جدول المحتويات

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: الزراعة
اللغة: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تأسست مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية في كلية الزراعة جامعة بغداد عام 1966. كانت المجلة تصدر بعددين في العام فقط. بدأت المجلة عام 2000 باصدار ستة اعداد في السنة لكل مجلد, وهي الان في عام 2016 بالمجلد (47). تشمل ابحاث المجلة كافة العلوم الزراعية المرتبطة بالعلوم النباتية والحيوانية فضلاً عن المكننة الزراعية والاقتصاد الزراعي والارشاد الزراعي والعلوم الداعمة للعلوم الزراعية مثل الكيمياء والفيزياء لاسيما المرتبطة بالضوء والالحرارة والرياح وغيرها. يتضمن المجلد الواحد حالياً اكثر من 75 بحثأ حيث يتضمن العدد الواحد بين 20-25 بحثاً بحسب عدد الابحاث المقبولة في كل عدد

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معلومات الاتصال

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2014 المجلد: 45 العدد: 8 - special issue

Article
GROWTH CHARACTERS OF SOME SOYBEAN CULTIVARS EXPRESS THEIR COMPETITIVE ABILITY TO COMPANION WEEDS
دور صفات النمو الخضري لبعض أصناف فول الصويا المعبرة عن قابليتها التنافسية للأدغال المرافقة

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted in field located in Ramadi city during the growing seasons of 2010 and 2011, to evaluate the potential variations in growth traits of some soybean cultivars and its impact on their competitive ability to accompanied weeds. The experiment was accomplished using randomized complete block design (RCBD) in split- split plot arrangement with three replicates. The study involved four weed treatments (weedy, weed free, herbicide spray at recommended and half of recommended concentration) as main treatments, whereas, sub plots involved two crop densities (400000 and 266666 plant.ha-1). Sub-sub plots comprised of four soybean cultivars (Ls 75, Lee 74, Giza 111 and Giza 35).Results revealed a clear effect of different weed treatments on most studied traits. Herbicide treatments at recommended concentration with cultivar G111 achieved least mean of weed density (17.36 and 20.69) plants.m-2 for both seasons, respectively compared with other cultivars spraying of herbicide at the recommended concentration with some cultivar achieved the highest percentage of weed control 57.0 and 50.8%,. For soybean cultivars, Giza 111 characterized with its ability to reduced weeds density and increased control percentage of the accompanied weeds in a degree better than other cultivars under study. This cultivar achieved higher values for No. of branches (5.61 and 5.99 branch. Plant -1) and leaf area (56.25 and 67.05 dm2.plant -1) for both seasons, respectively. This gave an indicator that this cultivar had an ability to tolerate weed competition comparing with other cultivars. Most of soybean cultivars showed a response to the different treatments of weed control higher than their response to crop densities in reducing accompanied weed density. However, weed density significantly decreased in the highest crop density (D1) comparing with lowest crop density (D2) during the same periods 60 days in both seasons. From the recent study it can be concluded that the variation among soybean cultivars in most of vegetative growth traits could be used as criater in for their competitive ability to accompanied weeds.


Article
PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS EXPRESS COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF SOME SOYBEAN CULTIVARS WITH COMPANION WEEDS
المعايير الفسيولوجية المعبرة عن القابلية التنافسية لبعض أصناف فول الصويا للأدغال المرافقة

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was conducted in field located in Ramadi city during the growing seasons of 2010 and 2011, to evaluate the potential variations in physiological traits of some soybean cultivars and its impact on their competitive ability with accompanied weeds. The experiment was accomplished using randomized complete block design (RCBD) in split-split plot arrangement with three replicates. The study involved four weed treatments (weedy, weed free, herbicide spray at recommended and half of recommended concentration) as main treatments, whereas, sub plots involved two crop densities D1 400000 plants.ha-1 and D2 266666 plants.ha-1. Sub-sub plots comprised of four soybean cultivars (Ls 75, Lee 74, Giza 111 and Giza 35).Results showed that weed free treatment recorded highest crop growth rate (22.51 and 25.22 g .m-2.day-1), plant dry weight (80.20 and 86.63 g.plant-1) and No. of days to 50% flowering 53.42 and 54.64 day) at both seasons respectively. Cultivar Giza 111 achieved highest crop growth rate (19.41 and 21.03 g .m-2.day-1) at both seasons respectively. Cultivar Lee74 accumulated highest plant dry weight (79.23 and 81.80 g.plant-1) and no. of days to 50% flowering (70.07 and 72.94 day) at both seasons respectively. The lowest plant density (D2) achieved highest crop growth rat 18.72 and 20.24 g.m-2.day-1), plant dry weight (73.26 and77.42 g.plant-1) and leas No. of days to 50% flowering for both seasons respectively. While highest density (D1) achieved the highest percentage of weed control comparing with (D2). Spraying of herbicide at the recommended concentration achieved the highest percentage of weeds control (43.27 and 44.54%) at both seasons respectively. From the present study it can be concluded that the variation among soybean cultivars in some of physiological traits could be considered as cratering for their competitive ability to accompanied weeds.


