Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:55 issue:4B

Article
Spectrophotometric Determination of Vancomycin Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparations through Diazotization and Coupling Reactions
التقدير الطيفي للفانكومايسين هيدروكلورايد في المستحضرات الصيدلانية من خلال تفاعلات الازوتة والازدواج

Authors: Hind Hadi هند هادي عبدالله
Pages: 1684-1693
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Abstract

Two simple, sensitive, accurate and economic methods A and B have been developed for the quantitative estimation of vancomycin hydrochlorid (VHC) and its formulations using another two drug compounds as a coupling reagents.The proposed methods are based on a coupling reaction between VHC and diazotized procain (method A) or diazotized sulphacetamide sodium (method B) in alkaline medium to form intense yellow, water-soluble dyes that are very stable and have a maximum absorption at 447 and 439 nm for methods A and B respectively. Regression analysis of Beer’s law plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges 1-28 and 1-45 μg ml-1 for methods A and B, respectively with a molar absorbtivity of 4.605×104 L mol-1cm-1 and 4.516×104 L mol-1cm-1, Sandell's sensitivity of 0.032 g.cm-2 and 0.033 g.cm-2 for methods A and B respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD%) were less than 2.9 for both methods.The methods were successfully applied to the determination of VHC in bulk drug and its formulations


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity for New Heterocyclic Derivatives Containing Pentagonal, HexagonalRings.
تحضير وتشخيص وتقييم الفعالية المضادة للمايكروبات لمشتقات المركبات غير المتجانسه الحاويه على حلقات خماسيه وسداسيه

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This research, involved a series of some new compounds containing different hetero cyclic new pentagonal and hexagonal rings, through the reaction of 2-mercapto-3-phenyl-4(3H)quinazolinone (1) with chloroacetylchloride in the presence of potassium hydroxide, and dry dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent to obtain the intermediate compound (2). This compound is reacted with different reagents to give four routes, the first route include direct reaction with substituted-2-aminobenzothiazole under certain conditions to give new compounds (3-9). The second route involved condensation compound (2) with 5-substituted-2-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole in the presence of potassium carbonate anhydrous to give new compounds (10-13).while the third route involved condensation compound (2) with para-phenylenediamine in ethanol as a solvent to give the corresponding compound (14) which the conversion new substitutes 1,2,3-triazole compounds (17-18) were prepared through the reaction of compound (14) with different reagent to give compounds (15-16). And subsequent reactions to obtain compounds (17-18) respectively. The fourth route include reaction compound (2) with para-chlorosulphonylaniline to give compound (19) which the conversion new sulphanilamide compounds (20-22) were prepared through the reaction compound (19) with different primary aromatic amine. The structure of newly synthesized compounds were identified by spectral methods their [FTIR,1HNMR, 13C-NMR] and measurements some of its physical properties and some specific reactions. Furthermore were studied the effects of the preparing compounds on some strains of bacteria and fungicidal.


Article
New Mode for the On-Line Determination of Amiloride in Pure and Pharmaceutical Preparation Using CFIA Via the Use of Linear Array from Six LED (Snow White) with One Solar Cell in a Homemade Ayah 6Sx1-T-1D Solar CFI Analyser
نمط جديد للتقدير الاني للاميلورايد في المستحضرات الصيدلانية والنقية باستخدام التحليل بالحقن الجرياني المستمر عن طريق مصفوفة خطية لـ ست ثنائي وصلة باعث للضوء الابيض الثلجي مع خلية شمسية في محلل لقياس التعكرية Ayah 6Sx1-T-1D solar CFI

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A newly flow injection-turbidimetric method characterized by it is speed and sensitivity has been developed for the determination of Amiloride in pure and pharmaceutical preparations. It is based on the formation of yellowish white precipitate for the Amiloride-phosphomolybidic acid ion pair in aqueous medium. Turbidity was measured by Ayah 6Sx1-T-1D solar cell CFI analyser via the attenuation of incident light from the surfaces precipitated particles at 0-180. The Chemical and physical parameters were investigated. Linear dynamic range for the attenuation of incident light versus Amiloride concentration was of 0.005-10 mmol.L-1, with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9986 , while the percentage linearity (r2%) was 99.71%. The L.O.Q was of 23.14 µg/sample, while L.O.D (S/N=3) =5.74 ng/sample from the stepwise dilution for the minimum concentration in the calibration graph. The R.S.D% at 3, 9 mmol.L-1 Amiloride is less than 0.5% (eight replicates) using 50 µL sample volume. Through put was of 40 sample.hr-1. The method was applied successfully for the determination of Amiloride in pharmaceutical preparations. A comparison was made using the standard additions method via the use paired t-test. It showed that there was no significant difference between the quoted value of each individual paired t-test with calculated t-value at 95% confidence interval from developed method. In addition to comparison between two methods and calculate t-value, it was noticed that there was no significant difference between the two methods at =0.05 (95% confidence level).


