Table of content

Karbala Journal of Medicine

مجلة كربلاء الطبية

ISSN: 19905483
Publisher: Kerbala University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Karbala Journal of Medicine is a four monthly published journal issued by Karbala college of Medicine.The Journal accepts original articles, case reports, and letters to editors in all fields of medicine from all parts of the world. Review articles of high standards are also considered in this journal. All articles and manuscripts must be in english ,only the abstract must be in arabic and english.Papers are accepted, on understanding that the content has not been published in a whole or in part by other journals. The papers are subject to editorial revision, and the editor is responsible for the order of publication.Manuscripts are only accepted on the understanding that the author will permit editorial amendments, though proofs will always be submitted to the corresponding author before being sent finally to press. The Journal is peer- reviewed and each article is sent to two evaluators of the same specialty in addition to statistical and design review by expert statistician.
Date of first issue(2009)
No: of issue per year(4)
No. of pages per issue(120)
No. of issue published between 2009-2012) is(16)

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Contact info

Journal e-mail:karbalamedj@yahoo.com, karbalamedj@uokerbala.edu.iq
editor e-mail:dr.mohma.med.school@gmail.com
mobile: 07801363988

Table of content: 2014 volume:7 issue:1

Article
SupraCor Lasik Treatment for Presbyopia

Authors: Hussain Ali حسين علي الطفيلي
Pages: 1726-1732
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Abstract

presbyopia, the gradual loss of accommodation that becomes clinically significant during the fifth decade of life, is a physiologic inevitability. Different technologies are being tried to achieve surgical correction of this disability; however, a number of limitations have prevented widespread acceptance of surgical presbyopia correction, such as optical and visual distortion, induced corneal ectasia, haze, anisometropy with monovision, regression of effect, decline in uncorrected distance vision, and the inherent risks with invasive techniques, limiting the development of an ideal solution. The correction of the presbyopia and the restoration of accommodation are considered the final frontier of refractive surgery. The purpose of this paper is to review the current procedures available and the recent advances in presbyopia correction.

Keywords

SupraCor --- presbyopia --- treatment


Article
Simvastatin in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

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Abstract

background: Familial Hypercholesterolemia is hereditary disease which needs different type of treatment modalities, all are lifelong & some of it are either not promising or expensive. Aim: The aim of the study has three disciplines one is to assess the effect of simvastatin in lowering cholesterol level in patient with familial hypercholesterolemia, the second discipline is to study the use of the simvastatin in children starting from age of 4 years . The third is to monitor the expectable side effect if it happens. Patient and method: Eighteen persons of three families with consanguineous marriage, age 4 - 48 years with familial hypercholesterolemia was diagnosed in Karbala governorate at 2009 and started on dietary control & simvastatin in increasing dose up to the maximum allowed dose , they were followed between august 2009- January 2012 for clinical, biochemical response & any drug side effects. They are still under follow up. Results and Discussion: Simvastatin showed significant decrease in cholesterol level in the first six months with 20% reduction with a P value of 0.001, then the response decrease with rebound increment. There is no significant drug side effect reported neither in adults nor in the children. The result of the study is coinciding with similar studies regarding the limited effectiveness of statin in FH, also the safety of its usage in children Conclusion: Statin usage alone is not as effective as along run treatment for FH, other treatment modalities are required; although it is save with minimal side effect even in children


Article
Interaction of Two Variants of IL4 Receptor-Α Gene with Serum IgE Level and Some Risk Factors for Childhood Asthma in Karbala Governorate

Authors: Ali Mansoor Al-Ameri علي منصور
Pages: 1744-1759
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Abstract

