Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2015 volume:46 issue:2

Article
TECHNOLOGY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF SALINITY STRESS TOLERANCE MECHANISMS IN CEREALS
تقنيات تحديد آليات تحمل شد الملح في محاصيل الحبوب

Authors: كريمة محمد وهيب K.M.Wuhaib
Pages: 103-119
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Cereals are grown in almost every region of the world and exposed to a variety of environmental stresses that severely affect their growth and grain yield due to changes in morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular plant processes. The adverse effects of salinity include ion toxicity, nutrient constraints, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress caused by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species those damage membrane lipids, protein and nucleic acid. Maintenance of high cytosolic K+/Na+ concentration is a key requirement for plant salt tolerance. Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) signaling pathway, composed of SOS1, 2 and 3 proteins, has emerged as a key factor in the detection of and tolerance to salt stress. One of the most important challenges in the research of life sciences is to attribute physiological functions precisely to responsible genes. Despite the rapid development of toolkits to manipulate individual genes, large-scale screening methods based on the complete loss of gene expression are still missing. In particular, RNAi-based down-regulation of any particular gene expression is not always sufficient to cause phenotypical changes of interest; a method was developed of gene identification based on functional screening and high-throughput sequencing. The broad application of this powerful genetic screening enable the discovery of genes that participate in a broad range of biological processes. Next generation a technology in crop plant genomics is now firmly embedded in the breeding of various crops, improving the precision of breeding and enabling the assembly of multiple traits in new elite breeding lines and varieties. High-throughput biology serves as one facet of what has also been called "omics research"-the interface between large scale biology (Genome, proteome, transcriptome), technology and researchers. The complete genome sequences of hundreds of organisms have provided the list of components required to make an organism viable. To understand the responses to abiotic stress we must study the molecular and physiological traits for development salt tolerance crops.


Article
EFFECT OF CYCOCEL AND FOLIAR NUTRITION OF NITROGEN AND BORON ON GROWTH OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS
تأثير السايكوسيل والتغذية الورقية بالنتروجين والبورون في نمو أصناف من فول الصويا

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A field study was conducted during Summer seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Al-Namea Region-Falluja city of Al-Anbar province to studay the effect of cycocel and foliar nutrition of nitrogen and boron in growth of soybean cultivars. A split-split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design RCBD with three replicates. The cultivars (Sinaea 2, Giza 35 and Giza 22) placed in the main plots. While foliar nutrition with nitrogen and boron (0B+0N, 10B +250N and 20B+500N) mg.l-1 placed in sub plots. The sup-sup plots were included three concentrations of cycocel (0, 50 and 100) mg.l-1. The cultivar Giza 22 gave the highest rate of the number of branches.plant-1 (4.89 and 5.64) branches.plant-1 and leaf area (44.20 and 51.04) dm2 respectively, and leaf area index .The concentration (20B+500N) mg.l-1 gave the highest rate of the number of branches. plant-1, leaf area (44.26 and 49.15) dm2, leaf area index and number of days from planting to maturity and also gave the lowest number of days from planting to 50% flowering, while the concentration (10B+250N) mg.l-1 gave the highest rate of plant height (101.89 and 122.70) cm respectively. The concentration 100 mg .l-1 from cycocel record the lowest rate of the plant height (93.59 and 107.86) cm, leaf area (38.89 and 43.14) dm2 and leaf area index while gave the highest rate of the number of branches.plant-1 (5.85, 4.90) respectively. A significant interaction between cultivars and foliar nutrition, the cultivar Giza 22 with (10B+250N) mg.l-1 gave the highest rate of the leaf area. The interaction between cultivar Giza 22 with concentration 100 mg .l-1 from cycocel gave the lowest rate of plant height (92.69 and 106.22) cm and number of days from planting to 50% flowering. It also gave the highest rate of the number of branches.plant-1. The triple interaction between cultivar Giza 22 with concentration (20B+500N) mg.l-1 of foliar nutrition and concentration 100 mg.l-1 from cycocel (V3F3C3) was significant effect in number of branches.plant-1. While the combination V1F1C3 gave the lowest rate of leaf area and leaf area index. But the combination (V2F1C3) gave the lowest rate of plant height.