Article
New Approach for the On-Line Spectrophotometric Determination of Vanadium (V) In Different River Water via the Use of a Homemade Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar-Continuous Flow Injection Analyser
نمط جديد للتقدير الأني الطيفي لأيون الفناديوم في مختلف مياه الانهار من خلال محلل جديد مصنع محليا للحقن الجرياني المستمر Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar) ).

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Abstract

A new simple sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the analysis of vanadium(V) in three randomly chosen samples from river water at different locations by continuous flow injection analysis. The method based on the oxidation of pyrogallol by vanadium(V) in acidic solution to form color species and the same species was determined using homemade Ayah 6SX1-T-2D solar cell analyser . Chemical and physical parameters were investigated using the high intensity of snow white light emitted diode as a source. The linear dynamic range for the instrument response versus vanadium(V) concentration was 1-200 mg.L-1 with correlation coefficient r = 0.9920. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 70 ng/ sample from the step wise dilution for the minimum concentration in the linear dynamic range of the calibration graph with RSD % of lower than 1% at 90 mg.L-1 (n=5) concentration of vanadium(V). The method was applied successfully for the determination of vanadium (V) in three river samples. A comparison was made between: both of the proposed methods and classical method (UV-Vis spectrophotometry at wave length 427 nm) using the standard additions method via the use of paired t-test. It was noticed that there was no significant difference between two methods at 95 % confidence level.


Article
A Novel Semi Automated On-Line Determination of Oxonium Ion Via Precipitation Reaction Using a New Mode of Attenuated Measurement of Incident Light (0 – 180o) by AYAH 5SX4-ST-5D Solar CFI Analyser.
تقدير نبيل اني شبه تلقائي لأيون الأوكسونيوم عن طريق تفاعل الترسيب بأستخدام نمط جديد لقياس توهين الضوء الساقط بزاوية (0-180˚) بوساطة AYAH 5SX4-ST-5D solar CFI analyser

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Strong acids were determined via the precipitation reaction of loaded copper (II) ion on strong cation exchange resin which in turn reacts with potassium hyxacyano ferrate (II). The attenuation effect of formed precipitate Cu2 [Fe (CN) 6] on (0 -180o) incident LED light was measurement via homemade AYAH 5SX4-ST-5D solar CFI analyser. Optimum parameters were 0.005M.L-1 [Fe(CN)6]-4 , flow rate of 2.4 mL.min-1 , sample volume 204 µL , sample purge time of 64 seconds was chosen, and 1.6 V for light intensity. A liner calibration graph of 0.005 -0.2 M.L-1 were obtains for HCl, HNO3, HCLO4 and H2SO4, with a linearity (r2 %) 96 -97 % and L.O.D based on gradual dilution of lowest concentration in calibration graph was 37.19 µg for HCl, 64.273 µg for HNO3, 102.26 µg for HCLO4, and 0.01 µg for H2SO4 .Repeatability (RSD %) less than 1.12 was obtained. the proposed was compared well with standard method. FTU method for available acid in commercial ( HCl, H2SO4).


Article
A New Approach for the Turbidimetric Determination of Hydronium ion by Using Homemade Linear Array Ayah 5SX1-T-1D-CFI Analyser
نمط جديد لقياس التعكرية لتقدير ايون الهيدرونيوم باستخدام محلل الحقن الجرياني المستمر Linear Array Ayah 5SX1-T-1D-CFI Analyser المصنوع محلياً

