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ALNAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES

مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية

ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

AlNhrain Journal for Engineering Sciences is a refereed scientific engineering journal published by the College of Engineering, Nahrain University two times per year. The journal publishes the scientific output of researchers from Iraq and abroad in the fields of architectural, chemical, civil, computer, electrical, information technology, laser and optoelectronics, mechanical and medical engineering as well as in related fields. Papers written in Arabic and English are accepted and they are subjected to proper evaluation and accordingly classified as follows:
• Original research papers and papers on novel design, analysis or construction methods of great value to the engineers which include basic and practical results.
• Short communications or short discussions on papers which have already appeared in the journal provided that whose text should not exceed 800 words.

The material of the paper should not violate any intellectual property right of any person or entity and should not contain any subject matter that contravenes any laws and should meet ethical standards applicable to the research discipline.

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Contact info

Editor-in-Chief
College of Engineering Journal
Al-Nahrain University
P.O. Box 64040 , Al-Jadyriah
Baghdad-Iraq.
e-mail: journal.engineering@nahrain-eng.org
jourengnah@gmail.com
Phone: +964 (0) 7817 202 662

Table of content: 2014 volume:17 issue:2

Article
Sustainable Urban Conservation in the Heritage Areas
الحفاظ العمراني المستدام في المناطق التراثية

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Abstract

The growing interest in conserving the architectural urban heritage and methods of protecting it, made countries, governments ,local groups and departments show interest in this topic more than any time before.Sustainability in its various dimensions and the process of urban conservation are inseparable. Urban heritage is one of the sources of National economy which can not be replaced or renewed and should be sustained for the coming generation. Therefore , this research focuses on the issue of urban heritage, distributed between cities and groups of buildings ( as a part of the urban fabric).Sustainability is integrated with the concept of urban conservation in terms of communication and continuity between the past and the future through the expression of the present actions.Urban conservation can be defined as a process which includes all the strategies and methods to ensure the survival of heritage as long as possible in order to influence the life of the community.The research problem is: Providing knowledge about the methods of sustainable urban conservation in the heritage urban areas,so as to stop the waste in the heritage and to propose a mechanism for dealing with architectural and urban heritage. Research objective:This research seeks to understand the characteristics of urban sustainability in the urban heritage through: developing a framework of the tripartite relationship between (sustainability , practice of urban and urban conservation) which the research suggests it to achieve sustainable urban conservation in our local environment . The research established a set of conclusions and recommendations, which confirm the need to integrate conservation strategies with the requirements of urban sustainability, so as to achieve sustainable urban conservation in the heritage urban areas.


Article
Utilization of Sculpture as System of Continuity in Contemporary Arab Architecture
توظيف النحت كنظام تواصلي في العمارة العربية المعاصرة

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Abstract

Architecture is considered as a language during the last four decades, contemporary studies had presented this trend through different cognitive approaches which includes both the fields of meaning and semiotic as semantic expressions in all events. In Arab countries, it has emerged in reactions concentrating on imitating the global experiences thus an approach towards reconnecting with tradition and culture occurred to meet the demands of our social human culture. Hence, there was a strong need to verify various methods and strategies to reach this goal. The research problem: is the importance of increasing the knowledge concerning "sculpture" which represents one of the basic approaches in Architectural design and discuss the Propositions that dealt with the relation between sculpture and the conceptual appearance of the Architectural Product "appearance and content", while the research particular problem: is to give a total explanation of utilizing the sculptural approach as an adjective to the Architectural product and its role in confirming the characteristics of a building in a way that shapes its form and materials in Architecture in general and in Contemporary Arab Architecture in particular. Thus, the objective of this paper: is to establish an integrated framework consists of four basic terms: (Nature of sculpture, sculpture utilization, sculpture characteristics and sculpture aims). Therefore the research hypotheses was specified to study the possibilities of utilization of sculpture in architecture firstly, then applying one of the main terms (sculpture creation utilization) trend through Contemporary Arab Architecture secondly, concluding the forms of sculpture thirdly. Finally, conclusions have declared that the Architects tend to use Sculpture in their contemporary designs by finding their own methods and strategies to utilize sculpture in Contemporary Arab Architecture.


