Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:56 issue:1B

Article
Determination of hydroquinone in pure form and pharmaceutical preparations using Batch and FIA-Merging Zone techniques with spectrophotometric detection
التقدير الاني للهايدروكوينون بصيغته النقية والمستحضرات الصيدلانية باستخدام طريقتي الوجبة والحقن الجرياني-اندماج المناطق والتحسس بالطريقة الطيفية

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Abstract

In this study, anew, rapid and sensitive batch and flow injection-merging zones spectrophotometric methods for the determination of hydroquinone in a pure material and in pharmaceutical preparation were proposed.These methods were based onthe oxidative-coupling reaction of HQ with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydazine(DNPH) in the presence of sodium periodate and sodium hydroxide to form a dark brown water slouble dye that is stable and has maximumabsorption at 530nm, graphs of absorbance versus concentration show that Beer's low is obeyed over the concentration rang of 1-40 and 3-300 µg.ml-1 of hydroquinone, with detection limits of 0.162 and 0.510 µg.ml-1of hydroquinone for batch and FIAmethods, respectively. The optimized FIAsystem is able to determine hydroquinone with a through put of83h-1.All different chemical and physical experimental parameters affecting on the development and stability of the colored productwere carefully studied and the proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of hydroquinone in pharmaceuticalpreparations.


Article
Adsorption Properties of Mixed Surfactant forNonyl phenol Ethoxylate andDehyquarte E-CA inAqueous System at Liquid – Air Interface
الصفات الامتزازية لمزيج المحلول المائي للمواد الفعالة سطحيا Nonyl Phenol Ethoxylateو Dehyquarte E-CA على السطح البيني سائل – هواء

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Abstract

The micellization for an aqueous binary mixed system ofNonylPhenol Ethoxylate ( NPE ) and Dehyquarte E-CA (DE-CA) were studied by means of surface tension measurement. The surface tension was measured for the solutions of the single and five mixed systems at 25ᵒC in order to determine critical micellization concentrations (CMC), surface excesses (Γ), and the surface area occupied by a molecule (Am) as a function of mole fraction of (NPE). The CMC,s values obtained decrease with increasing mole fraction of NPE in the mixture, and the synergism was observed at 0.9 mole fraction.Based on the regular solution theory,thecompositions of the micellar phase (X1m) and the interaction parameter in micelles(βm) were calculated, and the resultobtained at a low mole fraction indicates a mutual electrostatic repulsion between the surfactant molecules in the micelles, but at high mole fraction an attraction have been observed. The synergism insurface tension reduction was examined by minimum surface free energy(G_min^s).The CMC-X2 curve showed a negative deviation from ideal mixing.


Article
New mode for the on-line determination of oxonium ion in differentstrong acids using CFIA via the use of homemade linear array Ayah 5Sx4-ST- 5D solar CFI analyser
طريقة جديدة انيه لتقدير ايون الاوكسونيوم في الحوامض القويه المختلفة باستخدام تقنيه التحليل بالحقن الجرياني المستمر من خلال استخدام محلل الحقن الجرياني المستمرlinear array Ayah 5Sx4-ST- 5D solar

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Abstract

Strong acids were determined via the blue complex solution reaction of a loaded ferric (III) ion on strong cation exchange resin which in turn reacts with potassium hyxacyano ferrate (II). The attenuation effect of formed blue complexFe4([Fe(CN)6])3on (0 -180o) incident LED light was measurement via homemade linear array AYAH 5SX4-ST-5D solar CFI analyser. Optimum parameters were 0.005M.L-1 [Fe(CN)6]-4 , flow rate of 3mL.min-1 , sample volume 204 µL , sample purge time of 70 seconds was chosen, and 1V for light intensity. A liner calibration graph of 0.005 -0.15 M.L-1 were obtains for HCl, HNO3, HCLO4 and H2SO4, with a linearity (r2 %) 94 -98 % and L.O.D based on gradual dilution of lowest concentration in calibration graph was 22.314 µg for HCl, 38.563 µg for HNO3,61.480 µg for HCLO4, and 60.020 µg for H2SO4 .Repeatability (RSD) 0.5% was obtained. the proposed method was compared with standard method. turbidity measured using HANNA instrument for available acid in commercial (HCl, H2SO4).


