Table of content

Medical Journal of Babylon

مجلة بابل الطبية

ISSN: 1812156X 23126760
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Medical Journal of Babylon (MJB) is a quarterly medical journal concerned with clinical and basic medical researches. MJB follows the Publication Ethics Statements suggested by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

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العنوان البريدي: العراق-محافظة بابل- الحلة –ص ب 473 جامعة بابل –كلية الطب – مجلة بابل الطبية
عنوان البريد الالكتروني medjbabylon2004@gmail.com

Table of content: 2014 volume:11 issue:4

Article
Perceptions of Seniors Toward Nosocomial Infections at College of Medicine Babylon

Authors: Kareem Abed Mobashr
Pages: 758-767
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Abstract

Background: This study assessed knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of medical students toward nosocomial infections, in addition to, evaluation Curriculum through advising information of some items regarding HCAIs(Healthcare-associated infections) from which the medical students received their knowledge during college's study. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was carried out on the final year medical students from College of Medicine, which included (106) students, at University of Babylon (Babil -Iraq) in 2013.An anonymous questionnaire consisted of four sections, with 30 items. Students’ knowledge section was designed to explore students' knowledge toward nosocomial infections, while another section was designed to gather information about student's behavior, to explore student attitudes toward precautionary guidelines and perception of the risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections by multiples questions and to evaluate advising information of some items on healthcare-associated infections for students. The Chi-square test was used for significance, a P-value (<0.05) is considered statistically significant and p <0.01 is considered highly significant. Results: The study showed the overall average of the medical students' knowledge was (68.34%) about healthcare-associated infections, however, the knowledge regarding specific areas was weak, particularly concerning the risk of transmission of infection to the hospital personnel (41.5%) and stethoscopeas a potential source of infections (43.86%). In general, their behaviors were adequate (69.38%) to reduce the risk of infections, whereas, wearing protective materials when contact with patient sometimes were only (49.06%) of them do that. Generally the attitudes were positive (68.68%).Females had (48.87%) better attitudes than males (19.81%). Advising information about some items of healthcare-associated infectionsare generally acceptable (50, 65%), however, about (39.62 %) of the students sometimes have been advised toward safety intravenous inserted devices and only (22.16 %) of them have been advised about stethoscope cleaning. Conclusions: The students have adequate knowledge, positive attitudes and adequate behaviors to reduce nosocomial infections; however, advising information about some items of healthcare-associated infectionswas generally acceptable. These findings emphasize the need of stressing on education about this sort of infections in the health care curricula.


Article
Imaging and Diagnosis of different kind of Viruses by using (FITC,Evans blue ,and RB ) by Fluorescence Microscope

Authors: Entiedhar Jasim Khamis Al -Yasari
Pages: 768-775
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The use of fluorescence microscopy for imaging biomedical specimens has been expanded into all fields of diagnosis for different kinds of viruses , three viruses were imaged and diagnosed by the fluorescence microscope at Al-Sadr teaching hospital at Kufa city . The human metapneumo viruse hMPV , the respiratory syncytial viruse RSV and the measles chicken emberyo fibroblast viruse have been imaged and diagnosed by the fluorescence microscope in Al-SADR Educational hospital at Kufa city . Three types of dyes were added to the specimen solutions separately ,Rhodamine B , Fluorescene and Evans blue in order to obtain high resolution and contrast images. The absorption and fluorination spectra of these dyes were measured by EUV-visible spectrophotometer and fluorospectrophotometer respectively .


Article
Outcome of Anorectal Surgery Under A Mixture of Local Anesthesia: Experience With 350 Patients

Authors: Ibrahim Falih Noori
Pages: 776-784
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Background: anal diseases are common surgical problems .Anal surgical operations are usually carried out under general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia. The use of local anesthesia in anal surgery is supposed to be safe, simple and efficient. Purpose: to evaluate the effectiveness and usefulness of local anesthesia for various anal surgeries, and to assess the patient acceptance and satisfaction. Patients and methods: a total of 350 patients with various anal problems presented to different anal surgeries under local anesthetic infiltration for the period from February 2011 to March 2014.Age ranges from 18-72 years (mean 47.7 year).Majority of the patients were males (No. =310, 88.6%) and minority were females (No. = 40, 11.4%).Pain during surgery and postoperatively was evaluated on a visual analog scale. The feasibility, tolerability and patient's satisfaction with the results of operations were assessed and evaluated. Results: The mean operations time was 25 minutes range from 10-45 minutes. The mean pain score in the day of operation was low, (2.8) and the mean pain score in the first postoperative day was also low (3.3).Most patients (82.85%) were satisfied with the results of operations and they would prefer local anesthesia again for anal surgery in the future were necessary. Complications rate in this study was 10.9% and most these complications managed conservatively. Conclusion: perianal block by local anesthetic infiltration is safe, simple and effective for various anal operations with very high degree of acceptance and satisfaction among patients. It had been found to be associated with low pain score and postoperative complications and faster return to daily social activity. The cost saving had been significant.


Article
The Role of C-Reactive Protein and Visfatin in Pathogenesis of Preterm Labor in Al- Najaf City

Authors: Basima Sh. Alghazali --- Seenaa Ali Hussein
Pages: 785-791
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Background:Visfatin is adipokine originally discovered as a pre- B-cell colony enhancing factor, is expressed by amniotic epithelium,cytotrophoblast,and deciduas and is over expressed when fetal membrane are exposed to mechanical stress or inflammatory stimuli. Objective: To determine whether preterm labour is associated with changes in maternal plasma circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and visfatin concentrations. Study design: This is a case control study. Setting: The department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in the college of medicine in Kufa University. Materials and Method: The patients included in this study were divided into three groups control group who are preterm not in labor(50) and cases group who are preterm in labor(50) and full term group in labor(50). Parameters include age, gestational age, general urine examination, liver function test, renal function test, white blood count, hemoglobin, c-reactive protein (CRP), and visfatin. Results: There is a significant increment in the level of C-reactive protein and visfatin between cases and control groups . Conclusion: The visfatin and c-reactive protein may be involved in the pathogenesis of preterm labor.