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A new Turbidimetric method characterized by simplicity, accuracy and speed for determination of Hydronium ion by continuous flow injection analysis. The method was based on the formation of complex Zn3[Fe(CN)6] for Zinc(II) that was eluted by Hydronium ion from cation exchanger column with Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) for the formation of a pale yellow precipitate and this precipitate was determined using homemade Linear Array Ayah-5SX1-T-1D continuous flow injection analyser. The optimum parameters were 2.7 mL.min-1 flow rate using H2O as a carrier stream, 1.7 mL.min-1 reagent stream, 110 L sample volume and open valve for the purge of the sample segment. Data treatment shows that linear range 0.01-0.1 mol.L-1 for each acids (HClO4,HNO3,HCl,H2SO4) while L.O.D 30, 50.01,29.75,51.41 µg/sample for HClO4,H2SO4,HCl,HNO3 respectively from the stepwise dilution for minimum concentration of lowest concentration in linear dynamic range of the calibration graph. The correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9891, 0.9930, 0.9917, 0.9940 while percentage linearity (%r2) was 97.85%, 98.81%, 98.61%, 98.36% for HClO4, H2SO4, HCl, HNO3 respectively. R.S.D. % for the repeatability (n=5) was < 2% for determination of Hydronium ion with concentration 20 and 80 mMol.L-1. The method was applied successfully for the determination of Hydronium ion in commercial samples. Using paired t-test between the newly developed method and classical method; shows that there were no significant differences between either methods. On this basis the new method can be accepted as an alternative analytical method for determination of Hydronium ion in commercial samples.


Article
Biological aspects of pollen development in six species of Brassicaceae
دراسة المظاهر الخلوية لنمو حبوب اللقاح لستة انواع من العائلة الصليبية

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The present investigation revealed cytological variations for six species (Eruca sativa, Sisymbirium irio, Diplotaxis harra, Erucaria hispanica, Schimpera Arabica and Brassica tournefortii ) belong to the Brassicaceaefamily.The flower buds were collected from Al-Habania lake that located in Al-Anbar-Iraq. Using iron-acetocarmine squash technique in anther-smear studies which revealed a chromosomal anomalies such as Lagging/brddge chromosomes, Micronuclei & initiated delay of four daughter cells.The frequency of abnormalities ranged (0.04 - 0.77%) which indicated the unstable heredity source of most wildplants. The pollen grains viability was estimated using acetocarmine stain, viable grains had stained, while sterile grains had not.The biostatic analysis revealed a high significant deference at >0.01 due to the highest numbers of viable pollen grains compared with sterility. Pollen charactersof polar and equatorial view are significantly sufficient for classified characterization of the plant species. An interesting correlationratio of P/E to estimate pollen grain shape, in Brassicaceae polar view was spheroidal three grooves of all species , wide elliptical shape or sub spheroidal in equatorial view, and grains size were medium. The study conclusion that all six species have high productivity of viable pollen grains which confer resistance to environment, therebymeiotic irregularities could be induced unstable genetic resources andsterilit


Article
The Optimum Conditions for Naphthalene Biodegradation by Filamentous Fungi
الظروف المثالية للتفكك الحيوي لمركب النفثالين بواسطة الفطريات الخيطية

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Abstract

Recent studies have proved the important role of fungi in the biodegradation of oil pollutants. The present study aims to find the optimal conditions for the fungi to get the best rate of the biodegradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) (Naphthalene) compounds. Soil samples were taken from 18 different sites polluted with oil wastes and cultured then obtained 312 isolated fungi from 64 replicates Primarily screening were done on fungal isolates on solid media containing naphthalene the results revealed that 25 fungal isolates gave good growth, 47 fungal isolates gave Moderate growth, 66 gave weak growth and 147 fungal isolates gave no growth on Naphthalene solid media. Then secondary screening were done on 25 fungal isolates the results showed that most active isolates were T1,MST2 and RS which were then identified as Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viridi, Fusarium verticelloides, The results showed that the best time for Naphthalene biodegradation was 8 days for all fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viridi, Fusarium verticelloides) the best Naphthalene concentrations decline from 100 ppm to 12.22ppm was for Fusarium verticelloides , the best pH value for naphthalene degradation was 7 for all fungal isolate. The best Naphthalene concentrations decline from 100 ppm to 12.4 ppm was for Fusarium verticelloides, the best temperature for Naphthalene biodegradation was 30 0C for all fungal isolates, the concentrations of Naphthalene decline from 100 ppm to 12.6 ppm for Fusarium verticelloides, The results showed that the best concentration for Naphthalene biodegradation was 100ppm for all fungal isolates, the concentrations of Naphthalene decline from 100 ppm to 12.6 ppm for Fusarium verticelloides.


