Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2014 volume:46 issue:1

Article
INTEGRATION BETWEEN ZINNIA SEEDS OSMOPRMING WITH PEG SOLUTION AND SOIL TREATMENT WITH COONTAIL AND BIOIMMUNE EXTRACTS TO CONTROL FUSARIUM CULMORUM TRANSMITTED BY SEEDS
التكامل بين معاملة بذور الزينيا بمحلول PEG ومعاملة التربة بمستخلص الشمبلان والبايواميون في السيطرة على الفطر culmorum Fusarium المنقول بالبذور

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Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of some plant extracts and Beltanol to control the Fusarium culmorum with Zinnia seeds, and test its pathogenicity. Results showed the existence of fungus in 27.2% of seed samples with 7.59% mean frequency. Pathogenicity test by using blotter method showed that all the 5 isolates caused a significant reduction (0.05) in Zinnia seeds germination. Isolate A33 gave the highest decrease in percentage germination (19%). Laboratory result showed that the Bioimmune extract 12% caused the highest growth inhibition of isolate A33 (75.5%) followed by coontail extract 2000 mg/L (59.9%) while lotus Nymphaea nouchali extract did not give any effect. It was found that the Coontail, Bioimmune and Beltanol caused a significant reduction in disease incidence and severity. Beltanol + A33 treatment gave the highest significant decrease in percentage of disease incidence and severity, it was 22.5% and 11% compared with 92.5%and 90% in the control treatment respectively. There were not significant differences in the disease incidence and severity between the two extracts and Beltanol and extracts themselves. The two extracts gave superior significant increase in fresh and dry weight compared with Beltanol treatment. Seed treatment with PEG solution caused a significant reduction in disease incidence, but it was less than reduction in treatments without PEG.


Article
IDENTIFICATION OF THE CAUSAL AGENT OF CROWN AND ROOT ROT DISEASE OF WATERMELON AND EFFICIENCY OF DISEASE CONTROL UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS
تشخيص مسبب مرض تعفن جذور وقواعد سيقان الرقي وتقويم كفاءة البكتريا المرافقة لجذور النباتات السليمة مكافحة المرض تحت ظروف البيت الزجاجي

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Abstract

This research was aimed to identify the causal agent of crown and root rot disease of watermelon in some provinces in middle and south of Iraq, assess pathogenicity of the causal agent and control it by using bacteria (PGPR) isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy watermelon plants. Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae was present in all the tested samples with frequency between 27-80%. Pathogenicity test using cabbage seeds showed variation in pathogenicity ability as germination percentage ranged between 0-88% with superior isolate T4FS-15 and D5FS-2 as completely prevented germination of seeds compared to the control treatment which reached 96%. The results showed that all isolates was pathogenic to watermelon plants under greenhouse conditions, isolates T4FS-15 and D5FS-2 achieved a reduction of seeds germination to 5% compared to control treatment which achieved 100% , and achieved an increase in the percentage of the disease severity of shoot and root system in its treatments reached 98.12 % , 98.00 % and 98.50 % , 98.00 % respectfully compared to the control treatment which was 0% for shoot and root system. Seventy one bacterial isolates were isolated from the rhizosphere of the healthy watermelon plants. Antagonism ability of this isolates against the fungal isolate T4FS-15 showed superior of 10 bacterial isolates which achieved 100% growth inhibition compared to the control treatment which filled the dish after 7 days. Identification of the10 bacterial isolates by Vitiq2 compact system technique present the species Achromobacter denitrificans, A. xylosoxidans, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Acromonas salmonicida, Enterococcus columbae, Granulicatella elegans, Kocuria rosea, Serratia odorifera, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Streptococcus thoraltensis were identified for the first time in Iraq


Article
EFFECT OF ADDING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF VIT.E AND ROSEMARY LEAVES TO THE DIET ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERSTIC
تأثير إضافة فيتامين E ومسحوق أوراق أكليل الجبل إلى عليقة فروج اللحم في الأداء الإنتاجي وصفات الذبيحة

