Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552 265X /25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:1 issue:210

Article
In the concept of reading
في مفهوم القراءة

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The reading represent a recent trend of trends modern literary criticism, and is working to bring more interpretations in an attempt to produce a new text equivalent to the first text, and thus, reading become constructive and contribute effectively in producing other meanings added to the offer text as a first reading of the world available. This research represents a study to try to extrapolate the concept of reading on multiple levels, starting Linguistic and access to a shift reading approach to knowledge interferes with many trends of other literary criticism, reading process accompanied the text along the production of knowledge in the ethics of the world, thus becoming approach proposed works on the production of new data lend more attention and care on the role of the reader as the third party of the parties to the process of innovation, continuous reading Innovation and renewed and active formulates a new formulation of the text revealed advanced cognitive paths.

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Article
The Structure of Time in Lengthy Antarah Between The Imagination (make believe) and Reality
فاعلية المرأة وحركيتها ( حضورا وغيابا ) في مطولة عنترة

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The study in question focused on the structure of the text as an aesthetically, Technically independent and tagged, Task to be seeking to draw mystical expression of the disguise and needs, That looks odd phenomenon especially in the light of the poet seeks to reduce absences and attendances each time his problematic and characters and his times and places within the time of narration, So we relied on an axis time in the formation of general and various structures _Dialectic of ego and the other, And the mask- as central theme that drives manufactured worlds and that are usually make by imagination 1 which wraps work upheld- personality, event and environment- It is a vital process set forth by innovation, It seeks to create a parallel universe to the real world. It may interest the artist rebuilding truth over fantasy formulations sketched image of reality by suggestive capacity which seeks to blow energies and moving consonants by total assumptions raised by text on the one hand and fantasy both in text and addressee on the other hand. The literary text mix of reality and types of imagination, So it generates interaction between the given and imagination.

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Article
The Night in the Poems of Ibn khafaja
اللّيل في قصائد إبن خفاجة

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The research paper deals with the poems of a famous poet, Ibn-Kafadga, who tackled the themes of life and nature throughout his poetry. He presents nature and its beautiful landscape in a very clear and optimistic way which is far away from ambiguity and complexity. In addition, the poet has used night and its meaning to express his different poetic purposes. In the sense that, the meaning of night in praising or commendatory poems differed from love poetry or flirtation poems . For that reason, we tackle different types of poems to make the image clear for the readers.

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Article
The Influence of meaning Multitude in the orientation of Rhetorical Arts The Book of (Muatrak Al-Aqran) As a Sample
أثر تعدّد المعنى في توجيه الفنون البيانيّة كتاب "معترك الأقران" أنموذجًا

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One of the Arabic language techniques is the possibility of occurring more than one meaning in one structure, which enriches the connotation, and here begins the idea of our research, where the search is in different meanings. Specifically what it was built based on the rhetorical techniques, and its association with the function of these techniques, and then to look for the impact of the multiplicity of meanings in this matter of stating the rhetorical technique from recipient to another. We chose to study the curriculum applied in a specific workbook, and chose the book "Muatartak Al-Akran in Ijaz Al-Quran" for Al-Suewti. This book includes a summary of what disagreed with that of Quranic miracle issues, including the general views of Arabic Rhetoric , and rhetorical techniques in particular. This includes in our study to enable us to achieve the full scientific survey to the demands of this research, and to discusse them, and then to state the opinion of the researcher.

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Article
The opening in novelist text
المفتتح في النصوص الروائية

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The opening novelist text consider as investigation to the first script so it consider as it’s emergence and the influenced element for creative text and if were not as definite a key for it’s all not description ( for starting talk ) as it say by Arresto in his consideration but it consider as nothing happened after that and upon it’s Nicolas at the beginning or the prelude and in spite of the title consideration as the first threshold for the text of novel of the opening or the prelude space for such novelist threshold and from this point we, can find the novelists taking care of it . so the first sentence could be tedious of the novelists more than all of the novel text.