Article
Investigating the influence of emitted Cadmium from crude oil combustion on glutathione level in workers at Al- Qudis power plant, Baghdad
التحري عن تأثير الكادميوم المنبعث من احتراق الوقود الخام في مستوى الكلوتاثيون للعاملين في محطة كهرباء القدس, بغداد

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Abstract

Al-Qudis power plant was chosen, as one of the power stations of Baghdad, to investigate the effects of Cadmium that emitted from combustion of crude oil in that power plant on the workers' glutathione serum level. Air samples were taken seasonally during August 2011- July 2012 from four sites at Al- Qudis power plant which are oil treatment unit 1(site 1), oil treatment 2 (site2), pre –chimney 1(site 3) and pre-chimney 2 (site 4), to measure levels of heavy metal (cadmium) under study. Blood samples were collected from the workers to estimate the heavy metal Cadmium. Air cadmium levels during summer (August and September) were varied from 6.26 ± 0.6 µg/m3 at site 1 to 6.89 ± 0.67 µg/m3 at site 3, while in spring (end of March, and end of April); these figures were ranged from 4.95 ± 0.39 µg/m3 at site 4 to 6.08 ± 0.5 µg/m3 at site 2. However, autumn (end of October and November) had mean values lied between 4.89 ± 0.6 µg/m3 at site 3 and 5.7 ± 0.57 µg/m3 at site 2. Winter (end of December 2011,January and February 2012)data gave a range of 4.51 ± 0.46 µg/m3 at site 4 and 4.98 ± 0.57 µg/m3 at site 3. The current results exceeded the acceptable levels of Cd for WHO which is around 0.3 µg/m3. The results of current study showedthatthe mean value ofcadmiumin the blood of occupational sampleswas6.418 ± 0.636 µg/l which was significantly higher than those of (P≤ 0.05) environmental (5.247 ± 0.418 µg/l) and (P≤ 0.01) control (1.854±0.41 µg/l) samples.For reduced Glutathione (GSH) concentration, the current study results showed the highest value 5.4 ± 0.52 µmol/l in respect to control sample, while the lowest data 2.2595 ± 0.412 µmol/l and 2.6625 ± 0.475 µmol/l have been found in environmental and occupational samples, respectively.These results indicate that heavy metal (cadmium) influence GSH level of Al-Qudis's workers.

Keywords

Heavy metals --- Power plant --- cadmium --- GSH.


Article
The Role of Antibiotic-Killed Staphylococcus aureus and Its DNA to Cause Arthritis in Rats
دور خلاياStaphylococcus aureus المقتولة بالمضادات الحياتية والدنا المستخلص منها في احداث التهاب المفاصل في الجرذان

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the capability of bacterial DNA compared to bacterial lysate in stimulating arthritis using rat model. One hundred mid-stream urine specimens were collected during November 2012 to January 2013, from patients suffering from urinary tract infections attending hospitals in Baghdad, Iraq. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates to antibiotics was examined. Twenty five isolates were identified as S. aureus and they developed multi drug resistance. S. aureus S1 lyaste and its DNA were intra-articulary injected in rats. The levels of IL-6, anti-ds DNA Ab and leukocytes count were measured. In general, IL-6, anti-ds DNA Ab and leukocytes count were significantly higher in sera of rats injected with cell lysate. Moreover, time period significantly (P< 0.05) affected the immunological aspects and joints damage. In a conclusion, bacterial lysate caused more damage to rat joints than DNA. Furthermore, bacterial lysate evoked immunological parameters more than DNA did.


Article
Isolation and Identification of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Faecalis
عزل وتشخيص بكتريا المكورات المعوية البرازية المقاومه لمضاد الفانكومايسين

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One hundred thirty - five clinical specimens of urine, blood, teeth root canal and burns were obtained from patients in hospitals of Baghdad. The specimens were cultured on Pfizer Selective Enterococcus agar to purify Enterococci isolates. 20 E. faecalis isolates were identified biochemically by growing in 10Cº, 45Cº, 6.5% NaCl, at pH 9.6 and confirmed by VITEK. Determination of Vancomycin-Resistant E. faecalis isolates were done by the minimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs] using agar dilution method. Seventeen E. faecalis isolates were determined as Vancomycin-Resistant and Intermediate Resistant.


Article
Optimum Condition for Asparginase Activity in Crude Extract of Capiscum annum
الظروف المثلى للفعالية الانزيمية للاسبارجينيز في المستخلص الخام لثمرة الفلفل الحا

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In this study asparaginase was extracted from fruit part of Capiscum annum then Asparaginase activity was detected and optimised. Optimum conditions for the activity of crude asparaginase were studied. Results showed maximum activity of asparaginase was achieved 140 u/ml when the enzyme was incubated with 200 mM of asparagines at 35 °C for 30 minutes in the presence of 0.05 M of potassium phosphate buffer solution at pH 8.