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Derivatives From 2-Mercaptobenzoxazole
تحضير وتشخيص بعض المشتقات الجديدة من 2- مركبتو بنزواوكسازول

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Abstract

In this work 2-mercaptobenzoxazole (2-MBO) (1), was prepared by using homemade Auto clave .The synthesis involve treatment of 2-MBO with 2-chloro acetyl chloride to give 2-chloroacetyl thio benzoxazole (2), the product was treated with phenyl hydrazine to give 2-phenyl hydrazide acetyl thio benzoxazole (3). The new derivatives (4-13) were synthesized by reaction of 2-phenyl hydrazide acetyl thio benzoxazole (3) with different aromatic aldehydes in the presence of acetic acid. The compound (2) was treated with hydrazine hydrate to give product (14) then treated with different aromatic aldehydes in the presence of glacial acetic acid to give Schiff bases derivatives (15-24). Structure of all the prepared compounds confirmation were proved using (FT-IR), (1H-NMR), (13C-NMR) spectra and elemental analysis (C .H .N.S) in addition to melting points.


Article
Study of Thermal Stability of Tetraphenanthroporphyrazine and SomeMetal Complexes By Thermogravimetric Analysis .
دراسة الاستقرارية الحرارية للتترافينانثروبورفرازين وبعض معقداتها الفلزية بواسطة التحليل الحراري الوزني

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Abstract

The thermal stability of previously prepared tetraphenanthroporphyrazine (TPPH2) and its complexes with VO(IV) , Co(II) , Cu(II) , Zn(II) , Mg(II) , Ca (II) ions were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TG & DTG) at temperature range (20-1000oC). The results indicated that these compounds have a high thermal stability comparable to those of phthalocyanine compounds (PC) and higher than those of hemiporphyrazine compounds (HP) . In general metal complexes were more stable than parent ligand . Data of magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity were also obtained as further support for the studied compoundes .


Article
Effect of Different Environmental and NutritionalFactors on Biosurfactant Production fromCandida guilliermondii
تاثير مختلف العوامل البيئية و التغذوية على انتاج المستحلبات الحياتية من خميرة Candida guilliermondii

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Abstract

Yeast strain S9, which produceda high amount of biosurfactant, was isolated from pickledolive and identified as a strain of Candida guilliermondii using VITTEK 2 compact system, this strain was selected out of 13bioemulsifier producing strains. The effects of some environmental and nutritional factors on biosurfactant production were evaluated, the maximum value of E24% was observed at pH 4 which was 70% and the optimal temperature for biosurfactant production was 30 °C, E24% was 75%. Among different edible and heavy oils, the sesame oil and heavy oil 150 were the best carbon sources in production of biosurfactant, E24% was82% and 78% respectively and among different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources, the yeast extract was the best organic nitrogen source for biosurfactants production, E24% was 85%, while NaNo3 was the best inorganic nitrogen source for biosurfactants production, E24% was 80% and at the 7th day the maximum production of the emulsifier, E24% was 75% in shaking incubator at 150 rpm


Article
Investigation of Giardia lamblia and other parasites in tap water as a potential source of transmission in some regions of Baghdad
التحرّي عن الجيارديا لامبليا والطفيليات الأخرى في ماء الحنفية بوصفه مصدرا محتملا للانتقال في بعض مناطق بغداد

