Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552 265X /25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:1 issue:211

Article
The concept of the ground in the Palestinian heritage contemporary ) -a model poets(
مفهوم الارض في التراث الفلسطيني المعاصر الشعر أنموذجاً

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There is a dialectical relationship and a close link between the rights of the Palestinian and the ground up to the degree of sanctification are any land code survival and existence, steadfastness and unity and the source of longing and nostalgia for the homeless and expatriates in the Diaspora and exile forced a gain many dimensions in Arabic literature to meet the projects uprooting and deportation and carried by Mahmoud Darwish Anon to speak out and tells it and sing its praises from the earth, longing for freedom and a fraction of the restrictions of the occupation.

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Article
الحقيقة المحمدية شعراً وتأريخاً

Authors: د.فاضل عواد
Pages: 19-42
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Article
Impact of Religious Invocation (Talbiyat) in the Origin of Arabic Poetry and Artistic Prose: Study in the Light of History of Literature
أثر التلبيات الدينية في نشأة الشعر والنثر الفني دراسة في ضوء تاريخ الأدب

Authors: د. عبد الستار جبر
Pages: 43-72
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Religious invocations (Talbiyat) are one of oldest Arabic wording forms that allows to searching on early factors which impact on the origin of Pre-Islamic poetry, especially Rajaz, and on prose also, specifically Saja. As the scholar, by studying it, can characterize the expression styles of Arabic tribes before Islam, in their religious literature, particularly in their pilgrimage (Hajj) rituals, and standing on artistic characterization of these deferent styles. The research argue that the Talbiyat represents an articulated episode in transition from prose to poetry, and it provides most convincing evidences more than soothsayers Saja, that many of scholars believe it was an origin of Arabic poetry.

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Article
Dr Ahmed ALameddine AL jundei And His Service in Arabic Language
الدكتور أحمد علم الدين الجندي وجهودهُ في خدمة اللغة العربية

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This research is based on the study of ( ( Dr. Ahmed Alameddine soldier and his service to the Arabic language ( 1924 AD ........), which is one of the pioneers of members and experts of the Arabic Language Academy in Cairo , the Arab who served more than sixty - four year. It began this study to follow his life ( his name , and his birth and his school ) and personal traits , and his scientific contributions effective in scientific societies and conferences , and then offered its methodology in authoring , and production of scientific books and research , and his synod of Research and Studies Published in the Journal of the compound . We talked about aspects of his service for the Arabic language , and then mentioned the most important awards earned by this world Galilee From the foregoing we have adopted in this study on the word of the members of the complex linguistic Cairo , and on research and studies , Dr. Ahmed Alameddine soldier , and a book on the origins of language And then we ended our study of this subject the most important of our findings.

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Article
Intertextuality with the Characters in the traditional Poetry Amal Dungul
التناص مع الشخصيات التراثية في شعر أمل دنقــل

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Amal comes openness poetry Dungul among the Most Prominent Characteristics of the banner art which Majolh responds to the argument that the Intertextuality Fasttaa reflects its Manifestations in the Folds of his Poetry Fully demonstrating the ability to deal with this heritage in its different dimensions vtnas poet with Personalitites according to the three ways the First of the comes symbol Partiy in sons text to support the idea of what has come entirely in the text and the Mask that comes apivotal it dominant in the text of this call penh from the basic text blocks .

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Article
Andalusian poetry inscriptions In the book Nafah -Al Tayeb for Al- Mokri (the study of music in poetry)
أشعار النقوش الأندلسية في كتاب نفح الطيب للمقري - دراسة في موسيقى الشعر

Authors: م.د.سهام صائب خضير
Pages: 113-132
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Inscriptions Represented date of the invention of writing by texts engraved first on clay tablets in Mesopotamia , and the stone in the land of the Nile in the late fourth millennium BC . Usually these inscriptions represent nature of the era in which it was written ; hence researchers interested in archeology and ancient history are more than it looked , and tried to decipher some of which are still under study . The study of inscriptions called (abigraphia) ; any knowledge of the inscriptions , I did not find much in the search of engraved poems ,that encouraged me to stroll in ambiences those poems with the Andalusian poet and traveler Ahmed bin Mohammed Mokri in his book Nafah -Al Tayeb. Andalusians influenced by this phenomenon they carved on their palaces , clothes and their graves ... and the other facilitated from words , stories and poetry events, and what I interested in this research is the poetry carved on something, and engraved reason, I will try and with help from Allah studied from the music side. I have found that these poems have attach in mind and have a place in the heart and mind of the recipient; Therefore we find tend to simplicity of expression and smoother weight and rhyme.

