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مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2014 المجلد: 45 العدد: 7 - special issue

Article
EFFECT OF SPRAYING SOME PLANT EXTRACTIONS AND ANTI-OXIDANT ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER
تأثير رش بعض المستخلصات النباتية ومضادات الأكسدة في نمو وحاصل زهرة الشمس

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الخلاصة

To investigate the effect of spraying some plant extraction and anti-oxidants on growth and yield of two cultivars of sunflower, a field experiment was conducted during fall season of 2009 and spring season of 2010 at the Experimental Farm, Department of Field Crop Science, College of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad. RCBD with three replications as factorial at two factors was used. First factor was cultivars Akmar and Shmoss, second was spraying with extraction of karkade at 25%, liquorices at 50%, vitamin C at concentration 1.5 mg.l-1 and nutrient which content 15 elements at concentration 15 % in addition to control treatment which sprayed with distilled water only. The result showed no significant differences between the two cultivars in leave numbers per plant and leaf area for both seasons. Shmoss cv. Was superior in plant height (231.49 cm), stem diameter(3.27cm) in fall season of 2009, and yield (8.850 and 7.329) ton.ha-1 for both seasons respectively, while Akmar cv. Superior in protein (27.91 and 27.81)% respectively. All the spraying treatments were superior in all aspects except protein percentage for both seasons compared with control treatment. Karkade treatment was superior in yield (9.952 and 7.689) ton.ha-1 respectively. Liquorices treatment was superior in leave number (33 and 30) leaf.plant-1 and protein percentage (27.61 and 27.59) % respectively. Nutrient treatment was superior in stem diameter (3.25 and 2.97) cm for both seasons respectively. We can concluding that Shmoss cv. was significantly superior at grain yield, while Akmar cv. gave highest mean for protein percentage. In addition to, the plant extractors was significantly effect on studied traits. Therefore, we can recommend using plant extractors and anti-oxidants as alternative nature safety to increasing grain yield per area unit.


Article
EFFECT OF MAGNETIC TECHNIQUE ON GROWTH OF WHEAT
تأثير التقانة المغناطيسية في نمو الحنطة

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was carried out during winter seasons of 2008 and 2009 at the farm of Field Crop Science Dept., College of Agriculture-University of Baghdad. Randomized complete block design by split plot arrangement was used with three replications, to evaluate the effect of irrigation water and seeds magnetization on growth of wheat (var. Ipa 98). The main plots included four levels of magnetic water strength (0, 500, 1000 and 2000) Gs, while the subplots included four levels of magnetized seeds with same strength of magnetic water. The results showed that there is no significant effect of magnetized irrigation water on all studied characteristics such as plant height, the total number of tillers, single leaf area, flag leaf area, dry weight, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and Net Assimilation Rate for the periods after 60 and 96 days from sowing, in both seasons. Similarly the treatment of magnetized seeds did not lead to significant effects on all studied characteristics except number of tillers. However treatment of magnetized seeds with 2000 Gs reduced number of tiller to 362.17 tiller.mֿ² as compared with control treatment which gave 373.42 tiller.mˉ² and treatment of magnetized seeds with 1000 Gs which gave 376.92 tiller.mˉ². It was concluded that there was no response of wheat cultivar IPA 99 to magnetized irrigation water. The treatment of magnetized seeds did not lead to significant effects on all studied characteristics except number of tillers which affected negatively with greater levels of magnetic strength.


Article
RESPONSE OF MAIZE TO DURATION OF IRRIGATION, DEPTH AND METHOD OF PLANTING
استجابة الذرة الصفراء لفترات الري وطريقة وعمق الزراعة

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the Research Station of State Board for Agricultural Research in Abu- Ghraib during the fall season of 2008 and 2009 to study the response of maize to irrigation frequency, planting depth and planting methods. The layout of the experiment was a split-plot in RCBD with four replications. The results showed that irrigation every five days gave high value of ears number per plant 1.27 number seeds per ear 601.0 and 546.6 , weight of seeds per ear 282.8 and 279.1 mg.ear-1 at both seasons, therefore it gave highest grain yield 13.723 and 12.237 ton.ha-1 respectively. Treatment rows then furrowing high value most character, as number of seeds per ear 500.6 and 563.6 at both seasons so it gave superior grain yield at both seasons 10.922 and 9.612 respectively. Treatment of planting depth 16cm gave highest grain yield 12.275 and 10.343 ton.ha-1 respectively at both seasons, among other treatments of planting depth. Treatment of irrigation every five days with rows the furrowing gave high value of grain yield were 14.622 and 12.690 ton.ha-1 respectively at both seasons. Treatment of rows the furrowing with planting depth 16 cm gave superior grain yield were 13.807 and 10.988 ton.ha-1 respectively at both seasons. Treatment of irrigation every 5 days with row the furrowing and planting depth 16 cm gave high grain yield at first season 18.154 ton.ha-1 and 14.390 ton.ha-1 at second season.