background: Asthma and related allergic diseases are complex genetic diseases with major environmental influences that occur in a developmental context. Susceptibility to asthma is influenced by genes and environment; implicated genes may indicate pathways for therapeutic intervention. Aim: The present study aims to test the linkage association of IL-4Ra gene polymorphisms, E375A and C406R, determined by PCR/RFLP assay, with asthma development from 100 asthmatic children. In addition to their association with elevated serum IgE level in asthmatic children and possible interaction with other contributing factors including high BMI, history of prematurity, neonatal jaundice or vitamin D deficiency, exposure to bottle feeding and family history of atopy and/or asthma. Patients and methods: This is a cross sectional survey study done in Kerbala Pediatric teaching Hospital during April, 2011 through February, 2013. Results & Discussion: Data of the current study suggested a significant linkage association between IL4RA single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs, (E375A and C406R) and development of childhood asthma in the recruited participants, r= 0.82 and 0.67, respectively. Interestingly, the latter effect is synergistically increased upon gene-environment interaction with any of the studied risk factors tested in this study, except past history of neonatal jaundice. The presence of E375A and C406R SNPs of IL4RA gene have potential effect on development of childhood asthma. Secondly, this effect is synergistically reinforced via gene-environment interaction of these SNPs with other asthma contributors including high BMI, history of prematurity, formula feeding, vitamin D deficiency and positive family history of asthma. Conclusion: Our study reinforced the theory that asthma is a multifactorial disease suggesting a noticeable interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the development of this disease.


Article
Correlates of Renal Dysfunction in Hypertensive Chronic Biopsied non Diabetic Glomerulonephritis

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background: Hypertension is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence worldwide and spans race and gender lines. The worldwide prevalence of hypertension was estimated from 2005 systematic review of published literature to be 26%with a projected 60% increase by the year 2025.Arterial hypertension is (with age, sex, race, proteinuria, hyperlipidaemia, smoking, etc.) also one of the main causes of the progression of diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney failure. This progressive kidney failure develops especially in patients with glomerular kidney disease who clinically manifest proteinuria. This process is slow in general, but sometimes the damage to the kidneys can develop very rapidly, with an immediate need for dialysis. The effects of glomerulonephritis onrenal prognosis may be also negatively influenced by several factors present at the time of patient’s diagnosis. Among them, arterial hypertension is one of the most important factor, the negative influence of arterial hypertension on glomerulonephritis kidney prognosis may be mediated preferentially by kidney failure itself, the former being possibly a result of the latter when this one is severe enough, than by hypertension itself. Aims: The aims of this study are to analyze arterial hypertension prevalence in chronic non diabetic glomerulonephritis at the time of performance of kidney biopsy and for the following 36 months after the biopsy. The prognostic value of arterial hypertension as a progression factor to end stage kidney disease is to be analyzed. Patients and methods: Sixty one patients have been studied. The inclusion criteria for kidney biopsy were: nephrotic syndrome, persistent sub-nephrotic proteinuria, and unexplained abnormal kidney function test when kidney sizes in ultrasound were within normal range, acute kidney injury, acute nephritic presentation, hematuria after excluding urological causes. Demographical data have been gathered, such as patients’ particulars, date of kidney biopsy, age and gender. We considered hypertensive those patients with arterial blood pressure figures higher than 140/90 mm-Hg, or those treated with antihypertensive drugs, and kidney failure measured as glomerular filtration rate by means of creatinine clearance less than 60ml/minute. Kidney function survival, computed as the time elapsed from the date of kidney biopsy to definitive loss of kidney function, defined as creatinine clearance <60 ml/minute. For the analysis of the prognosis and kidney survival, Kaplan-Meier curves and the Log-Rank test were used. Results & Discussion: Of the 58 patients,30 (51.7%) are men and 28 (48.3%) are women and men: women ratio was 1.07:1.The patients, ages range from 2-55 years with an average mean age of 25.38 ± 14.65 years. The global prevalence of hypertension was 44.8%. When we compare the kidney log survival function curves between overall hypertensive and normotensive patients, we observe a significant effects with a trend toward a worse clinical course regarding kidney failure in over all hypertensive patients with a P value of 0.018 and a DF of 1 and in focal segmental glomerulosclerosisa P value of 0.024. Conclusions: We conclude that high arterial hypertension prevalence in primary biopsied non diabetic glomerulonephritis, considering that we deal with young patients, with lowerarterial hypertension prevalence in the general population of the same age. Arterial hypertension presence at the time of biopsy is already a negative clinical prognostic marker, even before the occurrence of end stage kidney disease, being especially significant in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.