Article
EFFECT OF CYCOCEL AND FOLIAR NUTRITION OF NITROGEN AND BORON ON SEED YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF THREE SOYBEAN CULTIVARS
تاثير السايكوسيل والتغذية الورقية بالنتروجين والبورون في حاصل البذور ومكوناته لثلاثة أصناف من

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A field study was conducted during Summer seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Al-Naemea Region-Falluja city of Al-Anbar province to study the effect of cycocel and foliar nutrition of nitrogen and boron in the yield of three soybean cultivar. A split -split plot arrangement in randomized complete block design RCBD with three replicates. The cultivars (Sinaea 2, Giza 35 and Giza 22) placed in the main plots. While foliar nutrition with nitrogen and boron (0B+0N, 10B +250N and 20B+500N) Mg.l-1 placed in sub plots. The sup-sup plots were included three concentrations of growth retardant of cycocel (0, 50 and 100) mg.l-1. The soybean cultivars showed a different significant in most of the traits. Cultivar Giza 22 gave the highest number of pod (119.97 and 121.20) pod.plant-1, 100 seeds weight and seeds yield (3.161 and 3.070) t.h-1 for two seasons respectively. Foliar nutrition showed a significant effect in the traits of yield .The concentration (20B+500N) mg.l-1 gave the highest number of pod (119.07 and 123.02) pod.plant-1, fertile Percentage, number of seeds per pod, harvest index and seeds yield (3.075 and 3.099) t.h-1 for two seasons respectively. The concentration 100 mg .l-1 of cycocel record the highest number of pods (126.93 and 132.47) pod.plant-1, harvest index and seeds yield (3.454 and 3.208) t.h-1. A significant interaction between cultivars and foliar nutrition, the cultivar Giza 22 with concentration (20B+500N) mg.l-1 gave the highest number of pods (128.80 and 130.34) pod.plant-1, harvest index and seeds yield (3.251 and 3.507) t.h-1 respectively. The interaction between cultivars and cycocel was significant effect; the cultivar Giza 22 with concentration 100 mg.l-1 gave the highest number of pods (130.85 and 147.10) pod.plant-1. The interaction between cultivar Giza 22 with concentration (20B+500N) mg.l-1 and concentration 100 mg .l-1 of cycocel was significant effect in number of pods (147.27 and 160.53) pod.plant-1 for two seasons respectively, and seeds yield in the first season ( 3.750 t.h-1).


Article
GENE ACTION FOR EARLINESS AND YIELD OF SOME COTTON VARIETIES AND THEIR HYBRIDS UNDER TWO IRRIGATION PERIODS
الفعل الجيني للتبكير وحاصل بعض أصناف وهجن القطن تحت فترتين للري

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A field experiment was carried out during 2010-2011 at the experimental field of Crop Science Dept.-College of Agriculture-Abu-Graib. This was to estimate of combining ability and type of gene action in inheritance of earliness and seed cotton yield for genotypes under water stress conditions and estimate of hybrid vigor. Five varieties of cotton included Cocker-310, Dise, Macneer, Marsoomi-5 and Rabeaa-122 were crossed, during the season of 2010 using half diallil. The traits for 10 single crosses and 5 parents were tested during 2011 using RCBD design under split plot arrangement with three replications, irrigation treatments occupied main plot included irrigation weekly and at two weeks and sub plot included 15 genotypes. Significant differences were found among genotypes in all traits studied. The crosses cocker-310 X Rabee122 and Marsoomi5 X Rabee122 were gave highest positive hybrid vigor (22.06 and 21.94% respectively) in seed cotton yield in irrigation at two weeks. The cross Marsoomi5 X Macneer gave higher hybrid vigor in earliness (4.65%). The variances due to GCA and SCA were significant for traits studied accept no. of monopodia. This indicated that both additive and non-additive gene action were responsible for the investigated characters. The parent Macneer had highest GCA effect for seed cotton yield, no. of days to first open flower and no. of days to first open ball, the cross Cocker-310 X Rabee122 had highest SCA in seed cotton yield and cross Marsoomi5 X Rabee122 in earliness traits. It can be conclude that earliness traits were effected by non-additive gene action so can use hybridization following to selection to find early and high yield crosses.