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Article
الرواة الذين ضعفهم الإمام الأزدي بلا حجة الواردة ذكرهم في كتاب تقريب التهذيب دراسة نقدية

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Abstract

This research aims to highlight the tremendous effort of scientists has cared for a year and served it a great service and have worked for it dearly and do everything in their power , and those imams Hafiz Mohammed bin Hussein Abu Open Azdi T. ( 374 AH ) , which brought together a large number of narrators in his book ( weak ) and the other is that he lost , and took care of the imams careful attention it has within Ibn Hajar ( may Allah have mercy on him ) sayings of many in the book bring discipline to be our witness to the science of mind and was systematic in this research after the translation of the life of Imam Abu Open Azdi and Imam Ibn Hajar ( may Allaah have mercy ) Short , a statement curriculum Imam al-Azdi in the wound and the survey and collecting the sayings of Imam al-Azdi that weakness which some narrators reported by Imam Ibn Hajar said confidence or truthful or acceptable or hidden weakness Azdi without argument and comparing statements other imams and statement likely relying often bring civility to Ibn Hajar because it late , cite in both the narrator and the translation of the name and surname , as well as the percentage of elderly and non- prolongation of his students , as well as scholarly and Elmejrhan amending it , and then I remember his death and then show the correct view and then discussed. The importance of this research , we say what we find books in the wound and the amendment has filed only after his time and picked up from his words or after it refunded or all of which demonstrates the scientific importance of those words.

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Article
Context when fundamentalists and their impact on the science news briefing
القرينة عند الأصوليين وأثرها في إفادة الخبر العِلم

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Abstract

The Authentic year when fundamentalists necessities However, the areas to take advantage of them suspended to discuss ways and means for the year installed and connected to it, and what was the evidence of a significant impact in it, I saw that I put these clues on the table of the scientific method to demonstrate its impact on the Authentic conductive some news for the year. As the impact of the work context when fundamentalists have in suppliers, the degree of forensic evidence of the text, a statement of the intended meaning of the text. The presumption confronted with it when fundamentalists are divided on the basis of their function: to baffle presumption, the presumption set out, and the presumption of specific degree of proof text. However, the most correct in frequent news is his testimony necessary than just science news, any that benefit science itself, not a trace of evidence that, contrary to some fundamentalists. Yes to the presumption of effect on the Sundays when news fundamentalists, as divided on the basis of: individual Mahtf the Baqraún, individual Mahtf the Baqraún Thus, The one Mahtf news Baqraún benefit science, and The single non Mahtf news stated conjecture

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Article
Judges of Kufah
قضاة الكوفة

Pages: 189-212
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The justice is regarded as a symbol of the nation’s sovereignty and independence. It expresses right ad justice ad indicate the glory of a nation ad development degree to which it has arrived. Jurisdiction is the criteria of the ruler ad the leader. With justice heavens and earth has been established. Justice is the made by Aristotle the pillar of the world and the base of ownership. It is the support for the settlement of security and peace. The scholar’s ad imams regarded justice as the most sublime of the sciences and the loftiest in place and position. For the importance of justice and jurisdiction I Islam in general and in Kufa I particular it was taken as the theme of this study (Justice in Kufa) from its conquest in the late Abbasid era. We shed light on the definition of Justice in language and in terminology. We showed the position of the judge and his legality in the Holy Quran ad the prophetic sunna, ijmaa and the mid. Then, we tackled the judges of Al-Kufah from the conquest until the late Abbasid era. We tackle the books of their biography and their deaths. We listed up to fifty judges. In our study, we depended on the important resources and references as well as citing the holy Quran and the Sunna.

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Article
Islamic – Jewish Relationships in the Prophet Era (Khaybar War)
العلاقات الإسلامية اليهودية في عصر النبوة (غـزوة خيـبـر) إنموذجاً

Pages: 213-242
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The subject of the Islamic – Jewish relations is considered as one of the important subjects. The Jews take two paths in their war against Prophet Mohammed (PBUH), the first : attacking Islam and its rules. The second : breaking the agreements and the truces, to begin the war against Islam. Therefore; The war against khaybar was the beginning of a new history for Islam. The libration of Khaybar means a political and military victory in The Arab peninsula. The researcher divided his search for two chapters, the first was about the Jewish troops and houses in The Arab peninsula. The second : was about The war of Khaybar and its history and the battle path. Then ended the research with a conclusion.