Article
ROLE OF YEAST EXTRACT IN THE GROWTH OF BLACK SEED CALLUS AND PRODUCTION OF SECONDARY METABOLISM COMPOUNDS
دور مستخلص خميرة الخبز في نمو كالس الحبة السوداء وإنتاجه لبعض مركبات الأيض الثانوي

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted at the tissue-culture laboratory, Coll. of Agric.-Univ. of Baghdad during the period of 15/1 – 10/10/ 2012, to investigate the effect of yeast extract on the induction of black seed callus and its products of secondary metabolism. The callus was grown in the MS medium supplemented with the yeast extract Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sac.) of three concentrations (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2) mg.liter-1. The experimental design was complete randomized design. The results inducted that the best concentration of NaOCl for black seed sterilization was 6% for 15 minutes and the best combination of 2,4-D and kin to callus induction from the stems of black seed seedlings was the MS medium supplied with (3 and 1) mg liter-1, respectively. The Sac concentration significantly increased the callus fresh and dry weights by 36, 227, 72, 48, 292 and 108% for sac (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 ), respectively. The sac0.8 treatment gave the highest concentration of Thymol (THY), Thymoquinone (TQ) and Thymohydroquinone (THQ). While the sac1.2 gave the highest concentration of Trans-anethole (Trans.) compound.


Article
EFFECT OF DEPTH OF IRRIGATION WATER AND NITROGEN ON LINT YIELD AND LINT PROPERTIES*
تأثير عمق ماء الري والنيتروجين في حاصل القطن الشعر وصفات التيلة

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted at the experiments field of department of Field Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during two summer seasons 2010 and 2011 in order to increase water use efficiency when increasing of nitrogen fertilizer. Randomized complete block design under arrangement of split plot with four replications was used. Main factor was depth of irrigation water (959 mm.season-1 (control treatment) and 80% and 60% of the value of the comparison), and secondary factor was nitrogen (150, 200 and 250 kg N.h-1). 959 mm.season-1 was significantly superior in dry weight (94.57, 98.02) gm.plant-1, lint yield (994.4, 1243.90) kg.ha-1 and strength lint (19.51, 19.74) gm.tex-1 in both season, respectively, while ginning percentage was significantly at 2011 season only. Application of depth of irrigation didn’t significant effect in length and fineness lint. Result showed that application 250 kg N.ha-1 gave high value of dry weight (93.89, 97.01) gm.plant-1, lint yield (922.3, 1194.6) kg.ha-1, ginning percentage (37.50, 37.71)%, length lint (26.66, 27.08) mm and strength lint (19.54, 19.86) gm.tex-1 in both season, respectively. There was no significant effect in fineness lint. Interaction between 959 mm.season-1 with 250 kg N.ha-1 was significantly superior in lint yield (1282.9, 1033.1) kg.ha-1 in both season, respectively, while Interaction between 959 mm.season-1 with 200 kg N.ha-1 was significantly superior in ginning percentage at 2010 season only. There was no significant effect of Interaction between irrigation depth and nitrogen levels in dry matter, length lint, strength lint and fineness lint in both seasons.