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Article
Meaning concet Between Arabic Islamic , and modern uerbeon corses,, For example,, Abid al-Qahir al- jerjany ,,
مفهوم القصد بين التراث العربي الاسلامي والمناهج الاوربية الحديثة (( عبد القاهر الجرجاني انموذجاً ))

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Abstract

Meaning concept is an important base to creaite process what it presents, and actice role stands too much behind the ancient modern critical battles. So the research demands to continue the meaning of conapt in language , Quhan , with the ancient the literature dictionary . then moved to search how the philosophers, and abid – al qahir al- jerjany under stand the meaning concept , with the ancient critical dictionary and uerbeon theory to finish the subject .

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Article
الكتابة النسوية وجدل الخصوصية عالية ممدوح انموذجاً

Authors: د. لقاء موسى فنجان
Pages: 113-145
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Addressed in this research the debate about women's writing and problematic term women's literature in the Arab world and the time period that appeared to show awareness of the writers Iraqi Arab in general this term with a practical study of the concept of self consciousness of self in literature, novelist Alia Mamd.

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Article
Manifestations of the Place of poetry, s Alsary Alrafaa
تجليات المكان في شعر السَّريِّ الرَّفَّاء

Authors: م.د. حازم حسن سعدون
Pages: 147-172
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A place in literature - especially poetry - an important element of the experiment literary work is literary while losing Mkaneth , it loses its specificity , and therefore originality , and is shaped place in the hair through poetic language , which in turn owns a dual nature , they have after a physical physicist linking words sensory and assets , and its system of relations that are based on abstraction and mental dimension Altejeala . The place was a privacy at Arab poet Alsary Alrafaa take the dimensions of his personal life , which saw events and facts and many ups and downs , as it launched from Mosul that city discredited greatness and beauty , and capped Bmphatn picturesque nature , carrying the banner of his hair , which beats paper and sweetness , and full of passion sincere blended their suffering and pain , and Bavraha and dreams , to face for so proliferated the events contradictory , fash volatility as a translator in his hair that such a picture of life in all its details and their fractions , so it has chosen him to be the substance of this research , which tries to find indications of place in his poetry , through curriculum analytical questioning poetic texts across the various analysis tools in order to stand on the attributes of poetic texts technical and semantic dimensions , relying on the engineering side approach depends mainly his the duality ( open and closed ) , being a dual objective standard of trying to accommodate different kinds of places and patterns . And accordingly has split search Mbgesin : The first topic: ( open spaces ) and the second section : ( indoor). Relative words((Place, poetry , Alsary Alrafaa)

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Article
Stanzas Andalusian and Iraqi and variable impact In the sixth and seventh centuries Islamic
الموشحات الأندلسية و العراقية الاثر والمتغير في القرنين السادس والسابع الهجريين

Authors: د.بان كاظم مكي
Pages: 173-194
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This research is marked by (b stanzas Andalusian and Iraqi effect and variable in the sixth and seventh centuries Islamic ) in the field of literary studies dealing politely Andalusian and Moroccan , with respect aroused in the Middle Ages . Is seeking a researcher of this study was to elucidate the picture of this phenomenon in their literary , and unmasking them ; posing Add new scientific studies in the literature , are worth the search. The research is divided into two categories : the first dealt with Muashah general definition and complex . The second part : eating aroused Iraqi in sixth and seventh centuries AD began with a brief historical brief then touched the researcher to how transition of Muashah from Andalus to the Orient with the stand on the names of the most important Aloahin in that era and the views of the critics them, then the most important purposes of poetry old and developed in Mouwashahat Iraqi special . Find and seal of the most important findings of the researcher , as well as a list of major sources.

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Article
The Ego in the Poetry of Al sharef Alugail
الأنـــــــا في شعر الشريف العقيلي

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It is concluded from the deep study in the collection of Al Sharief Alugaily Volumes that it leads to the emergence of the poets ege in more than one area and also to the glorification of his personed value which the creatives observe to emphasize for the desire of distinction and difference and for making it to delet the latter to aise because of it was felt of superiority and progress on the other like the people of his time by glorifying his ancestry to ahle al bait and the prophet family especially in a sociely whe glonfies and emphasizes this trait more over ,the study has led to the appearance of collechise ego through the poets glorihcation of his folk and the fusion of the poets personal voice with the voice of his folk to glorify them in a sense of distinction and unigueness which reveal the potenical power of the vital ego which is a signal of superiority and desire to reinforce the individual ego by the power of the group and its support fither on the textual level which means the glorification of poerty.

