Table of content

Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research.

مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية

ISSN: 18138497
Publisher: Basrah University
Faculty: Veterinary Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

. Basrah Journal of Veterinary research publishes in Arabic or English Original and distinguished paper ,short communications, Case reports and reviews in the field of veterinary sciences. The journal is published two times a year.

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Mobile;07801034925
E.mail;alaasawad1965@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2014 volume:13 issue:2

Article
FIRST DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPP. IN BROILER CHICKENS IN SYRIA

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Abstract

Fift y nine samples of feces were collected from broiler flocks farms located in Hama and Aleppo provinces of Syria, which suffered from diarrhea or respiratory problem or both. For the first time, this study confirmed the infection of the broiler flocks with Cryptosporidium in Syria with a rate of 8.4%. The infection has been demonstrated by detecting the Cryptosporidium oocysts in the fecal by using direct smear method and Formol-Ether concentration method, then stained by Kinyoun acid fast stain. The result of tests based on morphology and size of Cryptosporidium oocysts showed that the parasite is probably C. baileyi which ranged between (6 µm X 4 µm).


Article
ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE PRIMARY BRONCHI AND THE LUNG OF THE BEE-EATER BIRD ( MEROPS ORIENTALIS)

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The present study has been out to examine macroscopic structure of the primary bronchi and lung in Bee-eaters bird ( Merops orientalis) observed exist within the rib cage, the distal part of the trachea are divided into two primary bronchi (left and right) and the macroscopic appearance of the primary bronchi consists of a short tube extend caudally from syrinx to enter the proximal third of the visceral surface of the lungs through the hilus. The basic unit consisting of the primary bronchi are cartilaginous rings which takes - C - shape. The mean total length of left and right primary bronchi are (1.025 ± 0.15 cm) and (1.075 ± 0.14 cm); and the number of cartilaginous rings in left and right primary bronchi are ( 18.5 ± 0.50) and (18.5 ± 1.50). The lungs are small, pyramidal-shaped, unlobed, bright pink color, and surrounded by thin colorless membrane the pleura and the air sacs. The lung contains two surfaces (dorsal and ventral), two borders ( medial and lateral) and two extremities ( proximal and distal ). The mean total length, width and thickness of the right lung are (1.77 ± 0.17 cm), (0.95 ± 0.15 cm) and (0.4 ± 0.10 cm) while the mean total length, width and thickness of the left lung are (1.6 ± 0.15 cm ), ( 0.9 ± 0.14 cm ) and (0.37 ± 0.02 cm ).


Article
THE CYCLE EVENT OF SPERMATOGENESIS AND SPERMIOGENESIS IN THE TESTES OF INDIGENOUS DUCK (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS)

Authors: Kadhem, A.Z.
Pages: 16-22
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Abstract

Morphologically,the testes of adult duck was suspended by mesorchium with the roof of the the abdominal cavity. The testes appear as elongated bean shaped and situated asymmetrically. The mean average of the testis was 1,48 cm in length, 0.47cm in width, and 1.54gm in weight. Histologically, each testis was covered by a connective tissue capsule.The stroma of the testis posses no mediastinum. Leydic cells were commonly found in groups within the connective tissue which filled the spaces between the seminiferous tubules. Germ cells and Sertoli cells constituent the main component of the seminiferous epithelium. There were type A-spermatogonia, type I-spermatogonia, and type B-spermatogonia. Type B-spermatogonia passes through proleptoten, leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, and diakineses. The primary spermatocytes give rise to secondary spermatocytes. These latter cells enter the second meiotic division to form the spermatids which undergo through thirteenth stages to form the sperms.