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Abstract

Samples from tap water were chosen to be examined as one of the possible modes of G. lamblia and other parasites transmission. 144 domestic filter units were randomly distributed to houses in Baghdad in Al-Sadr City and surrounding regions then the suspended materials were examined microscopically by direct wet mount after centrifugal sedimentation method, and after staining with modified Ziehl-Neelsen (acid fast) stain. The results showed that 5/144 (3.47%) samples contained G. lamblia cysts, 3/144 (2.08%) contained E. histolytica/E. dispar cyst, while each of Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts were observed in two samples (1.38%); also free living amoeba, ciliates and flagellates were detected in all samples. This result reveals a potential role of drinking water in the infection with these intestinal parasites in the study's area. Accordingly, the present study recommends the need to ensure the purification and sterilize drinking water and the safety of pipeline network. On the other hand, this new method, at the local level, by using domestic filter units for the detection of parasites and other microorganisms in tap water provide a simple, effective, and applicable research's tool beside saving time and effort in the samples' collection and filtration.


Article
Isolation of some fungal agents for sub acute mastitis cows inAL-Anbar province
عزل بعض المسببات الفطرية لالتهاب الضرع تحت السريري في الابقار لمحافظة الانبار

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Abstract

This study was designed for isolation of some fungi that caused sub clinical mastitis in cow milk in AL-anbar governorate in Iraq . Total number of 100 milk samples were collected from 25 cow in AL- Falluja city , by using of California mastitis test 45% of milk samples were infected with sub clinical mastitis ,while 55% of milk samples were negative for California mastitis test. The results showed of fungal isolation of milk samples which were positive for California mastitis test, recording 19 isolates of different types of fungi : Aspergillus fumigatus2.2% , Aspergillus niger 4.4% , Candida albicans 26.6% , Blastomced dermetitidis% 4.4 and Geotrichum candidum4.4%. The isolation of these types of fungi, may be attributed to many factors like Poor management ,treatment with corticosteroid and antibiotic compound for long times, As well as the unfavorable climate conditions and neglecting the bursts during the first milking are all factors that create and increase the chance of fungal mastitis.


Article
Assessment of Lead, Cadmium and Copper concentrations in Raw Milk Collected from different location in Iraq
تقييم تراكيز الرصاص والكادميوم والنحاس في الحليب الخام تم جمعها من مناطق مختلفة من العراق

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Abstract

Raw milk is subjected to various physical, chemical and biological pollutants due to produce, a transporting and marketing processes. The current study was designed to examine raw milk samples which were collected from different locations of Iraq. The highest mean value of Pb content [1.801±0.311 ppm] was recorded while the lowest mean value [0.941±0.104 ppm]. The highest mean value [1.532±0.124 ppm] and gave the lowest mean value [0.063±0.044 ppm] of Cd content. This study has the highest mean value of Cu content was [0.931±0.092 ppm] and but the lowest mean value was [0.308±0.029 ppm]. Metals contents of raw milk in this study showed higher than standards of the International Dairy Federation [IDF].

Keywords

Raw Milk --- Heavy Metals --- Pollution.


Article
The Effect of Toxoplasmosis Infection on Interleukin-12Level During Human Maturity in Baghdad Province
تأثير الاصابة بداء المقوسات الكوندية على المدورات الخلوية نوع (IL-12 ) خلال فترة بلوغ الانسان في محافظة بغداد

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The goal of this study is to perceive the immunological sex-differences in puberty age who have positive anti-Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) specific antibodies. From the first of November 2012 till the end of April 2013, 303 blood samples were collected from students in both genders (150 males and 153 females) were divided into two age groups: group (A) which included subjects with age range (12-15) years old and group (B) which included subjects with age range (16-19) years old. Serum samples were tested for toxoplasmosis infections by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies test. The results revealed that 107/303 (35.31%) of the studied subjects showed seropositive toxoplasmosis, 60 males and 47 females of them with a high significant differences between toxoplasmosis infected and uninfected subjects. All serum samples were tested by using ELISA technique for detection of serum mean concentration of IL-12. This study showed high significant level of IL-12 in both males and females with latent toxoplasmosis in comparison with free-toxoplasmosis groups.