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Article
أسماء الأفعال والأسلوب الإنشائي

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The research in brief: It's intention is to explain the relation of what is called in Arabic grammar: the nouns of past tense verbs and the nouns of present tense verbs – their relation with non - indicative (insha'i) style which was denied by classical grammarians.

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Article
Magical realism in the novel colony water
الواقعية السحرية في رواية مستعمرة المياه

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The research on the study of the manifestations of magical realism in one of novels (Jassim Asi) tagged novel (colony water) which sank in deep marsh Iraqi talked about one of the legends of the People in the south, a legend (Cote Hafeez) that hill lies in the center of the water, which mayors for many years on the men of the village drain Coaaria Bla_khas gentlemen Almkasis . The novel has focused most of its attention on the place as a narrative component effective as we note Thriller obvious that reflected the personalities The legend also played a role distinct tributary to shed light on important cultural magical realist appearance in the narrative sequence, where he succeeded in this investment novelist tributary and thus provide a text mythological theme

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Article
read lingual phenomena expressedina deliberative and construction
قــراءةٌ لسانيــــّةٌ تداوليّةٌ في ظاهــرتَي الإعـــرابِ والبــناءِ

Authors: م.م أنفال جاسم محمد
Pages: 243-280
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Trying to search to find a new reading of the phenomena of express and construction through the formation of the different origins of cognitive explores familiar with these phenomena or updated through the ancient foundations of the merger between the lingual approach and deliberative approach. Find a problem: about the nature of Arabic grammar, which is heading toward education. Research Methodology The goal: Find the approach taken lingual and deliberative way to reach their goals. The goal of detecting new approaches in the treatment of linguistic phenomena, and treatment the phenomena of express and constructive manner devoid of educational or philosophical Reasoning. The research plan: found two axis , the first : theoretical Axis and research in the roots of the ancient and well balanced between the grammatical vision with the Normative and Facilitators. The Second:Applied Axis which contains express of names and structure it, and structure the verbs and expressing and structure letters.

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Article
Last verses of Poems in Abu Firas Al Hamadani Poetry Analytical study
خواتيم القصائد في شعر أبي فراس الحمداني / دراسة تحليلية

Authors: م.م. شيماء جاسم خضير
Pages: 281-312
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The conclusion of poem did not take its share of literary and critical studies enough in comparison with the other parts of poem this is why the attention has been focused on the beginning and opening of the poem which focus on conclusion since it has an important role in ending the emotions that flow into the poet during writing the poem. The research includes the following: The conclusion then and now: conclusion language and idiomatically. - Conclusion of the main purposes poems - Conclusions of eulogy, admonition, solace eulogy, pride, description and asceticism. - Poetic Lexicon: Glossary of captivity, literary, generosity and kindness. - Demand methods: it, appeal, question mark and forbidden - Introduction and delay, section, preference, interception, similar, metaphor and metonymy. - Verbal methods: repetition, Re deficit on the chest (export), citation and embedding. -verbal methods morally: counterpoint (contrast) and well division. - Conclusion: conclusion research found the most important results of its contains.

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Article
The research tackled the importance of the independent and integrate legal
مسؤولية القاضي في وظيفة القضاء دراسة فقهية

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system in erecting justice, pushing unfairness and punishing criminals. - The prophet Mohammad Allah peace and prayers be upon him was the first judge in Islam by Allah command and he made the mosque his place of judging. - Pointing judges was restricted by the prophet at his ruling and Rashidies caliphs after him and this gave respect on the judge's personality and all were obeying his orders. - The judge was under full responsibility giving judgment away from Allah rules and judgment bases and when doing so he will be punished and gave his post away in addition to paying fine. -The judge will not be under any responsibility when unintentionally judging wrongly, in that he is acting for caliph, and the guarantee will be in Muslims (bait al- mal) as the opinion of the majority of Muslims emams and we support this opinion and Allah knows more.