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Abstract

This study was carried out to study the effect of adding different levels of Vit. E as an artificial antioxidant and rosemary leaves as a natural antioxidant to broiler diet on performance traits and carcass characteristics. One hundred fifty one- day old Ross strain unsexed chicks were reared together as one group during the 1st week of age then the chicks were randomly distributed into five treatments groups. Each group were divided into three replicates with 10 birds per one. The treatments were as follows: T1 (control) without any addition,T2 and T3 included the addition of 0.75 and 1.50 g Vit. E/kg diet respectively and T4 and T5 included the addition of 0.75 and 1.50g rosemary leaves/kg diet respectively. The results revealed that treatments T3,T4and T5 showed significant superiority (P<0.05) on T2 and T1(control g roup) in live body weight at the 3rd, 4th and 5th weeks of age ,as well as these treatments were superiority (P<0.05)over T2 in body weight gain at the 3rd week of age, and in the amount of feed consumption during the 5th week. All treatments of addition showed improvements in the means of feed conversion ratio. No significant differences among all treatments in dressing percentage were observed, however T2 and T5 showed significant superiority (P<0.05) in the percentage of breast cut, whereas T4 showed significant superiority in wings percentage over other treatments. It can be concluded that the addition of Vit. E or rosemary leaves to broiler diet gives good improvement in the productive characteristics of the chicks, so it can be recommended that the addition of these feed additives to broiler rations may improve their productive performance.


Article
EFFECT OF ADDITION TOMATO JUICE CONCETRATE IN SPECIFIC QUALITIES BURGER OF CAMEL MEAT WITH HEN MEAT
تأثير إضافة عصير الطماطة المركز في الصفات الحسية للبيركر المصنع من لحم الجمل مع لحم الدجاج

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Abstract

This study aimed to find out the effect tomato juice (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) to the sarcoma mixture of burger component of camel meat with spent hen in recipe qualities. included six treatment (T1= 0, T2= 5, T3=10, T4=15, T5=20 and T6=25)% spent hen meat instead of camel meat. Result of the analysis showed that the addition of Tomato Juice and increase the proportion of chicken meat has significant effect in the recipe of Flavor in burger. The treatment T6 recorded the best degree of Flavor score 6.6 while the lowest percentage of the Flavor in treatment T1 and treatment T6 recorded higher score of tenders reaches 6.80 while T1recorded the lowest score and treatment T6 recorded the best degree of moisture reaches compared with other treatment in adding different from camel meat and hen meat. The production change to the color pale with increasing the rate of chicken meat, the treatment T1recorded higher score for the color was 6.60 while the treatment T6 recorded lowest score in color 4.88 while treatment T1 recorded the lowest score in texture was 5.20 while treatment T6 recorded the highest score 6.20 and also treatment showed T6the best degree of overall acceptability 7.40 compared with treatment T1 lowest score as the same recipe -treatment recorded the lowest score in color due to increased replacement hen meat with camel meat. There are improvements in the overall acceptability of degrees for the burger products when increasing the rate of tomato juice %6 has led to an improvement in the qualities of the produce.


Article
IMPACT OF PRIMARY TILLAGE SYSTEM ON FUEL CONSUMPTION, MANAGEMENT AND TOTAL TRACTOR COSTS
تاثير نظم الحراثة الاولية في استهلاك الوقود والتكاليف الأدارية والكلية للجرار

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Abstract

The main aims of this study for all agricultural researchers are reduce the costs of agricultural production. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of primary tillage system on practical productivity, fuel consumption and department and total tractor costs. The experiment includes the effect of two seasons and three plowing including primary tillage system (Mold board , Chisel and Disk plows).Randomized complete block design with three replications and LSD (0.05) was used to compare the means of treatments at 0.05.The experiment results showed the following: Chisel plow indicated significant superiority upon Moldboard, Disk plows in achieving higher practical productivity with mean (0.719 h/hr), lower fuel consumption combined with mean (10.652 l/h), lower administrating cost with mean (1533.274 di/h) and lower tractor cost with mean (16866.020 di/h). On the other hand spring season recorded lower fuel consumption with mean (10.631 l/h), lower tractor cost with mean (27272.749 di/h) and lower total cost with mean (2479.346 di/h) compared with autumn season. It seems to be that chisel plow was the most suitable plow which can be used in the middle of Iraq with low operating costs comparing with the conventional plows such as moldboard plow and disk plow.