Article
HETEROSIS AND GENE ACTION OF DIALLEL CROSS AMONG INBRED LINES OF MAIZE
قوة الهجين والفعل الجيني لتضريبات تبادلية بين سلالات ذرة صفراء

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A field experimental were carried out at the field of the Crop Department College of Agriculture-Baghdad University for two seasons, spring and autumn 2012 in order to estimate the heterosis and gene action for diallel crosses which hybridized under two levels of nitrogen 100 and 400 Kg.ha-1. In the first seasonat the diallel crosses were conducted between four inbred lines of maize are Zm7, Zm607, Oh40 and Zr8 to produces six crosses at each level nitrogen .carried out at the autumn season, 2012 using the hybrid trait was RCBD in three replicates with 400 Kg N.ha-1. Gave the cross Oh40×Zm607 higher heterosis in tasseling and silking under 400N and 100 N Kg.ha-1(-11.26% and -9.08%) and (-10.05% and -9.52%) respectively and gave the same cross under 400N Kg.ha-1 highest heterosis reducing plant height and chlorophyll index (19.48% and 12.71%) respectively. The higher heterosis in leaves area was (24.52% and 23.27%) for cross Zm607×Zm7 under 400N and 100N Kg.ha-1. Dominance variance was great than additive variance in characters studies and the average degree of dominance was greater from one except leaves area under 100N Kg.ha-1. The highest values of broad sense heritability were recorded in tasseling and decline narrow sense heritability except leaves area for crosses 100N. We conclude that all characters studies of diallel crosses hybrids under two levels of nitrogen under the control of non-additive gene action, the studied characters can improve using hybridization.


Article
تأثير اختلاف ارتفاع النبات وطبيعة النمو في معدل الاستهلاك المائي لنبات زهرة النيل
INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT PLANT TALL AND GROWTH OF WATER HYACINTH ON WATER CONSUMPTIVE IN NORTHERN IRAQ

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A pot experiment was conducted during growing season 2011 at collage of Agriculture and Forestry/Mousl University on water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart)Solms .The focus of this project was to determine the water consumed for the plants, in Nenawa province .The experiment consist three factors. The first was different plant tall at the start the project 10,15 and 20cm, second factor was plant growth habit on May and June while last factor was frequency of taken results (9 time during one month). It was factorial experiment in complete randomized design (CRD).The result showed that over one month ,there was on significant in water use or water less in May or June ,while increasing plant tall 20 cm provided significantly higher which gave up to 51.4% comparing with 10 cm plant tall. Also increasing rate of water consumed according to the greater plant growth or size ,which gave up to 63.9% between the beginning and end experiment .In general ,the different between the first data for 10 cm plant tall in May was 95.4% if it compared with last data for treatment 20 cm plant tall .while the same treatment reached up to 83.5% in June .On other hand ,the largest water loss with treatment of 20 cm tall in May was 137.3 tons .day-¹.donum-¹ if it compared with the same treatment in June which loosed 513.2 tons.day-¹.ha-¹ of water.