Article
Damper Effect of Carvacrol on T47-D, A Human Breast Cancer Cell Line.

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Background: Carvacrol is predominant monoterpene presents in the volatile oils of oregano, thyme and some other herbs. Objectives: The present study was carried out to determine the in vitro cytotoxic effects of carvacrol on breast cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic effect of carvacrol was evaluated by measuring absorbance of crystal violet stain by ELISA technique and determining the percentage of growth inhibition. Results: The study clearly showed the anti-proliferative effect of carvacrol on T47-D cells in dose dependent manner. Conclusion: These data demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of carvacrol on human breast cancer cells, T47-D, and that compound could have a potential therapeutic significance in treating cancer.


Article
The Association Between Fatty Liver on Ultrasound and Liver Fnuction Testes

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Background: The presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on ultrasound study is a common finding in apparently healthy individuals. It may be associated with liver damage and may predispose to chronic liver disease . Aim of the study:To show if there is any relation between fatty liver on ultrasound and hepatic damage. Patients and methods:60 patients with fatty liver on ultrasound and 65 persons are control were enrolled in this study.72 Of them were males and 53 were females, their ages ranged from ( 30 – 68 ) years . All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound and blood sample where taken and sent for liver function testes to detect any changes in liver enzyme and hepatic damage Results:The result of this study consist of 60 patients with liver changes on ultrasound and 65 healthy controls, 72(57.6%) were males while 53(42.4%) were females . In this study , 53(88.3%) of the patients had AST/ALT < 1, while only 7(11.7%) had AST / ALT >1 and all controls 65(100%) had AST/ALT < 1 . 32 of male and 21 of female patients (total 53) had AST/ALT < 1 while 4 male and 3 female (total 7) had AST / ALT >1 . Conclusion: NAFL is not a benign condition and may lead to abnormal elevation in liver enzymes.

Keywords

Fatty Liver --- Ultrasound --- NAFLD


Article
Evaluation of Treatment of Displaced Diaphyseal Fractures of The Radius and Ulna in Children in Duhok Emergency Teaching Hospital

Authors: Wahid Mohammed Hassan
Pages: 806-816
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Background: Forearm fractures are extremely common in children, mostly in the distal third. In most cases non-operative management results in a good outcome, but there are circumstances in which operative management is necessary to optimise union and maximize functional outcome. Objectives: To report the outcomes of both conservative and operative methods of treatment of the forearm bone fractures in children. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of 103 children with displaced diaphyseal fracture of radius and ulna treated at Duhok emergency teaching hospitals between December 2010 and December 20012, their ages ranged from 2.5-13years, majority were male& majority were treated conservatively.For all patients presented with displaced fractures; manipulation under general anesthesia was done with cast application, these were assessed radiologically ,to be followed up for six months clinically and radiologically, if reduction is satisfactory, or else treated by open reduction and internal fixation if reduction is unsatisfactory, redisplaced, malaligned or became malunited later during the follow up. Outcome was assessed later both clinically and radiologically. Results: In 78 patients conservative treatment were successful because of few complications, shorter duration of hospitalization and better functional-outcome results. The remaining 25 patients required operative treatment in which complications and period of hospital stay were longer and functional outcome was not as good as conservative treatment. Conclusions: The majority of paediatric forearm fractures were caused by fall on outstretched hand and the majority were right handed in whom fractures occurred in the middle and distal third of the radius and ulna. Both methods of treatment were useful in dealing with such fractures but relatively with different outcome. Conservative treatment was safer, easier, with less complication, needs shorter period of hospitalization, and has better functional outcome.

Keywords

Fracture --- Children --- Forearm --- Treatment --- Conservative --- Operative


Article
Assessment of Anxiolytic Activity of Nuts of Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Almond) in Mice

Authors: Zena Hasan Sahib
Pages: 817-824
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The incidence of anxiety in the community is very high and is associated with lot of morbidity. The most widely prescribed medications for anxiety disorders are the benzodiazepines in which there use are limited by their side effects, hence many herbs employed in traditional and alternate medicine for sleep disorders and related diseases. The nuts of Prunus amygdalus (almond ) are found to possess anti-stress properties, also is an effective health building food, both for the body and the mind. Anxiolytic activity of of Prunus amygdalus dulcis were studied using open-field tests in mice. The efficacy of two doses of Prunus amygdalus dulcis 800 and 1600 mg/kg was compared with standard anxiolytic drug the diazepam (1mg/kg). Both the diazepam and almond (1600 mg/kg) treated groups in this study showed extremely significant increased (p<0.001) in both the number of rearing against the wall and the time spend in central squares with significant increase in the number of crossed squares (p<0.01) and (p<0.05) respectively. The number of grooming was extremely significant decreased (p<0.001) while the duration of grooming showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in compare to the control group. The group that given 800mg/kg of almond showed highly significant decrease (p<0.01) in the number of grooming while the duration of grooming was extremely significant increased (p<0.001) with no significant difference (p>0.05) in the number of rearing against the wall, the time spend in central squares and the number of squares crossed in compare to the control group. These findings suggest that Prunus amygdalus dulcis in a dose 1600 mg/kg possess anxiolytic-like properties equal to that of diazepam while 800mg/kg Prunus amygdalus dulcis has less effect .