Article
Measuring the concentration of Suspended Particulate Matter and some heavy metals in air of two areas of Rusafa in Baghdad
قياس تركيز جسيمات الدقائق العالقة وبعض المعادن الثقيلة في هواء منطقتين من جانب الرصافة في بغداد

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Abstract

This study aimed to detect the present levels and distribution of air pollutants such as SPM, Pb, Cr, Cd , and Ni , in two urban sites within Al- Rusafa side in Baghdad city (Al-Waziriya as industrial site and Al-Andalus square as commercial site). Measurements were carried out from November 2013 until June 2014. SPM, Pb, Cr, Cd , and Ni were measured using Air intake device(Sniffer) . The average minimum concentrations of SPM, Pb, Cr, Cd , and Ni were 588 µg/m3, 2.8 µg/m3, 15.6 µg/m3, 0.1 µg/m3, and 6.3 µg/m3. While the average maximum concentrations were 723 µg/m3 , 3.4 µg/m3 , 21.7 µg/m3 , 0.125 µg/m3 , and 6.8 µg/m3 , respectively. The results indicate that commercial site was more polluted with SPM , Pb , and Ni compared to the industrial site, while Cr and Cd concentrations were high in industrial site .


Article
Staphylococcal nuclease removes Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae previously adhered to uroepithelial cells
ازالة الايشيركية القولونية و الكليبسيلا الرئوية الملتصقة سلفا على الخلايا الطلائية البولية بالانزيم حال الدنا العنقودي

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Abstract

Twenty-seven S. aureus isolates were obtained from patients referring various hospitals in Baghdad. Only 17 isolates produced DNase. SNase was extracted and purified from Saphylococcus aureus 3 isolate since it produces the largest zone of clearance on DNase agar. Nevertheless, only those phenotypically-producer of DNase harboured nuc gene. Present study revealed that the crude enzyme had a specific activity of 50.66 unit/mg; while it reached 241 unit/mg after ion exchange chromatography using carboxymethyl cellulose column. SDS-PAGE showed a single sharp band with an approximately 16.8 kDa molecular weight. A matter indicates that the enzyme is consistently pure. Results proved that SNase was able to significantly (P< 0.05) reduce the number of the uropathogens; Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae attached to the uroepithelial cells.


Article
Detection of some auto antibodies of Celiac disease in Sera of patients with Chronic Hepatitis B virus
التحري عن بعض الأضداد الذاتية لداء الزلاقي في مصول المرضى المصابين بالتهاب الكبد الفيروسي المزمن النمط - ب-

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To determine the relationship between chronic hepatitis B virus and autoimmune celiac disease, seventy five patients with chronic hepatitis B virus of ages (8-70) years have been investigated and compared to 50 healthy individuals. All the studied groups were carried out to measure anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies IgA and IgG by ELISA test and anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG by IIFT. There was a significant elevation in the concentration of anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies IgA and IgG compared to control groups (P< 0.01) .The prevalence of antiTtG IgA and IgG was 14.67% and 12.0% respectively.There was a highly significant difference (P<0.01) when compared between studied groups .While the prevalence of anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG was 9.33% and 4.0% respectively. There was a highly significant difference(P< 0.01) when compared between studied groups. These results indicated that infection with chronic hepatitis B virus may play an important role in pathogenesis of celiac disease.


Article
Alteration of cell aggregation and adhesion in Dictyostelium amoeba by an overexpression of paracaspase protein
زيادة تعبيربروتين البراكاسباس يغير تجمع والتصاق خلايا اميبا Dictyostelium

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Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba is a powerful system to study gene function through genetic and functional analysis. Paracaspase (Pcp) is a caspase-like protein that has recently identified in D. discoideum. Study paracaspase molecular function in Dictyostelium will provide insight into its cellular role in more complex organisms and the possibility to use it as a drug target against the parasitic amoeba. In this study, pcp was tagged with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and over-expressed in the cell. The knockout version of pcp (pcp-) was also investigated. In the course of our examination, it was observed that cells overexpress Pcp was unable to complete the developmental process, leading us to examine its role in development. Those cells were unable to initiate early development and failed to aggregate under starvation conditions. Aggregation is severely defected as cells have decreased cell-cell cohesion. In particular, these cells demonstrated a reduction in adhesion. This data suggests that over-expression of Pcp causes a signaling defects crucial to normal development in Dictyostelium. On the other hand, cells with pcp- mutant demonstrated larger aggregation in normal media as well as under starvation conditions compared to the control cell lines. As a result, we propose that Dictyostelium Pcp is a regulated protein involved in cellular functions including signal relay pathways that are essential for cell aggregation and development. Thus, Pcp protein is a candidate drug target against the amoebic parasitic infection by prevent development to their infective stages.