Article
ROLE OF THE COMBINED BETWEEN SORGHUM RESIDUE AND CHEVALIER HERBICIDE ON WEED CONTROL IN WHEAT
دور التكامل بين مخلفات الذرة البيضاء ومبيد الشيفالير في مكافحة أدغال الحنطة

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A two-year field trial was conducted during 2010-2011 in the experimental field of Field Crop Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad to test the effect of different rates of (350, 530 and 760) gm.m-2 of sorghum residues Rabh cv. alone or in combination with 50% (150 gm.ha-1) of recommended rate of Chevalier herbicide with weedy and without sorghum residue check. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with three replications. Result showed, all treatments significantly reduced weed population and dry weight of weeds in comparison to control treatment during both years of the study. However, plots treated with 50% of recommended rate of herbicide and amended with sorghum residues recorded least weed density and dry biomass and this suppression was much greater than the residue treatments and reduced herbicide when used alone. Application of Chevalier herbicide at 50% rate in plots amended with sorghum residue at rates 350 gm.m-2 resulted in similar yield as with the label herbicide rate treatment. While the higher sorghum residues inhibited yield. The increase in yield apparently due to increase in number of spikes per unit area. Integration of sorghum residues at 350 gm.m-2 with a lower herbicide rate can furnish adequate weed suppression without compromising yield, which could be used as a feasible and environmentally sound weed management approach in wheat fields.


Article
ESTIMATION OF SOME GENETIC PARAMETERS OF F2 GENOTYPES OF COTTON
تقدير بعض المعالم الوراثية في الجيل الثاني لتراكيب وراثية من القطن

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Cotton varieties, Iranian, Bulgarian Gord 26, Lachata, French CA22, Syrian line 106, Pima, Bulgarian Chripam539 and Coker310, and all their F2 half diallel crosses were grown at Al-Hawija, Kirkuk Governorate in mid-April, 2011 using randomized complete block design with three replications to study general and specific combining abilities for parent and crosses respectively and estimation of phenotypic variance components and some genetic parameters for characters: plant height, number of fruiting branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, earliness, lint index and seed cotton yield per plant. Analysis of variance results showed that mean square of genotypes, general and specific combining ability was significant for all characters. The variety Bulgarian Chripam539 appeared as a good general combiner for all characters, and (Bulgarian Gord 26 x Lachata), cross as good specific combiner for all characters except plant height. The variances (additive, dominance and environmental) appeared significant from zero for all characters, and the dominance variance was higher than additive one for all characters except plant height. Both additive and dominances variances was high as compared with environmental one for all characters. The average degree of dominance was higher than one for all characters indicating the presence of over dominance control its inheritance with the exception of plant height, as the partial dominance present. Narrow sense heritability ranged from 6.23% for boll number to 66.13% for plant height, as was high for plant height and low for other characters, while broad sense heritability was high for all characters and ranged from 89.41% for boll weight and 98.99% for plant height, while genetic advance from selection in the third generation as percent from character mean was high for plant height where valued 18.023%, while it was low for other characters.


Article
HETEROSIS OF SOME TRAITS OF MAIZE AS INFLUENCED BY PLANTING DATE
قوة الهجين في بعض الصفات الحقلية للذرة الصفراء بتأثير مواعيد الزراعة

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Four maize inbreds (LO1220, B73, NA17 and NA30) and their full diallel crosses were used in this experiment. Parents and crosses were planted at the farm of the Field Crop Department/College of Agriculture/University of Baghdad. Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications used during the spring and fall seasons of 2013 to investigate the effect of three sowing dates (1 July, 15 July and 1 August) to the characters of genotypes and hybrid vigor. Data were collected for number of days to 50% pollen shedding and silking, plant height, ear height and leaf area, the results analyzed statistically and genetically. The results showed sowing date were significant different between the sowing dates 1 July gave the highest values of pollen shedding and silking characteristics. The parent LO1220 and NA17 were earlier in the flowering, while the B73 parent was superior in leaf area, plant height and ear height. the cross NA17×LO1220 was superior in the number of days to 50% pollen release 51.93 days when sown on 1 July while the crosses LO1220×NA17 was superior in the number of days to 50% silking 54.44 day when sown on 1 July. The crosses B73×NA17 was superior in the plant height an average of 139.33 cm when sown on 1 August and given the crosses LO1220×B73 and NA17×B73 were superior in the ear height an average of 72.73 cm when sown on 1 Augest. The results showed that the hybrid vigor was highly significant for characters. The August 14.95% in the reciprocal NA17×B73 for ear height in 1 July. The results of this study revealed that the studied character under dominance gene action.