Article
EFFECTS OF THE CYCLOSPORINE ON SOME HEMATOLOGICAL INDICES IN BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTED-RABBIT

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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cyclosporine on some hematological indices in male rabbits after bone marrow transplantation operation. Thirty male rabbits were used in the present study which divided into three groups equally (ten rabbit each group).Rabbit of first group were give0.5 ml of normal slain from Day zero till Day 10 of experiment then applied to intra bone marrow-Bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) at Day 11 then after, these rabbit give normal slain from Day 12 till Day 20 and considered as shame group. Rabbits of second and third groups were applied to same protocol that used in first group except that the rabbit were give 12.5 (T1) and (T2) 25 mg/kg/BW of cyclosporine respectively instead of normal slain. blood was collected At Day10 and Day 21 from all rabbit of the experiment via heart puncture and Red blood cell (RBCs)count , white blood cell (WBCs) count, Deferential leukocyte count, Packed cell volume(PCV) and hemoglobin concentration(Hb) were measured. Results of the present study showed significant decrease (p<0.05) WBCs count, Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, in groups treated with 12.5 and 25 mg/kg/BW in compare to shame group at Day 10 and Day 21whileRBCs count, PCV and Hb values were significantly decrease (p<0.05) T1 and T2 groups compare with that in shame group at Day 10 only then return to normal at Day 21. Results of the present study suggested that the cyclosporine at both doses act as immune suppresser in bone marrow transplanted- rabbits.


Article
SYNTHESIS, CHARECTERIZATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BIS [4-(4'-HYDROXY-3'-METHOXY BENZYLIDENE AMINO PHENYL)] TELLURIDE

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Abstract

Bis[4-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy benzylidene amino phenyl)] telluride (R2Te) was prepared from the reaction of two moles of 4-(4'-hydroxy-5'-methoxybenzylidene amino phenyl) mercuric chloride and one mole of TeBr 4 in dry dioxane to give diorganyl tellurium dibromide (R 2 TeBr2 ) which reduced by boiling ethanolic hydrazine hydrate to give the corresponding new telluride (R 2 Te). R2 Te inhibits nitrite induced methemoglobin formation in hemolysate. The time required to convert 50% of the available hemoglobin to methemoglobin was increased from 2.5 to 4, 5.5 and 10.5 minutes by the addition of (1.25, 5 and 20µM) of test compound (R 2 Te) respectively, and from 7 to 15, 29 and 54 minutes to convert all of the available hemoglobin to methemoglobin. It seems that R 2 Te failed to inhibit nitrite induced hemoglobin oxidation if added after the autocatalytic stage (5-10 minutes after nitrite addition). R 2 Te, a novel organotellurium compound, can inhibit nitrite induced methemoglobin formation in hemolysate in a dose dependent manner if added before the autocatalytic stage.


Article
DISTRIBUTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPP INFECTION IN WILD PIGEONS IN BAGHDAD CITY -IRAQ

Authors: Azhar A.Faraj
Pages: 48-53
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Abstract

This study revealed the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parasite by using 120 fecal sample from wild pigeons in Baghdad city during the period Jounuary2013 to December 2013. The total infection rate was 40% [48/120] which divided in to 38.18% [21/55]in males and 41.53%[27/65] in females. A high infection rate 76.66% [23/30] was recorded in winter season, while a low infection rate 16.66%[5/30] was found in Autumn. The three Cryptosporidium species oocysts were detected varied from small (Cryptosporidium meleagridis ) , medium ( Cryptosporidium baileyi ) and large size( Cryptosporidium galli ).


Article
BORAGE OIL RICH IN GAMMA LINOLENIC ACID (GLA) REDUCES CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) RISK FACTORS IN HAMSTERS FED IN DIET RICH IN SATURATED FATTY ACIDS (SFAS) AND CHOLESTEROL.

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Abstract

The experiment was applied on /45/ healthy male of golden Syrian hamsters, were divided into three groups as follows: Control group(C), High Fat-High Cholesterol group(HF-HC) and Borage Oil group (BO). All groups had laboratorial diet freely during/15/ days(first period), after that each of HF-HC and BO groups took diet consisting of 80% laboratorial diet+ 20% fats(13.5% sheep fat+6.5% coconut oil) for /4/ weeks(second period). The treatment of BO group changed after second period and hamsters had laboratorial diet and dosed borage oil 2g/kg of the body weight daily for /4/ weeks(third period). The results showed a significant increase(p=0.0000) of the total cholesterol(TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides(TG) concentrations approximately(163%, 224%, 232%) respectively in each of HF-HC and BO groups in the second period in comparison with first period. Our results showed, in third period, a dramatic significant decrease(P=0.0000) in the TC, LDL-C and TG concentrations approximately (56%, 69%, 40%) respectively in BO group in comparison with the same group of second period