Article
Prevalence of VIM Metallo ß –Lactamase among Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Hilla Hospitals

Authors: Eman Mohammad Jarallah --- Fatima Moeen Abbas
Pages: 825-835
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This study investigated the presence of blaVIM in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. During the period from April to August 2011, a total of 801 various clinical samples were collected from different hospitals in Hilla city. Of these,117 isolates were diagnosed as K.pneumoniae . High prevalence of K.pneumoniae isolates were detected in stool samples 38 (27%) followed by sputum 19 (15%). All 117 K.pneumoniae isolates were primarily screened for - lactams resistance, 91 (78%) showed positive results for beta lactams . β- lactam resistance isolates were underwent antimicrobial susceptibility to 26 antibiotics by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion methods .High resistance rate was recorded for penicillins (carbenicillin and ampicillin) (99%) and (94.5%),respectively .Carbapenem resistance was reported in 17 (18.7%) of K. pneumoniae isolates. Phenotypic detection of metallo β- lactamase by imipenem-EDTA disk identified a proportion of 65% as metallo β-lactamase producers. The presence of blaVIM gene was checked by Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) and confirmed in 14(82.3%) of isolates.


Article
Clinical and Biochemical Study in urinary stone patients in Babylon Province

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Background:Evaluate the oxidative stress in patient with different types of urinary stone by measuring the total antioxidant capacity, study the oxidative stress in cystinuria patients, study the changes in superoxide dismutase activity and Cu, Zn level in sera of different types of urinary stone patient. Patient and method: 0ne hundred patients (67males and 33 females) in the age group ranging from 5-75 years old,and forty apparently healthy individual(20 male and 20 female) in the age group ranging from (6-70). admitted to Al-Hila Teaching Hospital, Urology Department from the 1st of January 2013 till 30th of June 2013. All patients underwent full history and physical examination including: age, gender, family history of urolithiasis, past history of recurrent stone and any current medical diseases. the antioxidant determination by add 100 μl Cu2+ working solution to all standard and sample wells and cover the plate and incubate at room temperature for 1.5 hours, Read the absorbance at 570 nm using the plate reader.the superoxide dismutase determination by take 50 ml of serum and 1 ml of tris base, 1 ml of pyrogallole . After the addition of pyrogallol ,immediately read the absorbance spectrophotometriclly at 420 nm against blank . Results :Serum concentration of Total antioxidant capacity(SOD) was decrease significantly in patients with urinary stone when compared with control group (p<0.001) in uric acid stone, (p<0.05) in calcium oxalate stone,(p<0.05) in calcium phosphate stone, The concentration ofsuperoxide dismutase (SOD) was decrease significantly in patient with urinary stone compere to control group, The result between male and female of the patients show significant decrease when compare with the male and female of the control. Conclusion:The study show lowerlevel Superoxide dismutase activity ,Increased levels of Total antioxidant indicate to absorption uric acid and the activation of antioxidant enzymes as an adaptation to the oxidative stress,The antioxidant strength is further decreased by lower activity of SOD.


Article
Experience with Molluscum Contagiosum: A Descriptive (Case- Series ) Study of 467 Patients in Al-Diwaniya and Evaluation of Their Modes of Treatment

Authors: Usama Abdul-Jaleel Althuwayni
Pages: 843-850
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Background: Molluscum contagiosum MC is a benign viral infection of the skin it is most easily transmitted by direct skin-to-skin contact, especially in three groups which are primarily affected i.e. young children,sexually-active adults, and immunosuppressed persons, especially those with HIV infection but in Iraq its epidimiology is largely unknown, despite the fact that large outbreaks have occurred in recent years. Objective: This study was aimed at providing information on series of 467 cases of MC patients with efficacy of 2 modes of treatment (tretinoin and curettage ) in Al-diwaniya Methods : In this decriptive case series study, 467 patients were identified as having MC by dermatologists in Al-Diwanyia Teaching Hospital ,over period of 5 months (from September 2013 to January 2014 ). Patients age and gender, duration of the disease in months ,site, number of the lesions, family history and mode of treatment. 404 patients were treated by curettage , while 63 were treated by tretinoin. We evaluate the response to treatment, recurrences and adverse effects Results : 467 patients were studied ,their ages ranged from (9months-56years) . there were 201 (43%) females and 266 (57%) males. The healthy adults between (30-50) had 1st peak of incidence in our patients; the face was highly significant involved in adults (P values < 0.001) and had low percentage in the genital area ( 6.5% ) which indicating sexual transmission was not the main way of transmission. Again the children had the 2nd peak of incidence Curettage method was used in the majority of the patients .It is cheap, effective with no side effects, however there was 9% recurrences. Topical retinoic acid 0.05% daily had taken 1-2 weeks. None of the patients experienced a serious adverse effect apart from irrtation and inflammation of the lesions .After resolution, there was no recurrence of the lesions in this way of treatment. Conclusion : The results showed that there is an up surge of MC infection in Al-diwaniya ,Iraq. The healthy adults between (30-50) had 1st peak of incidence in our patients with highly significant involvement of the face in adults. Sexual transmission was not the main way of transmission .Curettage is cheap, effective with no side effects, but with some recurrences Topical retinoic acid was effective with no recurrence of the lesions


Article
Platelets Count As A Predictor For Portal Hypertension in Patients With Ascites

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Background: Serum Ascetic Albumin Gradient is a good biochemical marker and a better discriminator of portal hypertension. Patients with gradients of >1.1 g/dL have portal hypertension, while those with gradients of <1.1 g/dL do not, with accuracy rate 97% and sensitivity of 100%. Thrombocytopenia is a frequent and challenging clinical disorder in patients with portal hypertension. The most sensitive and specific laboratory finding suggestive of cirrhosis in the setting of chronic liver disease is a low platelet count (<150×109/L), which occurs as a result of portal hypertension and hypersplenism. Aim of Study:To predict the presence of portal hypertension in patient with ascites by measuring the platelets count. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients with ascites were sent for complete blood picture, serum albumin, echo study, abdominal ultrasound and albumin in ascites fluid along with thorough medical history and examination. we calculate the SAAG for all patients and classified into two groups , the first has SAAG> 1.1 g/dl and considered to have portal hypertension, the second has SAAG <1.1 g/dl. Results: In this study, 50 patients with ascites their ages ranges from (34-60) years ,25 of them had SAAG more than 1.1g/dl , 20 of them had platelet count <150×109/L. while 25 patients with SAAG less than 1.1g/dl, 7 of them had platelet count <150×109/L. this indicate significant correlation between low platelet count and portal hypertension(p value 0.0002)(the measured sensitivity=84%, specificity=76%, P.P.V=77%, N.P.V=82%) . Another significant correlation was seen between splenomegaly detected by U/S and portal hypertension, 25 patient had SAAG more than 1.1g/dl, of them 12 had splenomegaly ( p value 0.00039)(the measured sensitivity=48%, specificity=96%, P.P.V=92%, N.P.V=64%) Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia in patient with ascites may predict portal hypertension.