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Article
Islamic Education, Work, and Development
التربية الاسلامية والعمل والتنمية

Authors: د. دلال كاظم عبيد
Pages: 333-352
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In this paper, the Islamic education work and development has been studied, because of the educational is the key role in work and education.The current education betterment not kept pace with the evolution, which negatively affects the development of society because they do not provide the hands of the skilled workforce to help development. And with its old methods does not raise individuals who are aware of the link between education and work and development leading to the creation of not efficienciesindividuals at work due to poor educational reference. Also does not allow the current methods of education on capital investment, which leads to a lack of accumulation of money needed to start the process necessary to bring economic development to the development of society. the most important results are the Koran emphasizes the work being the most important human right. That work is the basis of everything from the ideological and economic, social and educational. Development is the need of the necessities of humanity and of its importance in the development of society and keep abreast of what finds transformations. Key words:Islamic education, Education and work, development and work

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Article
Mind and its reasoning when the owners Ash'ari school verbal
العقل والاستدلال به عند اصحاب المدرسة الاشعرية الكلامية

Authors: م. د. أركان علي حسن
Pages: 353-376
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After praising God , and trust in him felt the researcher to choose a topic very important as it is the subject throughout the controversy between Islamic sects , where the researcher a particular school Ash'ari and throughout the research on the subject is ( (mind and reasoning it when the owners of the school Ash'ari words ) ) and researcher number of issues pertaining to the axis of the search, the fact that the mind has filled the thought of schools verbal , scientists and researchers , past and present , has put the search light on the school Ash'ari because of their importance in Islamic thought , out of a desire to know , what the mind and belongings in the knowledge and perception as well as the history of the school Ash'ari and the rule of doctrine and ideology on other schools of thought in the Islamic and then at the time , as well as he has dealt with the most important views mental that school a divine attributes , and the perpetrator of the big , Acts humanity , and Hassan and ugliness Alaklaan , because these issues of importance between the difference of words which controversy over them, hoping to God and good luck and acceptance of it to him in payment purpose

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Article
Revolution of Imam Hussein (peace be upon him) An analytical study of factors Renaissance The results of thought and behavior
ثورة الامام الحسين(عليه السلام) دراسة تحليلية لعوامل النهضة ونتائجها فكرا وسلوكا

Authors: م.د علي فرعون علوان
Pages: 377-394
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The revolution of Imam Hussein ( peace be upon him ) that occurred early in 61 AH , and started before that date several months , when he refused to forward a pledge to yazid after the death of his father, the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah year 60 AH , privacy characterized by all other revolutions, for many reasons , including the size of the difference between the two armies in tools and number, as well as carrying the burden of the revolution and its consequences by Family upper stones that have suffered from its influences at the field level , making the other politicians , intellectuals and professionals , or historians who wrote about the event after receiving a short time or modernists who have the incident and wrote about in recent decades , have them it away sometimes for logic and at other times on the right and principles , came writings unfortunately incomplete and after scrutiny and examination and review of the sources of history the main and stand on the opinions and ideas put forward , both the army o AL- Imam Hussein ( peace be upon him ) and what have written by historians about the words and deeds have taken place on the ground , or from the other party , which deal with the situation arrogance and clear-cut , has been writing this paper serves as an answer questions previously raised , or could have raised in the future.

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The Great Companion " Um Ommarah " Astudy of her autobiography
الصحابية الجليلة أم عمارة – دراسة في سيرتها الذاتية

Authors: م.م. إيمان احمد جابر
Pages: 395-410
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She is Naseeba bent Kaab bin Omero bin Aouf bin Mabthool bin Omero bin Gjanem from the sons of Mazin bin Najar " Called Um Ommarah her mother " Rabab bint Abdullah " Um Ommarah was married in the era of ignorance with Zaid bin Asim and she was born Abdullah Habeeb and she was married again after deceased her husband Zaid amero bin Attiyah and she was born Temeem and Khawlah, And then she announced her conversion to Islam and exercised behavior of Islam and her heart full of faith, And introduced herself and her family to raise the word of truth and uniformity for God the glory and majesty and to Jihad in the sake of allah. The Chroniclers confirmed that the great companion " Um Ommarah " , she was Seen in several scenes with the Prophet (peace be upon him), that was in the Second Pledge (Bayaa), Ohed Battle, Al-Radhwan pledge < al-Hudaibyia and Khaiber, Omerat Al-Qadhaa, opening mecca and Haneen, And Had a major role in each of these situations that made her to get the gospel (Al-Bashara) to enter in the paradise from Prophet (Peace be upon him) with all her family Because of its journey in the tender and blessed jihad for allah, Um Ommarah slept on his deathbed to come out of the life after sht entered the history of the best doors and her soul to flooded the Creator in AH13.