Article
DIFFERENT OESTRUS INDUCTION METHODS IN AWASSI EWES DURING THE OUT OF BREEDING SEASON

Authors: Jawad .K .Taher
Pages: 66-74
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Abstract

The aim of this study was induce oestrus during anoestrus season and compare the efficiency of (FGA) sponges in combination with either (PMSG) or cloprostenol in inducing and synchronizing the oestrus cycle in Iraqi ewes .A total of 40 ewes used in this experiment . All ewes treated with a vaginal sponge containing 20 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) inserted into the vagina of the ewes for 14 days. All animals were divided into four groups randomly, each group contained 10 ewes. Group1 was a control group received (FGA+ normal saline), group 2 received (FGA+PGF2α) , group 3 received (FGA+PMSG) , group 4 received (FGA+PMSG+PGF2α). Statistical analysis of estrus response reveals significant differences (P˂0.05) between control group and treated groups (group 1, 70%; group 2, 100%; group3, 100%) respectively. Pregnancy, Lambing rate and litter size were not significant differences between the treatment groups and the control group (p˂0.05). These result indicate that (FGA +PGF2α ; FGA +PMSG ; FGA+PMSG+PGF2α) were better than control group in oestrus response , in spite of significant differences was no found in pregnancy rate , lambing rate and litter size


Article
THE PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID BY THE LOCAL IRAQI STRAIN ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM

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Abstract

Lactic acid is an important carboxylic acid used in different aspects of life. In this study a pure isolate of homofermentative lactic acid bacteria Enterococcus faecium was isolated , and characterized by morphological examinations with physiological and biochemical tests. The present results have revealed the ability of the isolate to produce L- lactic acid in high concentration and low concentration of D- lactic acid in contrast with control. Lactic acid has been extracted and partially purified by Amberlite IRA400 resin column, the obtained extracted parts have been tested by carboxylic acid test in addition to High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis which has showed that the concentration of L-lactic acid was 0.659g/l, while D-lactic acid was 0.174g/l in crude parts with two peaks appeared, one of area 322854 for L while no visible peak appeared for D because of small area 72214 in the figure, whereas the second peak of area 203238 may returned to the interference of D and L-lactic acid . Purified parts have reached to a purity of 72.3% for L-lactic and 38.2% for D-lactic acid also with one sharp peak for L with area of 43639 and no visible peak for D-lactic due to small area of 16713.

Keywords

Enterococcus --- Lactic acid --- Whey.


Article
THE PRODUCTION OF LACTIC ACID BY THE LOCAL IRAQI STRAIN ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM

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Abstract

Lactic acid is an important carboxylic acid used in different aspects of life. In this study a pure isolate of homofermentative lactic acid bacteria Enterococcus faecium was isolated , and characterized by morphological examinations with physiological and biochemical tests. The present results have revealed the ability of the isolate to produce L- lactic acid in high concentration and low concentration of D- lactic acid in contrast with control. Lactic acid has been extracted and partially purified by Amberlite IRA400 resin column, the obtained extracted parts have been tested by carboxylic acid test in addition to High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis which has showed that the concentration of L-lactic acid was 0.659g/l, while D-lactic acid was 0.174g/l in crude parts with two peaks appeared, one of area 322854 for L while no visible peak appeared for D because of small area 72214 in the figure, whereas the second peak of area 203238 may returned to the interference of D and L-lactic acid . Purified parts have reached to a purity of 72.3% for L-lactic and 38.2% for D-lactic acid also with one sharp peak for L with area of 43639 and no visible peak for D-lactic due to small area of 16713.

Keywords

Enterococcus --- Lactic acid --- Whey.


Article
EVALUATION OF DOG ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY IN HYPOKALEMIA

Authors: Israa Abdul Wadood Mohammad Ali
Pages: 87-94
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Abstract

The objective of the work was to study Electrocardiography in normal doges and in dogs treated with intravenous furosemide for 14 days. In present study eight dogs in different sex and two years age used ,serum potassium level determined using commercial kit and ECG evaluate twice daily pre and post furosemide use . ECG tracing compared in the two groups (treated and control) . when serum k + reach (4.4 mEq/ L ±1.044) at day four from starting , and in the last five days of treatment the mean of serum potassium reach (3.2 m Eq /L ± 0.504 ). the electrocardiographic changes shows features of hypokalemia T inversion or flatting of T wave in limb leads (I,II,III),avl, avf and most of the chest leads .