Article
Preemptive Analgesia For Cesarean Section in Al- Najaf City

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Background: Delivery by caesarean section (CS) is becoming more frequent. Childbirth is an emotion-filled event, and the mother needs to bond with her baby as early as possible. Any intervention that leads to improvement in pain relief is worthy of investigation. Local anaesthetics have been employed as an adjunct to other methods of postoperative pain relief. Objective: To insure the efficacy of infiltration of lidocaine 1% in the surgical site of Cesarean Section, just before incision ,in decreasing postoperative pain , in comparison to other forms of preemptive analgesia that includes central nerve block (spinal anesthesia) , and multi modal parentral analgesia. Patients and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled trial study in which patients undergoing CS were randomly divided into four groups;- Group A Patients (control plain GA), Group B Patients with multi modal analgesia Group C Patients with local tissue infiltration,Group D Patients with spinal anesthesia . The protocol for induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia was similar for A , B&C groups. Group A control patients (plain GA) without supplementary analgesia. Group B parentral multi modal analgesia(Acetamenophen&Diphene) given IM. just pre operatively , and a Fentanyl 50Mg IV. just after delivery of the baby. Group C patients received 20 ml of 1% Lidocaine infiltration 1-2 minutes before skin incision. Group D have Spinal Anesthesia under Bupivacaine hyperbaric 0.5% 10mg intrathecally. Post-operative pain was evaluated in patients, at 30 min, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hr after surgery by visual analogue score (VAS), while lying still, and with movement. Time of first request for analgesia , and total amount of Pethidine consumed in 24 hr were recorded. Results: The study enrolled a total number of 100 patients, 25 in each group. No side effects were recorded in all groups. The total consumption of opioid (pethidine) after 24 hours was significantly different among the four groups 144.00mg in group A, 134.00mg in group B, 96.00mg in group C and 76.00mg in group D (P ≤ 0.05), SD= 54.619 , 47.258, 37.697, 35.707 for Group A,B,C and D respectively. Higher dose of analgesia was used by Group A&B, whereas lower dose used by Group C&D, so there are significant differences (p≤0.01) between the last two motheds than the former two methods.However the lowest dose was recorded in the spinal anaesthesia. The first request for opioid was statistically different among the four groups .


Article
Detection of BRCA1/2 Gene Mutation Rate Among Women in Hilla Province

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Background: breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women. one-fourth of women will be affected with cancer at some point in their lives. Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in women. Mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for the majority of breast cancer cases. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes that repair and correct errors in DNA, act as sensors of DNA damage and participate in the DNA repair processes. Aim: to illustrate the role of and analyzing the types and frequencies of the most common BRCA1, BRCA2 mutations in different groups of local Iraqi women. Materials and methods: This is a case-control study design. A total of forty women were chosen for the genetic study which was performed to detect BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), exon 2 and 20 of BRCA1 and exon 11 of BRCA2 genes, using a specific primer pairs and PCR conditions in four groups of Babylonian populations, including patients with breast cancer , healthy control people , first degree relatives, and patients with benign breast tumors. Results: The overall frequency of BRCA genes mutation was more often detected among breast cancer patients than other groups in the study(P=0.05). Conclusions: There was a surprising high degree of BRCA gene mutation carriage rate, BRCA gene mutations were found to have a relatively high frequency (up to 75%) among breast cancer patients in the study.


Article
Effect of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width on The Mortality f Patients With Ischemic Stroke

Authors: Ali Jaber Al-Mamoori
Pages: 877-881
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Objective: To investigate a possible correlation between elevated levels of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the mortality of ischemic stroke. Patients and methods: Seventy patients admitted to Merjan Medical City in Babylon; suffering from ischemic stroke were enrolled in this study which lasted from February to June 2014. The study contain 40 males and 30 females, their ages ranged from 36-97 years with a mean age of 69.26±14.870 years. The patients were divided into two groups: those who survive the disease and those who died; in order to assess the impact of RDW values on the severity and mortality of the disease. Blood samples were taken from the patients to estimate RDW. Results: The study results showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups of patients regarding the values of RDW and the age distribution, on the other hand, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of patients regarding sex distribution and history of diabetes, hypertension and previous stroke attack. Conclusion: Red blood cell distribution width is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with ischemic stroke. Higher RDW values correspond to higher mortality.


Article
Study of Pertussis Disease in Al-Hashimiya District / Babylon Governorate or The Years 2009 – 2013

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Objectives of this study to identify occurrence of pertussis disease and vaccination status of affected children through the period from 2009-2013 in Al–Hashimiya district and to study the association between the disease and vaccination status with some related variable. This study was a descriptive, retrospective study, carried out during the period from 9th January 2014 till 10th of March 2014. The study sample was (755) cases of affected children with pertussis disease. The results indicated that the majority of registered cases was reported at the first year (2009) and they are accounted 257(34%), the majority of registered cases was reported at AL- Midhatyia 319(42.3%). Age groups and Gender, they are accounted non significant differences, the higher percentage of registration cases were reported at rural areas 415(55%), the majority of registration cases were reported as illiterate 452(59.9%). The present study showed that 458(60.7%) of patients were vaccinated with DPT vaccine. This study revealed that highly significant differences are registered at P<0.01 concerning the relationships of vaccinated children with DPT vaccine according to some related variables (years , and Al-Hashimiya district areas).