Article
الإستجابة الوظيفية وبناء جداول القابلية التكاثرية للطفيل Eretmocerus mundus Marcetعلى الذبابة البيضاء Bemisia tabaci
FUNCTIONAL RESPONSE AND REPRODACTIVE POTENTIAL TABLES FOR THE PARASITE ERETMOCERUS MUNDUS MARCET

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Functional response and the reproductive potential tables of the parasite Eretmocerus mundus on cotton whitefly Bemisia tabaci were studied in biological control research unit at temperatures 25c, the result showed functional response curves showed that the E. mundus females of followed the second pattern functional response, the attack coefficient (a) was 1.1193, while 0.5016 hour for the handling time (Th). The results of reproductive capacity tables of E. mundus females at an average age of 6 days on 25c, as well as revealed that net reproductive rate (Ro) were 11.12 female/female/generation. Generation length period (T) 29.99 days. Intrinsic rates of increase (rm) were 0.08 female/female. We concluded inference the fend parasitoid E. mundus followed type II of functional response. Dependent on reproduction rate the population of this parasitoid tend on increase on temperatures 25c. We recommended more environmental, life and field studies on the parasite.


Article
INVESTIGATING FOR FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH ZINNIA SEEDS AND EVALUATING ITS EFFECT ON SEED GERMINATION AND PLANT GROWTH
التحري عن انواع الجنس Fusarium المرافقة لبذور الزينيا وتقييم تأثيرها في انبات البذور ونمو النباتات

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This study was carried out to detect the species of genus Fusarium that associated with zinnia seeds and test its pathogenicity under Laboratory and green house conditions. Results of isolation and identification showed the existence of 6 Fusarium species associated with zinnia seeds , and all these species were recorded for the first time on this plant in Iraq. These species were: F. acuminatum, F. culmorum, F. oxysporum , F. solani , F. thapsinum ,and F. verticillioides. Result showed the existence of F. solani and F. culmorum in 27.3% of seed samples with 31.16% and 7.59% frequency rate respectively. Other species were presented in 18.2% of seed samples. The preliminary test of the pathogenicity by cabbage seeds which included two separated experiments , showed that all the 22 isolates caused a significant reduction in the rate of cabbage seeds germination but only seven isolates were highly pathogenic,the percentage of germination in their treatments were 0-20% compared to 97and 98% in control treatments. F. culmorum isolate (A33) gave the highest rate of decrease in seed germination (0%). Test of pathogenicity by blotter method showed that all the 15 isolates of this genus caused a significant reduction in zinnia seed germination which more than half of them were highly pathogenic. Isolates of F. oxysporum (F14) and F. solani (D4) caused the highest decrease in seed germination: 3% and 7% respectively. Under greenhouse conditions the result indicated that all nine isolates caused a significant increase in disease incidence and severity comparing with control treatment. Isolates F. culmorum (A33), F. oxysporum (F14) and F. verticillioides (B24) caused a significant superiority in disease incidence and severity (97.5-100 % and 96.5-98%).