Article
MAGNETIZATION OF GLYPHOSATE SPRAY SOLUTION AND ITS IMPACT ON EFFICACY OF COGONGRASS CONTROL FOR REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
المعالجة المغناطيسية لمحلول رش مبيد Glyphosate واثرها في كفاءة مكافحة الحلفا لتقليل التلوث البيئي

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الخلاصة

An experiment was conducted during summer season of 2011and 2012, in the experimental farm, Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture-University of Baghdad on cogon grass infested area for many years, according to the randomized complete block design with three replicates, to investigate the effect of magnetized spray solutions of glyphosate for improvement of control reducing herbicides rates. The study included two factors, the first with four levels of magnetized spray solutions [0 (normal water), 500, 1000 and 2000 Gs.], and the second factor included four levels of glyphosate 48% [0, 50%, 75% and 100%] of the recommended rate (12L.ha-1). The results showed that 100% of recommended herbicides rate achieved highest injury score in 2011 with magnetized spray solution of 1000 Gs gave 4.93 and 4.67 with magnetized spray solution of 2000 Gs. in 2012. Magnetization of spray solution also reduced shoots no. with 14.90 shoot.0.25 m-2 for magnetized spray solution of 500 Gs. with 100% herbicide rate in 2011 and 15.90 shoot.0.25m-2 for magnetized spray solution of 1000 Gs. with the same herbicide rate in 2012. Similarity lowest no. of rhizomes were recorded with magnetization of the spray solution of 2000 Gs. with 100% of recommended herbicide rate which gave 12.33 rhizom.0.25 m-2 in 2011 and 9.22 rhizom.0.25m-2 for 1000 Gs. in 2012. Also lowest percentage of rhizome bud viability was obtained with spray solution of 2000 Gs. with 100% of the recommended herbicide rate, which gave 2.33 % and 3.33%. From the present study conclusion in could be draw that there was possibility of improving the efficiency of lower rates of Glyphosate for cogongrass control, 75% of the recommended rate herbicide with magnetization of the spray solution of 1000 and 2000 Gs. gave similar effect of 100 % of the recommended herbicide rate when added with normal water spray solution and contributed highest effect on most of characters studies and this indicted that magnetization of spray solutions may led to increase efficiency of lower herbicide rates equal to higher rates with normal water spray solution minimizing the environmental pollution caused by the use of higher rates of herbicides.


Article
EFFECT OF SEEDING RATES AND HERBICIDES ON LEAF AREA INDEX AND ACCUMULATION DRY MATTER IN RICE AT DIFFRENTE TIMES
تأثير معدلات البذار ومبيدات الأدغال في دليل المساحة الورقية وتراكم المادة الجافة في الرز

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الخلاصة

A field trial was carried out at Mishkab Rice Research Station, Al-Najaf Al-ashraff governorate during the summer seasons of 2008 and 2009 to investigate the effects of seeding rates (120,140,160 and 180 kg.ha-1) and herbicides (control, oxadiazon, propanil and weed-free) on leaf area index and accumulation dry matter of Yasamin rice cultivar. The design used was split plot by RCBD arrangement with four replicates. The results indicated that the seeding rate 180 kg.ha-1 was superior in giving the highest values of accumulation dry matter,706.3 , 1077.9, 1325.6 , 1614.2 704.8, 1012.6, 1425.6 and 1478.3g.m-2 in both seasons, respectively, these increases were due to the highest values of leaf area index 2.717, 4.332, 3.516, 3.146, 2.962, 4.715, 3.727and 3.024, respectively. For herbicide treatment weed free gave highest values for two seasons in accumulation dry matter, 723.8, 1094.8, 1353.3, 1628.7, 733.5, 1015.3, 1460.8 and 1511.8 g.m-2 respectively, because of increased of leaf area index 2.612, 4.677,4.185 , 3.306, 2.945, 4.441,4.441 and 3.108 in both seasons, respectively, as compared with other treatments, while was superior oxadiazon and propanil significantally in giving the highest values leaf area index and accumulation dry matter in both seasons compared with weedy treatment.