Article
EFFECT OF SULFUR AND NPK FERTILIZERS ON NPK CONCENTRATION IN WHEAT LEAVES AND GRAINS
تأثير الكبريت والاسمدة النيتروجينية والفوسفاتية والبوتاسية في تركيزNPK في أوراق وحبوب الحنطة

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted during 2010 and 2011 seasons at the experimental farm, department of field Crop Science, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad to study the effect of sulfur and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on its concentrations in leaves and grains of wheat. RCBD with four replications used as Factorial experimental, involved two factors, first was sulfur application with four levels (0, 2, 4 and 6 ton.ha-1), the second was application nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers as recommendations ( 200 kgN. ha-1, 100 kg P2O5.ha-1 and 120 kg K.ha-1) and half of recommendations. Results showed that 4 ton S.ha-1 was superior in nitrogen concentration in leaves and grain in increasing about 48.27%, 57.22%, 29.98% and 26.40% compared to control for both seasons, respectively, and for phosphor concentration in grain was 0.504%, in the second season, 6 ton S.ha-1 was superior in phosphorus concentration in leaves at the second season and in grain at first season about 0.346% and 0.472% and potassium concentration in leaves and grain was 4.630%, 4.162%, 0.210% and 0.250%. Application NPK AS recommended was superior in increasing nitrogen concentration in leaves and grain for both season and phosphorus concentration in leaves and grain for second season only and in increasing 15.22%, 28.56%, 8.73%, 24.91% and 1.33%. While application half of the recommended was superior in phosphor concentration in leaves and grain increasing for first season and potassium concentration in leaves for first season and grain for both season in increasing 3.81%, 10.23%, 12.36%, 6.28% and 12.97%. Results of this study was demonstrate that sulfur application with NPK fertilizers as recommended was increasing this elements concentration in leaves and grains and we can recommend 4 ton h-1 with NPK fertilizers as recommended to get the best concentration for this elements and affected in growth.

الكلمات الدلالية

wheat --- Sulfur --- NPK --- fertilization --- macronutrients. --- الحنطة --- الكبريت --- NPK --- التسميد --- المغذيات الكبرى.


Article
EFFECT OF WATER STRESS AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON SOME GROWTH TREATS OF SUNFLOWER
تأثير الإجهاد المائي والتسميد البوتاسي في بعض صفات النمو الفسلجية لزهرة الشمس

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الخلاصة

A field study was conducted at the experimental farm of Field Crop Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during two spring seasons of 2011 and 2012, in order to study the effect of different irrigation and potassium levels on some growth traits, of sunflower (Helianthus annuus. L) variety Eurofloer by using Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) in the arrangement of a split-plot with three replications. Irrigation treatments: control treatment (depletion of 50% of available water), 75%, 50% and 25% of the water amount of the control treatment were assigned in the main plots while potassium levels (0, 60, 120 and 180) kg K.ha-1 were assigned in the sup-plots. Result showed that there was no significant difference between I1 (control treatment) and I2 irrigation treatment (75% of the watering amount of the control) in stem diameter , number leaf area , biological yield which means a 950 m3 amount of water per hectare could be saved in both seasons. Also the plants of these treatments gave the maximum amount of chlorophyll and relative water content. However I4 treatment watering (Irrigation of 25% amount of water of the control) gave the maximum amount of proline. The applications of potassium significant increase all growth traits. Fertilization with 180 kg K.ha-1 gave the highest high plant (139.05and 137.57) cm, Leaf area (3214 and 2743) cm2, chlorophyll content (42.58 and 36.09) mg.g-1 fresh weight, relative water content (78.82% and 78.01%), stem diameter (2.88 and 2.73) cm, biological yield (10.98 and 10.79) ton.ha-1 in both seasons. We therefore, recommend in the case of the limited possibility of irrigation water by 75% of the irrigation needs (50% depletion of available water) amount 345mm and possibility of applying K fertilizer 180 kg K.ha-1 to decrease negative effect of water deficiency.


Article
LOSSES PERCENTAGES OF SAFFLOWER CULTIVARS AS INFLUENCED BY HARVESTING DATE
نسبة الفقد في أصناف من العصفر بتأثير موعد الحصاد