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Article
Ali Haider Pasha and the Emirate of Holy Mecca ( 1866-1919)
الشريف علي حيدر باشا وإمارة مكة المكرمة( 1866-1919)

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That study embodied an important aspect of the modern history of Hijaz during the duration extended from the late 19th century to the early of 20th century, giving a clear picture about the personality of Ali Haider Pasha, that personality inspired by the political enthusiasm in jumping to the principality and returning the glory of his ancestors Al Zaid in the internal affairs of Hijaz basing on his loyalty and sincerity to the unionists who found in him the best future alternative of Sherif Hussein bin Ali, yet many challenges confronted his desire, the most prominent of which were Al-Hussein power and the Arab loyalty for him as well as his relations with the British, which delayed the Ottoman project in change until the year 1916, when the latter announced the Great Arab Revolution on the Ottoman State, here the justifications became sufficient in the emirate of Sherif Ali Haider Pasha, and went to Hijaz so as to arrange his internal situations, but he failed in reaching Mecca due to the military operations occurring in the country during World War I, then he returned back from where he came. Thus, the role of that character ended and with it ended the principality forever.

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Article
Maj. Gen. Mahmoud chit speech and its role in the military history of the Islamic
اللواء الركن محمود شيت خطاب ودوره في التاريخ العسكري الإسلامي

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Gain of Prof. Maj. Gen. Mahmoud chit speech God's mercy great importance in the history of the Islamic military , thanks to the acquired experience and highly skilled in the fields of honor and battlefields , he was militarily believer before it professionally , in rewriting the history of the nation , and the glory of a new film received the writings of historians over time , especially the modern era as much as they enjoyed wrote chit speech from the perspective of analytical military , was used by historians to lampoon their pens given the history of the nation in battles and invasions, as mentioned by the historians veterans Bsrdhm of the facts as events historic got the victories and achievements , and praise the and Amdhawwa these leaders because they were the keys to victory thanks to military intelligence and statesmanship .

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Article
The Method of Al-Quzueny in his Book (The Prints on Countries and the News of People)
القزويني ومنهجه في كتابه (اثار البلاد واخبار العباد)

Pages: 291-310
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It is one of the Facts that after writing each Subject especially that which deals with the methodology of historians and geographicals, reach to some Subjects or facts which inspirit the kinds, methods that the writer followed we meant by the writer the historical and geographical al.Quzueny to the reader, that the researcher dealt with: He distinguished by wide conscious and Comprehansion to the well Known Arab Geographansion writings who Proceeded him and may be on this foundation collected and may be on this Foundation collected and or had bee aware on more than Fifty books in order to compose his geographical book, sol Al Quzueny had montioned to that he had Collected in his book all what she had heard and sow. Al-Quzueny from resowrces based and depended on the historical and geographical yaqout al-Hamqwy, but From another Point of view he didn't stop on the limit of Conveying but we found him Conveying narratives , new and strange from other resources yaqout Al-Hamawy. In some times we find him do not convey the sights of yaqout al-Hamawy the events of some regions such as about arme in A.H., but we find him Convey them from other resources from the people of he region who is Taj al-Deen Al-Avmoy. We had found Al-Quzueny Keeping a neckdot about descrbing Ibrahim bin Yaqoub Al-Tartushy Concerning the Special division of Germany and Volga Vikings, and he was conveying it onely and Al- Bakry, Al-Uthry and Al-Quzueny and transferred from to outhers Suchas Aby al-Fidaa, Al-Oimashky and Al-Bakouy.

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Article
Turkey and The European Union: A Research in the Stages and Limitations of the Accession
تركيا والاتحاد الأوربي - بحث في مراحل الانضمام ومحدداته