Article
Study of Biological Activity for Some Extracts of Vitex agnus castus L.
دراسة الفعالية البايولوجية لبعض مستخلصات نبات كف مريم ( vitex agnus castus L.)

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Abstract

The biological activity of vitex agnus castus L. was tested which including the following extracts: essential oil extract, methanol extract, (70%), ethanol extract( 70%), flavonoid extract and volatile oils extract were tested against many types of bacteria which are Staphylococus aureus , Bacillus pumilus, Escerichia coli, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Streptococcus sp., The results of this study showed difference activity of these extracts .The flavonoid extract considers the best activities which gave inhibition zone (20) mm on E. coli, Pseudomonas ; Staphylococus aureus of (15) mm on Bacillus pumilus and (9) mm on Streptococcus sp. Ethanol extract gave inhibition zone (15) mm on Staphylococus aureus, (11) mm on Streptococcus sp. (15) mm on Bacillus pumilus and (15) mm on Streptococcus sp.,while the essential oil extract did not have any antimicrobil activity. Fertility test was made in laboratory animals (mice) after confirming from toxicity test of alcoholic extract and, the results showed that this extract had effected on increasing the fertility for both males and females. The results of chemical tests of vitex agnus castus L. compounds showed contain tannins, carbohydrates, glycosides, phenols, resins, flavonoids, saponins and didn’t have alkaloids, proteins, steroids and cumarines.


Article
Detection of antibiotics resistance genes in clinical isolates of Klebsiellapneumonia
التحري عن المورثات المشفره لصفهالمقاومهللمضادات الحيويهفي عزلات سريرية لبكترياKlebsiellapneumonia

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Abstract

Total of 46 isolates ofKlebsiella pneumoniae were collected from patients attending (Al-Yarmook Hospital and Education Labs / medical city), and isolates were re-identified,depending on morphology and biochemical tests. Disk diffusion method was employed to determine antibiotic susceptibility of forty six isolates by using eleven antibiotics.The results revealed the sensitivity of six isolates (9.3%) to Imipenem and Meropenem. On the other hand the isolates were showed 23.9% resistant against Ciprofloxacin, while some isolates shown higher resistant against several antimicrobial agents such as 65.2%, 69.0% for Amikacin and Cefepime consequently , 71.1%, 71.7 % for Amoxicillin -Clauvulanic acid and Gentamicin and 82.6% against Piperacillin , Nitrofurantoin and Ceftazidime.The isolates also appeared high level of resistance against Cefotaxime at a percentage 91.3% .Depending on the obtained results 6 isolates were selected assigned (K21, K32, K33, K37, K38, K43) for detection of blaTEM,blaSHV, blaKPC and AmpCbecause of its resistance of almost chosen antibiotics.The selected isolates were PCR-positive for blaTEM which showed bands in 209 pb.,on the other hand the resultrevealed that the isolates K33,K32possesencoding to blaSHVof 509pbin size,. In regard to blaKPC gene only K37 (16%)gave 811pb. All selected isolate gave negative results to AmpC.The selected isolates were detected of beta-lactamase productionby using acidimetric tests (tube method) , all isolates gave positive result.