Article
Extraction of Staphyloxanthin from Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Sources to Determine its Antibacterial Activity Against other Bacteria
استخلاص صبغة Staphyloxanthin من بكتريا Staphylococcus aureus المعزوله من مصادر سريريه و بيان تأثيرها على ممرضات بكتيرية اخرى

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Fourty three isolates ( 20.7%) characterized as Staphylococcus aureus , were isolated from 207 different clinical sources (blood , nose, , wound , urine , vaginal, ear and eye) in different percentages (30.23, 18.60, 16.28, 13.95, 15.15, 6.96 and 2.33 %), respectively. The staphyloxanthin (STX) production of S. aureus isolate was estimated 72.1% .The optimal conditions for pigment production by S. aureus AE36 , were detected and was noticed that the milk agar medium revealed the highest production of pigment which was estimated to be 165.21unit/cell, at pH 8 for 72 hr at 370C. The Staphyloxanthin pigment was extracted using methanol and was purified partially by organic solvents and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The results revealed three peaks with a highest peak at 450 nm .No antibacterial activity of STX was detected against the bacteria used in this study (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp , Proteus spp. Pseudomonas fluorescens , Pseudomonas putida , Staphylococcus aureus).


Article
Assessment of Genetic Distance Among Some Iraqi Date Palm Cultivares )Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA
تقدير البعد الوراثي لبعض اصناف نخيل التمر العراقية بأستخدام مؤشرات التضاعف العشوائي المتعدد الاشكال لسلسلة الدنا

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The aim of this study to determine the genetic distance and relationship among some Iraqi date palm cultivars by using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Molecular analysis was performed by using 10 random primers. These primers produced 176 fragment lines across 14 cultivars, Of these, 166 or 94.3% were polymorphic. The size of the amplified bands ranged between 200-2250 bp. The genetic polymorphism value of each primer was determined and ranged between 7.5-16.9%. In terms of unique banding patterns, the most characteristic banding pattern was for the Barhee cultivar with primer OP-M06 and for the Khadhrawy Mandily cultivar with primer OP-C02. Genetic distance values ranged from 0.868 to 0.125 among studied date palm cultivars. Analysis of genetic relationship showed there were two main groups (A and B), each main group had two subgroups, The first one divided into two subgroups, A1 and A2. A2 subgroup contains the cultivar 'Maktoom', while A1 divided into two subgroups A1a and A1b that contains (9) cultivars (Helaly, Barhee, Khadhrawy.Baghdad, Eusta-Omran, Barbun, Zahdi, Gamal Al-Deen, Mtawag and Khadrawy.Mandily). The main group B divided into two subgroups, B1 subgroup included 'Khastawy' and 'Sultany' cultivars, while B2 subgroup contains 'Ashrasi' and 'Bream' cultivars. According to above results, RAPD markers can be consedered the useful tool to study the genetic relationship among Iraqi date palm cultivars.


Article
Biofuel Production from Cellulosic Wastes by Local Isolates of Streptomyces sp.
انتاج الوقود الحيوي من تحلل المخلفات السليلوزية بوساطة عزلات محلية من بكتريا Streptomyces sp.

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The current study aims to produce cellulase enzyme from Streptomyces spp. isolates and study the effect of some cultural conditions on cellulase production; biofuel production from cellulotic waste through enzymatic and acids hydrolysis. Out of 74 isolates of Streptomyces sp. were screened for cellulse production in solid and liquid media. Results showed higher capability of isolate Streptomyces sp. B 167 for cellulase production and bioconversion of cellulose, therefore selected for further studies. The results of optimization revealed that the cellulase enzyme productivity by the selected isolate reached 2.1 and 2.28 U/ml after 48 h of incubation time and pH 7 respectively. Cellulase productions in tested isolate improved (2.57 U/ml) by supplementation of cellulose liquid medium with 1 % of yeast extract as nitrogen source. Additives of carbon sources like (manitol, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch) to the process of saccharification not improve the cellulose productivity. The bioconversion of cellulosic waste to reducing sugar was maximum with Banana peels (77.78 %) followed by the rice husk (75.56 %), orange peels (71.11 %), corn steep peels (60.0 %) and lowest bioconversions (53.33 %) recorded with sawdust. The degradation of cellulosic waste increases with increasing substrate concentration. Maximum cellulase productivity (3.18 U/ml) and bioconversion (86.1 %) was obtained at 3 % (w/v) of cellulosic waste (Banana peels). Saccharification of cellulosic waste with different treatment methods was studied. The pretreatment of cellulosic waste with 1 % HCl and H2SO4 produces 21 and 15.8 g of reducing sugar / 100 g of cellulosic waste. In comparison, hydrolysis with Streptomyces sp. B 167 enzymes, resulting significantly higher amount of reducing sugar yield (25 g / 100 g cellulotic waste). Further fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysates were preformed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae using stationary fermentation condition, maximum yield of ethanol were ( 0.30, 0.19 and 0.10 g ethanol / g glucose) observed with Streptomyces sp. B 167 enzymes, HCl and H2SO4 hydrolysates respectively after 48 h of fermentation