Authors: م د. مصطفى جاسم حسين
Pages: 311-330
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The research discusses the stages of Turkey's accession to the European Union to the present. Turkish government presented a formal request in 1959 for the first time to accede to the European Group . The modernization and reformation of the Turkish political system, its institutions, and its mechanisms remained essential targets in the minds of Turkish politicians right from the beginning. The first historical step was taken by the founder of Modern Turkey, Mustafa Attatork who made many reforms like the elimination of all the backward conventions which dominated the Ottoman Empire at that time. These reforms were political, economic, and military. At the same time, Attatork was open-minded and eager to comprehend and imitate the western institution in general and the European in particular, especially in administration. The Turkish attempts to accede were always received with a kind of disinterest and dissatisfaction on the part of the Europeans who were justifying their attitude by the instability of the Turkish political system, or for economic reasons. The European justifications were finally ended by the criterion of Copenhagen. This was interpreted by the official Turkish opinion as The Union's not serious attempt to allow Turkey be part of it The research also analyzes the main obstacles that faced Turkey's retraction to the European Union like the instability of the political system and the confiscation of democracy and human rights, on one hand, and the civic and religious heritage, on the other, besides problems like overpopulation and Greece's refusal to vote for Turkey's retraction to the European Union because the long lasting Turkish-Greek conflict over Cyprus and other problems . The research takes into consideration the attitude of the major European governments and political parties, for example, in Germany and France ,especially after the rise of the Christian democratic right wing into power in most of the European countries

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Article
AMERICAN POLICY TOWARDS LUXEMBOURG1918-1929 TEACHER: BUSHRA SUKKAR KHAYOUN
السياسة الامريكية تجاه دوقية لوكسمبورغ 1918-1929

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Grand duchy of Luxembourg considered the smallest country in Europe surrounded by France, Belguim and Germany. Its regim is royal,it ruled by Orange Family,in15th century ruled by Germany, France for many times because its position.it get its independence after holding Vennia Conference1815 as a constitutional monarchy and first William crowned as the first dutch king.the Germany troops occupied it during the two world wars as the result of the international changing and the winning of allied powers led by U.S.A which gave the independence to many occupied countries which duchy was one of them. The U.S.A government helped Grand duchy to refresh its economy and reconstruction which reflected the gratitude of German people.

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Article
Schools era letter and download
مدارس عصر الرسالة والتنزيل

Authors: م. ورقاء أكرم عباس
Pages: 345-372
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The schools educational institutions important in the construction of any nation on the face of the earth, particularly nations that are built on the basis of religious curriculum, since that religion is a set of words that are the Constitution of my life as imposed by God Almighty, here it is, Islam as a religion which is revealed by God says the master of creation Muhammad (peace be upon him) came in the words within verses umpires annexation of the Koran, and Report of the Islamic Dawa and disseminated throughout the land, the learning and teaching have presumably had been an necessities of communication, and it was the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) urged Muslims to learning and literacy, as well as the imperatives of the nation-building Muhammadiyah, as a State Rneh residence, said base throughout the Arabian Peninsula to stretch the corners of the earth sprawling including facilitated by God to those who carry the banner of the reporting of Muslims, led by their prophet congealed Mohammed (peace be upon him), Thus arose the schools of education since the beginning of the Islamic Dawa, in centers focused on proselytizing by calling and teaching the fundamentals of Islam, in his (peace be upon him) and the houses of the early Muslims in Mecca, and in his own house (peace be upon him) and the Prophet's Mosque and Al-Sharif and places of colorful and varied in architecture and nature , from homes and Nook market and deserts and roads, in Medina after the migration, taking Find three elements which taken educators as a vocabulary to be a school, namely, the teacher and the subject and the student, to be vocabulary configuration institutional school away from the place and time, and this varied and different schools in the form of architecture, depending on where you allocate or imposed Aldharov that combines these three elements to be the school permanently comprising educated regularly constituted stages learning multiple, including primary, secondary and university, as determined by the goals of the school, was the schools in the era of prophecy in multiple forms including permanent, including temporary, depending on the nature of the target determined by the teacher or the learner in some cases, and it tried to cover this research this subject in the historical survey focuses on the definition of school at the age of prophecy and what the most important characteristic of the properties, and the most prominent of which blocked education.

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Article
The Oud eternal contemporary philosophical thought of rooting to Modulation
العود الأبدي في الفكر الفلسفي المعاصر من التجذير إلى التحوير

Authors: د. هبة عادل
Pages: 373-382
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Our talk about the idea of oud eternal philosophical and looking from its roots in the Greek and Eastern philosophies and how they have evolved and changed its content and goals with the philosophers of the modern era and contemporary kitsch Heidegger and Deleuze . H also includes our most important criticism of this ides and how the work of contemporary philosophers who said them on the Avoid of these criticisms through evolution that brought him to that idea .