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Article
موقف العراق من التدخلات الدولية 1956- 1958

Authors: أ.م.د كريم حيدر خضير
Pages: 411-434
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Iraq is the focal point between the eastern and western world because of the history of civilization and geo-strategic location and abundance of its natural resources , which is to make it a focal point in the competition between states seeking to exploit. Since originated the monarchy in Iraq in 1921 and until the revolution of July 17, 1958 increased axes of international intervention , led by the U.S. and British Khchita of Russian influence , which led to declare the Baghdad Pact , which impact on domestic and foreign policy for Iraq as well as the position of Iraq of the tripartite aggression against Egypt in 1956 and the accompanying boiling popular around this aggression . The defeat of the right by British in the war against Egypt have implications and consequences for the future of the British and the fear of the United States of Russian influence in Iraq was quick to issue the Eisenhower Doctrine , a new form of international intervention in the affairs of countries in the Middle East , particularly Iraq as part of military aid and material did not last long soon Madhrt signs of popular unrest and the revolution of July 14, 1958 and the overthrow of the monarchy , which marked a turning point in the strategic policy of Western colonial not only in Iraq but in the Middle East , which led to the escalation of the international intervention and conflict over interests to protect its interests in Iraq and the Arabian Gulf .

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Article
Book repair money to Ibn Abi minimum curriculum and objectives
كتاب إصلاح المال لابن أبي الدنيا المنهج والأهداف

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The book repair money to Ibn Abi minimum (d. 281 AH ) of the most prominent sources of Islamic economic thought , as it gives an honorable history of Islamic Economics . And shows the kind of accuracy and justice that came with them our religion , in other cases , so it represents an important aspect of Islamic economic theory In spite of that this topic may ways by Ibn Abi world and beyond , but the advantage of this book from others appear evident after knowing the scientific status of large reached by the author , and the time that class in it, and the topics discussed under advisement and Tani and moderation .

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Article
The History of Press in the United States 1690 – 1945))
تاريخ الصحافة في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية ( 1690 – 1945 )

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Search includes a brief history of the emergence of the press in the world and the emergence of the first newspaper in China, which move to Europe with development in the paper industry in the word and then move this workmanship and the profession to the United States by Europeans who founded the first colonies there … Since 1690 and the emergence of the first newspapers and magazines and then developed into large institutions and control of important personalities like Jews and their role under the guidance of the press in their favor and the issuance of the most important laws relating to the press . Finally press the United States during the two wars and the most important inventions that have emerged in that time .

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Article
Administrative role for Harthma Ebn Aaine (d. 201 AH) in the Abbasid
الدور الاداري لهرثمة بن اعين (ت،201هـ)في الدولة العباسية

Authors: م.د. هناء كاظم خليفة
Pages: 473-490
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• He worked to establishing Administrative requirements in Abbasid state. • He sought to extract the best of his using his skills and use of expertise. • He developed his works to make his administration successful as possible • His administration activity in buildings is very clear inEgypt Africa, Tripoli, Palestine, and Khorasan. • The Research talked about his sons who followed in the footsteps of their father as they engage track the administration and governance. • Then studied the main reasons that led to his death.

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العلاقات السياسية السورية- التركية (1918- 1946)

Authors: صباح صالح رضا
Pages: 491-510
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Turkey's role in the Syrian crisis
الدور التركي في الأزمة السورية

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Connecting Syria, Turkey historical relations can not be for researchers and scholars within the field of international relations, overcome by virtue of geographical location and overlapping ethnic as characterized relations between the two countries swing because of border problems, and water, and the Kurds, and the Alliance Turkish Israel as well as Turkey's desire to perform a regional role through nato. It included research on the front and three axes and a conclusion eat first axis roots of relations between Turkey and Syria and its evolution in speaking the second axis of the Turkish position of the Syrian crisis and how it abandoned its policy of reset problems with neighboring countries The third axis was about Turkey's role in the Syrian crisis as shaping role Turkish in providing all forms of support to the Syrian opposition.

