Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:56 issue:1A

Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Quantum Mechanical Study of Some New 2-benzylidenehydrazinecarbothioamide Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors for Carbon/mild Steel in Acidic Medium.
تحضير، تشخيص ودراسة نظرية وفق ميكانيك الكم لبعض المشتقات الجديدة لـ 2-بنزيليدين هايدرازين كاربوثايوايمايد كمثبطات لتآكل الفولاذ في الوسط الحامضي

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In this work, some of new 2-benzylidenehydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives have been prepared by condensation of thiosemicarbazide and different substituted aromatic benzaldehydes in presence of glacial acetic acid to give compounds (1-6), these compounds have characterized by its physical properties and spectroscopic methods. This work also included theoretical study to prove the ability of these compounds as corrosion inhibitors; The program package of Gaussian 09W with its graphical user interface GaussView 5.0 had used for this purpose; the methods of Density Functional Theory (DFT) with basis set of 6-311G (d,p) / hybrid function of B3LYP and semiempirical method of PM3 have been used, the study included theoretical simulation to simulate the reactivity of these compounds as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in gas phase, aqueous medium and in acidic medium (acidic medium is a medium contains acid that able to protonate these compounds and change them to protonated form), some parameters have calculated in both previous methods such EHOMO, ELUMO, ΔEL-H, Ionization Potential (I), Electron Affinity (A), electronegativity (χ), Global Hardness (η), Atomic Charges, Dipole Moment (μ) and Fraction of Electron Transferred from Inhibitor Molecules to the Metallic Atoms (ΔN), the resulted parameters showed that these compounds are behaving as inhibitors for corrosion of carbon steel.


Article
Synthesis of New Heterocyclic Compounds Derived From 5,10- dihydrophenophosphazine
تحضير مركبات حلقية غير متجانسة جديدة مشتقة من 10,5- ثنائي هايدروفينوفوسفازين

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Abstract

This work comprises the synthesis of 18 new N- substituted 5,10-dihydrophenophosphazine.The diphenylamine was chosen as the starting material , which was reacted with phosphorus trichloride at elevated temperature (200-220)0C for 6 hrs, followed by treating the reaction mixture with water to yield 5,10-dihydrophenophosphazine-10-oxide(1), this was reacted with ethylchloroacetat to obtain ethyl(5,10-dihydrophenophosphazine-10- oxide)acetate(2). Compound (2) was converted to acid hydrazide by treating with hydrazine hydrate( 98% ) to obtain 5-(5,10-dihydrophenophosphazine) acetohydrazide-10-oxide (3). The acid hydrazid was used to react with phenylisocyanat , phenylthioisocyanat to give (4,7) respectively which were used to prepare different heterocyclic compounds. Compound (5) was performed by the intramolecular cyclization of (4) in the presence of NaOH(2N).Compound (8) was synthesized by interaction of (7) with NaOH(2N).Compound (6) and (9) were obtaind upon the reaction of semicarbazide (4) and thiosemicarbazide (7) with phosphoric acid at 1200C. Compound (3) undergoes the character condensation reaction with different aromatic aldehyde in ethanol gave the shiff bases (10-18).


Article
Promethazine-HCl Determination Using Entrapped Persulphate in Water Crystals by Flow Injection / Stopped - Flow Technique and Ayah 3SX3-3D Solar Cell Micro Photometer
تقدير البروميثازين - هيدروكلورايد بأستخدام البيرسلفات المحتواة في بلورات الماء بوساطة تقنية جريان - توقف ومطياف مايكروي Ayah 3SX3-3D solar cell

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A new mode of methodology was adopted in the assay of PM- HCL based on the use of water crystal gel bead made of poly acrylic acid in which the gel beads were left to absorbe persulphate solution that is necessary for the oxidation of PM- HCL in aqua media . The water crystal act as a reserviour for S2O82- . Optimum parameters were studied giving to specify the chemical and physical parameters. Two line manifold was used .The flow rates of 1.5 and 1.2 ml.min-1 was used , 3 gel beads , 120 µL sample volume , a linear dynamic range extend from 0.01- 18 mmol.L-1. A correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9991while the percentage linearity (r2%) of 99.82% with R.S.D% at 8 mmol.L-1 promethazine-HCl is less than 0.5% (ten replicates) and a detection limit (S/N=3) of 19.25 ng/sample was obtained . Throughput of 20 sample.hr-1 can be measured. A successful application on available drug in the market was assayed. A complete satisfactory result was obtained .Using t-test it was shown that there was no significant difference between the Practical value and the quoted value, on that basis the new method can be accepted as an alternative analytical method.