Article
Effect of the Surface Hardening on the Corrosion and Erosion Corrosion of Low Carbon Steel
تأثير التصليد السطحي على التآكل الكيميائي والتآكل الكيميائي-الميكانيكي لفولاذ منخفض الكربون

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Abstract

This research studied the effect of surface hardening (Carbureting, Nitrating and Nitro-Carbureting) on corrosion and corrosion–erosion of low carbon steel C10E (0.2%C). The surface treatments were carried out to the specimens of the used steel and showed the effect of saline (Bath salt), erosion corrosion suspension on the amount of loss weighted of the surface sample immersed in that mediums. Micro-hardness( Vicker's) test was carried out for all the samples before and after surface treatment (Carbureting, Nitrating and Nitro-Carbureting )Some samples was immersed in bath saline ( 3.5%NaCl ) and others in (3.5%NaCl +SiO2) as aggressive suspensions at different periods of time (3,6,9,15) days . The results of corrosion –erosion tests which were conducted on the samples(the sample upon receipt and after Carbureting, Nitrating and Nitro- Carbureting ) showed the occurrence of corrosion –erosion on the surface of tested sample by loss amount of the surface mass which measured in )mg/cm².day) . The results of testing hade been compared and analyzing the erosion and corrosion by using loss amount of the surface mass which measured in (mg/cm².day). The best performances have shown samples which have been treated with duplex surface treatment (Nitro-Carbureting) as was predicted.

Keywords


Article
Study the Effect of Adding Pharmaceutical Rennie Particles to Composite Materials with Polyester Matrix to be used in Medical Purposes
دراسة تأثير أضافة دقائق Rennie الصيدلانية على مواد متراكبة ذات اساس بولي استر لاستخدامها في الاغراض الطبية

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Abstract

The study carried out on the Rennie filled unsaturated polyester composites of varying size and different filler concentration reveals changes of the mechanical and physical properties of the composites, these changes in the properties of the Rennie filled polymer composites make them suitable for their use in medical, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications on large extent. This work focuses on the preparation of base polymer matrix (unsaturated polyester) composite materials by (Hand Lay-Up) method, and studying the effect of selected grain size (25, 53, and 90) µm of (Rennie) particles on some properties of the prepared composite. Some mechanical tests were used to evaluate the prepared system (Tensile, Compression, Impact, and Hardness) tests, and a physical test of (Water absorption %), and all tests were accomplished at room temperature. Maximum results of tensile strength, elongation at brake, young’s module, compression strength, flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength, hardness and water absorption were ((55.6 MPa),( 2.36 %), (2550 MPa), (51.5 MPa), (77.33 MPa), (6072.8 MPa),( 4.48 KJ/m2), (87.5 Shore (D)) and (0.321%)) respectively at using (25µm) except for flexural modulus and water absorption at (90 µm).


Article
Influence of Pipe-Wall Parameters on Non-Intrusive Planar Capacitive Spatial Filter for Solids Flow Measurement
تأثير مـتغيرات جدار الأنبوب على مرشح مكاني لاتداخلي سعوي مسطح لأغراض قياس تدفق الجسيمات

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Abstract

The paper proposes installing a planar capacitive spatial filter (PCSF)behind thin walls of a dielectric pipe section to operate as a non-invasive sensor for solids flow measurement. The pipe wall shields the electrodes from erosion caused by solid particle flow.A computational model of the flow sensor incorporating the shielding layer is developed. The model’s equations are solved using finite difference and relaxation methods and it is then used to examine the effects of the thickness and dielectric constant of the shield on the amplitude and shape of the flow signals. The results show that making the ratio of the shield thickness to the substrate thickness near to the reciprocal of their respective dielectric constants gives a satisfactory combination of enhancement of sensor sensitivity and obtaining flow signals of smoother shape.