Article
PERFORMANCE OF SOME SPECIAL TILLAGE EQUIPMENTS UNDER PLOWING AND HARROWING SYSTEM'S
أداء بعض المعدات الخاصة بتهيئة التربة تحت أنظمة حراثة وتنعيم

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An experiment was conducted on a farm at the College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad during 2012 in a silty clay loam soil. New holland tractor with the following equipments (disk ridger, ditcher, land plane) were used as a machinery unit. Studied treatments were laid out using split- split with a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The experiment consisted of three factors, the first was plow types: disk plow, stubble – mulch plow and chisel plow which represented main plots. Second factor was harrow types: rotary harrow, spring spike tooth harrow and disk harrow which represented sub plot's.The third factor was special equipment types: disk ridger, ditcher and land plane which represented sub – sub plots. Slippage percentage, field efficiency, fuel consumption, soil disturbed volume as well as total cost of machinery unit was determind in this experiment. Results obtained indicated that disk ridger with chisel plow and spring spike booth harrow recorded lower value of slippage percentage (6.503 %) with lower value of fuel consumption (21.560 l/h) while ditcher with disk plow and disk harrow recorded higher value of slippage percentage (13.920 %) with higher value of fuel consumption (39.813 l/h). Land plane with chisel plow and disk harrow recorded higher value of field efficiency (68.413 %) and lower value of total cost of machinery unit (20028 ID/ha), mean while ditcher with disk plow and spring spike tooth harrow recorded lower value of field efficiency (60.177 %) and higher value of total cost's of machinery unit (46202 ID/ha) .Land plane with disk plow and spring spike tooth harrow recorded higher value of soil disturbed volume (2665.000 m3/h), and ditcher with chisel plow and rotary harrow recorded lower value of soil disturbed volume (1027.700 m3/h) . It can be concluded that land plane was the best for higher value of field efficiency, higher value of soil disturbed volume with lower value of total costs of machinery unit, while disk ridger was the best for lower value of slippage percentage with lower value of fuel consumption.


Article
MEASURING THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF FISH HOLDING IN CAGES IN IRAQ
قياس الكفاءة الاقتصادية لمشاريع إنتاج أسماك التربية في الأقفاص في العراق بغداد – انموذج تطبيقي

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Abstract

This study aimed to measure the economic performance of fish in cages in to riverbanks, using data envelopment analysis. This analysis involved measurement of each of technical efficiency of production function in constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale, scale efficiency, wasting in economic resources, and technical, allocative and economic efficiency of the cost function in variable returns to scale.. Input oriented model of linear programming after transferring to the counterpart model was used for estimation of the economic efficiency of production and cost function. The averages of technical efficiency in constant returns to scale and variable return to scale were 96% and 97.6% respectively, and 59.26 of the breeders were working in IRS while 9.26 of them are working in constant returned scale studying the resource that achieved the efficiency using production function and comparing it with the actually used recourse , whereas, 31.46% of them working in decreasing return to scale. Similarly, results revealed that averages of allocative and economic efficiency in VRS for breeders in floating docks (91.4% and 89.2% respectively). we can deduce a waste in most resources and most farmers working within acceptable limits for economic efficiency in spite of the presence of the waste in the use of resources, which led to a gap between the efficiency of the full 100% and what exists at the breeder fish in cages as that (9.26%) from a breeder fish in cages working within efficiency full economic, and if the use of economic resources better for most farmers got the full economic efficiency it is recommended the necessity of taking care in cage breeding fish as it has high efficiency this type of breeding is eco-fiend and has no contamination effect on water .furthermore, it is necessary to focus to attar the instruction and laws regarding lisonce granting beside engagement of farmers in heuristic to encourage them to breed fish in river banks, lakes and marshes.


Article
MEASURE THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE PRODUCTION OF FISH BREEDING PROJECTS IN IRAQ BAGHDAD - MODEL APPLICABLE
قياس الكفاءة الاقتصادية لمشاريع إنتاج أسماك التربية في العراق

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Abstract

The Fisheries is one of important branches of the economics of animal production, which is an important tributary to achieve economic surplus, which is seeking from all the counties of the world. The gap between production and consumption of food is the most important challenges facing the process of economic and social development in the country, The persistence of this gap means continued reliance on abroad, which is a burden on the balance of payments, The objective of this study is measure the economic performance of the breeder fish in ponds dug in the soil of the season productive 2012 in the Baghdad province by measuring the technical efficiency of the production function for breeders and measure the efficiency of capacity for fish keepers and measuring technical efficiency and allocative and economic cost function for breeders Fish and identify the amount of waste in the economic resources. Research adopted mainly on data that has been obtained through the form questionnaire to a sample of breeder fish at the docks 152 and also been relying on secondary data published and issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and the Authority General Fisheries Development , as well as reports , newsletters , letters, thesis Alatarih Arabian and foreign researcher. The study has been using the system (DEAP)(A Data Envelopment Analysis (Computer) Program,Regarding fish breeders in dug basins, the results showed the averages of technical efficiency of production function in constant returns to scale (CRS) and variable returns to scale (VRS) were 77% and 94% respectively, while the scale efficiency was 81% with 84% of breeders were working in increasing return to scale (IRS), and 16% of them were working in CRS. Similarly, results revealed that averages of allocative and economic efficiency in VRS for breeders in dug basins (71.6%, 67.4% respectively). Studying the resources that achieved the efficiency using production function and comparing it with the actually used resources, we can deduce there is waist in most resources most fish breeders in dug basins work within acceptable limits of economic efficiency despite the wasting in resources. it is recommend to ideal exploitation of remoras and a heuristic courses.