Article
Foreign Body Aspiration in Children

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Abstract

background: foreign bodies aspiration in children is a common emergency condition especially in less than 3 years old, comprising an important proportion of accidental deaths. Usually, there is a suggestive history of choking. The evolution of foreign body aspiration can lead to variable degrees of respiratory distress, serious respiratory complications, and even death. Early rigid bronchoscopy is a very effective procedure for definite diagnosis and removal of aspirated foreign body with fewer complications. Aim of study: To discuss causes and types of foreign body aspirationand effectiveness of bronchoscopy in children. Patients and Method: In Al-Hussein Medical City Hospital, bronchoscopy had been performed to 254 patients with the diagnosis of foreign body aspiration (from 2005 to 2012). Of which, 152 (59.85%) were males and 102 (40.15%) were females. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 10 years. Diagnosis had been established depending on history, physical examination, radiological studies and bronchoscopy. Results & Discussion: Foreign bodies (FBs) were removed by rigid bronchoscope. The sites of FBs were distributed in the following pattern: at the right main bronchus in 129 (50.79%) patients, at the left main bronchus in 55 (21.65%) patients, at the trachea in 38 (14.96%) patients, at the larynx in 16(6.3%) patients, and both bronchi in 4 (1.57%) patients. No foreign body could be found in 12 (4.73%) cases. The majority of the FBs were seeds 155 (61.02%). Pneumonia occurred in only 8(3.14%) patients. Foreign body aspiration is frequently encountered in pediatric practice. the condition is often not diagnosed immediately because there are no specific clinical manifestations. the ages 1 to 3 years were predominantly affected. The most common foreign body inhaled, Symptoms, most frequent age, and type of inhaled foreign body are different from region to region across the world. Foreign body aspiration was misdiagnosed by physician as pneumonia, asthma, bronchiectasis and bronchiolitis. Their definite diagnosis and treatment were provided by bronchoscopy, which was resorted to after unresponsiveness to previous treatment. Conclusion: Rigid bronchoscopy is very effective procedure to remove aspirated FBs with fewer complications.


Article
Assessment of the Role of Gender in the Expression of UGT1A1 Gene in Hyperbilirubinemic Neonates

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background: Neonatal jaundice (NJ) is a significant disease among neonates in Najaf province. It manifests 19% of the total deliveries and 50% of the in-patients, and affects about 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates during the first week of life. UGT1A1 is a cause of concern in NJ, because it is the most important underlying cause of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Methods: A cohort of 85neonate sorted into three groups according to the TSB level. Group 1 (TSB<5mg/dl), group 2 (TSB 5-15 mg/dl) and group 3 (TSB <15mg/l). UGT1A1expression and TSB level was assessed for both males and females in each group. Results & Discussion: Results showed high inverse correlation between UGT1A1expression and the ratio of males (r= -0.99, P<0.01), while females ratio ex-pressed high direct correlation with UGT1A1 expression level with correlation coeffi-cient of (r=0.99, P<0.01). This might due to physiological maturity differences of liver between both sexes, and the plasma growth hormone (GH) pulses frequencies (released by the pituitary gland) which affects the expression of liver enzymes. It's found that GH pulses are higher in females than in males. Conclusion: concluding that mean UGT1A1 expression level in females is more than that in the males during neonatal period therefore females are less vulnerable to NJ than males. Aim: The aim of this study is to qualify the UGT1A1 gene expression in both males and females therefore determining health and health care requirements.


Article
Vitamin C Supplementation in Relation to Subfertility and Ovarian Function

Authors: Wasan Gh. Aboud وسن غازي عبود
Pages: 1786-1792
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background: subfertility is a common medical problem affecting about 15-20 % of women consulting the gynecological outpatients in the whole world. Vitamin C is an important substance that plays different roles in the body and part of this action is in relation to subfertility. Objective: to evaluate the effect of vitamin C supplementation on the ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone in subfertile women. Methods: This prospective study was carried out on thirty women attending private gynecological clinics, twenty of them were infertile and the other ten were normal fertile women as control group. They were subjected for the measurement of serum concentrations of both estrogen and progesterone. At the start, The investigations began at the 23rd day of a regular menstrual cycle(B), 5 ml of blood was taken for the measurement of the serum concentrations of both ovarian hormones. Each woman then took vitamin C tab. 1.5 gm (orally) daily and continued for the next 23rd day (AI), At the same day serum E & P was repeated and the vitamin C supplementation continues to the next 23rd dayof second period, a total period of 58±2 days (AII). So at this day hormonal assessment was repeated and vit C supplementation was stopped. Results and Discussion: The results showed that vitamin C supplementation causes an increased serum progesterone concentration significantly(p<0.05)after two months supplementation of oral vit C, as compared with the baseline serum level in both fertile and infertile women, while the effect of vitamin C supplementation on serum estrogen is increased significantly after the second months of the vitamin supplementation as compared with the baseline level in fertile women only. In this study, we found a role of vitamin C supplementation to affect the subfertility through increasing the endometrial thickness either directly by its antioxidant effect on endometrial cell or through increasing the level of progesterone. Conclusion: our study shows an effect of vitamin C on the progesterone level and hence this may play a role in infertility treatment as it will increase the receptivity and preparation of the endometrium to the fertilized ovum.