Article
Effect of Thickness on Some Physical Properties of α-Fe2O3 Thin FilmsPrepared by PLD
تأثير السمك على بعض الخواص الفيزيائيه لأغشية α-Fe2O3 المحضره بالترسيب بواسطة الليزر النبضي

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The effect of thickness variation on some physical properties ofhematite α-Fe2O3 thin filmswas investigated.An Fe2O3 bulk in the form of pellet was prepared by cold pressing of Fe2O3 powder with subsequent sintering at 800℃. Thin films with various thicknesses were obtained on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. The films properties were characterized by XRD, and FT-IR. The deposited iron oxide thin films showed a single hematite phase with polycrystalline rhombohedral crystal structure .The thickness of films were estimated by using spectrometer to be (185-232) nm. Using Debye Scherrerś formula, the average grain size for the samples was found to be (18-32) nm. Atomic force microscopy indicated that the films had smooth surfaces, with a lateral grain shape. The optical absorption of the films was determined from spectrophotometric measurements.


Article
Benthic Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Euphrates Formation (Early Lower Miocene-Middle Miocene) in selected sections, Western Iraq
الطباقية الحياتية للفورامنيفيرا القاعية لتكوين الفرات (المايوسين الأسفل المبكر- المايوسين الأوسط) في مقاطع مختارة، غرب العراق

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Studies of three surface sections of the Euphrates Formation in its type locality Western Iraq, yielded a rich benthic foraminifera. Tabulation of the results showed more or less similar content which are previously studied except for the presence for the first time of Triloculina trigonula Lamark, Triloculina tricarinata D'orbigny in the lower parts and Spirolina cf. cylindracea Lamark in the upper parts. In addition two Biozone established in the studies sections, the lower Ammonia beccarii zone and upper Ammonia beccarii-Borelis melo curdica zone.


Article
Basin analysis of Cretaceous to Tertiary selected wells in Kirkuk and Bai Hassan Oil Fields, Kirkuk, Northern Iraq
دراسة تحليل الاحواض من العصر الطباشيري الى الثلاثي من ابار مختارة لحقلي كركوك وباي حسن النفطية ، كركوك ، شمال العراق

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Basin analysis (geohistory) is carried out on the Cretaceous to Tertiary succession in five wells at Kirkuk and Bai Hassan Oil Fields during the Aptian to the Recent. The Foothill Zone exhibited a complex subsidence and uplift history over a period of about 132 Ma. The results from studied wells backstripping provide a record of the subsidence and uplift history in a number of important Meso-Cenozoic depositional successions. They show that there are three distinct episodes separated by unconformity surfaces. The value of compaction varies from large during the Cretaceous period to less clearly during the Paleogene and then almost non-existent during the Neogene. Generally, the subsidence is continuous and gradual during Mesozoic and suddenly increases in Cenozoic with obvious effect to the tectonic movements.


Article
Facies and Reservoir Evaluation of MishrifFormation in Tuba Oil Field
تقييم سحني ومكمني لتكوين المشرف في حقل طوبة النفطي

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Abstract

The Mishrif Formation is one of the most important formation in oil fields, which is located in southern part of Iraq, and it is of Upper Cretaceous age. Tuba field is located nearly 40 km SW – Basrah city. It is bounded from east by Zubair oil field (5 km distance) and from west byRumaila (2 km distance). The Tuba oil field is situated between Zubair oil field in the east and Rumaila in the west, and is separated by two depressions. The rock (core and chips) samples have been collected systematically from cores of Mishrif Formation that are available from stores of southern oil company to prepare thin sections and slides—these slides have been examined by using microscope. These samples have been taken from all parts of the reservoir units of Mishrif, namely, mA, mB1, mB2 units. Twenty-four samples have been applied to the petrophysical tests to measure the porosity and permeability. The water and oil saturations have been identified by consulting the log documents for studied wells (7 wells). Besides, four hundred ten rockslides have been made for identifying the facies and diagenices processes. Four main facies have been diagnosed at Mishrif Formation (Grainstone, packstone, wackstone and mudstone) which are spread all over the reservoir units. Moreover, the diagentic processes have been identified by using microscope to check the rockslides, which have greatly framed the petrophysical characteristics for Mishrif Formation. These processes include dissolution, all categories of porosity, compaction, cementation, new morphisim and dolomitization. The results of the reservoir geological model show that Tuba field is an anticline fold which its extension is in (north – northwest), (south- southeast) direction. The results have proved that facies model distribution completely match the facies description in the study. This model contains Grainstone, Packstone, Wackstone and Mudstone.