Article
Chemiluminometric- CFIA for the Determination of Cobalt (ll) Ion in Commercial Cobalt-Molybdenum Catalyst (K F124-3E) Used in Desulphurization Processes of Petroleum Products via Multi Gel Beads Reactor
التحليل بالحقن الجرياني المستمر لتفاعل كيموتألقي بمفاعل متعدد حبيبات الهلاميه لتقدير ايون الكوبلت الثنائي في العامل المحفز التجاري ( K F124- 3E). CoMo ألمستخدم في عمليات أزالة الكبريت في المنتجات البترولية

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Abstract

Co(II) ion was determined by a new, accurate, sensitive and rapid method via a continuous flow injection analysis (CFIA) with a chemiluminescence reaction based on the oxidation of Luminol which is loaded on poly acrylic acid gel beads by hydrogen peroxide in presence of Cobalt (II) ion as a chemiluminescence catalyst. Chemical and physical parameters were investigated to obtain the best conditions. Linear dynamic range of Cobalt (II) ion was from 0.1-20.0 μg.ml-1 with a correlation coefficient r = 0.9758, limit of detection (L.O.D) 0.2 ng/sample from the step wise dilution of lowest concentration in the calibration graph with the percentage relative standard deviation for 3 μg.ml-1 Co(ll) solution is 0.8537% (n=5). The method was applied successfully for the determination of Co (II) ion in CoMo catalyst type ( K F124- 3E).


Article
Synthesis of Several New Copoly [N – (allyl) – Substituted Imides – Methyl Acrylate] and Curing the Unsaturated Resins by Free Radical Polymerization
تحضير عدة كوبولي ئيمايدات جديدة معوضة مشتقة من كوبولي ( اليل-امين – اكريلات – المثيل ) ومعالجة الراتنجات غير المشبعة الناتجة بواسطة البلمرة بالجذور الحرة

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Abstract

Several new copolymer containing imides were prepared from the corresponding copolymers containing amic acids using dehydrating agent such as acetyl chloride – tri ethyl amine mixture. The obtained yields were different ranging from 65% to 80%. Readily polymerized unsaturated copolymers containing imides free radically using azobisisobuty ronitrile (AIBN) as initiator to yield high molecular weight copolymers. All the prepared resins were characterized IR. NMR. Elemental analysis. TG and DTG Techniques.


Article
Biodegradation of Naphthalene by Local Fungal Isolates
التفكك الحيوي للنفثالين بواسطة عزلات فطرية محلية

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Three hundred and twelve (312) local fungal isolates were isolated from sixty four (64) different contaminated soil samples with oil wastes at different periods, using potato dextrose agar (PDA).the fungal isolates were tested for its ability to degrade naphthalene .Primary and secondary screening were done using solid (MSM) and liquid (MSM) with 100ppm naphthalene and pH 7 respectively. Results from Primary screening showed that 25 isolates gave good growth, 47 gave moderate growth, 66 gave weak growth and 174 were never growing. According to above results 25 fungal isolates were tested for its ability to degredade naphthalene using liquid mineral media (MSM) pH7,100ppm naphthalene and incubated at 30 0C 120rpm for 7 days. Reduction of naphthalene concentration was estimated by using HPLC and Horiba analysis. Results showed that Ti, Mi, Ru isolates appeared highest ability to consume naphthalene (87.7), (88.1), (87.6) % respectively. According to Macro and Microscopic featured the isolates Ti, Mi, Ru were subsequently identified as Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viridi and Fusarium verticelloides respectively.