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm ,Dept. of Field Crop Sci., College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib during the fall seasons of 2011 and 2012. The aim was to study the losses percentages on the seeds yield and its components for different safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars (2018, Gila, Al- mais, Urdnie and Rabia 500) as influenced by harvesting dates (at physiological maturity, and one, two and three weeks later). This experiment was conducted as split-plot by a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The genotypes were assigned in the main plot, while the planting dates were assigned in the sup-plots. The results showed that there were significant differences between genotypes in the loss percentage of the seed yield and its components, were Gila gave the highest averages rat of loss in the number of primary branches /plant (30.80% and 29.61%), number of head/plant (47.10% and 36.06%), dry weight (56.47% and 22.19%), number of seeds/plant (32.21% and 36.52%), the weight of 100 seed(13.09% and 36.52%) in both seasons. This led to the increased seed yield/plant losses by (40.28% and 21.92%) in both seasons, respectively. However the Rabia 500 gave the lower percentage of losses(10.03% and 19.44%), via less losses percentage of seed yield components (number of primary branches /plant (14.57% and 21.48%)and number of head/plant (39.71% and 19.44%) in both seasons respectively). The delay in the harvesting date has led to increase percentage of loses for seed yield and its components. The highest increase in the percentages losses was obtained when plants harvest at three weeks after physiological maturity for primary and secondary branches/plant, number of head/plant, number of seed/plant, dry weight, 100 seed weight and seed yield, in both seasons respectively. It can be concluded that the Gila was the most sensitive cultivar to the harvesting processes, Rabia 500 was less affected by these processes. Therefore harvesting date should be based on each cultivar characteristics.


Article
RESPONSE OF CARAWAY TO PHOSPHATE AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION 1- YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS TRAITS
استجابة الكراوية للتسميد الفوسفاتي والبوتاسي 1- صفات الحاصل ومكوناته

المؤلفون: A. A. M. Al-Al-Samraee أوس علي محمد السامرائي
الصفحات: 729-737
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الخلاصة

A field experiment was carried out during the two winter seasons of 2010 and 2011 at the experimental field of Crop Science Dept., College of Agriculture–University of Baghdad/Abu Ghraib, to study the response of caraway to levels of phosphate and potassium and their impact on some growth and yield traits. The experiment included phosphate levels (0, 40 and 80 kg P2O5.ha-1) as a main factor and potassium levels (0, 100 and 200 kg K2O. ha-1) as a secondary factor. These treatments were arranged according to the randomized complete block design in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. The results showed that the phosphate levels had significant effects on most studied traits. The level 80 kg P2O5.ha-1 was superior significantly to give highest means of plant height (109.2, 110.2 cm), number of branches (14.6, 15.3 branch.plant-1), number of inflorescence (62.3, 62.8 inflorescence.plant-1), number of sub-inflorescence (14.9, 15.2 sub-inflorescence. inflorescence-1), number of fruits (16.0, 17.0 fruit. sub-inflorescence-1) and fruit yield (993.3, 1008.1 kg.ha-1) in both seasons, respectively compare with other treatments. There are non-significant different between potassium levels (100 and 200 kg K2O. ha-1) on most studied traits. the level 100 kg K2O. ha-1 gave highest means for plant height (102.6,104.0 cm), number of branches (12.9,13.2 branch.plant-1), number of inflorescence (59.4, 59.7 inflorescence.plant-1), number of sub-inflorescence (14.2,14.5 sub-inflorescence. inflorescence-1), number of fruits (15.9, 16.6 fruit. sub-inflorescence-1) and fruit yield (951.0,964.4 kg.ha-1) in both seasons, respectively compare with control treatment. Interaction between the two factors was significantly for most studied traits. The combine between 80 kg P2O5.ha-1 and 100 kg K2O.ha-1 recorded values for interaction were non-significant different from combine 80kg P2O5.ha-1 and 200 kg K2O.ha-1 in both seasons, respectively. We recommend application 80 kg P2O5.ha-1 that gave best result for all studied traits, in addition to reduced potassium fertilization to 50%.


Article
EFFECT OF SALT STRESS ON GERMINATION ATTRIBUTES IN MAIZE
تأثير الاجهاد الملحي في خصائص إنبات الذرة الصفراء

المؤلفون: A. A. H. Zowain عدنان عبد الحسين حسن زوين
الصفحات: 738-745
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الخلاصة