Article
The Prevalence of Anemia and Hookworm Ancylostoma Duodenale Infection in Mishamish Village, Al-Hashimya District, Babylon Province, Iraq

Authors: Zainab H. Kamil --- Karim H. Rashid --- Alaa S. Al-Awad
Pages: 891-900
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This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of anemia and its relation to hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale infection. Anemia is a common health problem all over the world and Iron Deficiency Anemia IDA is the most common and important type of anemia which is causally associated with developmental delay and with poor growth. Hookworm infection is one of the important common cause of IDA. The study included 138 subjects of different ages from Mishamish village of Al-Hashimiya District, Babylon Province, Iraq. Fecal specimens and blood samples were collected from each subject. Fecal samples were microscopically examined by direct and saturated salt floatation technique to investigate the hookworm infection. Red Blood Corpuscles Count (RBC), Hemoglobin concentration (Hb), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Haematocrit (Hct), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Red cell Distribution Width (RDW) were measured by automated counter. Overall anemia percentage was 58.7%, and was 62.7% in males compared to 53.9% in females. The highest percentage of anemia (76%) was found in children of 3-5 years age group and decreased with age progress. It was found that 37% of anemic subjects were suffering from hookworm infection. Overall percentage of hookworm infection was 25.4%, and was 25.3% in males compared to 25.4% in females. The highest percentage of 36% was found in 3-5 years age group, and decreased as age increased. Hookworm infection caused significant decrease (P<0.001) in mean Hb, Hct and MCV, and significant decrease (P<0.01) in MCH, but it caused significant increase (p<0.005) in RDW of hookworm infected subjects. There was positive correlation (r = 0.94), (r = 0.97) between Hb concentration and, Hct & MCV respectively and negative correlation (r = - 0.97) between RDW and Hb in hookworm infected subjects. Hookworm infected subjects were severed from IDA especially among children and men. It should be get more attention to these groups of subjects. Treatment of anemia should be taken with the treatment of hookworm.

Keywords

anemia --- hookworm --- Hb --- MCH --- MCHM --- MCV --- RDW


Article
Isolation and Identification of Mycoplasma Pnumoniae, Mycoplasma Primatum and Mycoplasma Pirum from Women Urogenital Tract

Authors: Ghaeda J. Al-Gizawi
Pages: 901-905
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The Mycoplasma found most frequently in genital tract and play their putative roles urogenital tract of women. In this study, three species of mycoplasma represented by M. pnumoniae, M. primatum and M. pirum were isolated from urogenital tract. In this study, one hundred vaginal swabs were taken from pregnant, non pregnant and control women. Cultures were made in Monophasic Diphasic Culture Setup (MDCS). The purpose of this study was to determine association of M. pnumoniae with genital tract infection, and isolation rate of M. primatum and M. pirum form three population of women in Basrah.


Article
The Role of C-Reactive Protein in Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis

Authors: Sabah Hassan Alatwani
Pages: 906-911
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Across-sectional study was conducted in Amara city hospitals during a period from March 2013 till February 2014. The study sample includes 88 neonates (43 with clinical features of septicemia and 45 neonates who were normal). Blood culture and C-reactive protein tests were done for all neonates. In comparison with the result of blood culture, the C-reactive protein test was found that 42 out of 45 neonates as true negatives, the remaining 3 neonates showing sepsis and were considered as false negative. While 32 out of 43 neonates were considered as true positive. Finally the study showed that the sensitivity of C-reactive protein examination was 74.4%, specificity was 93% , positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value was 79%, so the C-reactive protein had important role in detection of the neonatal sepsis and consider an supportive tool to gold standard (blood culture) test for diagnosis of septicemia.


Article
A Study of Road Traffic Accidents in Babylon Province

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Road traffic accidents (RTA) are the leading cause of death especially for the young and contribute to a high degree of morbidity and mortality for all ages. Iraq has one of the worst records both locally and internationally. It ranks fourth in the world in terms of highest road traffic accident deaths and the first among Middle Eastern and North African countries Data on the incidence of RTA in Babylon is limited . In Babylon RTA directly effects society in terms of death, disability, suffering and cost despite the fact that public education, appropriate laws and enforcement, and research .programs have been tried to prevent RTA This study was conducted to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of road traffic accident victims and to find the proportion of each type of injury among them.It also aims to find out the association between type of injury and the study variables A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted in Hillah Teaching General Hospital, from May to of September 2013 (summer) and during November 2013 . This study found that the majority(83%)of victims were male,(76%) came from urban areas and (73%) of the victims were non-governmental employees. 69% of victims were exposed to RTA during the day time and (83%) of these occurred on the main roads.(38%) of the victims presented with multiple injuries with speed account ting for (77%) of the RTAs. About half of the drivers had no driving permits and over half (59%) of the victims had a history of previous exposure to RTA. There was a significant association between the type of injury with the prevailing weather condition and also with the cause of accident, also there was a significant association between type of injury and the type of vehicle and cause of the accident


Article
Assessment of Fatigue in Brain Cancer Patients Treated with Chemotherapy

Authors: Shatha Saadi Mohammed
Pages: 923-929
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A descriptive study aimed to evaluate the extent of fatigue in brain cancer patients treated with chemotherapy treatment and factors associated with fatigue. To fulfill these study 100 patients were gathered from the outpatient clinic for chemotherapy administration from Ist of Nov 2013 to the end Feb2014 in Radiation and Nuclear Medicine hospital Fatigue Symptoms Inventory (FSI) scale was used for assessment of fatigue contains four subscales (severity, interference with daily activity, frequency and diurnal). The result of this study declared that the highest total mean score of fatigue subscale was (4.54 ±2.50) for frequency of fatigue in last week, followed by a high mean score of fatigue (4.42 ±2.86) for the subscale of fatigue interference with activity for the past week, while the lowest mean score was for the daily pattern of fatigue (2.93 ±1.33).Concerning the fatigue severity, the highest percentage (36%) of patients had moderate fatigue. In conclusion, fatigue is a significant problem for patients with brain cancer who had received chemotherapy although its severity is relatively different according to various variables. The study recommended for further research with large number of patients to investigate incidence, pattern and severity of symptoms and also examine the functional status impairment in those patients under chemotherapy treatment.