Article
Delineation of Subsurface Fractures Density Within and Out of Abu-Jir Fault Zone Using 2D Imaging Resistivity Technique, A case Study from Southwest of Karbala City, Central Iraq
تحديد كثافة الكسور تحت السطحية ضمن وخارج نطاق فالق ابو جير باستخدام تقنية المقاومة النوعية ثنائية البعد, دراسة في جنوب غرب مدينة كربلاء , وسط العراق

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The 2D imaging survey was carried out using Wenner-Schlumberger array through (11) 2D survey lines distributed within and out of Abu-Jir fault zone, Southwest of Karbala City, central Iraq. The aim is to delineate subsurface fractures density. The total length of each 2D survey line is (600m.) with the unit electrode spacing (a) equals to (10m.).The results showed two types of fractures zones. The first type is formed by dissolution process of carbonate rocks, while the second fractures zone is formed from tectonic movements, and it includes two types of fractures system, oblique and vertical fractures. This study includes comparison between subsurface fracture density within and out of Abu- Jir fault zone. This comparison showed that the fracture zones are characterized by increasing of resistivity values within Abu- Jir fault zone to reach (106.1 Ω.m), while it decreases out of this zone to reach (30.9 Ω.m). This is caused by increasing groundwater salinity out of this zone. In addition, the fractures density within Abu- Jir fault zone is more than outer ones, despite they have high resistivity values. In general, they increase with the depth, in (NE) direction within and out of this zone. The results indicated that the best area of groundwater investment is located within Abu- Jir fault zone.


Article
Local Bifurcation of Four Species Syn–Ecosymbiosis model
التفرع المحلي لنظام بيئي رباعي الاجناس

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In this paper, the conditions of occurrence of the local bifurcation (such as saddle-node, transcritical and pitchfork) near each of the equilibrium points of a mathematical model consists from four-species Syn- Ecosymbiosis are established.


Article
On Goldie extending modules
حول مقاسات التوسع من النمط –

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Abstract

Let R be an associative ring with identity and let M be a unital left R- module. E. Akalan, G. Birkenmeier and A. Tercan introduced the following concept. An R- module M is called a

Keywords


Article
Game Programming: Arabic Words Puzzle.
برمجة الألعاب: لغز الكلمات العربية

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Abstract

This research shows the design and implementation of a small and simple Arabic word-puzzlegame to test the effect of electronic games in enhancing and supporting the traditional learning system. The system based on from the real needs of classrooms in the Iraqi primary schools so the game is designed for primary school students (first and second grade) and this required the exploration of how schools use and teach information. The system is built by using Visual Basic version 6 programming language in conjunction with the Microsoft Office Access 2007,Results show our game based educational program is effective. 14 children (6-7 years old) played the game. The children played through multiple sessions. For each child; this game is useful in learning new words and enhance his/her memory by repetition.


Article
Fuzzy Based Spam Filtering
تصفية البريد المزعج اعتمادا على الضبابية

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Abstract

Emails have proliferated in our ever-increasing communication, collaboration and information sharing. Unfortunately, one of the main abuses lacking complete benefits of this service is email spam (or shortly spam). Spam can easily bewilder systembecause of its availability and duplication, deceiving solicitations to obtain private information. The research community has shown an increasing interest to set up, adapt, maintain and tune several spam filtering techniques for dealing with emails and identifying spam and exclude it automatically without the interference of the email user. The contribution of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to present how spam filtering methodology can be constructed based on the concept of fuzziness mean, particularly, fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. Secondly, to show how can the performance of the proposed FCM spam filtering approach (coined hence after as FSF) be improved.Experimental results on corpora dataset point out the ability of the proposed FSF when compared with the known Naïve Bayes filtering technique.