Article
Elastic and Inelastic Magnetic Electron Scattering Form Factors of Neutron- Rich 19C Exotic Nucleus
عوامل التشكل المستعرضة للأستطارة الألكترونية المرنة وغير المرنة للنواة 19C الغريبة الغنية بالنيوترونات

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The elastic magnetic electron scattering form factors and the magnetic dipole moments have been studied for the ground state of 19C (halo) (JπT= 1/2+ 7/2) nucleus carried out using psd-shell Millener-Kurath (PSDMK) interactions. The single-particle wave functions of harmonic-oscillator (HO) potential are used with two different oscillator parameters bcore and bhalo. According to this interaction, the core nucleons of 18C nucleus are assumed to move in the model space of spd. The outer halo (1-neutron) in 19C is assumed to move in the pure 2s1/2 orbit. The elastic magnetic electron scattering of the stable 13C and exotic 19C nuclei are investigated through Plane Wave Born Approximation (PWBA). It is found that the difference between the total form factors of unstable isotope (19C halo and non-halo) and stable isotope 13C is in magnitude. The magnetic dipole moments of excited states 19C (JπT= 3/2+ 7/2) and (JπT= 5/2+ 7/2) nucleus and the transverse inelastic electron scattering form factors for 19C (JπT= 5/2+ 7/2) are also calculated using the Reehal-Widenthal (REWIL) interactions.


Article
Elastic Electron Scattering form Factors for Odd-A 2s-1d Shell Nuclei
عوامل التشكل للاستطارة الالكترونية المرنة لنوى القشرة النووية 2s-1d الفردية

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The charge density distributions (CDD) and the elastic electron scattering form factors F(q) of the ground state for some odd mass nuclei in the shell, such as and have been calculated based on the use of occupation numbers of the states and the single particle wave functions of the harmonic oscillator potential with size parameters chosen to reproduce the observed root mean square charge radii for all considered nuclei. It is found that introducing additional parameters, namely; and which reflect the difference of the occupation numbers of the states from the prediction of the simple shell model leads to very good agreement between the calculated and experimental results of the charge density distributions throughout the whole range of The experimental electron scattering form factors for and nuclei are in reasonable agreement with the present calculations throughout all values of momentum transfer


Article
Study of Matter Density Distributions, Elastic Electron Scattering form Factors and Reaction Cross Sections of 8He And 17B Exotic Nuclei
دراسة توزيعات الكثافة و عوامل التشكل للاستطارة الالكترونية المرنة و المقاطع العرضية للتفاعل للنوى الغريبة 8He و 17B

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The ground state densities of unstable neutron-rich 8He and 17B exotic nuclei are studied via the framework of the two-frequency shell model (TFSM) and the binary cluster model (BCM). In TFSM, the single particle harmonic oscillator wave functions are used with two different oscillator size parameters βc and βv where the former is for the core (inner) orbits and the latter is for the valence (halo) orbits. In BCM, the internal densities of the clusters are described by single particle Gaussian wave functions. Shell model calculations for the two valence neutrons in 8He and 17B are performed via the computer code OXBASH. The long tail performance is clearly noticed in the calculated neutron and matter density distributions of these nuclei. The structure of the two valence neutrons in 8He and 17B is found to be a mixed configurations with dominant (1p1/2)2 and (2s1/2)2, respectively. Elastic electron scattering proton form factors for 8He and 17B are studied using the plane wave born approximation (PWBA). It is found that the major difference between the calculated form factors of unstable nuclei [8He, 17B] and those of stable nuclei [4He, 10B] is the difference in the center of mass correction which depends on the mass number and the size parameter β (which is assumed in this case as the average of βc and βv). The reaction cross sections for 8He and 17B are studied by means of the Glauber model with an optical limit approximation using the ground state densities of the projectile and target, where these densities are described by single Gaussian functions. The calculated reaction cross sections of 8He and 17B at high energy are in good agreement with the experimental data. The analysis of the present study supports the halo structure of these nuclei.