Article
Evaluation T of Closed Reamed Antegrade Intramedullary Locking Nailin Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fractures

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Abstract

Background: Fractures of the shaft of femur are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lower extremity injuries. Most fractures are sustained in young adults during high velocity injuries. The technique of intramedullary locked nail(IMLN) of bone wasdeveloped to overcome the rotational and longitudinal malalignments of long bone fractures. Aim of study:To evaluate the results of femoral shaft fractures treated by closed reamed antegrade interlocking nail. Patients and Method: prospective study conducted at Department of Orthopedic surgery in Al-Kadhemiyah Teaching Hospital from October 2008 to October 2010 to evaluate 20 patients with acute femoral shaft fractures, all treated with reamed antegrade IMLN inserted with closed techniques. All patients treated for established non-unions and infections or with pathological fractures were excluded from the study. Results:out of 20 patients 16(80%) were male and 4(20%)were female. The age range was from 18 to 52 years (average age of 35 years).15 patients with closed fractures (75 %) and 5 patients with open fractures (25%). The union rate was 90% with 10% of fractures going into delayed union treated with dynamizationDuration of union range from 12 to 24 weeks. At the final clinical follow-up, 2cases (10%) had minor thigh pain, 1case (5%) had limb length discrepancy of less than 2cm and 1case(5%) had decreased range of motion at the knee joint, We had 2 cases(10%) of infection. There were 1(5%) case of pudendal nerve neuropraxia . Conclusion:closed Intramedullary Interlocking nailing is a safe and effective treatment modality for acute fractures of the femoral shaft. Patient rehabilitation is early, hospitalization is short, and fracture healing response is good.


Article
Nutritional and Neurological Assessment in Adult Patients with Celiac Disease

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Abstract

Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory, autoimmune disorder characterize by malabsorption of nutrient after ingestion of gluten, it is prevalence nearly 1% in many country, clinical manifestation either gastro intestinal manifestation such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, weight loss, constipation, or non-gastro intestinal manifestation such as anemia, neuropathy and unexplained infertility. The aim of this study is to assess the nutritional status and determine the diet satisfaction & burden of gluten-free diet therapy in celiac patients also to assess the autonomic and peripheral neuropathy in those patients. This was Cross-sectional study conducted in gastroenterology and HepatologyCenter atMarjan Medical City in Babylon province,Hilla city, from 15th February 2014 to 31 of May 2014. All patients included were proved celiac and on gluten-free diet. Data obtained included questionnaires, measurement which includes body mass index, nerve conductive study, blood pressure in response to standing position and hand grip and heart rate in deep breathing with laboratory investigation includes complete blood count, serum albumin, serological test of celiac disease. The study included 70 patient, were 45 are female and 25 are male whose mean age was (30.67± 9.72) years old. of those 34.3% were underweight and 65.7% were not underweight (normal 51.4%, overweight 11.4%, obese 2.9%) , 18.6% of all included patient had family history of celiac disease, while the percentage of patients whose suffer from diarrhea, abdominal pain and problem in the feet (pain, numbness, tingling) were 60%, 64.3%, 37.1% respectively and 57.1% had anemia, 29.1% of married female had unfavorable outcome of pregnancy and 17.3% of married female and male had unexplained infertility. Regarding the neuropathy 34.3% had autonomic neuropathy and only 2.9% had peripheral neuropathy. According to diet satisfaction and burden of gluten free diet there was statistical significant association between BMI and history to make menus, not being able to eat same foods as other family members, feeling satisfied after meals and feeling that the health condition is good. In the finding of present study there are high percentage of underweight in contrast to overweight and obesity in patients with celiac disease with high prevalence of anemia mainly iron deficiency anemia and also shows high prevalence of autonomic neuropathy compare to peripheral neuropathy, the celiac disease may be the one cause of unexplained infertility and unfavorable outcome of pregnancy. Regarding the diet satisfaction and burden of gluten free diet, most of the patients with underweight had no history to make menu and feeling not satisfied after meal and health condition is not good and most of celiac patient had burden of cooking gluten free diet.


Article
Effect of Sofrodax, Acetic Acid and Ear Wax on Biofilm Formation on Bacterial Isolates from Otitis Media

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In this study, one hundred otitis media (OM) swabs were collected from (100) patients who were referred to Hilla Teaching Hospital (ENT unit) and privacy clinic during a period (from November 2013 through March 2014) suffering from OM. The collected samples were investigated for bacterial isolation. Bacterial culture was positive in (96%) patient's verses (4%) patients revealed negative bacterial culture. The most common types of bacterial isolated were S. epidermidis (23.6%), followed by S. aureus (17%), Proteus spp. (14.1%), Ps. aeroginosa (9.4%), Streptococcus spp., K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. (7.6%), Acinetobacterbummanii (5.6%), Serratiamarecence (5.6%) and E. coli (0.9%).Biofilm formation was investigated in all bacterial species, and the results showed that the most isolates that form biofilm in gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in high rate (100%).The effect of ear wax, vinegar and acetic acid on biofilm formation were studied the results showed that these materials have some effect on biofilm formation.