Article
Face Recognition Using Stationary wavelet transform and Neural Network with Support Vector Machine
تمييز الوجوه باستخدام تحويل المويجة المستقرة والشبكة العصبية مع ماكنة الدعم الناقل

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Abstract

Face recognition is a type of biometric software application that can identify a specific individual in a digital image by analyzing and comparing patterns. It is the process of identifying an individual using their facial features and expressions. In this paper we proposed a face recognition system using Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) with Neural Network, the SWT are applied into five levels for feature facial extraction with probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) , the system produced good results and then we improved the system by using two manner in Neural Network (PNN) and Support Vector Machine(SVM) so we find that the system performance is more better after using SVM where the result shows the performance of the system is better based on the recognition rate measurement.


Article
Fast encoding algorithm based on Weber's law and Triangular Inequality Theorem
خوارزمية تشفير سريعة بالاستناد على قانون ويبر ونظرية عدم المساواة المثلثيةِ

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Abstract

In the present work, an image compression method have been modified by combining The Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding algorithm (AMBTC) with a VQ-based image coding. At the beginning, the AMBTC algorithm based on Weber's law condition have been used to distinguish low and high detail blocks in the original image. The coder will transmit only mean of low detailed block (i.e. uniform blocks like background) on the channel instate of transmit the two reconstruction mean values and bit map for this block. While the high detail block is coded by the proposed fast encoding algorithm for vector quantized method based on the Triangular Inequality Theorem (TIE), then the coder will transmit the two reconstruction mean values (i.e. H&L) with an index of codeword instead of bit map (binary block) after designation binary codebook. In other word, the proposed method enables a sensible decrease of the bit rate with fast in codebook searching, little deterioration of performance, edge preservation, good decoded image quality with greatly decreasing the matching searching time, consequently simplify the computational complexity.


Article
Kolmogorov Turbulent Simulations of Photon Limited Images of Binary Stars
نمذجة النجوم الثنائية ذات الفوتونات المحدودة بأستخدام احصائية كولموكوروف

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Abstract

The autocorrelation function calculations have been carried out on photon-limited computer-simulated images of binary stars that recorded through kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. The effect of the parameters of photon limited binary star on the variation of signal to noise, signal to background ratios, number of images that processed and the magnitude of binary stars are studied and mathematic equations are given to investigate this effect. The result indicates that signal to background ratio of photon limited images of a binary star is independent of the total number of recorded photons.


Article
Jupiter Elevation Angle Determination at Baghdad Location
تحديد الارتفاع الزاوي لكوكب المشتري لمدينة بغداد

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Abstract

In this paper the elevation angle of Jupiter at Baghdad location according to its coordinate for the period (2005-2020) has been studied. The Radio Jove pro. Edition program is used to achieve the Jupiter elevation angle at this time period. In 2007, 2008 the path of Jupiter is appeared near the horizon when the monitor trying to observe it. While in 2013, 2014 it's reached its maximum value then its return to reached its minimum value at 2019, 2020 according to the position of Jupiter in Baghdad for this period.


Article
Comparative Study between Classical and Fuzzy Filters for Removing Different Types of Noise from Digital Images
دراسة مقارنة بين المرشحات العادية و المضببة لأزالة أنواع مختلفة من الضوضاء من الصور الرقمية

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Abstract

The aim of this paper is to compare between classical and fuzzy filters for removing different types of noise in gray scale images. The processing used consists of three steps. First, different types of noise are added to the original image to produce a noisy image (with different noise ratios). Second, classical and fuzzy filters are used to filter the noisy image. Finally, comparing between resulting images depending on a quantitative measure called Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) to determine the best filter in each case. The image used in this paper is a 512 * 512 pixel and the size of all filters is a square window of size 3*3. Results indicate that fuzzy filters achieve varying successes in noise reduction in image compared to classical filters.Mathlab 2012b program is used to add noise to the original image and remove it because it has powerful tools to deal with digital images.

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