Article
The Relationship between the Presence of Uterine Fibroid and Symptoms in Women 20-40 Years Old

Authors: Muna Kasim Mahmood --- Zena Mahdi Abd Ali
Pages: 1793-1796
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Abstract

Abstract background: we examined the prevalence of uterine fibroid and menstrual cycle characteristics in a population of non-care-seeking women. Methods: this is a cross- sectional study involves 175 women who were not lactating or using contraception and their age between 20-40. After taking history transvaginal ultrasound done to these female. We examined the association between menstrual cycle characteristic and the presence of uterine fibroid. Results & discussion: uterine leiomyomata were detected in 31 women (17.71%). The presence of uterine leiomypma was not significantly related to amount of blood loss with menstrual cycle, regularity of the cycle, dysmenorrheo or deep pelvic pain. Conclusion: in this population of non-care seeking women, menstrual cycle abnormalities are not related to the presence of uterine leiomyoma. Keywords: Uterine Fibroid, Menstrual cycle, uterine, Leiomypma


Article
Diabetic Mastopathy In Iraqi patients; Modalities Of Diagnosis And Management Options

Authors: Ali Khairi Toman
Pages: 1797-1805
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background: Diabetic fibrous mastopathy, also known as lymphocytic mastitis, is an un common lesion of the breast that occurs in women with long standing insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) It is a distinct clinicopathologic entity with specific histopathological characteristics, which include keloid fibrosis, epithelioid fibroblast, widespread periductal/lobular lymphocytic infiltration and widespread perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. Objective: To confirm that: (a) Many diabetic patients can be spared from undergoing multiple, unwarranted surgical biopsies (b) Mastopathy can happen even in NIDDM, (c) Diabetic mastopathy can co-exist with malignant breast lesions. Patients And Methods: A study for 48 patients with palpable breast masses. The patients are divided into 3 groups: Group A (10 patients): contain the patients with long standing IDDM. Group B (14 patients): contain the patients with NIDDM. Group C (24 patients): contain age matched control non-diabetic patients selected with clinical finding similar to that present in diabetic mastopathy. FNAC, ultrasound and mammographic examinations were done before proceeding for excisional biopsy. Results & Discussion: We found that 7 out of 10 patients in Group A (70%) have features suggesting of diabetic mastopathy and only 4 out of 14 patients in group B (28.5%) and (0%) in group C, have the same features. So we demonstrate that, diabetic mastopathy could be the only cause of palpable breast mass in diabetic patients. Diabetic mastopathy is a distinct clinicopathologic entity with specific histopathological features, which include keloid fibrosis, epithelioid fibroblast, widespread Periductal/lobular lymphocytic infiltration and widespread perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. Our work confirmed the presence of the histopathological characteristics of diabetic mastopathy in palpable breast masses in long standing IDDM (group A). We also observed the presence of the histopathological characteristics of diabetic mastopathy in breast tissue in mastectomy specimens away from intraductal and infiltrating ductal carcinoma in NIDDM (group B). Conclusion: we should have awareness that this entity exists and a careful correlation of the patient history with physical, radiological and cytological examination should be applied.