Article
Carcinoma of The Pancreas A Retrospective Study of Pancreatic Cancer of 320 Case from 1976 to 2011

Authors: Akeil Hussein Eissa
Pages: 971-983
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The objective of this study is to review the cancer of pancreas of 320 cases from 1976-2011, regarding age, gender, smoking, drinking alcohol, jaundice with recent diabete smellitus. Five hundreds seventy two patients were diagnosed to have pancreatic cancer based on clinical, radiological and histopathological criteria during the period 1976-2011 in Al-Mustinsirrhia Private Hospital and Baghdad Teaching Hospital. Only 320 patients have completed their information. Regarding age: peak below age of 50year, 63, 19.7% 50-59 years (106) 33% 60-69 years (101) 31% 70+ years (50) 15.6% Range: 16-90 years Mean: 57.4 years Gender: males (224) 70%; females (96) 30%; M/F = 2.3-1 Being smoker: negative (229) 71.6%; positive (91) 28.4% Drinking alcohol: negative (305) 95.3%; positive (15) 4.7% Diabetes mellitus: negative (232) 72.5%; positive (88) 27.5% Jaundice: (188) 58.8% Carcinoma of pancreas is not uncommon disease in our country, it rise sharply in the last twenty years ,it is an aggressive and lethal disease. It affects all age groups mostly middle and old age groups , also it affect both male and female but it more common in male .Smoking and diabetes are risk factors . Early diagnosis, accurate preoperative staging and better adjuvant treatment remain a challenge.


Article
The Prevalence of Micro albuminuria in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Noor A. Hussein
Pages: 984-993
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This study is performed to assessment of the long term glycaemic hemoglobin (HbA1c) to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria and to find the risk factors for developing microalbuminuria and consequence nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in our study is high (70%) and the risk factors that accompanied microalbuminuria are high blood pressure, elevated fasting blood glucose and poor glycemic hemoglobin.


Article
Pre- and Post Exercise Changes of Salivary Cortisol as a Response to Heavily Training among Students of Physical Education College in Karbala University

Authors: Ali Mihsen Hussein Al-Yassiri
Pages: 994-999
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Background: Cortisol, the principal glucocorticoid in humans, plays a major role in metabolism and immune function. A cute exercise induces a change in plasma cortisol concentrations, which is dependent on the type of exercise. Several studies have investigated the effect of both acute and chronic resistance exercise on adrenocortical function. Objective: This study was designed to determine the level of salivary cortisol as a stress related hormone during pre- and post- exercise in college student- athletes. Materials and Methods: 10 males subjects (college student- athletes) were measured for height, weight, the general features of the participants are: Mean ±SD Age (year) 22 ± 2.79 Weight (Kg) 70.5±8.46, Height (Cm) 175.34±7.12, Three milliliters of un-stimulated total saliva was collected via passive drooling, at the beginning of each testing session (without stimulation, by spitting directly into a plastic tube), 5 min before, 5 min after the end of the match. Results: The results showed a significant increase the salivary cortisol level between post and pre- exercise and there was a strong association between increase salivary cortisol concentration and heavier exercise. Conclusions: During the course of a competitive season collegiate soccer players are exposed to a number of physical and psychological stressors from practice, conditioning, and competition. The ability of players to recover following such activities can ultimately affect the ability of the performance for ensuring physical activity.

Keywords

Cortisol --- Saliva --- Football


Article
Detection of Virulence Factors hla and hlb of Staphylococcus aureus using PCR Technique

Authors: Adil Abead Hassuny
Pages: 1000-1006
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Thirty isolates were collected from patients sputum and throat swabs who admitted at Teaching General Hospital in Hilla city during a period of two months lasting from (Febraury to March 2014). The morphological characterization and biochemical reactions showed 18 isolates diagnosed as Staphylococcus aureus, of which obtain only six isolates, two from sputum samples (25%) and four from throat swabs (0.4%) have hlb gene and only four isolates, two from sputum samples(25%) and two from throat swabs (0.2%) have hla gene using PCR techniques.


Article
Effectiveness of Health Education Provided By Community Health Nursing Students to Ibn Al-Bittar Elementary School Students in Babylon City

Authors: Muna Abdulahab khaleel --- Amean A. Yasir
Pages: 1007-1012
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A field study was carried out in Ibn Al- Bittar elementary school in Babylon city. It aimed at assessing the effectiveness of health education provided by community health nursing students to the elementary school students. The total number of the sample was one hundred and two, which represent (27.8%) of the school students. A questionnaire form composed of (8) open ended questions was developed for the purpose of this study. Percentages, frequency distribution were applied as a statistical measures. Some items were rated according to point type rating scale (Yes, No). The results showed that the highest percentages of the students' responses (23.7%) understood the meaning of health and they stated that health education is important. Results also indicated that (86.3%) of responses were positively reflected to the students' families and they encouraged their children to follow up what they have been taught and they need to know more about it. Relative to health education barriers, the most significant one given by the study sample (41%) was noise in the class. Thus the study recommended the following: • Increasing health education for school students by using different mass media. • Emphasis should directed toward providing school students necessary information regarding areas which they like to go in depth more (diseases in general, personal hygiene, dental care, nutrition, safe environment , and principles of first aid sessions). • Carrying similar studies on larger sample.