Keywords

Furosemide --- ECG --- Serum.


Article
BIOACCUMULATIN OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN TISSUES OF CHICKEN AND QUAIL AND ESTIMATE HEALTH RISKS FROM THE CONSUMPTION OF BIRDS VISCERA

Authors: Salwa A. Abduljaleel
Pages: 95-111
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Food safety issues and potential health risks in avian tissues are one of the most serious environmental concerns, this paper carries out probabilistic risk analysis methods to quantify trace elements bioaccumulation in chicken liver, gizzard, and lung content to assess the range of exposures for the people who consume the contaminated chicken. The concentrations of Al (aluminum), Mn (manganese), Cu (copper), Co (cobalt), and Zn (zinc) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), using the stock standard solution of heavy metals and blank sample. Results show the contents of elements in bird tissues samples were in the range of (18.68-62.24, 1.6-18.6, 0.12-0.61, 2.12-24.95, 35.10-93.85 µg/g for Al, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn respectively. A risk assessment on human health beings due to consumption of chicken was performed using toxic reference benchmark, namely the reference dose (RfD). The hazard index (HI), sum of the hazard quotients calculated for all pollutants have shown that the risks of fowls consumption were generally low and are within safe limits.

Keywords

trace element --- chicken --- tissues --- health risk.


Article
EFFECT OF GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ON REPRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF BUFFALOES WITH RETENTION OF FETAL MEMBRANES

Authors: Abdulamir -Ali- Alzahid
Pages: 112-117
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This study was performed on 64 Iraqi female buffaloes suffered from Retained fetal membranes in - Karbala province on the period from December 2012 until December 2013 with different ages. These animals were divided randomly into two groups. The treated group(36) buffaloes were given Receptal® (GnRh) 0.021mg/5 ml/ IM on day “14 “ postpartum .while the other “control group” (28) buffaloes were injected with ( 5 ml) distilled water also on day (14) postpartum. The response in the (GnRh) treated group(decrease of the first postpartum estrus and decreased open days) records 52.3±16.4 days for the first postpartum period compared with 74.7±21.8days of control group. While service per conception showed1.9±1.2 to the GnRh treated group compared to 2.4±1.6 of the control group. The days open in the GnRh treated group was 88.6%±12.5 compared to 123.2±25.4 in the control group. The statistical analysis showed that GnRh treated group showed significant shorter postpartum period than control group, in case of first postpartum period and open days. While the number of services per conception showed no significant difference. Key word- GnRh- Buffaloes - RFM- Receptal®


Article
COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF SOME MINERALS IN SOIL, FORAGE AND SHEEP SERUM IN TWO REGIONS IN THI-QAR PROVINCE

Authors: Aamir M. Abed Al-Ghareebawi
Pages: 118-126
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The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the level of the some minerals (sodium, potassium and calcium) in the soil, forage and sheep serum, the specimens were 1 Kg of soil and forage and 10 blood samples taken from each district (Nasriya and Shatra) in Thi-Qar province. The results show that significant (p≤0.05) increase in the sheep serum sodium concentration in Nasriya region (44.21±14.9) Mmol/L compared with the Shatra (34.84±6.61) Mmol/L, while the potassium concentration in sheep serum appeared a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in Nasriya district (6.23±1.00) Mmol/L compared with Shatra(13.16±2.42) Mmol/L but there is no significance (p≤0.05) change found in sheep serum calcium between the two studied areas in Nasryia was (0.40±0.12) Mg/dl but Shatra was (0.24±0.05) Mg/dl. The sodium level in the forages is high but not significant(p≤0.05) in the Nasriya(0.369±0.101)when compared with Shatra(0.321±0.011) g/Kg The potassium in forages is higher in Nasriya (0.411±0.011) g/Kg but not significant (p≤0.05) when compared with Shatra (0.255±0.011) g/Kg Calcium of forage was decreased in Nasryia (0.136±0.012) g/Kg but in Shatra was (0.355±0.044) g/Kg with no significancy (p≤0.05). In soil sodium of Nasryia is high (0.942±0.051) g/Kg but not significant (p≤0.05) and in Shatra was (0.887±0.032) g/Kg, the potassium in soil of Nasryia was (0.418±0.023) g/Kg but not significant (p≤0.05) and in Shatra was(0.424±0.022) g/Kg Calcium is higher in Nasriya soil (0.602±0.043) g/Kg but lower in soil of Shatra was (0.657±0.048) g/Kg with no significancy (p≤0.05).