Article
EVALUATING THE ACTIVITY OF POLYETHYLEN GLYCOL, SOME PLANT EXTRACTS AND BIOPRODUCTS AGAINST FUSARIUM SPP. ASSOCIATED WITH ZINNIA SEEDS
تقييم فعالية البولي اًثيلين كلايكول وبعض المستخلصات النباتية والمستحضرات الحيوية ضد أنواع الجنس Fusarium المرافقة لبذور الزينيا

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The study was carried out to evaluation the effect of PEG, some plant extracts and bioprepreations on the some species of Fusarium associated with zinnia seeds. Under green house conditions, the results of the evaluation the efficiency of PEG in protect of zinnia seeds from Fusarium culmorum (A33), F. oxysporum (F14), F. solani (F19) and F. verticillioides (B24), indicted that the percentage of germination capacity and seed germination for seeds primed with PEG solution and planted in inoculated soils with these isolates was 27.5-50% and 37.5-55% compared to unprimed seeds: 5-10% and 7.5-12.5% respectively. Isolate F. solani (F19) gave highest decrease in percentage seed germination and capacity with primed seeds. Laboratory results of evaluation the efficiency of many concentrations of alcoholic extract of coontail , lotus and the biopreparations of Sea bloom 29, Bioimmune and grape extract , had shown that the alcoholic extract of coontail 200 mg/L caused a significant superiority in the inhibition of these isolates (59.5-77.72%) followed by Bioimmune 12% (50-75%) and grapefruit extract (50.52-66.6%) compared to control (0%). Lotus extract in all concentration did not give any effect against isolates. Results of the greenhouse test, indicated the coontail extract, Bioimmune and Beltanol caused a significant reduction in disease incidence and severity, so a significant increase in wet and dry weight in all isolates. Isolate F. solani (F19) caused higher reduction in disease incidence and severity (22.5%-11.7%), so higher increase in wet and dry weight (1.135 gm, 0.097 gm) respectively compared with control (97.5%, 90%, 0.285 gm and 0.020 gm respectively).


Article
EFFECT OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AGE ON INDUCED SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN TOMATO AGENT ROOT KNOT NEMATODES BY CHEMICAL INDUCERS
تأثير العمر الفسلجي للنبات في استحثاث المقاومة الجهازية في الطماطة ضد ديدان تعقد الجذور باستخدام مستحثات كيميائية

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This study was conducted to examin the effect of plant age on induction of resistance by, β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), Acibenzolar-S-methyl (BION), in tomato against root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. by various application methods. The resistance was manifested by reduced root penetration of second stage juveniles (j2) and lowered root knot gall index(gi) of treated plants. BABA treatment at plant age of 2-4 true leaves was significantly superior at the concentration of 40 mM for 4h by less number,76 j2 penetrating roots compared with 549 j2 in the roots of treated control plants. At 6-7 true leaves, 50 mM for one hour significantly outperformed with, 33.3 j2 compared with the 527.7 j2 in control plants. at the age of 2-4 true leaves treated with 40 mM for 4h recorded 5.3gi compared to the control 10 gi. The age of 6-7 true leaves with a concentration of 50 mM for one hour recorded of 2 gi compared with the control which recorded 9 gi. Increased plant resistance to nematodes was more apparent as the concentration of BABA was increased. BION was significantly better in inducing resistance to the nematodes at 50 mgL-1 for 3h when 2-4 true leaves age plants were treated as indicated, 117 j2 penetrated roots compared with 459.2 j2 in control plants. at 6-7 true leaves with 50 mgL-1 for 3h caused significantly less, 62.3 j2 penetrated the roots compared with 551.5 j2 in control. However, no significant difference was observed in the gi for the 2-4 true leaves treatments. the concentration of 50 mgL-1 for 12 h recorded, 6.3 gi compared with gi 10 in the control. At the age of 6-7 true leaves, the concentration of 50 mgL-1 for 3 h significantly increased the gi to 2. 7 compared with 8.5 gi in the control.