Article
Energy Absorption Buildup Factor in A Few Human Tissues and Tissues-Equivalent Plastic

Authors: Abbas J. Al-Saadi عباس جواد
Pages: 1806-1817
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Abstract

لاackground: Energy absorption buildup factor inhuman tissuesare very importantfor the researchers working to help in estimating safe dose levels for radiotherapy patients and useful in radiation therapy, diagnostics, and dosimeters. Aim: The mainemphasis has been focused on the dependence of energy absorption buildup factor on the incident photon energy, penetration depth and effectiveatomic number (Zeff )in the human tissues and tissues equivalent plastic. Materials and Methods: Energy absorption buildup factor ina fewhumantissuessuch as skin, brain, striated muscle and compact bone as well as in tissue-equivalent plasticA-150 and bone- equivalent plasticB-100have been computedusing the five parameter geometric progression(G.P) fittingformula in the energy range of 0.015-15 MeV up to penetration depth 40 mfp. The half value layer (HVL) for selected tissues were also estimated. Results & Discussion: The variation of energy absorption buildup factorfor selected tissueshas been studied as a function of incident photon energy, penetration depth and effective atomic number(Zeff).The energy absorption buildup factor increases with increasing photon energy and reaches a maximum value at gamma ray energy range(0.1-0.2MeV), then start decreasing further with the increasing photon energy. There is continuous increase in energy absorption buildup factor with increase in penetration depth. Comparison of calculated energy absorption buildup factor with standard database from ANSI/ANS6.4.3-1991 (American National Standard, 1991)shows good agreements. Conclusion:Variation in value of energy absorption buildup factor was due to dominance of different interaction processes in different energy regions and chemical compositions of thehuman tissues. In general, the energy absorption buildup factor is lower for compact bone and boneequivalent plastic B-100 at photon energy range (0.015- 1 MeV) .


Article
Correlation of Pulmonary Hypertension and Severity of Mitral Stenosis

Authors: Ala'a Abdulhussain Abdulzahra1
Pages: 1818-1821
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aim of study: The aim of study is to define the correlation between mitral valve stenosis and its predictors of severity as pulmonary hypertension and other cardiac valves lesions. Material and Methods: This study that enrolled total 80 patients, 25 males and 55 females and their age range from 15 to 60 years old , with male to female ratio 1:2.2 . The study was conducted in Al sadder teaching hospital in Al Najaf governorate during the period from May 2012 to May 2013. Echocardiography was done for all patients to assess mitral valve area by planimetry, detect other valves lesion and assess right ventricular systolic pressure which is equal to pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) . Results & Discussion: This study shows that the increased incidence of moderate to severe mitral stenosis in female as compared with male and there were no statistically significant difference between age groups. There was statistically significant correlation between severities of mitral valve stenosis with increased systolic pressure of pulmonary artery since the more severe mitral stenosis, as the higher pulmonary hypertension. There were no statistically significant correlation between mitral stenosis severity and other cardiac valves. There were statistically significant correlations between pulmonary hypertension and tricuspid regurgitation with or without mitral regurgitation. There were increased incidence of moderate to severe mitral stenosis in female as compared with male and there were no statistically significant difference between age groups. There were statistically significant correlation between severity of mitral valve stenosis with increased systolic pressure of pulmonary artery since the more severe mitral stenosis. There were statistically significant correlations between pulmonary hypertension and tricuspid regurgitation . Conclusions: The predictors for mitral stenosis severity in this study that female, younger than 40 years old, echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary hypertension and tricuspid regurgitation with or without mitral regurgitation. Recommendation: We recommended that follow up all patients with mitral valve stenosis by pulmonary artery systolic pressure measured by echocardiography.


Article
Prevalence of Xerostomia in Patients with Chronic Hemodialysis in Babil City