Article
Formation evaluation for Mishrif Formation in Selected Wells from Noor Oilfield
تقييم تكوين المشرف في آبار مختارة من حقل نور النفطي

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Abstract

This study aims at making formation evaluation for Mishrif Formation in three wells within Noor Oilfield which are: No-1, No-2 and No-5. The study includes calculations of shale volume and porosity, water saturation using Archie method, measuring the bulk volume of water (BVW) and using Buckle plot, as well as measuring the movable and residual hydrocarbons. These calculations were carried out using Interactive Petrophysics (IP) version 3.5 software as well as using Petrel 2009 software for structural map construction and correlation purposes. It was found that the Mishrif Formation in Noor Oilfield is not at irreducible water saturation, though it is of good reservoir characteristics and hydrocarbon production especially at the upper part of the formation.


Article
Estimation of Gypsum- Calcite Percentages Using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), in Alexandria Gypsiferous Soil -Iraq
تقدير تراكيز الجبسوم والكالسايت باستخدام جهاز طيف الاشعة تحت الحمراء(FTIR) للترب الجبسية في الاسكندرية – العراق

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Abstract

In this study the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR) provides a quick, efficient and relatively inexpensive method for identifying and quantifying gypsum concentrations in the samples taken from different sites from different localities from Alexandria district southwest Baghdad. A comprehensive spectroscopic study of gypsum-calcite system was reported to give good results for the first time by using IR for analytical grades of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) pure crystals. The spectral results were used to create a calibration curve relates the two minerals concentrations to the intensity (peaks) of FTIR absorbance and applies this calibration to specify gypsum and calcite concentrations in Iraqi gypsiferous soil samples, which were collected from different quarries at Alexandria district-Babylon Governorate , southwest of Baghdad city. The peaks were assigned to the fundamental vibrational modes of (SO4)-2 in gypsum and (CO3)-2 in calcite. Thus FTIR appears to provide fast and reliable method for identifying gypsum and calcite concentrations in the gypsiferous soils or any sediments or rocks that have different concentrations of these two minerals.


Article
Asymptotic Stability of Index 2 and 3 Hesenberg Differential Algebraic Equations
الاستقرارية المطلقه للمعادلة التفاضلية الجبرية من نوع هسنبرك ذات الدليل 2و3

Authors: Kamal H. Yasir كمال حامد ياسر
Pages: 1927-1934
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Abstract

This paper aims to study the asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points of the index 2 and index 3 Hesenberg differential algebraic equations. The problem reformulated to an equivalent explicit differential algebraic equations system, so the asymptotic stability is easily investigated. The singular points such as impasse points and singularity induced bifurcation points are identified in this kind of differential algebraic equations by using conclusion of the explicit differential algebraic equations.


Article
On δ-small M-Projective Modules
حول مقاس M الاسقاطي من النوع δ الصغير

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Abstract

In this paper we study the concepts of δ-small M-projective module and δ-small M-pseudo projective Modules as a generalization of M-projective module and M-Pseudo Projective respectively and give some results.


Article
On The Generalized Type and Generalized Lower Type of Entire Function in Several Complex Variables With Index Pair (p, q)
حول اعمام النوع واعمام النوع الادنى لدالة كلية ذات متغيرات معقدة متعددة مع دليل الزوج (p, q)

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Abstract

In the present paper, we will study the generalized -type and generalized lower -type of an entire function in several complex variables with respect to the proximate order with index pair are defined and their coefficient characterizations are obtained.


Article
Reverse Derivations With Invertible Values
الاشتقاقات العكسية مع القيم العكسية

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In this paper, we will prove the following theorem, Let R be a ring with 1 having a reverse derivation d ≠ 0 such that, for each x R, either d(x) = 0 or d(x) is invertible in R, then R must be one of the following: (i) a division ring D, (ii) D , the ring of 2×2 matrices over D, (iii) D[x]/(x where char D = 2, d (D) = 0 and d(x) = 1 + ax for some a in the center Z of D. Furthermore, if 2R ≠ 0 then R = D is possible if and only if D does not contain all quadratic extensions of Z, the center of D.