Article
The Use of Filtered Back projection Algorithm for Reconstruction of tomographic Image
استخدام خوارزمية اعادة المساقط المرشحة في استرجاع الصورة التوموغرافية

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Abstract

Filtered back projection algorithm (FBP) is one of the most common methods that used in tomographic image reconstruction. This algorithm was applied on computerized tomography (CT) scanner. This paper presents the implementation of reconstruction algorithm of CT image 512 x 512 pixels from raw data for the parallel beam projections. This work consist three main parts. In first part, many numbers of projections are obtained from the input test image called Shepp Logan phantom using the Radon transform. The second part, reconstruct the image from parallel beam projection to reduces the reconstruction time. In the third part, filter the projections using Ram Lak filter and Hann window for image enhancement and then back projection summation to form the reconstructed image. The computer program has been designed, written and implemented in our work using MATLAB. This made the result very good for reconstruction two dimensions image from its projection in computerized Tomography scanner. The algorithm was applied on the head phantom image for the purpose of performance improvement.It’s important to many applications like medical and industrial application.


Article
Numerical Investigation of Intermittent weld Fillet in T – Section Structure – A Comparison with Continuous Weld
التـحقيق العــددي لشريحـة اللحـام المتقطعـة لهيكــل على شكـل حرف T – دراسـة مقارنـة مع اللحـام المتصـل

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Abstract

In current work, theoretical investigation of two perpendicular plates (joint by a double weld fillets) form a T – section structure made from plain carbon steel was carried out using AUTODESK INVENTOR PACKAGE. The intermittent weld in its two types (stagger and chain) was taken as fastening element in present work. The numerical results (stresses, deformations, and safety factors) were evaluated and compared with continuous weld results. The stagger weld, namely 80(20) arrangement, was being investigated as best arrangement among other arrangements which developed scientific reduction in shear stresses at yz- and xy-plane against chain weld by 15.78 % and 37.86 % respectively. The percentage reduction of safety factors according to Von – Misses stress of 80(20) chain and stagger intermittent welds are 29.78 % and 16.2 % in comparison with continuous weld respectively. The stagger intermittent weld 80(20) is gives lower stresses developed in welded section with higher safety factor.


Article
An Alternative Approach for Analyzing Stability of Conservative Pipes Conveying Fluid
أسلوب بديل لتحليل الاستقرارية للأنابيب الناقلة للموائع ذات الطاقة المحفوظة

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Abstract

In many classes of problems of elastic systems such as gyroscopic and circulatory systems stability investigations are being conducted .The concept of a "stability boundary" arising in connection with multiple loading parameters is used for stability investigation. The concept is extended to analyze stability of conservative pipes conveying fluid since they are regarded as gyroscopic systems. In this approach the pipe system is discretized to a two –degree of freedom by using Galarkin projection. The solution of the Eigen-value problem leads to the characteristic equation describing the parameters -frequency relationship .By plotting the root locus of these characteristic equation the main stability features such as stability, buckling and flutter instability and destabilization has been investigated graphically .The validity of this approach was tested by comparing it with the other published methods The results gave good agreements. The effect of the fluid parameters such as fluid velocity, fluid pressure and pipe-fluid mass ratio on the pipe stability are also investigated. The results showed that the mass ratio has a major effect on stability behaviors since the sequence of stability can be dramatically changed whereas ,the fluid pressure showed slight effect since the stability sequence is not altered , for wide range of the fluid velocities.


Article
Enhancement Wear Resistance of Carbon Dual Phase Steel by Cryogenic Treatment
تحسين مقاومة البلي للصلب الكربونى ثنائى الطور بالمعاملة الزمهريرية

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Abstract

Dual phase steels containing three different amounts of martensite 21, 37 and 87 Vol. Pct. have been made from carbon steels containing 0.12, 0.33 and 0.43 wt. pct. Carbon respectively. Intercritical annealing treatment at 760 ºC was employed, followed by quenching in Brine. Cryogenic treatment was carried out using liquid nitrogen. Dry sliding wear tests have been conducted on Dual phase (DP) steels before and after cryogenic treatment, using a pin-on disk machine under load 25 N and at a constant sliding velocity 1.74 m/s, for 10 min. at room temperature. Wear properties have been found to improve with the increase in martensite volume fraction in dual phase steels, also, it was observed that, after cryogenic treatment the wear resistance of dual phase steel has improved.