Article
RT PCR Detection and Propagation of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells (A549) cell line
تشخيص وتنمية فيروس Respiratory Syncytial Virusبتقنية سلسلة تفاعل البلمرة في خطوط خلايا سرطانية لرئة الانسان A549) )

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Abstract

In this study negative result of real-time reverse transcription-QPCR (RT-PCR) assay tests of Influenza virus of nasal screetion and throat swap samples of Iraqi patients hospitalized with signs and symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection in Central Republic Health Laboratory in Iraq were tested for Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection by RT PCR .Positive samples was 4 out 0f 20 were used .Viral isolation was done on a monolayer of 70-80% confluent Human Lung Carcinoma Cells (A549) cell line and incubated at 33ºC for 4 days .Syncytia was observed in 3 positive samples

Keywords

RT PCR --- RSV --- Tissue culture>


Article
Brucella melitensis Rev.1 live attenuated Vaccine and its DNA induced IFN-γ and anti-ds DNA antibodies production in rats
اللقاح المضعف لبكترياBrucella melitensis Rev 1 و الدنا المستخلص منها يحفز انتاج الانترفيرون – كاما والاضداد للحمض النووي في الجرذان

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Brucellosis is one of the five common bacterial zoonoses in the world caused by organisms belonging to the genus Brucella. Immune recognition of bacterial infection may contribute to cytokine, as well as antibody production that are characteristic of innate and adaptive responses. In this study, the presence of attenuated live Brucella melitenses Rev1 bacteria or its DNA induced the immune system to produce IFN-γ and anti-ds DNA antibody. In respect to IFN-γ released, the B. melitensis Rev 1 attenuated live vaccine was able to stimulate the immune system more than the DNA (P≤0.05). Such finding could be attributed to the whole attenuated bacteria that have immunogenic factors other than the DNA like cell wall component and outer membrane. On the other hand, the B. meliensis Rev 1 DNA activated the B cell to secret anti-ds DNA antibodies significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) than live attenuated vaccine, and the level of antibodies was increased to parallel the concentration increases of injected DNA.


Article
Evaluation of Anti-Helicobacter pylori Antibodies in A group of Iraqi Patients with Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease
تقييم اضداد البكتريا الملتوية البوابية في مرضى تصلب الشرايين وامراض القلب التاجية العراقيين

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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaque within the walls of the coronary arteries resulting in decrease of oxygen and ischemic heart disease (IHD). It was consider as one of the most common diseases and major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study evaluated the anti- Helicobacter pylori IgG and the role of virulence factor of H. pylori cytotoxin associated gene (Cag A) as a risk factors for CAD. Also the detection of proinflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein. The level of serum IgG was done by indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) whereas Cag A and high sensitive C- reactive protein (hs-CRP) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seventy Iraqi patients with CAD were included in this study Their mean ages were 58.80 ± 5.13 years ranged between 41-85 years ; and 20 individuals as a control group which was divided into 2 subgroups: 10 apparently healthy volunteers (negative control) and the other subgroup contained 10 with normal coronary artery but had other heart disease except CAD (positive control). All blood samples were investigated biochemically such as glucose test, urea test , creatinine test and lipid profile test(cholesterol, triglyceride ,LDL and HDL) and all of them showed normal values. The result showed, there were a high significant differences (P˂ 0.01) of anti- H. pylori IgG between CAD patients and both positive and negative controls. 78.57% (55/70), 100% (10/10) and 0% (0/10) respectively. Also there were a significant differences (P˂ 0.05) in the mean value of Cag A antigen when compared to the positive and negative controls groups (2.74±0.19), (2.72±0.31) and (1.64± 0.16) respectively. Furthermore; the present study revealed significant differences of concentration levels of hs-CRP in patient group (4.95 ± 0.38 µg/ml) as compared to positive and negative control groups (0.77 ± 0.06 µg/ml, 3.96 ± 0.96 µg/ml). The results suggest there was a relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and coronary artery disease.