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Article
In the name of God the Merciful Spatial variation of the phenomenon of poverty in Iraq and its relationship to the characteristics of the population (Environmental, social and economic)
التباين المكاني لظاهرة الفقر في العراق وعلاقتها بخصائص السكان البيئية والاجتماعية والاقتصادية

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This paper deliberates to detect the spatial variation of the phenomenon of poverty, measured in terms of size represented by the rate of monthly per capita spending on basic needs for no more than 105 thousand Danar.This is achieved through arrangement in classes by using a statistical technique taking the nature of the statistical distribution in consideration and then represented them on the map using GIS technique. To touch the spatial relationships of the variable extent of poverty in all of the variables that went forth the hypothesis of the study in the field of this variation, which are variables characteristics of the population of environmental, social and economic (rural population, the urban population, and the number of illiterate population, and family size, the number of owned housing, and unemployment). Each one of them is classified and represented on the maps in the same way that we treat them with variable size poverty. To interpret the spatial variation of the size of the poverty accurately correlation technique was used which showed that the relationship between poverty and the size of each of these variables is a high-way extrusive.

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Article
In the name of God the Merciful Spatial variation of the phenomenon of poverty in Iraq and its relationship to the characteristics of the population (Environmental, social and economic)
التباين المكاني لظاهرة الفقر في العراق وعلاقتها بخصائص السكان البيئية والاجتماعية والاقتصادية

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This paper deliberates to detect the spatial variation of the phenomenon of poverty, measured in terms of size represented by the rate of monthly per capita spending on basic needs for no more than 105 thousand Danar.This is achieved through arrangement in classes by using a statistical technique taking the nature of the statistical distribution in consideration and then represented them on the map using GIS technique. To touch the spatial relationships of the variable extent of poverty in all of the variables that went forth the hypothesis of the study in the field of this variation, which are variables characteristics of the population of environmental, social and economic (rural population, the urban population, and the number of illiterate population, and family size, the number of owned housing, and unemployment). Each one of them is classified and represented on the maps in the same way that we treat them with variable size poverty. To interpret the spatial variation of the size of the poverty accurately correlation technique was used which showed that the relationship between poverty and the size of each of these variables is a high-way extrusive.

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Article
Study the Effects of Environmental Conditions of Baghdad City on Propagation and Growth of Ficus religiosa
دراسة تأثير الظروف البيئية لمدينة بغداد على تكاثر و نمو الفيكس رليجيوزا Ficus religiosa

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Because of the exceptional importance of Ficus religiosa Linn, the current study was conducted to identify the effect of environmental conditions of Baghdad city on the propagation of this species. The study concentrated on the possibility of propagation by seeds and cutting. For seed propagation two factors were studied in laboratory; First: time of collection, and second: seed pretreatments. Vegetative propagation was tested by cuttings through field experiment. Date of collection and cutting diameter were the two factors subjected to study. Results showed the failure of seed germination in spite of radical development in about 40% of seeds after one day only. All these radicals stopped elongation and dead through 2 – 3 days. Pretreatments could not affect this result regardless to type of treatment. For cutting the critical factor was the date of cutting collection. Results showed 100% failure of cutting collected before 60 days from date of planting, while all cuttings collected at the same day of planting succeeded (100%) in developing well root and shoot. New growths were found to be proportional with cutting diameter.

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Article
Geomorphological and Hydrological of desert depressions in Plateau southern Iraq and the possibility of economic investments
جيومورفولوجية وهيدرولوجية المنخفضات الصحراوية (الفيضات) في هضبة العراق الجنوبية وإمكانية استثماراتها الاقتصادية

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Been studying desert depressions in the plateau of southern Iraq, which lies between the city of Busayyah and Salman of Saudi border to the North and the South, has been using Visual and radar space visualization and mapping of geological and topographical as well as field studies for the purpose of achieving the objectives of the study which showed that natural factors, particularly the rocky nature of the College and the cracks and water operations cause in these floods fed by a series of valleys, some with Central discharge end in floods total (1728). The total area of floods (318 km2) and is suitable for agriculture as wheat and barley in some of them there are also many sites well water and surface water that can prepare a water supply strategy. Some floods a cedar leaf and many desert plants and these factors help create nature reserves and natural pastures.

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Article
The Variations in The Regions’ Boundaries of The Coefficient of Variations of Rains in Iraq
التغيرات في حدود اقاليم معامل اختلاف امطار العراق

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Abstract

This research paper is about an important aspect of rains in Iraq which is the coefficient of variations of rains in Iraq and it is considered a statistical scale expressed in percentage and used to specify the yearly fluctuation degree of rains. It is found out that the amount of rains become more fluctuating towards south and east of Iraq and it becomes less towards the northern parts. The general trend of coefficient of variations of rains in Iraq throughout 6 climatic cycles from the rainy season (1944-1945) to (2009-2010) has noticed an obvious raise. In the first climatic cycle, the coefficient variation was (%41); then it rose in the sixth climatic cycle into (%47.2) which was represented in the water years from (1989-1988) to water years (1998-1999). By representing the coefficient of variation results of rains on the map of Iraq throughout the six climatic cycles, five climatic categories appeared in the country, which are: intermediate, high, strong, very strong and extreme. The low and the very low coefficient of variations were not recorded in any climatic cycle. It appeared that extreme coefficient of variation region is always shown as a connected region which occupies the largest climatic region in the country as compared with the other categories. The widest extension of this region appeared in the fifth climatic cycle and covered more than three quarter of the country area. Among the six coefficients of variations categories of rains in Iraq, no important changes occurred in their regions, except the very strong coefficient of variation category, which its area decreased in the sixth climatic cycle after it was covering a large area in the second climatic cycle. In addition, all the studied stations had a noticeable decrease in the amount of rains in the last years.

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Article
Geomorphological river islands of the River Tigris between Samarra and the Balad using technology (GIS)
جيومورفولوجية الجزر النهرية لمجرى نهر دجلة ما بين سامراء وبلد

Authors: د. نبراس عباس ياس
Pages: 619-644
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Abstract

The phenomenon of river islands of phenomena affecting the course of the Tigris River, which is evidence of the arrival of the river to the two stages of maturity Late and premature aging as it is made up with the deposition of materials and the lack of speed of the river and the narrow riverbed and the lack of decline river, the study area is located within the course of the Tigris River in the province of Salahuddin between Samarra north to spend the country to the south, as the total length of the course of the Tigris River in the study area distance (1,564,29) 2 km, for the time confined between (1975-2008). The study area is part of the alluvial plain, which is characterized by a lack of variability topographic as a flat area a few rises, study area is located under the influence of the desert climate (hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters), reaches its peak in the months (July, WAP), as the rate of grades Hrarthma (36.2 and 35.2), respectively, and then take then to decline gradually as the amount in the month of September (32.1) and drop to the lowest in a month (January) because of (10.3). It starts from the beginning of the fall of rain fall in the month of October with an average (8.32) mm, and continues through the winter because of a higher value in the month of January around (34.21) mm, to cut off the end of the spring and the fall of rain during the summer, In (1975) was the biggest area of the island is an island (23) as it amounted to (3,866) 2 km either less Island was an island (26), where the total area (0004) km 2, the largest area of the island is an island (25) as it was (12,265) km2 either less Island was an island (4) where the total area (0010) 2 km. Of the longest islands (3,356), an island (No. 58) in the year (1975) while increasing the length of the islands river in (2008) to (8,116) Island (No. 18), hit rate of the concentration of the islands (1975) about (78, 79) In (2008) concentrated islands by (29) in each mile of stream, the degree of bifurcation of the year amounted to in (1975), namely, (7,8) and the lower the degree of complexity of (2.9) in (2008).

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Article
Iran: geographical location and new geopolitical aspirations in the Gulf region with particular reference to Iraq
إيران : الموقع الجغرافي والتطلعات الجيوبولتيكية الجديدة في منطقة الخليج العربي مع إشارة خاصة للعراق

Authors: م.د بشار محمد عويد
Pages: 645-664
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Abstract

The geographical location is an important component of the physical elements affecting the power of the state, so came the study to look at the nature of the trends of Iran in light of its geopolitical, location and how they took advantage of Iran this important location, especially after the year 2003 after it has the political environment (regional and international) is suitable. The study included several topics, including the importance of the site geographical location Iran, particularly its importance to NATO states and the United States specially. Then the role of Iran in the Middle East in light of regional and international changes, as what happened in recent years has changed the equation of the balance of power in the region in favor of Iran, especially after the collapse of Arabian system anti orientations of Iran in the region and the impasse that was subjected to the armies of the United States in Iraq and Afghanistan it could make way plenty of room in Iran's interference strongly in the affairs of the countries of the Arabian Gulf and Iraq in particular, taken from Iraq as a springboard towards the creation of a vital area in most countries in the region, then the Iranian policy toward Iraq, which has taken the aspects and many forms including : economic policy and aquatic and marine and oil) and then went to study in light of the information and analysis to a set of conclusions was the most important of which is that iran not expected to leave iran under any circumstances for the depth of interest in it, especially since Iraq has become a lung-breathing, including Iran, because of the economic pressures of America on it.

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Article
Regional and international dimensions for province of Baluchistan(Pakistan) Problems And regional and international conflict
الابعاد الإقليمية والدولية لمشكلة اقليم بلوشستان (باكستان ) دراسة في الجغرافية السياسية

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Abstract

Represents the occupation of Afghanistan by the United States beginning of a change in U.S. policy toward the Pakistan the traditional ally, and began to try to separate the Baluchistan province of Pakistan by supporting nationalist movements Baluchi calling for secession With the advent of map of the Middle East, the new note the emergence of new state (Freeor GreatBaluchistan) which it didn't established This study attempt to uncover the secret to the attention of the U.S. for the province of Baluchistan at the moment and show geopolitical and strategic importance of the region occupied by the conflict and the regional and international it from the standpoint of geo-political and geopolitical.

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Article
Spatial variation of the spatial patterns of the types of buildings in the Governorate of Baghdad for the year 2010 and spatial relations ship,with the type of construction material
التباين المكاني للأنماط المكانية لأنواع المباني في محافظة بغداد لسنة 2010 وعلاقاته المكانية بنوع مادة البناء

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Abstract

Represents housing formula first that enables them rights that adapts itself to the environment and is intended to unity architectural sheltering people human and available where residency requirements and protection while taking this unit value philosophical viewed from the point of view and described as focused exist within granted protection as it causes us to putourselves at the origin of the source of confidence in the world and it is called in some studies word shelter in the intervention all the institutions used by humans to protect it, but the concept of unit housing much broader than was termed bunker, because important functional are not limited to protection only, but to provide the requirements of essential life plus itconvey cultural heritage image and paint a picture of the class differentiation. Does not show variables uniformly or tight, but shows a significant difference and variation on the extension spatial these variables and the size of their appearance on the map is the research problem contrast spatial patterns spatial types of buildings in the province of Baghdad for the year 2010 as it creates Map quantity show this variation, the process of interpreting this differencethe spatial variation of patterns spatial types of buildings in the province of Baghdad for the year 2010 based on the premise take the spatial relationship to the type of construction material and the number of households these variables as their theme has been the study area boundary administrative boundaries of the province of Baghdad at the level of districts ten components of the province where the total area of the province a total of (4555) km2 To detect the spatial relationships between the spatial patterns of the types of buildings and the construction material and the number of families. Nnho in two ways: first oriented baptized amount of technology to link spatial patterns of the types of buildings and the construction material and the number of families. It reveals to us about the relationship between these variables and the degree of strength and direction is directly or inversely, and this is a technique correlation coefficients simple and multiple (Simple Correlation coefficients) The oriented second adopted what is known as an analysis of several variables: to reveal the nature of these relationships between variables as represented by regression technique method Least Squares eventually reach conclusions Search

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Article
دراسة بعض الخصائص المهمة لنبات لسان الحمل Plantago lanceolata

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Abstract

The present paper studies the plant Plantago lanceolata in aspects of taxonomy and its uses and its spread in the Arab world because of its great importance in aspects of medical and spread in different places of the world. As its from a widespread plant and very important in economic terms.

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