Article
SESONAL A BUNDANCE OF ALEUROCLAVA JASMINI WHITEFLY AND ITS ENEMIES ON SOME CITRUS SPECIES IN WASET PROVINCE
الوجود النسبي لذبابة الياسمين البيضاء Aleuroclava jasmini وأعدائها الحيوية على بعض أنواع الحمضيات في محافظة واسط

Authors: M. S. Manjy محمد شاكر منجي
Pages: 254-261
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The study carried out in a citrus orchard located at Al-Numaniyah District/ of Waset Province for the period from March to December 2012 to estimate the population density of nymphs of jasmine whitefly, Aleuroclava jasmini and its natural enemies on bitter orange (Citrus sinensis L.), sweet orange (Citrus aurantium L.) and Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata). Results showed that the pest preferred the lower height level of the trees of bitter orange, Mandarin orange and sweet orange. Results showed significant differences in the numbers of nymphs on the upper level of the orange tree (200 nymphs/cm2) comparing with 170.4 and 138.5 nymphs/cm2 on sour orange and Mandarin orange respectively. The less means were 27.75, 18.5 and 60.5 nymphs/cm2 respectively. The predator Chrysoperla carnea significantly exceeded the numbers of rest predators in the situation of study, where the highest rate in July on the bitter orange, Mandarin orange and sweet orange 25.5, 33.5 and 14.6 adult/sample respectively. The lowest rates in March were 7.4, 10.2 and 14 adult/sample respectively. There are other natural enemies was found as ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata and Coccinella undecimpunctata, , Encarsia sp. Clitostethus arcuatus, and predacious mite Pronematus sp.


Article
ESTIMATING FARM TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY BY USING STOCHASTIC FRONTIER APPROACH
تقدير الكفاءة التقنية للمزرعة باستخدام STOCHASTIC FRONTIER APPROACH

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The Iraqi agricultural sector suffers from many complex problems. Including poor management and failure to do the duties assigned to it, like the optimal use of factors of agricultural production Whe therat the level of planning or implementation, which is one of the reasons behind the lack of verification of high levels of agricultural production .Therefore, research goal to measure the technical efficiency, using analysis of Stochastic Frontier Approach( SFA), for 132 samples randomly collected from Diyala governorate .According to the transcendental logarithmic production function (TL).By focusing on the basic inputs used in all farms sample, which included as well as the dependent variable independent variables (amount of seeds, the amount of pesticides, hours of manual labor, working hours, farm size. As well as variables that are related to farm management (such as the age of the farmer, the peasant family size, years of experience. results indicate that the method of least squares was given in recognition modest for interrupted part B, As valued at 43.4 but higher than the values estimated in accordance with the method the of least squares corrected COLS and ML ,it reached38,38.5. The signal of studied variables came identical to the logic of economic except fertilizers and seeds. Average technical efficiency at the level of the sample was 66% and this result indicates that the farmers can increase their production by 34% without increasing any amount of economic resources used in the production process. This means that the sample lose a certain amount of economic resources and thus bear the additional costs equivalent of 34% of the costs of resources, and also means that the farmer could produce the same output with less Former including approximately 34% of the resources used, the average efficiency indicates that there is a deviation in the actual production at optimum output about 34% and could be achieved if farmers used the available economic resources in optimal ways. On this basis search recommended need to scientific methods in the management of all farms sizes and re-distribution of economic resources so as to ensure the same level of production or more while reducing cost and the need to develop the use of modern means and technique.


Article
EVALUATION THE EFFICACY OF KLUYVEROMYCES MARXIANUS AND SALICYLIC ACID FOR CONTROLLING GREEN MOLD ON ORANGE
تقويم فاعلية الخميرة Kluyveromyces marxianus وحامض السالسلك في مكافحة العفن الأخضر في البرتقال