Article
Determination of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) Levels In Pneumonia Patients
تحديد مستوى الانترليوكين 8-في المرضى المصابين بذات الرئه

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Abstract

The result of interleukin-8 level through acute and chronic phases in pneumonia patients sera was showed high level in patients compared with healthy persons (0.194 ± 0.046, 0.095 ± 0.006 pg / ml , respectively) with a significant difference statistically (P˂0.05). The results of interleukin 8 levels in the age group ( 2 months -3 years ) higher than the age groups ( age 15-60years ) (age 60-85years ) (0.154 ± 0.04, 0.131 ± 0.02, 0.113 ± 0.2 pg / ml , respectively) with no significant difference (P˂0.05).


Article
Determination of Optimal Temperature and pH for Radial Growth of Some Dermatophyte Species Isolated from Leukemia Patients
تحديد درجة الحرارة والاس الهيدروجيني المثلى للنمو الفطري لبعض عزلات الفطريات الجلديه المعزوله من مرضى اللوكيميا

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The study is concern on determine the effect of different temperatures (25, 28, 30 and 370C), and different pH values (4.5, 5.5, 6 and 8) on the radial growth (mm) of 15 dermatophyte isolates (Microsporum canis 7, Trichophyton rubrum 5, Trichophyton mentagropyhtes 3). The specimens for the current study were collected from nail infections in patients with different type of leukemia whom admitted at Baghdad Educational Hospital, 7th floor. The result revels that the optimum temperature for radial growth was 300C then 280C for all isolates, while the optimum pH for all isolates was 6.


Article
Morphological, Anatomical Study and Geographical Distribution in Iraq of Capparis spinosa L.
دراسة الخصائص المظهرية والتشريحية والتوزيع الجغرافي في العراق للنوع Capparis spinosa L.

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This study dealt with many of morphological, anatomical characteristics and geographical distribution of Capparis spinosa L. that grown wildly in Iraq, The species were compared to the adoption of field and herbarium specimens. A detailed morphological feature of the stem, leaf, fruit and seed were introduced. Anatomical studies reveal constant taxonomic characteristics such as the obvious cuticle on the epidermis of stems and leaves, developed cortex, pith and vascular tissue in stems. From an environmental perspective has been studied the habitat and the distribution of C. spinosa in Iraq that showed inhabit very dry places and had mesophytic and xerophytic habitat.


Article
Histological Study on the Effect of Ampiroxicam Drug on liver of Females Mice
دراسة نسجية لتأثير عقار امبيروكسيكام على كبد اناث الفئران

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Thirty females' albino mice with average body weight of 25-30gm and 10-14 weeks old were used to investigate the toxicity of the oral administration of ampiroxicam on liver. The animals were given (single dose) of drug and were divided into three groups (10mice / group), control group were given distilled water, the two remaining groups ( treated group2 were administered by 20 mg/kg of ampiroxicam for one month and treated group3 were administrated by20 mg/kg of ampiroxicam for tow month). The results showed that the changes in of tissue of liver in treated animals include: degeneration of hepatocyte and hepatic sinusoidal dilation, also lymphocyte infiltration, necrosis, dead cell, detachment of basement membranes and hypertrophy while there are no significant microscopic changes in control group1 (untreated animals). The increase in duration of the oral administration of ampiroxicam has increasing significant effect on liver of mice.


Article
Determination of HLA Class I Antigens in some Iraqi patients with Acute and Chronic Urticaria
تحديد مستضدات التطابق النسيجي الصنف الاول (HLA Class I Antigens) لبعض المرضى العراقيين المصابين بالارتيكاريا الحادة والمزمنة

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This research was included (60) patients diagnosed as having Urticaria, (30) patients with acute Urticaria and (30) patients with chronic Urticaria in addition to ( 30) healthy people were chosen as a control. lymphoid cells (Lymphocytes) isolated from patients and healthy controls and added to Terasaki Plates which containing specific antibodies to the( HLA -Class I Antigen) to identify alleles of these antigens. The result showed (HLA-A2) allele increased in its recurrences in patients with acute Urticaria and significantly higher when compared with chronic Urticaria patients and control group, which have Relative Risk (RR) (4.12 , 13.50), respectively, and raise the value of the Etiological Fraction (EF) to (0.45 , 0.55), respectively, also significantly higher when compared acute and chronic Urticaria patients with the control group associated with the Relative Risk (6.88) and the Etiological Fraction (0.37) to explain the presence of Positive Association between the disease and (HLA-A2) allele, which gives genetically predisposed to infection of Urticaria .