Article
PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF BREAD WHEAT UNDER DIFFERENT SEEDING RATES
تحليل معامل المسار لحنطة الخبز تحت معدلات بذار مختلفة

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was carried out in the field of Crop Science Dept., Coll. of Agric. Univ. of Baghdad during 2011/2012 winter season to study the path analysis for some quantitative traits in bread wheat. The experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with four replication using a split plot treatment arrangement where three seeding rates (120, 160, and 200 kg/ha) randomized in the main plots and 21 genotypes in the sub-plots. Path analysis was performed using genotypic correlation considering grain yield as the response variable and number of days to anthesis, plant height, flag leaf area, number of spikes per square meter, number of grains per spike, and grain weight as independent variables. Path coefficient analysis revealed that the magnitude of positive direct effect on grain yield was highest through number of spikes/m2, followed by grain weight and grains per spike; whereas plant height exhibited high, but negative direct effect on grain yield. There was negative indirect effect of number of spikes/m2 via grain weight. These results indicated that grains per spike and number of spikes/m2 along with their indirect causal factors should be consider simultaneously as an effective selection criteria to isolate superior genotypes from genetically mixed populations to develop higher yielding varieties due to positive association and direct effects of these traits on grain yield.


Article
GENETIC VARIABILITY, HERITABILITY AND TRAIT ASSOCIATIONS IN BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES
التغاير الوراثي ونسبة التوريث والإرتباط بين الصفات لتراكيب وراثية من حنطة الخبز

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الخلاصة

A set of 15 F6 advanced wheat lines along with six check varieties were evaluated under three seeding rates (120, 160 and 200 kg/ha) as independent experiments at the field of Crop Science Dept., Coll. of Agric. University of Baghdad, during the winter season of 2011-2012 in order to estimate genetic variability parameters and relationship among 14 agro-physiological traits. There was highly genetic variability among the genotypes for all studied traits. Furthermore, high estimates of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation and broad sense heritability were observed in the most of the studied traits. Correlation results revealed that grain filling duration, crop growth rate, flag leaf area, spike length, spike density, grain per spike, grain per square meter, grain weight, biological yield and harvest index had positive correlation with grain yield at both genotypic and phenotypic levels, whereas days to anthesis and plant height showed negative association with grain yield at both levels under the three seeding rates. It is concluded that more grain per spike or by depending more spikes or grains per square meter are major yield contributing factors in selecting high yielding wheat varieties.


Article
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVETY OF GA3 AND THE FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL EXTRACT ON VEGETATIVE CHARACTERS OF CHAMOMILE (MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA L.)
الفعالية البايولوجية لحامض الجبريليك ومستخلص الحبة الحلوة في الصفات الخضرية للبابونج

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was carried out during the winter season 2010-2011 at the Experimental fields of the Dept. of Field Crops, Coll. of Agric., Univ. of Baghdad. That was to study the spraying effects of foliar application of three levels of Gebberllic acid (GA3) at 0,100 and 200 mg GA3.L-1 with three levels of Foeniculum vulgare mill Extract (0,5% and 10%),in a randomized complete block design with three replications.In order to response detect the vegetative growth on chamomile plant (Matricaria chamomilla L.) common cultivar, in order to determine the best level of growth regulaters which increase efficiency ability of plant production, and study plant morphological changes which result from physiological process, spraying accompanying, more over atrial to access to plant extract which give the same needed effects which hormone GA3 marked caused in plant from using some active compounds found in some medical plants which act as growth encouraging factors or growth inhibition factors.Results indicated that treat with GA3 and Foeniculum vulgare mill extract was significantly increase values of all parameters measure.However, levels of 100 mg GA3.L-1 and the water spraying showed highest values of: number of total branches per plant (51.76 branch.plant-1), number of flower branches (42.86 branch.plant-1), number of leaves (142.26 leaf.plant-1), leaf area (55.43 cm.plant-1), chlorophyll content (70.36 mg.gm-1.leaftissue), fresh weight of plant (1477.00 g.plant-1), dry weight of plant (610.33 g.plant-1).


Article
EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID ON SOME VEGETATIVE AND FRUITING CHARACTERISITICS OF (NIGGELLA SATIVA L.)
تأثير حامض الساليسلك في بعض الصفات الخضرية والثمرية للحبة السوداء

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was Conducted at the Field trials of the Department of Field Crop Science, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during the growing Season 2010-2011, to investigate the possibility of improving the growth and Seed Yeild aspects of Nigella sativa L. Plant by using the Plant growth regulator Salicylic acid (SA) with the Consentrations (50, 100, or 200) mg. Liter-1 in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replicates. The results showed that both high concentration (100 and 200) mg. Liter-1 significantlly increase the plant hight by 9% over control plant. All SA concentrations significantally increased the leaf dry weight by 43, 24 and 22%, and Total dry weight by 27, 13, and 8% respectively. However, the lowest concentration on (SA50) followed by (SA100) increased the number of branchs-plant-1, Chlorophyll content of leaves at 75% flowering, Chlorophyll content of leaves at 75% Physiological maturity and Seed yield-plant-1 by 25, 6, 12, 6, 24, 7, 29 and 21% respectively. While the highest concentration (SA200) decreased the above mentioned Characters by 0.63, 7, 6 and 21% respectively. By contrast, the percentage of constant oil was increased by all SA concentrations, i.e. 23, 6 and 20% for SA50, SA100 and SA200, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the low SA50 concentration was the best in increasing the Plant growth aspects and, hence, Seed yield and constant oil percentage.


Article
ROLE OF BIO FERTILIZERS IN SOME THE BIOCHEMICAL AND PHSYLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF WHEAT UNDER SALT STRESS
دور الأسمدة الحيوية في بعض المعايير الكيموحيوية والفسلجية للحنطة تحت الاجهاد الملحي

المؤلفون: N. D. Salman نريمان داود سلمان
الصفحات: 854-864
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الخلاصة

A pot experiment was conducted at the hath-house of the Dept. of Soil Sci. and Water Resources, Coll. of Agric., Univ. of Baghdad during 2011 winter season, using loamy sand texture soil. To study effect of biofertilizer in some the biochemical and phsyological parameters on wheat plant under salt stress. Experiment factor are three salinity levels (0.5, 5.5 and 7.3 dSm-1) coded as C1, C2 and C3 respectively. Two inoculation type of fungal and bacteria were used four tretments of inoculation (with out inoculation, with mycorrhiza, Gloums intraradics, with bacteria, Azospirillum.brasilense and dual inoculation Gloums intraradics and Azospirillum brasilense) coded as A0, AM, AB, and AMAB respectively, and three replicates due to a Randomized Complete Block Design. Results showed that an inoculated of mycorrhiza or with Azospirillum bacteria significant reduced salt stress and reduced caused, Na+, Cl- concentration, while increased total chlorophyll, relative water content (RWC), K+, K+:Na+ in shoot and root. Results showed that Dual inoculation with (Gloums intraradics and Azospirillum.brasilense) was more effective than single inoculation.


Article
EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND PLANT DENSITY OF GROWTHCHARACTERSTIC AND FORAGE OF TWO CORN VARIETIES
تأثير مواعيد الزراعة والكثافة النباتية في صفات نمو وحاصل العلف لصنفين من الذرة الصفراء

المؤلفون: S. A. Younis سالم عبد الله يونس --- A. M. Al-Hassan
الصفحات: 865-875
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الخلاصة

Field experiment was conducted out in spring season 2008 at two locations. The first at Agricultural Research Station at the Dept. of Field Crops, Univ. of Mosul and the second one at Twabzawa Village in Bashika (25 Km East Mosul) to study the effect of four sowing dates (20/3, 5/4, 20/4 and 5/5), three plant densities (250, 333 and 500 thousand plant/ha) and an growth yield of two corn varieties (Bohoth 106 and Rabea) were used for each experiment. The experiment was applied by using Split-Plot Design in Randomized Complete Block Design by using three replications of each treatment. The important obtained results can be summarized as follows: All growth and yield characteristics were significantly affected by sowing dates of corn at Colleges Station Research while at twabzawa whereas the following characteristic; stem diameter, the dry weight of stem did not show significantly effected at Twabzawa location. Most of the growth and yield characters at the second sowing date 5/4 were superior to the same characters at other sowing dates at the Collage Station location, whereas at Twabzawa location the significant superiority for most growth and yield characters was at the 1st sowing dates (3/20). The results revealed that all growth characteristic were significantly affected by plant density at both locations. The plant density 500000 Plant/ha gave a higher values for yield at both locations. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the variety Bohoth 106 and Rabea for all characteristic at both location except that for plant height at Collage location whereas the superiority was for the variety Bohoth 106 in total dry yield and weight stems at Collage location only. The results showed the significant superiority of the Collage location in all growth and yield characters over that at Twabzawa location, except for the stem diameter. The interaction between sowing date 5/4 and plant density 500000 plant/ha gave a higher values for all yield characteristic at College Research Station.


Article
EFFECT OF SEEDING RATES ON GREEN AND DRY YIELD OF BARLEY AND OAT PLANTING IN HYDOPONIC
تاثير كميات البذار في الحاصل الأخضر والجاف للشعير والشوفان المزروعان في غرف الإستنبات

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الخلاصة

The experiment was conducted during 2011-2012 season in Farm Arab-Gbour at the hydroponic system. The objectives were to study the green and dry yield of the barley and oat hydroponics to effect of seeding rates (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3 kg.m-2). The experiment was conducted at randomized complete design with six replication. The results showed that seeding rat 3 kg.m-2 gave the highest plant height (21.46 and 22.81) cm, green yield (17.23 and 22.05) kg.m-2 and dry yield (3.78 and 5.14) Kg.m-2 for barley and oat, respectively. Therefore, we recommend to weight and dry yield more when planting high seeding rates and in rate 1 Kg.m-2 give 7 Kg.m-2 green yield of barley and 10 kg.m-2 green yield of oat for seeds, roots and leaves, therefore, planting in hydroponic system of successfully about development the forage in Iraq.


Article
HERITABILITY AND GENETIC GAIN DUE SELECTION IN SELECTION CRETERIA TO IMPROVE CORN PERFORMANCE UNDER LOW AND HIGH NITROGEN
التوريث والتحصيل الوراثي لمعايير انتخاب لتحسين أداء الذرة الصفراء تحت قلة ووفرة النتروجين

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الخلاصة

Four selection criteria; grain /plant (GN) ,anthesis-silking interval (ASI), yield efficiency (YE) and leaf area duration (LAD) were, tested in selected plants of maize (Zea mays L.) cv.R-106. The experiment was applied for four consecutive seasons (2009-2010) at the farm of the Dept. of Field Crops /College of Agric./Univ. of Baghdad. Plants of high grain coincided with the desired criterion were taken, selfed, with s1progeny approach by10% selection intensity and harvested for three selection cycles under 200 and 400 kg N/ha. Seeds of third cycle of each selection criterion were planted for panmixia. Heritability narrow sense measured by parent–off spring regression, genetic gain due selection for tow selection cycles (spring 2009-spring 2010). Results showed selection effects via selection criteria under nitrogen stress. Leaves area duration increased 10.4, 2.2 and 7.3 days for three cycles respectively. Phenotypic variation decreased by 41% from C1 to C3. Anthesis-silking interval decreased 1.4, 0.3 and 1.6 days for three cycles respectively. Phenotypic variation decreased by 43% from C1 to C3. Grain number.plant-1 increased 123.7, 193.2 and 84.3 grain.plant-1 for three cycles respectively. Phenotypic variation decreased 59.2%. Yield efficiency increased 79.8, 63.4 and 121 gm.m-2. Phenotypic variation decreased by 75.5% from C1 to C3. Selection cycles also affected the growth criteria of all selection plants under high level of nitrogen in the same way. LAD increased 7.4, 0.5 and 4.6days for three cycles respectively. Phenotypic variation decreased by 37.9% from C1toC3 under high nitrogen. ASI decreased 1.6, 1 and 0.4 days for three cycles respectively. GN.plant-1 increased 107.3, 129.7 and 88.5 for three cycles respectively. Phenotypic variation decreased 71%.YE increased 67.8, 45.3 and 52.3 gm.m-2. Phenotypic variation decreased by 62.2% from C1 to C3 under high nitrogen. Heritability (h2n.s%) for GN, ASI, YE and LAD after tow cycles of selection under 400 kg N/ha were 41.6, 56.3, 38.6 and 57 respectively, these values were higher than those under 200kg/ha were 15, 28.5, 9, and 44 GS for the four mention selection criterion gave higher values under high nitrogen than low nitrogen (61.9 ,0.7, 5.9 and 21.2) under high nitrogen,(18.2, 0.4, 4.7 and 4.9) under low nitrogen Counting of these results it was conclude that using any of these four selection criterion will be effective to improve grain yield of open-pollinated cultivar of maize . We recommend to use these criteria for selection and to devise lines that will tolerant toward low nitrogen.


Article
S1-PROGENY SELECTION FOR A BIOTIC STRESSES TOLERANCE IN MAIZE -YIELD AND SECONDARY COMPONENTS-
الانتخاب بطريقة S1-PROGENY لتحمل الشدود اللاحيوية في الذرة الصفراء -الحاصل ومكوناته الثانوية-

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الخلاصة

In order to derive selected communities with high yield and water stress tolerance, the effect of selection on maize (Zea mays L.) yield and growth improvement was studied under some a biotic stresses (water, N and K) with four fertilizer combinations (K100 N250, K200 N250, K100 N500, and K500 N200). A field experiment was conducted during six seasons (2009-2011) in the field of Crop Science Dept.-College of Agriculture-University of Baghdad. In this experiment, the synthetic cultivar, Ibaa 5012 was used. The selection depended on grain yield under sufficient and insufficient water. The plants were selected from each group of combination according to phenotypic superiority, and undergone to self-pollination for three cycles under sufficient and non-sufficient water. In the fourth season, the manual random mating was used selected plants in each group, the resulted seeds from random mating were divided into two groups, which were planted in a comparative experiments for spring and fall seasons under irrigation levels(5 and 10 days), to compare them with the origin under tow plant densities (60 and 80 thousand plant/ha).The results showed the superiority of plants selected from 10 days irrigation .Ear length increased by20% and 40% for SDN2K2 in spring and fall season respectively .Ear number.plant-1 by 6% and 9% for SDN1K1 in spring and fall season respectively. Grain number .ear -1 increased by4% and 41% in spring and full seasons for SDN2K2 respectively. Grain yield Mg.H-1 increased by5%, 95% in full season. Selection cycles also affected the field characters of all selected plants under sufficient water (5 days) in the same way. Ear length increased by 25 and 24%) for SN1K1 and 40 and 34% for SN2K1 in both seasons respectively. Row.number.ear-1 increased for SN2K1 by 13% and 20% in spring and fall season respectively. Grain number.row-1 increased 20 and 9% and 25 and 24% for SN1K1and SN2K1 in spring and fall seasons respectively. Grain yield increased by 21 and 20% and 50 and 63% for SN1K1,SN2K1 in spring and fall seasons respectively. So we recommend the selection for high yield and device lines that tolerant to both of dry stress and high plant density to be used in breeding programs under a biotic stresses and producing improved cultivars that be suitable for these environments or to be crossed to produce elite hybrids.


Article
THE STORED POLLEN GRAINS LONGEVITY OF MAIZE UNDER FIELD STORAGE CONDITIONS
فعالية حبوب اللقاح للذرة الصفراء بتأثير مدة الخزن تحت الظروف الحقلية

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الخلاصة

A field experiment was carried out in the experimental field of the Crop Dep.- College of Agriculture-Abu Ghraib for two seasons, autumn 2010 and spring 2011 to study the viability of pollen grains for some genotypes of maize under field conditions. The study included two variables, the first one was storage periods and the second was genotypes of maize which consist of Inbred ( H.S.), synthetic variety and pop corn genotype in the spring season, while a hybrid was added to the study in the autumn season. Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was used in split-plots arrangement. The genotypes occupied main plots while storage periods (0, 1/2, 1, 2 and 4 hours) were distributed to the sub-plots. Pollen grains were collected at flowering stage, after 2-4 days of tasselling, and then stored at field condition. The silks were pollinated by the stored pollen. The results showed decreasing of fertility and grain number with increase of storage periods especially in the spring season. The effect of storage periods 0 and 0.5 hour was similar on the grain number in the autumn season, while direct pollination had produced the highest number of grains in the spring season. Also, the results showed that pollen grains can survives for four hours when be stored under field conditions despite decreasing the effectiveness as time progresses.


Article
SELECTION EFFECTIVNESS FOR PODS NUMBER IN EARLY GENERATIONS OF SEED YIELD OF COWPEA CULTIVAR IMPORTED
فعالية الانتخاب لعدد قرنات النبات في أجيال مبكرة في حاصل بذور صنف لوبياء مستورد

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الخلاصة

A trail was carried out at the farm of college of agriculture in Abu-Ghraib.Three selection cycles followed with yield trail in spring season 2013 were conducted. RCBD was used with three replicates. The aim was to select cowpea cultivar from cultivar imported (bayader). The selection indices was the number of pods per plant. Selection was processed at three generations (F2 , F3 , F4). Population means were compared among selected and nonselected of these generations. Genetic parameters such as heritability, gain due to selection and standard deviation were estimated for traits studied. Results revealed that selection was effective with significance increases of pod length, number of pods per plant and seed yield of single plant. Populations selected in F4 gave highest means amount 17.26cm, 67 pods and 131gm, respectively. Also, generation's means in F4 was superior in these traits. There were no significant effects by selection in seed number per pod and 100 seed weight. Heritability was moderate and under moderate excepting of 100 seed weight that gave high value. Gain due to selection was high values in pods number per plant about 6.2 and 3.2 in F2-F3 and F3-F4, respectively, and 16.5 and 14.2 in seed yield of single plant of F2-F3 and F3-F4 , respectively. From above, we can conclude that the selection of pods number leaded to increase seed yield significantly with generation's progress. This was a best indicator for producing promising cultivar more adapted in middle region of Iraq.