Article
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL LAND RATIO IN IRAQ FOR PERIOD 1980-2013 AND FORECASTING IT FOR PERIOD 2014-2024
تحليل اقتصادي للعوامل المؤثرة في نسبة الأراضي الزراعية في العراق خلال المدة 1980-2013 والتنبؤ بها للمدة 2014-2024

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The agricultural activity in Iraq acquires an exceptional importance, representing the activity at which employs about a third of the employee number in Iraq, as well as that the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) ranks second in financing of GDP after the oil sector. Therefore, promote such activity requires activation of a lot of episodes. The issue of low or high proportion of the agricultural or cultivable lands of the over total in the country, is of great importance due to reflecting clearly the extent of agricultural activity utilization. When this index is higher, it will influence positively the economic situation, and has been reflected in the form of social stability, especially, in rural areas, which include most of the employees in the agricultural sector. The most important factors affecting the ratio of agricultural lands in Iraq were identified during the time period 1980-2013, which can be summarized to exacerbate of desertification phenomenon that comes as a result of climate changes, the low rates of water levels of the Tigris and Euphrates as well as overexploitation and inappropriate dry land systems. The problem of agricultural land salinization, agricultural holdings fragmentation and low employee efficiency in the agricultural sector were appeared to add another burden. These factors have led to a whole negatively impacting the decline in arable land proportion and thus, gain-producing territory, as well as the per capita share of hectares of farmland. The prediction of future index noticed that there is a continuous decline in the index depending on the methodology of B&J, which gave a logical outcome of the case reality. The estimated model (0.1.2), is the model of choice that passed the statistical tests. The study recommended the need to eliminate the causes of the low agricultural land problems, including desertification, salinity, employee efficiency in the agricultural sector as well as follows the scientific methods and efficient use of the resources.


Article
DISTRIBUTION AND REDISTRIBUTION OF WATER CONTENT AND WATER POTENTIAL IN THE ROOT ZONE OF BARLEY
توزيع واعادة توزيع المحتوى المائي والجهد المائي في المنطقة الجذرية للشعير

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A field study was conducted in 10 m× 20 m field plot to study distribution and redistribution of water content and water potential during time between irrigation of barley under shallow water table. Profiles of initial water content ( measured gravimetrically) and water potential (measured by tensiometres) indicated high agreement. While cute increase in water content and potential occurred above 40 cm only slight increase occurred below 40 cm. Rate of change in water content ( ) during first irrigation was the highest in the surface 0-10 cm layer (0.005 cm3.d-1) and decreased drastically to reach 0.0004 cm3.d-1 at 40 cm and approached zero below 60 cm. Values of total water potential increased above 40 cm after 2 days following irrigation and marked -110, -100, -90 and -103 cm H2O for the 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm depths respectively. A cute change in total water potential in the surface 0-10 cm layer occurred after 25 days following irrigation and decreased sharply with increasing depth and marked -850, -260, - 150, , -140 at 10, 20, 0 and 40 cm depths respectively. No change in water potential was detected below 50 cm as well as water content profiles below 60 cm. This study clearly indicates that the process of water distribution and redistribution requires the determination of changes in water content and water potential as a function of depth and time which in turn is essential to determine both deep percolation losses and capillary rise contribution to crop water requirements that are essential for irrigation water management.