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This study has been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus and salicylic acid separately or in combination against green mold of orange fruits caused by Penicillium digitatum. K. marxianus showed high efficacy as a biological agent against P.digitatum on PDA with 100% inhibition at 106 cells / ml. In addition, salicylic acid in both concentrations 1000 and 500 ppm inhibited P.digitatum growth at 94.3%, compared to 0.0% in control. K. marxianus suspension at 106 cells/ml and its filtrate inhibited spores germination of P.digitatum completely. The percentage of spore's germination in liquid PDB containing 100 ppm salicylic acid was found to be 2.3%, compared to 96.6% in control. The average lengths of germ tube in the yeast suspension, yeast filtrate and salicylic acid were found 0.0, 0.0 and 11.2 µm respectively compared to 21.2 µm in control. A combination of K. marxianus and salicylic acid Showed higher efficiency in controlling green mold on wounded orange fruits, where it has completely prevented the disease incidence after three days of incubation at 25 ± 2c. compared with yeast or salicylic acid separately. Fruits treatment with combination of salicylic acid and K. marxianus 24 hours before inoculation with P.digitatum has been found more efficient than salicylic acid and K. marxianus individually in stimulating resistance in the fruits.The activity of peroxidase (POD) in fruits peel was 5883 unit/s/mg after 96 hours of treatment, while the activity of peroxidase reached in salicylic acid or K. marxianus to 5132 and 4544 units/s/mg respectively, compared with 3193 and 3380 units/s/mg in control treatments (with pathogen or without pathogen) respectively.


Article
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DATES PRODUCTION IN IRAQ
التوزيع الجغرافي لإنتاج التمور في العراق

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Abstract

Geographical concentration for the production of agricultural products (especially Dates) from the aspects of production regions, types and cultivars is considered an important economic study. It could be used in agricultural policy to plan for agricultural industries to achieve technical and economic efficiency .Different branches of agricultural policy (price policy, production policy, marketing policy and financial policy) could play a basic role to plan in order to find an equilibrium in concentration of the agricultural products production and geographical distribution map for it. The results showed that dates concentration was in Middle of Iraq more than it was in the South, as the concentration was during the study period (1988- 2012) about (85.20%) for Middle region and (14.80%) for Southern region. The results also showed that there are only few commercial cultivars of Iraqi date, as they were concentrated in five main cultivars only especially (Zahdi) cultivar as its production constituted about 67.45% of date production of in Iraq as an average for study period. Other cultivars such as Khistawi, Khadhrawi, Sayer and Hillawi constituted 11.17%, 3.20%, 2.94% and 2.67% of total Iraqi production from date as an average for study period respectively. The results showed also that the Southern region (especially Theqar and Basra) has an advantage in production of some cultivars (Barhi, Derey, Bream and Chibchab) in comparison with middle region . The results also showed that in spite that date characterized by reveled comparative advantage, but government price support was not sufficient to encourage dates producers to increase their production. the results showed that the net protection coefficients (NPC’s) were more than (1) for the year 1995 and (2006-2012) only. The study arrived at some recommendations which could be of some benefit for agricultural policy makers in Iraq.


Article
EFFECT OF FORCE MOLTING ON EGG QUALITY TRAITS OF BROILER BREEDER HENS
تاثير القلش الاجباري على الصفات النوعية للبيض الامهات فروج اللحم

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Abstract

One hundred fifty three, sixty weeks of age of broiler breeders were used in this experiment to investigate the effects of supplementation of different levels of zinc oxide (ZnO) and AD3E vitamins on egg quality. The experimental treatments were T1: Control diet [without adding ZnO and vit. AD3E], T2: T1 + 2 gm/kg of vit. AD3E, T3: T1 + 25000 ppm of ZnO, T4: T1 + 25000 ppm ZnO + 2 gm/kg vit. AD3E, T5: T1 + 30000 ppm ZnO, T6: T1 + 30000 ppm ZnO + 2 gm/kg vit. AD3E, T7: T1 + 35000 ppm of ZnO and T8: T1 + 35000 ppm ZnO + 2 gm/kg vit. AD3E. The results obtained from this study were summarized as: The effects of interactions between treatments and age periods significantly (P<0.01) affected yolk and albumin weight, egg shell thickness, albumin height, Haugh unit score, yolk height, yolk diameter and yolk index traits.

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