Water and soil salinity, in arid and semi-arid zone, is considered as one of upper most important problems that affect plant growth and development, particularly at the stage of germination and seedling growth. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the physiological changes in the viability and vigour of seeds under salt stress in maize (cv. 5018). Several concentrations (0, 21, 42, 63 and 84 mM of sodium chloride) were used. The experiment was conducted according to completely randomize design with five replications, in the laboratories of Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, 2012-2013. The outcome results showed certain significant differences by sodium chloride concentrations on most studied attributes. The values of each one of last day germination (3.6, 5.0, 6.4 and 6.8 day), and mean germination time (1.5, 7.3, 4.0 and 4.8 day) were increased when sodium chloride concentrations increased (0, 21, 42 and 63 mM) respectively, and the lowest value was at control treatment. Also, the values of each one of germination percentage as first count (68.4, 34.7, 9.2 and 4.8%), germination percentage as final count (84.1, 54.9, 19.2 and 13.6%), coefficient of velocity of germination (68.2, 27.1, 25.1 and 20.9 %.day-1), germination rate index (31.1, 8.7, 7.3 and 3.2 %.day-1), fresh and dry weight of plumula were decreased when sodium chloride concentrations increased, and the highest value was at control treatment. Germination didn't occur at 84 Mm of sodium chloride. There was positive significant relationship between most studied attributes (germination percentage as first and final count, coefficient of velocity of germination, germination rate index, fresh and dry weight of plumula). We concluded increasing of sodium chloride concentration in germination media lead to reduce germination percentage or completely inhibited at 84 Mm of sodium chloride. We recommend conducting further tests on several varieties of maize to know the nature of the general behavior of the attributes of germination and seedling growth over different a biotic stresses.


Article
EFFECT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH DU IN THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR TOBACCO
تأثير الترب الملوثة باليورانيوم المنضب في الصفات الفيزيائية للتبغ

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الخلاصة

Trail conducted in Greenhouse at farm of Field of Crop Dept. College of Agriculture-University of Baghdad, During 2010 and 2011. The aim was to study the absorption and canalization of Uranium-238 and effect on physical characteristics of the plant. Three varieties of Tobacco was used {Criolo (A1), Habana (A2)} for cigar, and SH (A3) for cigarette with two doses of polluted soil {B2 (low dose) 1 kg of polluted soil and B2 (high dose) 2kg of polluted soil} in addition to control treatment (B1). Design of experiment was systematic arrangement of whole plots according to randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Data showed that (SH vr.) superior 34% on (Habana vr.) and 26% on (Criolo vr.) in leaf number and Criolo vr. superior in leaf area with 0.08 m2 in the first year, SH vr. and Habana vr. Superior in leaf weight on Criolo vr. 19.2% and 17.2%, respectively. Control treatment superior in leaf number on high dose treatment 24%, and on low dose treatment 23% and in leaf area and gave 0.34 m2 in the first year, while in the second year, high dose not superior in leaf area of plant m2 and in absorption of Uranium-238 and was 227 the Bq.kg-1 while low dose 103 Bq.kg-1 and control 3 Bq.kg_1. In the second year the conclusion of this study was the effect absorber magnitude nuclear radiation of soil contamination in different type tobacco and ability that effect this soil in physical plant conclusion type Habana was the best in absorption of Thorium-234 and was 115.1 Bq.kg-1 .


Article
IMPACT COMPETITION IN RICE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY
أثر المنافسة في نمو وإنتاجية الرز

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted at Mushkab Rice Research Station for State Broad for Agricultural Researches during 2009 and 2010. The aims of the researches to investigate the impact of plant competition (through of transplanting spacings and number of seedlings per hill) in growth and yield of Furat-1 rice variety. Factorial experiment set out in RCBD with three replicates. Spacing included 10, 15 and 20 cm and 1, 2, 3 and 4 seedlings per hill. Statistical results showed that increasing plant density by narrow spacing caused a significant reduction in number of days from transplanting to 50% anthesis, number of days from transplanting to physiological maturity, plant height, panicle length, number of grain per panicle, grain weight and harvest index, on the other hand increased of number of panicles.m2, paddy yield, sterility percentage and biological yield. Increasing number of seedling per hill contribute in increasing of number of days from transplanting to 50% anthesis , number of days from transplanting to physiological maturity, plant height, number of panicles.m2, sterility percentage, paddy yield, biological yield and harvest index, while caused disincrements in panicle length, number of grain per panicle, grain weight.There was a significant interaction between spacings and number of seedling per hill in all characteristics studied, reference that highest paddy yield was attained at 10 cm spacing with 2-3 seedlings per hill, yield around from 6.8-6.98 ton.ha-1. Can be concluded to improve growth Furat-1 rice variety by narrow spacing (10 cm) with increasing number of seedlings per hill even 3 seedlings to attain optimal population density ensure higher yield.

جدول المحتويات السنة: المجلد: العدد: