Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:55 issue:4A

Article
New Approach for an On-Line Turbidimetric Determination of Cadmium (II) in Different River Water Via the Use of A homemade Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar-Continuous Flow Injection Analyser
نمط جديد لقياس التعكرية الأني لتقدير ايون الكادميوم في مختلف مياه الانهر من خلال محلل جديد مصنع محليا للحقن الجرياني المستمر Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar) ).

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Abstract

A newly developed analytical method characterized by its speed and sensitivity for the determination of cadmium (II) in aqueous solution in three randomly chosen samples from river water at different locations via turbidimetric measurement by Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar - CFI analyser. The method is based on the formation of yellowish white precipitate for the complex Cd3[Fe(CN)6]2 by direct reaction of the cadmium (II) with potassium hexacyano ferrate (III) in aqueous medium. Turbidity was measured via the reflection of incident light that collides on the surfaces precipitated particles at 0-180o. Chemical and physical parameters were investigated. Linear dynamic of cadmium (II) is ranged from 0.05-12 mmol.L-1, with correlation coefficient r = 0.9951. The limit of detection 25.29 ng/ sample from the step wise dilution for the minimum concentration in the linear dynamic range of the calibration graph with RSD % lower than 1.5% for 8 mmol.L-1 (n=5) concentration of cadmium (II). The method was applied successfully for the determination of cadmium (II) in three river samples. A comparison was made between the proposed method of analysis with the classical method (HANNA instrument for turbidity measurement) using the standard additions method via the use of ANOVA-treatments. It was noticed that there is a significant difference at α=0.05 between the two methods at level < 0.05 was obtained. On that basis the new method can be accepted as an alternative analytical method.


Article
Removal of Chromium (III) Ions from its Aqueous Solution on Adsorbent Surfaces: Charcoal, Attapulgite and Date Palm Leaflet Powder
إزالة إيونات الكروميوم الثلاثي من محاليل مائية على سطوح مازة : الفحم المنشط التجاري ، أتابلكايت ، مسحوق سعف النخيل

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In the present work, a study is carried out to remove chromium (III) from aqueous solution by: activated charcoal, attapulgite and date palm leaflet powder (pinnae). The effect of various parameters such as contact time, and temperature has been studied. The isotherm equilibrium data were well fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption capacity of chromium (III) that was observed by activated charcoal, attapulgite and date palm leaflet powder (pinnae) increased with the rise of temperature when the concentrations of Cr (III) were 600, 700 and 100mg/L respectively. The greatest adsorption capacity ofactivated charcoal, attapulgite and date palm leaflet powder (pinnae) at 10°C was 7.51, 5.39 and 0.77mg.gˉ¹ respectively and reaching 9.99, 8.82 and 1.43mg.gˉ¹ at 37.5°C. The thermodynamics study showed that the chromium (III) ions adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous with the increase of randomness at the solid-solution interface that involves adsorption and absorption mechanism.


Article
New Developed Data Treatments for the Characteristic Linear Array Ayah 5SX1-T-1D-CFI Analyser Segment Response Profile & Generalization
معالج بيانات جديد ومتطور لمعالجة هيئة الإشارات المسجلة من جهاز Linear Array Ayah 5SX1-T-1D-CFI Analyser

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Abstract

Derivative spectrophotometry is one of the analytical chemistry techniques used in the analysis and determination of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This method is characterized by simplicity, sensitivity and speed. Derivative of Spectra conducted in several ways, including optical, electronic and mathematical. This operation usually be done within spectrophotometer. The paper is based on form of a new program. The program construction is written in Visual Basic language within Microsoft Excel. The program is able to transform the first, second, third and fourth derivatives of data and the return of these derivatives to zero order (normal plot). The program was applied on experimental (trial) and reals values of sulphate determination in the form of barium sulphate by a Linear Array Ayah 5SX1-T-1D-CFI Analyser. The data was collected through an Array M3500A 6.5Digit Digital Multimeter linked between the spectrometer and computer


Article
Mesomorphic Properties of Symmetric Hydrogen – Bonding Dimers Containing Chalcone Moiety
صفات الاطوار الوسطية لدايمرات متماثلة ذات تاصر هيدروجيني و محتوية على مجموعة جالكون

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Abstract

The work involves synthesis of a new homologous series of hydrogen bonding liquid crystal dimers containing chalcone moiety. All the prepared compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques such as FT – IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR as well as elemental analysis. All the synthesized dimers exhibited nematic and smectic A phase. The mesophases behaviour and transitional temperatures were studied by polarized microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, and are discussed the self- assemble of H-bonding donor and acceptor complexes.

Keywords

hydrogen bonding --- complex --- nematic --- chalcone


Article
The Effect of Alkaloids Extract of Amaranthus gracilis (L.) on Some Biological Aspects of House Fly Musca domestica(L.)
تأثير المستخلصات القلوانية لنبات السرمكAmaranthus gracilis (L.) في بعض معايير الأداء الحياتي للذبابة المنزليةMusca domestica (L.)

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Abstract

Present study is carried out to evaluate the effect of alkaloids extract of Amaranthus gracilis on some biological aspects of the house fly Musca domestica to find out the best way for their control. The highest mortality percentage on eggs of the house fly was 83.3% at concentration of 10 mg/ml followed by 44.4% and 31.1% at 7.5 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml respectively. Results also referred that the mortality rates of eggs, larvae, pupae were increased with increasing concentration. The pupal weights were decreased with increasing of concentration.


Article
Detection of Human Leukocyte Antigen and Celiac Disease Auto Antibodies in serum of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
التحري عن مستضدات التوافق النسيجي والاضداد الذاتية لحساسية الحنطة في مصول المرضى المصابين بتصلب الاعصاب المتعدد

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Abstract

To determine the important pathogenic role of celiac disease in triggering several autoimmune disease, thirty patients with Multiple Sclerosis of ages (22-55) years have been investigated and compared with 25 healthy individuals. All the studied groups were carried out to measure anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies IgA IgG by ELISA test, anti-reticulin antibodies IgA and IgG, and anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG by IFAT. There was a significant elevation in the concentration of anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies IgA and IgG compared to control groups (P≤0.05), there was 4(13.33%) positive results for anti-reticulin antibodies IgA and IgG , 3(10%) positive results for anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG . There were 4 positive results (13.33%) for HLA-DQ8 by using HLA-DQ8 Real-Time PCR test. These results indicated that patients with celiac disease play an important role in pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis.


Article
Effect of Mineral and Bio-fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Wheat Triticum aestivum L.
Triticum aestivum L. تأثير الأسمدة المعدنية والحيوية في نمو وحاصل نبات الحنطة

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Abstract

Field experiment was conducted during 2012- 2013 in silt loam soil at experimental station of Crops Department, Abu-Ghraib, State Board of Agricultural Researches in Baghdad, Iraq to study the effect of bio-fertilizers and NP levels on some agronomic traits and yield components of wheat by three bacterial genera (Azotobacter sp., Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp.) isolated from rhizosphere soil and Zea mays roots to study their effects singly or in combination with NP levels on growth and yield of wheat Triticum aestivum L. cultivar IPA 99. The experimental design was a completely randomized block design with three replications for each treatment .The results showed that the combination of bio-fertilizer (A. chroococcum, A. brasilense and P. fluorescens) and 100% NP significantly affected on some agronomic traits and yield components, plant height (99.2 cm), flag leaf area (80.56 cm2), flag leaf chlorophyll content (55.05 SPAD), number of tillers.plant-1(28.4), biomass fresh and dry weight (266.89, 85.89 gm) and all these results affected positively on biological yield (20.967 ton.h-1), spike length (13.2 cm), number of spikes.m-2 (548.30), average weight of 1000 grains (33.02 gm) and grain yield (6.403 ton.h-1). Laboratory experiment results revealed that there was no antagonism between the isolated bacteria (A. chroococcum, A. brasilense and P. fluorescens) therefore they were used as bio-fertilizer.


Article
Reduced Natural Killer Cells Percentage in Patients with Lung Cancer
نقص النسبة المئوية لخلايا القاتلات الطبيعية في مرضى سرطان الرئة

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Increased as well as decreased percentages of NK cells of lung cancer patients in comparison to healthy control subjects have been reported. Percentage of NK cells in the peripheral blood were analyzed in 30 patients with lung cancer and 16 subjects of healthy control by flow cytometer technique using CD56+CD3-marker. Our result indicated that 13.3% of NK cells percentage of lung cancer patients was within normal range (with mean value 6.250 ±0.30204 % ) compared with 25% of healthy control subjects (with mean value 10.500±0.84764) as compared with normal NK cells percentage (5-15%).


Article
Investigation of the Best Available Diagnostic Method of Intestinal Parasites in Stool Samples to Use in Hospital's Routine Exam in Baghdad
التحرّي عن افضل طريقة تشخيصيّة للطفيليات المعوية في عينات الغائط للاستعمال في الفحص الروتيني في المستشفيات في بغداد

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The study was conducted to determine the best diagnostic method which can use for daily routine stool examination in our hospitals and health centers, an attributive evaluation of three conventional diagnostic methods: direct wet mounts, formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation, and zinc sulfate floatation, beside acid-fast staining technique was conducted for randomly-chosen 250 stool samples obtained from people who attended AL-Shaheed AL-Sadr hospital in Al-Sader City in Baghdad during Jan. 2011-Dec. 2012. The results illustrated that 52.4% (131/250) stool samples were contained at least one parasite by all evaluated diagnostic methods. Ova and cysts were detected by all used methods, floatation showed the highest detection rate 60% (90/150), followed by sedimentation 58.7% (88/150), while direct wet mount exam showed the lowest detection rate 39.3% (59/150). On the other hand, direct wet mount exam was exclusively responsible for detection of all trophozoites, whereas AF staining was responsible for all detected oocysts. Thus, the present study suggested multiple diagnostic methods for stool samples by examine all received stool samples by direct wet mount microscopic exam. Of these, any sample give -ve result then must be submit to floatation method and acid-fast staining so as to give more accurate results in suitable time, cost, and efforts.


Article
Allelopathic Effect of Root Exudates of Two Sunflower Cultivars on Companion Weeds
التأثير الاليلوباثي لأفرازات جذور صنفين من زهرة الشمس في الأدغال المرافقة

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The effects of root exudates of two sunflower cultivars (Shumoose and Sin Altheeb) were studied on companion weeds during the growing season of 2012. Results showed the ability of both cultivars to affect weed population and growth with the superiority of cultivar Shumoose in suppression of weed density at 60 and 120 days after sowing compared to Sin Altheeb. Weed biomass was significantly reduced up to 90 and 71% by Shumoose and Sin Altheeb cultivars, respectively. Stair case experiment indicated that root exudates of Shumoose cultivar showed more suppression to weeds than Sin Altheeb giving additional evidence for the superiority of Shumoose cultivar in its allelopathic weed suppression. Chemical analysis by High performance liquid chromatography indicate the presence of nine compounds in root exudates of Sin Altheeb and eight compounds in Shumoose, and all are Phenolic in nature with differential concentrations between these cultivars. Most of the isolated chemicals known for their inhibiting ability for germination and growth of plants, including weeds. Total of the isolated phenolics was doubled in Shumoose than in Sin Altheeb.


Article
The Effect of Marketing for Indian Frozen Meat in the Local Market and Its Reflection on the Microbial Load
تاثير تسويق اللحوم الهندية المجمدة في الاسواق المحلية وانعكاسه على الحمولة الميكروبية

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the Microbial Load of Indian Meat available in local market of Baghdad city to ensure that they are free from bacteria and to indicate the safety of product depending on the Iraqi standards. in addition to the estimation of some elements such as (Iron, Copper, Lead, Cadmium, Chrome) , we gathered 30 trade brands of meat included: (Khairat Karbala1,Khairat Karbala2, Thamarat Karbala1, Thamarat Karbala2, Alwakeel1, Alwakeel2, Anbar, Anwar Karbala, Alfakher, Alraudhatain, Almurad, Zamzam, Rayat, Karbala, Karbala, Alanna1,SAS,Alahmed,MKR,Altamam,Anwar,Almuntathr,Alwesam,Albayader,Ambar,Thamarat Karbala,Alhalal,Alanwar,Alhana,Alfakher,Alana2).the bacteriological test for these samples which included(total bacteria number, total coliform number, salmonella number, Staphylococcus bacteria number) were done. The result of study shows the increasing in the bacteria total number in (Alanwar ) which reached 410×28 cfc/g while less number was 110×28 cfc/g in (Almurad) brand. Also the highest number for Staphylococcus bacteria was 410×13 cfc/g found in (MKR) brand, while four brands (Anbar, Anwar Karbala, Alfakher) content on Salmonella and the others were free from it. As for coliform bacteria its number was between310×1 cfc/g - 310×15 cfc/g . the highest concentration for Iron 5.424µg/g in (Alana) brand and less concentration was 0.200µg/g in (Albayader) brand , the concentration of Cooper element was between 1.451µg/g - 0.001µg/g , while the highest concentration of Lead element 0.639µg/g in (Alwesam) brand . Both brands (Almurad, Albayader) were free from this element. The highest concentration of Cadmium appears in ( Thamarat Karbala 4, Alana1) reached 1.541µg/g while other brands were free from this element . According to Chrome the highest concentration appears in two brand ( Ambar,Alanwar) reached 0.045µg/g while less concentration appears in ( zamzam) brand reached 0.003µg/g ,other brands free from this element


Article
Determination of Some Aromatic Hydrocarbon in Water of Tigris River near Al-Dora refinery
تـحديد تركيز بعض الهايدروكابونات الحلقية في مياه نهر دجلة قرب مصفى الدورة

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This study aims to assess the concentrations of some Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons in water, in order to monitor effectively and provide possible recommendations to improve the water quality in the aquatic ecosystem of Tigris River near Al-Dora refinery. Distribution and concentration of the sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in surface water. Solid-phase extraction was used for water samples, and then analyzed by HPLC. Results showed that the highest and the most dominant (PAH) was ancephthlnene (3-ring PAH), with concentration of (40.33 ng/l), while the lowest concentration was for Indeno (1, 2, 3-cd) pyrene (5-ring PAH), with (0.33 ng/l). The highest and the lowest mean concentrations of PAHs were observed in autumn and summer, respectively. Ratios of specific PAH compound including Phenantharene/Anthracene and Fluoranthene/Pyrene were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of PAHs contamination. These ratios reflect a petrogenic origin of PAHs for water samples in December 2012, February 2013, April 2013 and October 2013, while in June 2013 and August 2013 attributed to pyrolytic origins.


Article
Detection of Toxoplasma Antibodies and TNF-α in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Methotrexate
التحري عن الاجسام المضادة للمقوسات الكونيدية و عامل التنخر الورمي في مرضى التهاب المفاصل الرثياني المعالجين بالميثوتريكسيت

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This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis among 294 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with methotrexate (MTX), 50 RA patients without treatment and 50 samples as healthy control. Blood samples were collected and the presence of T.gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was determined by using Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also estimated in serum of all subjects by using ELISA method too. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis IgM and IgG in RA+MTX was 60(20.408%), and 98(33.33%), in RA patients 4(8%), and 18(36%) while, it was 2(24%), 6(12%) in healthy group. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also estimated in serum of all subjects by using ELISA method too. The mean levels of TNF-α in seropositive anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG of RA+MTX patients were 3.781 pg/ml ± 0.571) and (36.98 pg/ml ± 0.58), in RA patients (25.404 pg/ml ± 1.748) and (40.12 pg/ml ± 1.7) while, they were (5.04 pg/ml ± 0.643) and (10.7 pg/ml ± 1.7) in healthy group. The results showed significant difference (P<0.05) was found between treated and untreated patients.


Article
Study the Effect of Hyperthyroidism on Heart Function by Using BNP as Indicator
دراسة تأثير فرط نشاط الغدة الدرقية في وظيفة القلب بقياس مستوى هرمون الببتيد الدماغي كمؤشر

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The aim was made to specify the effect of hyperthyroidism on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level. Twenty patients with hyperthyroidism, 20 patients with hyperthyroidism treated with (35) mg Carbimazole, 12 patients with hyperthyroidism associated with heart failure and 20 healthy participants were included in this study. Serum Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxin (T4) and Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have been used for hyperthyroidism diagnosis test, also serum BNP level was measured. The results showed that the mean ± SE of serum BNP was significantly (P<0.05) increased in hyperthyroid group (420.76 ± 83.43) pg/mL and hyperthyroid with heart failure group (728.58±149.06) pg/mL when compared with the control group (23.18 ±10.10) pg/mL. While, no significant (P>0.05) differences between hyperthyroid treated with (35) mg carbimazole group (65.00 ± 16.21) pg/mL and control group (23.18 ±10.10) pg/mL. But, there was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum BNP level in hyperthyroid treated with (35) mg carbimazole group when compared with the hyperthyroid group and hyperthyroid with heart failure group. The present study demonstrated that the hyperthyroidism may lead to impaired heart function, and thus the high level of the BNP hormone


Article
Evaluation of CTLA-4 Gene polymorphism SNP 49 G/ A Association with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 in Egyptian Population
تقيم ارتباط التباين الجيني للجين CTLA-4 +49 A/G مع مرض السكري من النوع الاول في المجتمع المصري

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The (CTLA-4) encodes of the T cell receptor involved in the control of T cell proliferation and mediates T cell apoptosis. The contribution of CTLA-4 gene variants to type 1 diabetes has been analyzed in several ethnic groups. In this study, the association of CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism with type 1 diabetes was investigated in Egyptian patients. Sixty type 1 diabetic patients (25 males and 35 females) and 60 healthy individuals (33 males and 27 females) subjects formed the studied populations. CTLA-4 A/G polymorphism at position 49 in exon 1 was identified using allele specific methods. Patient numbers with A/G, A/A and G/G genotypes were 45 (75.0 %), 6 (10.0 %) and 9 (15.0%) while in healthy controls, these were 48 (80.0%), 2 (3.3%) and 10 (16.7%), respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that CTLA-4 +49 A/G polymorphism were not associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in Egyptian population.


Article
An induction of Undecylprodigiosin Production from Streptomyces coelicolor by Elicitation with Microbial Cells Using Solid State Fermentation
تحفيز انتاج الانديسايل بروديجيوسين من بكتريا Streptomyces coelicolor بواسطة الخلايا المايكروبيه باستخدام تخمرات الحاله الصلبه

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Red pigmented undecylprodigiosin produced by Streptomyces coelicolor (A3)2 is a promising drug owing to its characteristics of antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive and anticancer activities. The culture of S. coelicolor in liquid medium produces mainly the blue pigmented actinorhodin and only low quantities of undecylprodigiosin. From an industrial point of view, it is necessary to find a strategy to improve undecylprodigiosin production. The present study provides evidence that cultivation of S. coelicolor on solid substrate resulted in a reversal in this pattern of antibiotic production as the production of undecylprodigiosin was significantly increased and actinorhodin was completely suppressed. Four different solid substrate (wheat bran, soya bean ground, rice husk and ground corn) were tested for their ability to support the maximal production of undecylprodigiosin in solid state fermentation. Wheat bran showed the highest production of undecylprodigiosin, starting from the first day of incubation at a moisture level of (1:1 weight: volume) and reaching its maximum of 16 mg/gds on the fourth day. In addition, we report the exploitation of the interspecies interaction in order to enhance undecylprodigiosin production by introducing live or dead cells of E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, separately, to Streptomyces coelicolor solid substrate fermentation. Our results revealed a significant increase in the production of undecylprodigiosin in the elicited cultures compared with control. The maximum enhancement occurred in the culture elicited with the live cells of B. subtilis with an increase of 2-fold compared with control.


Article
An induction of Undecylprodigiosin Production from Streptomyces coelicolor by Elicitation with Microbial Cells Using Solid State Fermentation
تحفيز انتاج الانديسايل بروديجيوسين من بكتريا Streptomyces coelicolor بواسطة الخلايا المايكروبيه باستخدام تخمرات الحاله الصلبه

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Abstract

Red pigmented undecylprodigiosin produced by Streptomyces coelicolor (A3)2 is a promising drug owing to its characteristics of antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive and anticancer activities. The culture of S. coelicolor in liquid medium produces mainly the blue pigmented actinorhodin and only low quantities of undecylprodigiosin. From an industrial point of view, it is necessary to find a strategy to improve undecylprodigiosin production. The present study provides evidence that cultivation of S. coelicolor on solid substrate resulted in a reversal in this pattern of antibiotic production as the production of undecylprodigiosin was significantly increased and actinorhodin was completely suppressed. Four different solid substrate (wheat bran, soya bean ground, rice husk and ground corn) were tested for their ability to support the maximal production of undecylprodigiosin in solid state fermentation. Wheat bran showed the highest production of undecylprodigiosin, starting from the first day of incubation at a moisture level of (1:1 weight: volume) and reaching its maximum of 16 mg/gds on the fourth day. In addition, we report the exploitation of the interspecies interaction in order to enhance undecylprodigiosin production by introducing live or dead cells of E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, separately, to Streptomyces coelicolor solid substrate fermentation. Our results revealed a significant increase in the production of undecylprodigiosin in the elicited cultures compared with control. The maximum enhancement occurred in the culture elicited with the live cells of B. subtilis with an increase of 2-fold compared with control.


Article
Design Software of the Double Condenser Magnetic Lens System in a Scanning Electron Microscope
تصميم حاسوبي لمنظومة العدسات المغناطيسية المكثفة المزدوجة في المجهر الالكتروني الماسح

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The present work is dealing with an intensive study for the optical performance of the double magnetic condenser lens system in order to obtain an optimum design for the condenser lenses in the illumination system for scaning electron microscope SEM. Four models of double magnetic lenses have been designed of equal geometrical dimensions and of different geometrical shape of the pole. It is found that the geometrical shapes of the pole has a great effect on the focal properties such as (focal length, demagnification of source size and the electron beam diameter calculation), which depended on the current density passing through the double magnetic condenser lens system. In order to get more demagnification in spot size, we must use the strong mode. Finally, a calibration curve of the scanning electron microscope SEM has been drawn and it can get all the information about the electron beam.


Article
Mineralogical and Geochemical Study of Recent Clays in Tikrit Area/ Central Iraq
دراسة معدنية وجيوكيميائية للاطيان الحديثة في مدينة تكريت

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The non-clay and clay minerals have been recognized also major oxides and some of the heavy metals in four selected locations in Tikrit city are determined. The most identified non-clay minerals are; quartz, calcite, gypsum and feldspar,while the clay minerals in abundance are: Illite, chlorite,montmorillonite, kaolinite and palygoarskite. The major oxides are; SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, FeO, Na2O, K2O, SO3 and L.O.I. The presence of these oxides due to source rocks and the high fraction of clay in sediment.The concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co have determined in (ppm) and it is found within the average in earth crust except Co was more than the average and that may be due to the source rock or associated with organic materials in the sediment. It is found that the sediments are silty clay or clayey silt with fine sand.


Article
Geophysical Study to the Role of Salt in Creating Buzurgan Oilfield Structure, Southeast of Iraq.
دراسة جيوفيزيائية لدور الملح في تكوين حقل بزركان النفطي, جنوب- شرق العراق.

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This paper is an attempt to study the relation between the creation of Buzurgan oilfield structures and the role of salt in forming these structures. The study depends on the available surface geophysical data, namely; seismic reflection, gravity and magnetic data. Seismic reflection profiles show clearly how the salt of Al-Fatha Formation (evaporite) plays a clear role in creating the relatively shallow anticlinal structures of Buzurgan oilfield, in addition to the effect of the lateral stresses resulted from the collision between Arabian and Iranian plates. Gravity and magnetic data interpretations indicate that there are similar probable anticlinal structures may occur in deeper formations due to the effect of Gotnia and Hormuz salt, where these salts are piercing upward by buoyant forces resulting from the density contrast between these formations and the heavier rocks above them. Depth of the basement rocks are found to be ranged between 11.7 to 12.4 Km measured from gravity and magnetic data respectively.

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