Article
The Acute and Chronic Effects of Flavonoids on The Absorption and Tissue Distribution of Selenium in Rats

Authors: Ausama Ayoob Jaccob
Pages: 1013-1028
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The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of acute- and chronic use of the flavonoids silibinin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), quercetin and rutin on the absorption and tissues distribution of selenium (Se) after single oral dose of Na-selenite. In the first part, thirty rats were allocated into 5 groups: 1st group treated with olive oil and served as control; the other 4 groups were treated with either silibinin (100mg/kg), EGCG (25mg/kg), quercetin (50mg/kg) or rutin (500mg/kg), administered orally as oily solutions for 30 days. Then, all groups received orally single doses of Na-selenite (0.5mg/kg) 2 hrs after administration of the last doses of the flavonoids and the vehicle. In the second part, similar protocol was followed as in the first part, except for the duration of flavonoids treatment, where only single doses were administered. The animals were sacrificed 3 hrs after Se administration. Blood samples, brains, kidneys and livers were obtained for evaluation of Se content using atomic absorption spectrometry. Chronic use of flavonoids increased serum and tissues Se significantly compared to control. While acute use did not change tissues Se levels, but significantly decreasing serum Se in all flavonoids treated groups, except for EGCG-treated group. In conclusion, chronic use of flavonoids increases serum and tissues levels of Se, while single doses approach reveal a significant decrease in serum levels without affecting tissues distribution; highly significant positive correlation between serum and kidney Se were also reported.


Article
Pulmonary Function Test for Water Pipe smokers and Cigarette smokers in Males in Al- Hilla City during the Year 2014

Authors: Hasan Alwan Baiee --- Rabab Ibrahim Mahmoud
Pages: 1029-1036
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A traditional pattern of smoking in the Middle Eastern countries is water pipe smoking. Publicly considered as a harmless entertainment. Many studies have shown that water pipe smoking associated with development of respiratory symptoms and varying degrees of reduction in the lung function.The aim of this study is to assess pulmonary functions among different groups of young male smokers: water pipe smokers, cigarette smokers, water pipe plus cigarette smokers, and compare it with a control (nonsmokers) group. This is a comparative cross-sectional study which conducted on 200 male subjects, subdivided into three groups of smokers: 50 water pipe smokers, 50 cigarette smokers and 50 water pipe plus cigarette smokers and a fourth group of 50 nonsmokers as a control group, all participants were apparently healthy and matched for sex, age, and body mass index they were selected from five primary health care centers in Hilla city. Data were collected through structured questionnaire for existence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function test was performed by portable electronic spirometer (discovery-2 USA) after gaining the participant consent. There was no significant differences between the mean ages of the study groups (p>0.05): water pipe smokers (23.96±2.66), cigarette smokers (24.762±2.25), water pipe plus cigarette smokers (24.382±2.09) and nonsmokers (24.922±2.25). The present study revealed that there was a significant reduction in the parameters of the pulmonary function test ( forced expiratory volume in one second ) (forced expiratory volume in one second / forced vital capacity % )for the three groups of smokers as compared to their expected ( predictive ) values as compared to the control group ( P < 0.001 ) .Lung function impairments were very sever in water pipe plus cigarette smokers which constituted 52% while in water pipe smokers it constituted 48%.Water pipe smoking lead to significant reduction in the lungs efficiency and increase in respiratory symptoms among young adult male water pipe smokers in Al-Hillacity.Pulmonary function test parameters were significantly reduced in Water pipe plus cigarette smokers urgent water pipe and tobacco smoking cessation campaign is strongly required .


Article
Some Physiological Changes in Infantile Hyperbilirubinimia

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This study was designed to estimate some hematological and biochemical changes in hyperbilirubinic patients .The levels of these substances are very important in letting the health care team to know how the body is responding to the different therapies that being provided and this will help the medical staff for proper management . The study lasted from Desember/2009 to Jaune/2010. The patients are 106 with neonatal jaundice (65 males 41 females), and 84 controls are taken in this study (clinically assessed by specialist) .The patients (1day- <30days ) are classified into 4 subgroups: The first subgroup(A):- The blood group is similar between the mother and baby, The second subgroup(B):- the blood group is different between the mother and baby, The third subgroup(C):- the (RH) differences between the mother and baby and The fourth subgroup (D):- have G6PD deficiency. Those patients were admitted to the Babylon maternity and children teaching hospital .Concerning the hematological parameters, it is found that the hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in subgroup C&D in comparison with controls. The white blood cells (WBCs) count showed no significant changes (p values>0.05) in comparison with controls (except the subgroup D) which showed significant increase in comparison with controls. The red blood cells count RBCs count showed no significant changes (p values>0.05) in all subgroups in comparison with controls. Regarding the biochemical parameters, the serum of total and indirect bilirubin showed significant increase (p <0.05) for all sub groups in comparison with controls. Regarding the serum Zinc and GSH which showed significant decrease of all values in comparison with controls , while the serum Copper showed significant increase for males and females of all age groups in comparison with controls, except the subgroup A which showed no significant changes in comparison with controls.


Article
Antihyperlipidemic Effect of L-Thyroxine Combined with Carvedilol in Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rabbits

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Background:Hyperlipidemia is defined as an elevation of one or more of the plasma lipids, including cholesterol, cholesterol esters, triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids .An elevation of plasma lipids may be caused by primary or secondary factors. Objective:To evaluate the effect of L-thyroxine - Carvedilol combination on hyperlipidemia induced in rabbits. Material and method:Forty healthy, domestic rabbits of both sexes, weighing (800 – 1100 grams) were used in this study. They were divided into five groups each one contains eight rabbits. The first group (G1) was given a standard diet to be considered as a control group while all other groups fed with high cholesterol diet. The second group (G2) was given high cholesterol diet only, third group (G3) treated with atorvastatin , (G4) treated with L-thyroxine and (G5) received L-thyroxine combined with carvedilol. Then lipid profile, heart rate and body weight were measured for all groups to be compared. Results:Because atorvastatin is a known antihyperlipidemic drug, the results of using combination of L-thyroxin with carvedilol were compared to those produced by atorvastatin alone. The results showed insignificant (p˂0.05) difference in all biochemical parameters, heart rate and body weight of the hyperlipidemic group treated with the combination of L- thyroxin and carvedilol (G5) when compared with those treated with atorvastatin alone (G3). Conclusion:The use of the combination of L-thyroxine and carvedilol has antihyperlipidemic effect similar to that of atorvastatin which is well known antihyperlipidemic drug.

Table of content: volume:11 issue:4