Article
Peristaltic Transport of a Viscoelastic Fluid with Fractional Maxwell Model in an Inclined Channel
الانتقال التموجي لسائل لزج لا نيوتوني لنموذج ماكسويل الكسري في قناة مائلة

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This paper is devoted to the study of the peristaltic transport of viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluids with fractional Maxwell model in an inclined channel. Approximate analytical solutions have been constructed using Adomain decomposition method under the assumption of long wave boundary layer type approximation and low Reynolds number. The effect of each of relaxation time, fractional parameters, Reynolds number, Froude number, inclination of channel and amplitude on the pressure difference, friction force and stream function along one wavelength are received and analyzed.


Article
Investigating the Influence of the Solar activity on the Electron Density of Mars's Ionospheric Layer
التحقيق في تأثير النشاط الشمسي على الكثافة الالكترونية لطبقه الايونوسفير للمريخ

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Abstract

The study of Mars's ionosphere was made by investigating the measurements of the electron density (Ne) depending of the variation of the solar activities through different local time, different seasons, and different altitudes. The datasets has been taken from MARSIS on board the Mars Express spacecraft, the investigation for the solar indices and the electron density (Ne) have been made for two period of time depending on the strength of the geomagnetic storms, the first one was taken when the geomagnetic storms was low as in years (1998 & 2005), the data was chosen for three seasons of these years, Winter (December), Summer (June) and Spring (April). The second period was taken for the years (2001 & 2002) when the geomagnetic storms was high and the data also was chosen for three seasons as well except for Spring (March). The result of the analytical study that have been made for the electron density profile shows fluctuations that are inversely proportional with the solar flux and the sunspot number .This is attributed to the lack of the magnetic field that existed on Planet Mars.


Article
Determination of the Shape and Dimensions of the Sensitive Volume for Solid State Detectors Using Monte Carlo Computer Technique
تحديد ألشكل والأبعاد للحجم ألفعال لكواشف ألحالة ألصلبة بإستعمال تقنية مونتِ كارلو

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Abstract

In this research the active volume for a number of solid-state detectors of the type of high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystal was evaluated with different radii and depths using scanning method for diagonal (front) and lateral (side). It has been used for this purpose Monte-Carlo efficiency program after its development by adding a subroutine-program for its (subroutine scanning).Also a program has been written to calculate the stopping power and range for incident charged particle on the detector, in order to determine the exact sufficient energy to stop it inside the detector material. The calculations of our results of efficiency were compared with the results of published efficiency and the comparison is very good in terms of improving the values for practical from the calculated results in other ways.


Article
Determination of the MESEP Events of 2-9th April 2001 According to ERNE/SOHO Observation
تحديد الاحداث الشمسية ذات الانفجارات المتعددة للحدث2.9-أبريل2001. طبقا لرصد سوهو إيرنا

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On 2-9th April 2001 the Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) observed three gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events separated by 9 hour and 7days respectively, in association with three effective solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this paper, a study of MESEP events was considered. As the definition of this phenomenon suggested there might be many sources for each MESEP event. This event has been examined in order to view the different sources that might relate to suspected accelerator of the SEPs. A careful analysis for the spectra and associated emission with such eruptions was made. Soft X-ray emission was observed by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES) was used to indicate the associated solar flares, earth radio stations were used to determine the associated radio emissions. While three instruments, beside (ERNE) were used from the SOHO satellite, the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) to follow the CMEs, the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) for observing the Morton waves to indicate the CME location and the Charge, Element, and Isotope Analysis System CELIAS to indicate the shock waves caused by CMEs.


Article
Wind Power Estimation for Al-Hay District (Eastern South of Iraq)
تخمين قدرة الرياح في منطقة الحي (الجنوب الشرقي من العراق)

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Abstract

In this paper the wind data that is measured for 12 months (January to December 2011) at Al-Hay district of Wasit province, southern IRAQ country has been analyzed statistically. The wind speed at heights of 10 m above ground level was measured for every 10 minutes interval. The statistical analysis of wind data was performed using WAsP software which is based on Weibull distributions. The Weibull shape and scale parameters is obtained and used in this paper statistics. The achieved results demonstrated that the study area has Annual Mean Energy Production (AMEP) about 219.002 MWh. The computations have been performed on 70m hub’s height of the turbine and on Earth surface roughness length (0.0, 0.03, 0.1, 0.4, 1.5) m respectively.

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