Article
Generalized Correlation for the Physical and Psychometric Properties of Chlorodifluromethane
معادلة جديدة عامة للخواص الفيزيائية والثرموديناميكية لكلورودايفلوروميثين

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Abstract

Chlorodifluoromethane is used as pure or in mixture for refrigeration (medium-high temperatures). It is also used as a blowing agent for extruded polystyrene and polyurethane foams and a component in sterilant gas mixtures. Anew generalized correlation for the physical and psychometric properties of liquid Chlorodifluromethane as a function to temperature are introduced, Equation (1). The new correlation was statistically compared with those previously presented and found to be: …(1) Where A, B, C and D are the property constants, T is the temperature in degrees centigrade.


Article
Extraction of the Volatile Oil of Stachys lavandulifolia and Study the Activity of Antibacterial and Antioxidant
استخلاص الزيت الطيار لنبات البيتوني ( Stachys lavandulifolia ) ودراسة فعالية المضادة للبكتريا والأكسدة

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Abstract

The volatile oil of Stachys lavandulifolia was extracted from the aerial parts of the plant, with colorless and has aromatic odor. The yield were represented in the weight percentage of extracted oil was obtained (0.195% w/w) at best condition. Effects of experimental parameters such as temperature at (40 - 100) C⁰ and the time (1 - 5) hrs on the efficiency of the extraction were studied. The experiments were designed by using Box-Wilson method, a relationship between the above two experimental parameters and weight percentage of extracted oil were obtained. The experimental data were fitted to second order polynomial methods, and the optimum conditions for the extraction process were obtained. The chemical composition of extracted volatile oil was analyzed by GC/MS showed the presence of fifty fife components representing (96.4)% of the volatile oil. The main components were α-Thujene (3.8)%, α-Pinene (7.8)%, β-Pinene (8.2)%, Myrcene (11.4)%, β-Phellandrene (14.9)%, Z-β-Ocimene (5.0)%, germacrene-D (16.1)%. The volatile oil has limited inhibition and show activity against gram positive comparative with gram negative. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were more resistance of volatile oil, which showed good antioxidant activity.


Article
Experimental Study on the Removal Process of Cobalt from Fly Ash using Different Solvents
دراسة عملية لعملية ازالة الكوبلت من الرماد المتطاير بإستخدام مذيبات مختلفة

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Abstract

In fly ash of thermal power plant, there are plenty of valuable metals, such as nickel, cobalt, iron. Recovery of valuable metals from fly ash not only protects the environment but also improves the utilization of resources. This study investigates the leaching process of cobalt from fly ash. A two-level three-factor full factorial design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of the results. The combined effects of type of solvent, concentration of solvent, time of stirring and temperature on the removal of cobalt were assessed using response surface methodology. The results showed that the maximum yield of cobalt 93% was obtained using 6 M hydrochloric acid as leaching solvent, at time of 68 min. and 45° C temperature.

Keywords

Cobalt --- hydrochloric acid --- fly ash --- time --- temperature


Article
Effect of the Addition Coconut Shell Powder on Properties of Polyurethane Matrix Composite
تأثير إضافة مسحوق قشور جوز الهند على خواص مادة متراكبة ذات أرضية بولي يورثان

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This work focuses on the preparation of base polyurethane matrix composite materials by (Hand Lay-Up) method, and studying the effect of selected weight fractions (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) % wt of (coconut shell powder) particles on some properties of the prepared composite. Some mechanical tests were used to evaluate the prepared system (Tensile, Compression, Impact, and Hardness) tests, and a physical test of (Water absorption %), and all tests were accomplished at room temperature. Maximum results of tensile strength, compression strength, impact energy, hardness and water absorption were (31.3 MPa), (53 MPa), ( 0.156 J), (82 Shor (D)), (0.345 %) at using (6% wt, 6% wt , 2% wt , 10% wt ,10% wt ) respectively. Improved properties of the samples reinforcing for the sample as pure, tensile strength increased to double almost and compressive strength by 12% and impact energy up to 4% and hardness by 17% and the percentage of water absorption into doubled.