Keywords

Sodium --- Potassium --- Calcium --- Sheep --- soil --- forage


Article
HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN RAT ORGANS UPON CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO FORMALDEHYDE VAPOR

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The present study was carried out to detect histopathologic lesions in different rat organs after chronic exposure to formaldehyde vapor. Forty adult albino Wistar rats were used in this experiment. Animals were divided into two groups; Control group (n=10; 5 males and 5 females) which were not exposed to formaldehyde at all, while the remainders regarded as the experimental group (exposed to formaldehyde for 21 days, n=30; 15 males and 15 females). The histopathologic examination in our study revealed several changes in exposed group such as; chronic tracheitis, squamous metaplasia of lining epithelium and tracheal glands with occurrence dysplasia in the lining epithelium, interstitial pneumonia, hydropic degeneration in the hepatocytes, epidermal hyperplasia, interstitial glomerulonephritis with atrophy of glomeruli. We concluded that the overexposure of formaldehyde produced lesions in different organs but their toxic effects were seen predominantly in respiratory system.


Article
USING TWO DIFFERENT PROMOTERS OF LYSOSTAPHIN GENE TO CHANGE PROTEIN PRODUCTION

Authors: Jalal Y. Mustafa
Pages: 141-150
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Bacteriocins are bacterial antimicrobial peptides with bactericidal activity against other bacteria. Staphylococcins are bacteriocins produced by staphylococci, which are gram-positive bacteria with medical and veterinary importance. In this study we are using two promoters from two plasmids to lysostaphin gene to change production of lysostaphin protein then killed Staphylococcus aureus and compared with pBluescript plasmid as control, pTrc99a get increased the production of lysostaphin protein while the pBAD30 are decreased the production in compared with pBluescript plasmid as control, at the same time both plasmid reported succeeded to lysostaphin expression and gave the protein with different concentration.


Article
GENOTOXICITY OF DIAZINON IN MALE ALBINO RATS FED ON DIET SUPPLEMENT WITH CHITOSAN

Authors: Jihad A. Ahmed* Mohammed J. Alwan
Pages: 151-163
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In order to determine the genotoxic effects of diazinon and the role of chitosan to neutralize these effects, our study performed in (24) male rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into four groups and treated for (60) days as following, group (A) treated with normal saline and served as control, group (B) treated with [(1/10LD50) 3.8mg/kg. bw] of diazinon, group (C) treated with [(1/10LD50) 3.8mg/kg. bw] of diazinon and fed on diet supplement containing (1gram/1kg ration) chitosan, group (D) fed on diet supplement containing (1gram/1kg ration) chitosan only. The genotoxic effect of diazinon was evaluated by using the micronucleus assay showed increasing of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were (11.6%) in group B, while (7%) in group C . The chromosomal aberration showed increase of presence of chromosomal aberration in group B was (7.5±1.04), while in the group C showed mild elevation in (3.25±0.8). The polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes showed highly incidence of both genes polymorphism in group B was (66.6%) while group C was (50%) . we concluded that diazinon is genotoxic pesticide and chitosan ameliorate it effects.


Article
EFFECT OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION WITH DIFFERING LEVELS OF PROPOLIS ON PRODUCTIVITY AND BLOOD PARAMETERS IN BROILER CHICKS