Article
THE EFFECT OF IRRIGATION WITH WASTE WATER OF KALNITRO FERTILIZER FACTORY ON SOME SOIL CHARACTERISTIC AND MAIZE PRODUCTIVITY
تأثير الري بمياه صرف معمل السماد في بعض خصائص التربة وإنتاجية الذرة الصفراء

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The study was carrid out in Apel Area-Homs by using the waste water from phosphatic fertilizers industry, after mixing it with fresh water, in three levels (75%, 50% and 25%). Samples of soils took from these depths 0-15, 15- 30 and 30-60 cm before planting and after harvest, and samples of water from well and waste water (before and after mixing it, in three levels 75%, 50% and 25%). The aim of this paper was to study the influence of irrigation with waste water from phosphoric fertilizers industry on some soil characteristic and the production of maize. The data showed negative relationship between the level of mixing with waste water of Kalnitro fertilizers and soil's pH. The use of waste water of Kalnitro fertilizers decreased external density of soil from 1.4 gm/cm3 to 1.11 gm/cm3. The irrigation with waste water of Kalnitro fertilizers increased the concentrations of TDS in soil, but relationship between the level of mixing with waste water of Kalnitro fertilizers and carbonate and active lime was highly positive. The level of mixing with waste water of Kalnitro fertilizers 25% gave high production of maize (4.48 t/ha) but irrigation with waste water of Kalnitro fertilizers without mixing gave low production of Maize (1.21 t/ha).


Article
THE PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS FOR SOME EXTENSION TASKS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THEIR SATISFACTION FOR ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE -A FIELD SUDY IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF IRAQ-
أداء المرشدين الزراعيين لبعض المهام الإرشادية وعلاقته برضاهم عن المناخ التنظيمي -دراسة ميدانية في المنطقة الوسطى من العراق-

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The aims of this research are to identifying the level of the performance of agricultural extension agents for some extension tasks and to identifying the satisfaction level of extension agents for the organizational climate in the organization, as well as studying the relationship between the level of their performance of some tasks and their satisfaction with the organizational climate. The populations of the research consist of 223 agricultural extension agents who distributed on 8 provinces in the central region of Iraq and 169 directors of agricultural extension department, sections and centers. A sample of 70% was taken from 6 provinces namely: Babylon, Wasit, Karbala, Al Najaf, Anbar, Diyala. A proportional random sample of 50 % was taken which consist of 54 director and 77agricultural extension agents. A question nary sheet was used for collecting data based on two scales. The first scale used to measure the level of performance of agricultural extension agent which consist of 16 items distributed on 3 sectors( educational tasks 6 items, management of extension programs 4 iems,and executive tasks 6 items, using five scale parameter ( excellent, very good, good, weak and acceptable). The second scale was used to measure the satisfaction of agricultural extension agents of organizational climate which consist of 29 items distributed on 7 sectors:4 items for organizational structure, 3 items for awarding system, 4 items for team work, 6 items for supervision system, 5 items for differently management, 3 items for Organization attendance and 5 items for physical conditions of extension agents, according to five scale parameter: completely satisfactory, satisfactory to some extent, unsatisfactory, completely unsatisfactory. The results showed that some of educational and executive tasks were in a good and acceptable accomplishment, while the management of the extension programs was in a good accomplishment. The supervision system was ranked as the first according to the importance level and agreement of the researchable.


Article
AFFECT OF CUTTING ON GREEN FODDER AND GRAIN YIELD IN BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS
تأثير الحش في نمو وحاصل الحبوب والعلف الأخضر لبعض أصناف حنطة الخبز

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In order to provide green fodder in times of scarcity and lack of availability for animals in winter and investigate their impact on the quotient of grain, carried field experiment by planted varieties of wheat bread certified (Fateh, IPA99, Abu Ghraib, Mexibak) on 28 Nov. 2011, and 25 Nov. 2012, the design of RCBD for three replications in the Abu Ghraib Research Station-Agricultural Research Office. Conducted cut first and second when a plant height 35 cm. The results showed that the characteristics of growth , green fodder , dry matter weight of green fodder , biological yield decreased significantly after first cutting and second for both years, respectively. The results showed that grain yield varieties fell by 17% and 27% after the first cutting and 35% and 50% after the second cutting in decreased biological yield 10% and 22% after the first cutting and 21% and 39% after the second cutting for both years, respectively. Reached the green fodder 12.460 and 13.963 t.h-1 when the first cutting , 10.82 t.h-1 and 11.556 t.h-1 in the second cutting, a weight of 1.204 t.h-1 of dry matter, 1.325 t/h after the first cutting, 1.141 t.h-1 and 1.224 t.h-1 after the second cutting for both years, respectively. We conclude from the study the possibility of providing green fodder of varieties of wheat bread local under study for their ability to grow after cutting and giving grain yield acceptable after once or twice cutting from one cultivation. Variety IPA99 gave a higher grain yield (3.410 and 5.065) t.h-1 after the first cutting with two types gave Mexibak and Fateh (2.640 and 3.613) t.h-1 after the second cutting sequentially in both the research years.

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