Article
Modified NRTL Equation in Predicting Liquid – Liquid Equilibria
معادلة NRTL المطورة للتنبؤ بأتزان سائل – سائل

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Abstract

The present work deals with fitting literature data of liquid – liquid equilibria and to obtain a new correlation for non-randomness parameter suitable to use in NRTL activity coefficient model. New simple correlation is proposed for modifying the original three-parameter NRTL activity coefficient model to make it a true two-parameter model. The performance of the proposed expression is compared with the original three-parameter NRTL activity coefficient model, in correlating LLE data of binary systems, as well as in predicting binary systems from infinite-dilution activity coefficients and ternary systems from binary data. To ensure the results had physical significance, the obtained parameters were used to predict the infinite activity coefficients. Properties at infinite dilution are of interest as they usually indicate the maximum non-ideality of the system. The model was successfully applied to correlate liquid - liquid equilibria, and low temperature activity coefficients. A large database of data was collected for the investigation and it covers a wide range of composition, temperature and pressures. It was found that the proposed form of non-randomness parameter gave the best results.


Article
Panoramic Image Generation Algorithm based on Hu’s Moment Invariants
خوارزمية توليد الصورة البانورامية باستخدام ثوابت عزوم Hu’s

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Abstract

The construction of large, high-resolution image is an active area of research in the fields of computer vision, image processing, and computer graphics. A Panorama is the process of combining multiple images with overlapping fields of view to produce a panorama. It is possible to produce a complete view of an area or location that cannot fit in a single shot. In this paper a high performance method for generating panoramic image is introduced. The process to generate a panoramic view can be divided into three main components: image acquisition, image registration, and merging. Geometric moment invariant produces a set of feature vectors that are invariant under shifting, scaling and rotation. The technique is widely used to extract the global features for pattern recognition due to its discrimination power and robustness. In this paper, moment invariant is used to determine the locations of merging the images to produce the panorama. The final step is adjusting the colors of the merged images. The results of experiments conducted on images taken by camera and test images loaded from the internet. The results show that the proposed algorithm is fast and efficient.


Article
QoS and Objective Performance Analysis of Triple Play Services over ADSL2+ (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line 2+)
جودة الخدمة و تحليل أداء خدمات التشغيل الثلاثي على ADSL2 + (خط المشترك الرقمي غير المتماثل 2 +)

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Abstract

This paper will test the ADSL2+ broadband access network that support Triple Play Services (voice, video and data) on last mile. Initial applications presented are entertainment video (video on demand VoD and multicast video IPTV), voice (VoIP), and best-effort data (e.g. web browsing, File sharing /downloading). The QoS guidelines and the objective performance recommendations are presented in this paper in the context of an end-to-end delay, jitter, and delay variation. The networks were tested for the cases when the network availability is 85.5%-93% (services is full at each homes at a time, 7-14.5% traffic in core links) and 25% (services is not full at each homes at a time, 75% traffic in core links) and are agnostic to access technology based on ADSL2+, services architecture, and implementation. As result, the advantages of the ADSL2+ can facilitate the local content management and reduce the content access cost by minimizing traffic loading of the outgoing link.


Article
Computational Study and Analysis of the Optical Fiber Tip Mechanical Damage Threats during Laser Surgical Operations
دراسة حسابية وتحليل للاضرارالميكانيكية التي تهدد طرف الليف البصري أثناء العمليات الجراحية بالليزر

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The damage of optical fiber tips during medical surgical applications of lasers in a liquid environment were noticed in arthroscopic and lithotripsy operations. The phenomenon of the laser produced cavitation bubbles and their collateral mechanical effects on the delivery fiber tip during these operations are studied. It was found that the optical fiber tip is subjected to the threats of the bubbles collapse transient pressures and to the strikes of the produced hammering jets beside the shearing forces due to the high speed bubbles flow. These frequently repeated mechanical forces are calculated for three different sizes of optical fibers. The results showed that to minimize the damage effects of these forces, it is preferable to use the smaller diameter of 200 µm fiber, beside holding the fiber tip at about 5-7 mm away from the treated tissue or calculi targets during the operation to prolong its operating life and in the same time maintaining the efficient ablation.

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