Article
Molecular Genetics Study on Autistic Patients in Iraq
دراسة وراثية جزيئية على مرضى التوحد في العراق

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This study reflected on the relationship between contactin associated protein-like 2 gene (CNTNAP2) and autism spectrum disorders. The study includes forty autistic patients and forty non autistic children as control groups (twenty unaffected sibling and twenty unrelated children). DNA was extracted from Blood samples for molecular detection of CNTNAP2 mutations associated with ASDs by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique and sequencing analysis. PCR reaction was performed to amplify exon 20 of CNTNAP2 gene. The PCR results revealed that identical bands related to exon 20 of CNTNAP2 gene were present in all samples. Therefore, five samples (four from autistic patients and one from control sibling) were selected for genotype analysis of CNTNAP2 (exon 20) by direct sequencing. Genotype analysis revealed that there were no any variants in CNTNAP2 (exon 20), but it shows that two different mutations were identified in non coding region (introns) of the CNTNAP2 gene (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs),ID SNP: rs3779032 A/G in 2118282 position and ID SNP: rs3779031 A/C in 2118436 position). rs3779031 A/C are located at intron 19 while SNP rs3779032 A/G are located at intron 21. These mutations were seen only in autistic patients but not present in control sample. The current study showed that two common SNPs (rs3779031 and rs3779032) in CNTNAP2 were strongly associated with ASDs, where the frequencies of these SNPs were relatively high. SNP rs3779032 were identified in two autistic patients while rs3779031 were identified in three autistic patients from four unrelated families with ASDs.


Article
Profile of Some Cytokines in Sera of Children with Autism Syndrome
نسق بعض الحركيات الخلوية في مصول أطفال متلازمة التوحد

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a spectrum of behavioral anomalies characterized by impairment in social interactions and communication deficits. A potential role for immune dysfunction has been suggested in ASD. To test this hypothesis, certain cytokines: IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A and IFN-γ were investigated in serum of all participants. The study includes: 39 child (male and female) aged < 5 to10 years with confirmed diagnosis of autism using standard assessment, age and gender matched 24 confirmed healthy children and 19 non autistic siblings used as controls. Serum was isolated and cytokines were detected using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The observations indicate a significant increase (P < 0.05) in autistic patients serum levels of IL-10 compared with healthy control, but with lack of significant difference with their related non autistic siblings. Whereas detection of IL-12 and IFN-γ in the autistic patients serum showed significantly decrease level (P < 0.05) compared with healthy control, but with lack of significant difference with their related non autistic siblings. On the other hand, detection of IL-2 and IL-17A results showed no significant (P > 0.05) differences compared with healthy control and non autistic siblings.


Article
Determination of Optimal Conditions for the Production of Laccase Enzyme by Local Isolate of Bacillus sp.
تحديد الظروف المثلى لانتاج انزيم Laccase من العزلة المحلية .Bacillus sp

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Fifty isolates of Bacillus sp. were subjected to the first and second screening to detect the ability to produce laccase enzyme and select the highest ones production of laccase on Petri plates containing nutrient agar supplemented with Cu2+. Syringaldazine was used as an indicator and substrate for the determination of laccase activity. Three isolates, which consumed less time to developed pink color were tested for the production of laccase quantitatively. The effective isolate B16 with significant amounts of laccase 1.84 unit /ml was selected for laccase study. The optimization studies revealed that the maximum laccase production was achieved when the production medium was at the following conditions: 5 days of incubation, temperature 35 C°, pH 7.0, copper sulphate 0.2 mM, galactose 3% as carbon source, 0.2% Tryptone as nitrogen source and K+ 1mM.


Article
Determination of Uranium Concentration in Soil of Baghdad Governorate and its Effect on Mitotic Index Assay
تحديد تركيز اليورانيوم في تربة محافظة بغداد وتاثيرة على معدل الانقسام الخلوي

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The aim of this work is to determine the uranium concentration in soil samples taken from the north, south, east, west and center of the city of Baghdad and measure its impact on the rate of cell division for non-smokers peoples and living in those areas and that between the ages 25-30 year. The uranium concentration in the samples determined by using CR-39 track detector . As calculated for the ten samples of each site when irradiated by thermal neutrons from the (Am - Be) source with flux (5x 103 n S-1cm-2), the concentration values were calculated by a comparison with standard geological samples. The results indicate that the extent of the concentration of uranium in the soil north and east of Baghdad was 12.9 ± 0.7 in Al- Taji north of Baghdad and 12.4 ± 0.23ppm in the Diyala- Bridge area east of Baghdad and the results were recorded lower concentration of uranium in the western, central and southern Baghdad, which stood at 0.60 ± 0.21 in the Abu Ghraib area west of Baghdad, and 4.6 ± 0.7ppm in the Bab-Al-Sharqee of central Baghdad and 0.87 ± 0.7ppm in Al-Mhmodya area south of Baghdad . The mitotic index assay MI in the north and east of Baghdad was 2.3 ± 0.059 in the north and 2.43 ± 0.059 in eastern Baghdad, while the lowest rate in West and Central and South compared with the threshold level of 0.6 . Which indicates contamination north and east of Baghdad as a result of uranium wars on Iraq passed in 2003 which negatively affects the behavior of lymphocytes and on the rate of division.


Article
Study of Density Distributions, Elastic Electron Scattering form factors and reaction cross sections of 9C, 12N and 23Al exotic nuclei
دراسة توزيعات الكثافة, عوامل التشكل للاستطارة الالكترونية المرنة و المقاطع العرضية للتفاعل للنوى الغريبة 9C,12N و 23Al

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The ground state densities of unstable proton-rich 9C, 12N and 23Al exotic nuclei are studied via the framework of the two-frequency shell model (TFSM) and the binary cluster model (BCM). In TFSM, the single particle harmonic oscillator wave functions are used with two different oscillator size parameters βc and βv, where the former is for the core (inner) orbits and the latter is for the valence (halo) orbits. In BCM, the internal densities of the clusters are described by single particle Gaussian wave functions. The long tail performance is clearly noticed in the calculated proton and matter density distributions of these nuclei. The structure of the valence proton in 9C and 12N is a pure (1p1/2) configuration while that for 23Al is mixed configurations with dominant (2s1/2). Elastic electron scattering proton form factors for 9C, 12N and 23Al are studied using the plane wave born approximation (PWBA). It is found that the major difference between the calculated form factors of unstable (exotic) [9C, 12N, 23Al] nuclei and those of stable [12C, 14N, 27Al] nuclei is attributed firstly to the influence of the proton density distributions of the last proton in unstable nuclei and secondly to the difference in the center of mass correction which depends on the mass number and the size parameter β (which is assumed in this case equal to the average of βc and βv). The reaction cross sections for 9C, 12N and 23Al are studied by means of the Glauber model with an optical limit approximation using the ground state densities of the projectile and target, where these densities are described by single Gaussian functions. The calculated reaction cross sections of 9C, 12N and 23Al at high energy are in good agreement with the data. The analysis of the present study supports the halo structure of these nuclei.


Article
Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Zawita, Amadia Areas.
دراسة المعادن الطينية لتكوين المقدادية في مناطق زاويته وعمادية

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Twenty mudstone samples are chosen, each sample represents the mudstone units of each sedimentary cycle of Mukdadiya Formation in two sections (10 samples from Zawita area and 10 samples from Amadia area) in northern Iraq. X-ray Diffraction technique is used in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate. The clay minerals are: kaolinite, chlorite, illite, montmorillonite and palygorskite by the major basal reflections of each clay mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.


Article
Geoelectrical Study in Shewasoor Dam Site in Kirkuk/Northern Iraq
دراسة جيوكهربائية لموقع سد شيوه سور في كركوكشمالي العراق

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A geoelectrical investigation is carried out for a geological consideration in the Shewasoor dam site, which is situated 40 km northeast Kirkuk city. Symmetrical Schlumberger array were applied for fifteen electrical sounding (VES) points, with a maximum spread distance (120-200) meters. Seven vertical electric sounding (VES) points were surveyed in the main valley. Two (VES) points were taken at the area behind the dam, and two other points at the right side of the dam body. Additional four (VES) points measured at the left side within the spillway area. In order to achieve the qualitative and quantitative interpretations manual partial matching technique and (IPI2 WIN) (ID) software are used. The results show that the surface is comprise of recent silt, clay, sand and gravel sediments with trace of water. The subsurface within the valley nearby the dam body is dominanted by claystone underlined by pebbly sandstone with water table condition, while the spillway is characterize by silt and gravel sediments. The area behind the dam body subsurface is composed of silty sandstone underlined by sandy siltstone. It is concluded that the subsurface layers of the dam site are suffering from heterogeneity.


Article
Seismicity Study of Khanaqin Area
دراسة زلزالية قضاء خانقين

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A seismicity study of khanaqin city and surrounding area is carried out. More than 270 quakes between 22 Nov. to 30 Dec. 2013 are recorded by Iraqi Seismic Network (ISN). Analyses of these events show earthquakes magnitude range between (1.2 – 5.6) degree, focal depth between (4 – 27) km. Seismotectonic map for studied area is drawn . Isointensity maps for the felt earthquakes are drawn and show the intensity range between (I-VII) according to the modified Mercalli scale. Fault plane solutions for four events in the study area indicate a reverse strike slip solution along planes with NW –SE direction .

Keywords

Seismic --- activity --- Seismic Swarm.


Article
Seismic Structural –Stratigraphic Study of Dhufria Area (Mid -Iraq) Using (3D) Techniques
دراسة زلزالية تركيبيةـ طباقية لمنطقة الظفرية باستخدام تقنية الابعاد الثلاثة

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Abstract

This study deals with the seismic reflection interpretation of lower Cretaceous Formations in Dhufria area, including structural and stratigraphic techniques. In the interpretation process, the 3-D seismic data volume and well logs have been used. Based on well logs and synthetic traces two horizons were identified and picked which are the top and bottom of Zubair Formation. These horizons were followed over all the area in order to obtain structural setting as well as studying Kirkuk group Formation of Tertiary age which represents highstand progradational seismic facies.


Article
Groundwater Quality Evaluation in the Upper Part of the Mandali Basin
تقييم نوعية المياه الجوفية للجزء الأعلى من حوض مندلي

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Abstract

Mandali Basin is located between latitudes (33◦ 39 '00 "- 33◦ 54' 55") to the north and longitudes (45◦ 11 '00 "- 45◦ 40' 00") to the east, eastern Diyala province. The research study attributes hydrochemical properties groundwater upper part of the Mandali basin for 20 wells through the data from the analysis of the hydrological information bank of the General Directorate for drilling water wells 2007, hydrochemical study of the water tube wells for two seasons showed water surplus season (February) and season the water deficit (August) It's water colorless, odorless dominated by sulfate ion and sodium, and through hydrochemical formula and the type of water was found that most of the water area of study is the sodium sulfate type Na2SO4 and through the study of the origin of groundwater showed it that is atmospheric origin for two seasons. Through classification Schoeller show that the predominant chemical type for two seasons is sulphates. Either through the study of water for different purposes validity was shown that the groundwater and the seasons are not suitable for drinking and is suitable for industrial uses while it is valid for animal consumption and for the purposes of building and construction As for irrigation Most water samples are invalid accept wells (3,4,7,15 , 18,19) and for two seasons.


Article
Nilpotency of Centralizers in Prime Rings
الأولية الحلقات في القوى عديمة المتمركزات

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Abstract

E. C. Posner proved that if λ and δ are derivations of a prime ring R with characteristic not equal 2 , then λδ=0 implies that either λ=0 or δ=0 . David W.Jensen extend this result by showing that , without any characteristic restriction , λδ^m=0 implies either λ=0 or δ^(4m-1)=0 , also he proved that λ^n δ=0 implies either δ^2=0 or λ^(12n-9)=0 , and finally , in general when λ^n δ^m=0 , he showed that if λ and δ are commute , then at least one of the derivations must be nilpotent .Here we ask the possibility if the same results of David can be satisfied on R with replacing the derivations λ andδ with centralizers T and G.


