentage of dry mate and the Percentage of the protein increased significantly with increase of Liquorice extract and whey concent rations. Treatment with 6% of liquorice extract reduced decay from 14.78% to 3.98% compared with water treatment.


Article
AN ECONOMIC STUDY FOR ESTIMATION OF PROFIT FUNCTION AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCING BEE HONEY - DIYALA PROVINCE – A CASE STUDY -
دراسة اقتصادية لتقدير دالة الربح والكفاءة الاقتصادية لإنتاج عسل النحل (محافظة ديالى – أنموذج تطبيقي)

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الخلاصة

That undermine of knowledge technical and economy at beekeeper about factor influential on profit also about size of production optimization inevitable to economic efficiency lead to problem economy. form quantitatives of exhibited form production for honey bee. the aim of this research was to study the influence of the most important factors affect the profit. The data from different sectors were taken randomly from 42 beekeeper in Diyala governorate.The results estimation of quantitative analysis function of profit that informer function that quantity of product to her importance large at profit comparative bug level of price and average cost of production. also show that cost function cube is most appropriate for relationship adopted in study according to tests of economic and statistical and standard. The results showed efficiency of economic toward 606 kg tons at reality 62 beehive. Show estimated efficiency in technical in honey of product toward 74%,estimated,the size production the profit short-run toward 920 kg at reality 95 beehive, estimated the net revenue on size of production actual and size of production optimization and size production the profit to reach 2740211, 3864105, 5196843 Dinar on collation.trough estimated the Efficienc of profitability may detection that size of production optimization best comparative bug level actual and size production the profit.of which conclude that in study resource of economy used in process production not benefit from mode optimization lead to decrease efficiency of product.to will study work on following politics productivity aim to increase economic efficiency to beehive one and quest use optimization resource of available to thus reflected on increase efficiency in use resource of production and then improvement efficiency production for honey.


Article
EFFECT OF PACKAGING METHOD ON SOME QULITATIVE CHEMICAL CHARCTERISTICS IN MALE SHEEP TAIL AND SUBCUTANEOUS FAT STORED BY FREEZING
تأثير طريقة التعبئة في بعض الصفات الكيميائية النوعية لدهن الاليه وتحت الجلد لذكور الأغنام المخزن بالتجميد

المؤلفون: H. H. Ali حامد حسان علي --- H. M. Husain حسن مصطاف حسين
الصفحات: 512-517
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الخلاصة

This study was conducted on tail tallow and subcutaneous tallow of the male awasi sheep at the age 10-12 month . Two methods were used for packaging ( polyethylene bags and plastic containers ) were freeze storage at a temperature of -18 °c ± 2 °c for 90 days . It was estimated some chemical tests of quality were , peroxide value , thiobarbituric acid , the percentage of free fatty acids and the percentage of volatile fatty acids of fresh and frozen samples . This 4 tests were done , because of their importance during storage period . These tests were carried out every 30 days. Peroxide value , increased during the period of storage freeze and per treatments compared to treatments fresh where it was noted that the lower increase in the end of the storage period was when the treatment of subcutaneous tallow using packing sacks , amounting to 6.25 and the largest increase in the end of the storage period was when the treatment of tail tallow using packing containers , amounting to 7.55 . thiobarbituric acid , increased during the period of the freeze storage and reached its lowest value 1.16 in the treatment of subcutaneous tallow using packing sacks . The percentage of free fatty acids , less increase them at the end of the storage period was when the treatment of subcutaneous tallow using a packing sacks , amounting to 0.800 . Either the percentage of volatile fatty acids were less increase and reached her at the end of the period of storage at 0.290 tallow treatment of subcutaneous using a packing sacks . From all this we can say that less increase for the previous tests were treated at the use of polyethylene sacks in the packaging of subcutaneous tallow the biggest increase was at the treatment of the use of cans in the packaging for tail . Finally conclude from these results that the best packaging in bags of packing containers , as well as the subcutaneous tallow changes occurred by the less quality compared to tail tallow during freezing storage .

الكلمات الدلالية

tallow --- Fatty acids --- packaging --- freezing. --- شحم --- أحماض دهنية --- تعبئة --- تجميد.


Article
EFFECT OF SOAKING SEEDS IN β-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID TO INDUCE SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN ZUCCHINI PLANT AGAINST ZUCCHINI YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS
غمر بذور قرع الكوسا بحامض البيتا امينوبيوتيرك لإستحثاث المقاومة الجهازية ضد فايروس الموزائيك الاصفر

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in inducing systemic resistance in zucchini plants (c.v amjad) against Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). BABA was used at 1% to soak zucchini seeds for 6 hours. The efficiency of BABA was evaluated on the bases of inhibition percent of virus multiplication as estimated by ELISA value and peroxidase activity. Results revealed that ELISA value of seed soaked in β- aminobuytric acid and directly planted then inoculated with ZYMV and sprayed again with the same acid was 0.248 at 405 nm and the percent of virus multiplication inhibition was 88.61% .The total absorbance change of peroxidase attained to 65.06 and 56.26 after 7 and 21 day respectively. This treatment was significantly different from control treatment in which the seeds soaked in distilled water and planted, then inoculated with ZYMV. ELISA value was 2.179 and peroxidase absorbance 32.73 and 36.93 after 7 and 21 day respectively and the percent of virus multiplication inhibition of 0%. The β- aminobuytric acid was highly efficient effect on reducing losses in number and weight of zucchini fruits.


Article
PREDATORY EFFICIENCY OF THE LOCAL MEALYBUG PREDATOR
الكفاءة الافتراسية لمفترس محلي لبق الحمضيات الدقيقي

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الخلاصة

This study was conducted at the Biological Control Unit laboratories /College of Agriculture/University of Baghdad , during the period from June 2012 to January 2014. To identify the value of the most important biological indicators of the Local mealybug predator Nephus jaderiensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). The predator is one of the important natural enemies of citrus mealybug Planococcus citri Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) which regarded for long time as a key pest of fruit trees especially citrus causing significant economic losses.Study of predation efficiency showed that the consumption of different immature stages of mealybug was highly affected by different temperatures as well as the age of the prey and predator. The total mealybug eggs consumption at temperature (20, 25, 30 and 35)c̊ were 27.41, 43.51, 4398 and 56.42 egg respectively , while 21.05, 29.18, 35.71 and 39.16 , 25.03, 34.93, 39.76 and 49.83, 10.61, 14.15, 18.40 and 22.05 for 1st, 2st and 3st nymphal instars respectively .Consumption by male and female predators were also different being 14.41, 5.01, 6.35and 2.00, 19.82, 6.49, 8.06 and 3.95, 19.13 , 7.11, 7.52 and 3.34 , 19.23 , 6.21 , 7.64 and 4.26 for the fore mentioned immature stages by the adult females, while 16.24, 5.22, 7.54 and 2.57, 20.24, 5.90, 8.38 and 4.18, 20.29, 6.00, 8.21 and 3.86, 20.22, 6.220, 8.30 and 4.13 for the male. It was concluded that predator Nephus jaderiensis is one of the good against the Predators as mealybug attack the larvae and adults of different roles of predator mealybug and at good rates, indicating its importance as a factor in the organization of important biological pest population. We recommend conducting further field studies of predator to determine the extent of efficiency in the field, according to local conditions and to determine its role in regulating the population of mealybug and study the compatibility of the predator with other control methods to determine its vital role in integrated pest management programs.

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