Authors: Rabia J. Abbas
Pages: 164-179
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The experiment was conducted to study the effect of adding propolis powder to the diet on productive , carcass characteristics and blood parameters in broiler chicks. Total of 180 1- day- old chicks were distributed randomly among four dietary treatments of propolis 0 , 0.5 , 1.5 and 2.5 g/kg diets . Each treatment was contain three replicate (15 birds / pen ). The results revealed that propolis supplementation at levels of 0.5 and 1.5 g/kg significantly (p<0.05) improved final body weight, weight gains and feed conversion ratios during the period from 15 to 28 days and the accumulative period (1-28 days of age) . However, there was no significant difference among treatment in feed intake. There were no significant difference in carcass yield, in relative weights of liver , gizzard, heart , spleen , bursa of fabricius, in relative weight and length of the intestine , cecum , in carcass length at the end of the study. However , chicks fed 2.5 g / Kg propolis had significant (p<0.05) reduction in total serum protein and albumin while increases in cholesterol and glucose levels as compared with the other treatments . These result indicate that supplementary propolis powder at 0.5 and 1.5 % had beneficial effects on productive traits but no significant effect on carcass characteristics or the hematological parameters examined in broiler chicks.


Article
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF THYMOQUINONE IN DIABETIC RATS

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To investigate the antihyperglycemic potent of thymoquinone (TQ), this study has been conducted in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.Diabetes was induced by single injection with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg b.w., i.p.). Rat ≥ 200 mg/dl of blood glucose was used as diabetic.Sixty five adult male rats (aged 56 days and weighted 138±8.8g) were divided into five groups, non-diabetic control (were drenched with drinking water) and four diabetic groups(DM, TQ50,TQ100, and DMI) were drenched with drinking water,TQ (50 mg/kg, bw), TQ (100 mg/kg, bw), and injected with insulin (4 IU/animal), respectively, for 42 days. During the experiment,body weight gains were recorded and blood samples were obtained weekly for assessment of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. TQ treated male rats showed normal activity and body health throughout the experiment. Significant decrease of body weight gain has been recorded in untreated diabetic (DM) and insulin treated diabetic (DMI) groups as compared with that of intact control (C) and TQ treated diabetic (TQ50 and TQ100) groups, started from the fourth day of experiment, while DM group registered the lowest body weight gain among the experimental groups. Results of blood glucose concentrations referred to significant elevation in diabetic groups as compared with intact control. While in comparison between the diabetic groups, blood glucose concentration decreased significantly TQ50, TQ100, and DMI groups compared with DMI group. It has been found that insulin treated (DMI) and TQ treated (TQ50 and TQ100) male rats recorded no significant difference in serum insulin concentration when compared with each other but they were significantly lower than that of intact control male rats (C), but the average means of these four groups were significantly higher than that of non-treated diabetic male rats (DM).These changes were time dependent during the studied experimental period. It can be concluded that drenching of 100 mg/kg of TQ has potent hypoglycemic effect in experimentally-induced diabetic male rats.


Article
SILICON PLASTINATION OF BRACHIAL AND LUMBOSACRAL PLEXUSES AND CAUDA EQUINA IN GOAT; EDUCATIONAL NEUROANATOMICAL STUDIES

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Plastination of nervous tissue has become a very important tool in teaching neuroanatomy. Also, plastinated nervous specimens can be used to study the anatomical relations in clinics right before surgical operations. The aim of using plastinated models is to increase knowledge, understanding as well as imagination of students about the complex anatomical parts of the central nervous system. The plastinated anatomical teaching model of Medulla spinalis, Plexus brachialis, Plexus lumbosacralis and Cauda equina of goat displays a clear morphology that corresponds qualitatively to the actual cadaver specimens. Apparently healthy four goats (ten months age) from native breed were used. Goats were subjected to silicone S10 plastination technique. Prior to plastination, the goat was prepared by injected via I/V by Xylazine Hcl (0.01mg/kg), cutting Arteria carotis communis for complete bleeding, and injected via the latter artery with 10% formalized solution then immersed in the same solution for at least four weeks. Medulla spinalis and attached peripheral nerves, Plexus brachialis, Plexus lumbosacral and Cauda equina were dissected. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the teaching of the neuroanatomy of the goat in our department. Particularly, Medulla spinalis, Nervi cervicales, Plexus brachialis, Nervi thoracici, Plexus lumbosacralis and Cauda equina were selected as learning models in special unit in the department and provide a plastinated model to study the anatomy of this system. Understanding of the astudents but also for veterinary doctors while undertaking surgery on that plexuses and nerves.anatomy of the nervous system is important not only for veterinary

Keywords

Table of content: volume:13 issue:2