Article
A secure Search over Distributed Data
البحث الامن على البيانات الموزعة

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Abstract

In recent years, due to the economic benefits and technical advances of cloud computing, huge amounts of data have been outsourced in the cloud. To protect the privacy of their sensitive data, data owners have to encrypt their data prior outsourcing it to the untrusted cloud servers. To facilitate searching over encrypted data, several approaches have been provided. However, the majority of these approaches handle Boolean search but not ranked search; a widely accepted technique in the current information retrieval (IR) systems to retrieve only the top–k relevant files. In this paper, propose a distributed secure ranked search scheme over the encrypted cloud servers. Such scheme allows for the authorized user to search the distributed documents in a descending order with respect to their relevance documents and the contents of files be retrieved. To do so, each data owner builds its own searchable index, and associates with each document in that index its weight score, which facilitate document ranking. To ensure the privacy of these weights, utilized the ranking. While preserving their capability to perform the ranking process and to conducted several empirical analyses on a real dataset, all programs needed to the propose system written using Matlab language.


Article
Image Segmentation Using Superpixel Based Split and Merge Method
انقسام الصورة باستخدام عناصر الصورة المميزة استناداً لطريقة الانشقاق والدمج

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Abstract

A super pixel can be defined as a group of pixels, which have similar characteristics, which can be very helpful for image segmentation. It is generally color based segmentation as well as other features like texture, statistics…etc .There are many algorithms available to segment super pixels like Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) super pixels and Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Application with Noise (DBSCAN). SLIC algorithm essentially relay on choosing N random or regular seeds points covering the used image for segmentation. In this paper Split and Merge algorithm was used instead to overcome determination the seed point's location and numbers as well as other used parameters. The overall results were better from the SLIC method depending on single threshold, which control the segments number needed (like 0.2) to accomplish the task.


Article
Performance Improvement for Wireless Sensor Networks
تحسين الأداء في شبكات الاستشعار اللاسلكية

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Abstract

In this paper, we prove that our proposed localization algorithm named Improved Accuracy Distribution localization for wireless sensor networks (IADLoc) [1] is the best when it is compared with the other localization algorithms by introducing many cases of studies. The IADLoc is used to minimize the error rate of localization without any additional cost and minimum energy consumption and also decentralized implementation. The IADLoc is a range free and also range based localization algorithm that uses both type of antenna (directional and omni-directional) it allows sensors to determine their location based on the region of intersection (ROI) when the beacon nodes send the information to the sink node and the latter sends this information to the sensors by relying on the antenna. It performance was compared with previous algorithms HiRLoc, PTA and RAL in terms of the number of sensors, average localization error and execution time


Article
Comparison of Ionospheric Total Electron Content Measurements with IRI-2012 Model Predictions Over Athens
مقارنة قياسات المحتوى الالكتروني الكلي للايونوسفير مع تنبؤات موديل IRI-2012 فوق مدينة اثينا

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Abstract

Total Electron Content measurements derived from Athens station ionograms (ITEC), located near Iraq, during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 (July 2009- April 2010), according to availability of data, are compared with the latest version of the International Reference Ionosphere model, IRI-2012 (IRI TEC), using two options (NeQuick, IRI01-Corr) for topside electron density. The results obtained from both (ITEC and IRI TEC) techniques were similar, where correlation coefficients between them are very high. Generally, the IRI predictions overestimate the ITEC values


Article
Enhancement and Quality Assessment of Multi-Spectral Image Using Different Fusion Methods
تحسين وتقييم نوعية الصور المتعددة الحزم بأستخدام طرق دمج مختلفة

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Abstract

Image Fusion is a process of combining the relevant information from a set of images into a single image, where the resultant fused image will be more informative and complete than any of the input images. Image fusion techniques can improve the quality and increase the application of these data. This paper presents three types of fusion method principle component analysis (PCA), wavelet and P+XS to fuse multispectral and panchromatic land sat image with (30 and 15 ) meter spatial resolution respectively. Many criteria such as (ERGAS, RMSE, RASE, SC) have been applied to evaluate the results.

Keywords

image fusion --- PCA --- wavelet --- P+XS

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