Article
USING OF BIPLOT TECHN-IQUE FOR STUDYING OF G x E INTERACTION FOR PEANUT POD YIELD
استخدام تقانة GGE-Biplot لدراسة التداخل الوراثي - البيئي لحاصل قرنات فستق الحقل

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الخلاصة

Yield data of seven peanut genotypes across four Iraqi environments have been analyzed during 2002 season using the GGE-Biplot technique. The Goals of this study were :(1) Specification the Ideal or favorable genotype(s) and environment(s) in term of high yield and stability ;(2) Definition the superior genotype for each environment; (3) Estimation the value of G.E. interaction. The results showed that variance of G and G.E. interpreted 31% and 22.9% of the total variation respectively. The first two principal components (PC1 &PC2) were sufficient to interpret G.E. interaction, where they explained 87% of GGE sum of square. The stable genotypes had PC2about zero and the genotypes that had PC1 scores>0 considered high- yielding genotypes and. C97 genotype was favorable one in term of high yields and stability, while the genotype C92 was stable but poor. On the other hand, all the tested environments had PC1 scores>0, and that suggests non-crossover type for the studied environments. Al-Kut environment was the desirable one because of its ability to discriminate the genotypes and representation the rest environments.


Article
RESPONSE OF RICE TO DIFFERENT APPLICATION OF HERBICIDES
استجابة الرز لمبيدات الأدغال بمعدلات استخدام مختلفة

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الخلاصة

A field trial was carried out at Mishkab Rice Research Station, Al-Najaf governorate during summer seasons of 2008 and 2009 to investigate the response of rice herbicides (Propanil 60% DF, Oxadizon and Bispyrabic-sodium) on weed plants, Paddy yield and its component of cultivar Yasamin. The design used was RCBD with four replications. Bispyrabic-sodium reduced number of weed at stages 30,60 and 90 days after plant sowing and gave lowest value 5.2, 12.6 and 14.6 plant.m-2 and also reduced the dry weight of these plants by 88.1% compared with control, therefore it gave high value of height of rice plant 89.2 cm, biological yield 1998.9 gm.m-2, number of tillering per square meter 343.1, number of grain per panicle 136.5 grains , and gave highest Paddy yield of rice 866.4 gm.m-2, while the control gave lowest Paddy of rice 299.2 gm.m-2.


Article
ADDITIVE MAIN EFFECT AND MULTIPLICATIVE INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF YIELD STABILITY PERFORMANCE IN SUNFLOWER GENOTYPE GROWN IN IRAQI ENVIRONMENT
تحليل الفعل الاضافي الرئيس والتداخل المضاعف لثباتية حاصل تراكيب وراثية من زهرة الشمس النامية في البيئة العراقية

المؤلفون: F. A. Kadhem فوزي عبد الحسين كاظم
الصفحات: 932-939
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الخلاصة

The additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis was performed to assess the yield stability of six sunflower genotypes across eight environments during the growing seasons of 2008 and 2009. Layout of the experiments was split plot in randomized complete block design with three replications. The analysis of variance of AMMI revealed that genotypes, environments and genotype x environment interaction effects were highly significant and accounted for 44.7, 28.4, and 26.9%, of the total treatment sum of square respectively. Results also showed that the first three interaction principle component axis (IPCA1, IPCA2 and IPCA3) captured 91.6% of the interaction sum of square. The genotype Shomos exhibit negligible interaction with environments and has high grain yield indicating its broad adaptation and stability across environments, therefore could be recommended for tested locations. AMMI also showed which genotypes were more adapted to each environment.