Authors: Ali Mihsen Hussein Al-yassiri
Pages: 1822-1828
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background: Xerostomia is as a subjective complaint of dry mouth that may result from deficient production of saliva. It may be caused by reduced salivary flow secondary to atrophy and fibrosis of the salivary glands, use of medications, restriction of fluid intake and old age. In patients undergoing hemodialysis, xerostomia is associated with difficulties in chewing, swallowing, tasting and speaking; increased risk of oral diseases. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of xerostomia in chronic hemodialysis patients in Babil- Hilla, and compare it with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Forty three subjects were incorporated in this study, with end stage renal disease and undergoing hemodialysis , they were already diagnosed by a nephrologist specialists, all these patients are without any other systemic diseases. Healthy control group, forty control subjects with no signs and symptoms of any systemic disease. They were sex and age matched to hemodialysis patients. Results and Discussion: A total of 43 patients were registered in Merjan teaching hospital in Babil- Hilla. These patients on hemodialysis programs at the beginning of the study, from February to April, 2013. They were (20) males and (23) females and the age range (24- 69) years. Xerostomia was recorded in 69.767% (n=30) of all patients with hemodialysis. Our data involved mostly xerostomia was recorded in patients with hemodialysis, in these patients due to presence of xerostomia increased the poor oral hygiene. Dysgeusia and uremic fetor, bad odor and taste are caused not only by xerostomia but also by the presence of urease-splitting oral organisms, which metabolize urea (present in high levels in these patients) and thus elaborate ammonia. Patients with xerostomia are at increased risk of lesions to the mucosa, gingival, and tongue, as well as candidiasis, dental caries, periodontal disease and other bacterial and fungal infections. Many of these conditions either cause inflammation, or worsen the chronic inflammation that is frequently present in patients on hemodialysis, and consequently contribute to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions: Xerostomia remains a frustrating symptom for patients on hemodialysis, and further efforts should be made to identify effective treatments, restoration of the salivary function.


Article
Spindle Cell (Sarcomatoid) Carcinoma of the Larynx -- Case Report --

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A 56 year old male patient presented with a history of recurrent attacks of progressive hoarseness and stridor for the last 9 months, he underwent six laryngeal surgery and the biopsy results were negative for malignancy except the last pathology report which revealed the diagnosis of spindle cell carcinoma of the larynx confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient refuses radiotherapy and went to India where they failed to diagnose the disease. The presented case demonstrates that spindle cell carcinoma or sarcomatoid carcinoma is very rare malignant tumor of the larynx but should be suspected in spindle cell tumours of the larynx and awareness of the pathologist to the unusual immunohistochemical presentation of this tumor with the use of expanded immunohistochemical markers panel.


Article
Study the Primary Barrier of the Digital Chest X-Ray Room of Al-Hussaini Hospital in Karbala City, Iraq

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Background: structural shielding are fundamental to controlling the exposure of the workers as well as the exposure of the general public. Aim of the study: The objective of the present work is to assess the primary shielding of the digital chest x-ray room of Al- Hussaini hospital in Karbala city Materials and method: The technical data of minimum ,maximum and average of mAs and the corresponding values voltages of the chest x-ray procedures for 1134 patients over two months have been used to calculate the total workload per week and total workload per patient based on the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements report No.147 (NCRP report No. 147). Results and discussion :It is found that the workload per week was about 4.5 times that of recommended by NCRP report No.147 ,whereas the workload per patient was about five times that of stated by NCRP report No.147 for the same number of patients per 36 actual work hour week for busy situation. By adoption the equations of NCRP report No.147 the required thickness of lead as primary barrier was 2.7 mm or 184 mm from concrete. Conclusion: The thicknesses of Bricks, Concrete and Gypsum that were actually used were highly enough to be used as a primary shielding barrier.


Article
Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Compared to Closed Reduction and External Fixation in Distal Radial Fractures Arandomized Study of 40 Patients

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Objective: to investigate if open reduction and internal fixation would produce better outcome than external fixation of distal radial fractures. Patients and Methods: 40 patients with unstable or comminuted distal radial fracture where divided randomly into two groups using 2 methods of treatment, in group one closed reduction &bridging external fixation was used ,in group tow open reduction &internal fixation was used. The primary outcome parameter was grip strength, but the patients were followed for 1 year with objective clinical assessment, subjective outcome and radiographic examination. Results & Discussion: At one year postoperatively , grip strength was 89%(standard deviation 15) of the injured side in the internal fixation group and 75%(15) in the external fixation group. Pronation /supnation was 150 (15)in the internal fixation group &136 in(20) in the external fixation group at 1year.4 patients in the external fixation group where reoperated due to malunion as compared to 2 in internal fixation group.6 others are classified as radiographic malunion, 5 in the external fixation ,1 in the internal fixation group. Conclusion: internal fixation gave better grip strength &and better range of motion at one year, and less malunion than external fixation. No difference could be found regarding subjective outcome.

Table of content: volume:7 issue:1