Article
USING THE BURIED HERBICIDE METHOD TO CONDUCT GENOME WIDE ASSOCIATION MAPPING FOR ROOT DEPTH IN RICE*
استخدام طريقة دفن مبيد الأعشاب لرسم الخارطة الوراثية لصفة عمق الجذور في الرز

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الخلاصة

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the main staple foods of the world. With the increase of population and the deficit of irrigation water, the increase in rice production that is predicted will be dependent on areas prone to drought. Root depth is important for plant growth and survival during drought because of its role in facilitating water uptake from deep soil layers. By advances in genomics, the plant root systems can be linked to quantitative trait locus (QTLs) information to achieve a most beneficial design of root system architecture. There is a demand to develop and validate techniques that permit estimation of the root system. Therefore, a buried herbicide method at depth 30 cm was used in this study to assess root trait in a total of 325 rice cultivars, allowing high resolution genetic mapping. Using efficient mixed model statistical analysis for genome wide association, four associations were detected two on chromosome 1 and one on each of chromosome 4 and 6. Positional candidate genes underneath QTLs were examined bioinformatically and through the literature revealing several interesting genes which may offer potential for developing drought resistant rice cultivars. Therefore, developing a cost effective high-throughput system that can measure traits related to drought avoidance on a large number of plants would aid genetic studies in breeding and gene identification.

الكلمات الدلالية

Rice --- QTLs --- SNPs --- buried herbicide --- genome wide association. --- الرز --- QTLs --- SNPs --- مبيد الأعشاب.


Article
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SELECTED RICE GENOTYPES FOR THE MAJOR QTL PHOSPHORUS UPTAKE ONE (PUP1)
الوصف الجزيئي لموقع صفة كمية يتعلق بامتصاص الفوسفور (Pup1)في تراكيب وراثية منتخبة لمحصول الرز

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الخلاصة

Marker-assisted breeding is a very useful instrument for breeders but still needs much research work because information on the effect of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in different genetic backgrounds is uncertain and ideal molecular markers are unavailable. Therefore, some research efforts toward the investigation and validation of the major rice QTL Phosphate uptake 1 (Pup1) that confers tolerance of phosphorus (P) deficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.) have been made throughout assessing the effect of the presence of the Pup1 allele on growth parameters of selected genotypes. Six markers were selected that target firstly putative genes that are partially conserved in the Nipponbare reference genome and secondly Kasalath-specific genes that are located in a large insertion-deletion (INDEL) region that is absent in Nipponbare. Testing these markers in 30 diverse rice genotypes showed that those genotypes possess Kasalath alleles at all analysed loci, apart from Kasalath, were Azucena, Black Gora, FR 13A, IAC 165 and IAC 25. Genotypes that partially possessed Kasalath alleles were only three (Dular, Li-Jiang-Xin-Tuan-Hei-Gu and M 202) while the other genotypes lacked Kasalath alleles at all loci analysed. These contrasting Pup1 genotypes were subsequently grown in two different P-deficient soils and environments. Whether P applied in liquid form as Yoshida’s nutrient solution (YNS) or solid form as rock phosphate added either homogenously or in 10 cm shallow layer, genotypes with the Kasalath alleles in Pup1 locus maintained significantly higher shoot dry weight (SDW) plant-1 under P deprivation in comparison with intolerant genotypes with the Nipponbare alleles in this locus. Overall, the data provide evidence that Pup1 has the potential to improve SDW in P-deficient conditions and in diverse genetic backgrounds.


Article
EFFECT OF PSEUODOMONAS FLOURESCENCE AND TRICHODERMA HARIZIANUM ON THE EFFECINCY OF RHIZOBIUM IN CHICKPEA
تأثير pseudomonas fluorescence وTrichoderma harzianum في كفاءة بكتريا الرايزوبيا على الحمص

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الخلاصة

The present study included isolating and diagnostic eight of Rhizobial isolates from chickpea and fababean root nodules taken from different Iraqi region, and two nonlocal Rhizobial strains of chickpea plants obtained from ICARDA. Two separated experiments on chickpea planted in pots were done inside the green house. From the first experiment we notes significant increased in all qualities of chickpea plants treated with all Rhizobial isolates compared with the control. Rd6 isolate was the best one among these Rhizobial isolates. In the second experiment Chickpea seed treated with Rhizobial isolates and one or both of the bio pesticides T. harzianum, P. fluoresces. The bio pesticide added also in another way by treated the soil of pots with it. The result shown that Rq8 isolates recorded best results, chickpea plants treated with this isolate have shown best results, the interaction treatment was the best treatment among all the other treatment and seed treatment with bio pesticide better than soil treatment. No nodulation in the plants roots were observed in the greenhouse experiment in the most treatments except when the strain CP-93 was used. Field experiment was done in Alqoosh town using the best three isolates that were the best in the first experiment to test the effects of the environment conditions on the isolates efficiency the isolates were (Cp-93, Rd6 and Rm1). Results was (52, 44 and 36) nodule/plant in (1.664, 1.408 and 1.152) gm/plant while the un-inoculated plants (control) recorded 21 nodule/plant in 0.609 gm/plant.

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