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Article
Human and artist in the philosophical thought And contemporaneous philosophy of art and aesthetic
الإنسان والفنان في الفكر الفلسفي والفلسفي الفني والجمالي المعاصر

Authors: م.د.نبراس وفاء بدري
Pages: 383-410
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This means research shed light on how to see the philosophical doctrines: idealism, materialism, and existentialism, and pragmatism of the man and the artist, has influenced the philosophical doctrines and along the historical roots, directly, to see the self of the artist about the nature of art, and how to interpret the artwork and determine the mechanisms of functioning of art in general ; since been searching for what rights in these doctrines philosophy,art and aesthetic of each of them; order to reach a definition of the artist in every thought, and a statement that the artist in the artwork of contemporary painting, which can be traced intellectual assets to these philosophical doctrines, has They found a set of results, including: 1. Represents the artist in philosophical thought artistic aesthetic ideal mediator between ideals and global physical presence, he rejects the physical experience of sensory data and free himself about to move up and become isolated due to receive his spiritual inspiration or flood. 2. The artist in philosophical thought artistic aesthetic material, man devotes itself to serve the issues of society and the proletarian working class in its struggle for change and the economic and social reality through his art, which is a tool of the movement of society. 3. The artist in philosophical thought artistic aesthetic pragmatic is a man with imagination and mental capabilities and acquired by the accumulated practical experimentation and enterprise expertise and aesthetic that makes art is to seek solutions to the problems facing human. 4. Living artist, according to the philosophical thought artistic aesthetic existential, life situations in the subjective experience individually and through his art is trying to create an alternative to a world different from the reality of absolute freedom.

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التداول في فن الجرافيك ومخرجاته المعاصرة

Authors: إلهام صبحي عبد
Pages: 411-428
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The graphic art which dates concept primitive to cylinder seals since the time of the Sumerians and Babylonians and before fees ancient man, as well as innovations Chinese and their industry of molds wood highlights of printed images and shapes and the use of drilling acid on metal and is confined to black and white, acquired properties many that allowed him proliferation and engage in many areas of cultural and political and commercial data such as books and magazines ... Etc. from other areas, thus creating a relationship between the artist and the recipient, artist Graphic through his work trying to deliver his ideas to the people he deals with the entire community to provide all their needs.

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انعكاس التراث الاجنبي في الرواية الكردية المعاصرة في جنوب كردستان 1985-1991
رةنطدانةوةى كةلةثوورى بيَطانة لة رؤمانى هاوضةرخى كورديدا باشوورى كوردستان1985-1991

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ئةنجـــام 1. كةلةثوورى ميللي دةبيَتة سةرضاوةيةكى بةثيَز و دةولَةمةند بؤ ذانرى رؤمان، كة رؤماننووسةكان خةريكن بة شيَوةيةك لة رؤمانةكانياندا بةرجةستةي دةكةن و سوودي تةواويان بؤ تةكنيك و جؤرةكان و رةطةزة سةرةكييةكانى نيَو رؤمان ليَ وةر دةطرن، بةمةش كةلةثوور لة لةناوضوون رزطار دةكةن و نةمرى و رةسةنايةتيش بة ئةدةبةكة دةدةن. 2. رؤمان، ياخود هةر ذانريَكى ديكةى ئةدةبي، ئةطةر سةرنجيَكى وردي ليَبدةين، ئةوةمان بؤ دةردةكةويَ، كة كةم تا زؤر لة ميَذوو و تارمايي ميَذوو بةدةر نيية، بةهرة و ئيلهامي خؤي ليَوةرطرتووة ئةطةر ميَذوو تؤماركةرى رابردووى مرؤظ بيَت، ئةوا ئةدةبيش رةنطدانةوةى ذيانى ئةوان مرؤظانةية، كةواتة ئةو دووانة (ميَذوو) و (ئةدةب) سووديَكى تةواويان لة يةكتر وةرطرتووة و سووديشيان بؤ مرؤظ هةبووة. 3. طرنطيى بابةت و رووداويَكى ميَذوويي ئةو كاتة بةدياردةكةوآ، كة ئةو رؤماننووسة، لة شويَنى طونجاوى خؤي و لة ضوارضيَوةيةكى دياريكراو و سنوور بؤكيَشراودا بةكارى هيَنابيَ و تيَهةلَكيَشى نيَو رووداوةكانى رؤمانةكةى نةكردبيَ، ئةوا ئةوكاتة دةبيَ بة ميَذووننووس، نةوةك رؤماننووس. هةربؤية بابةت و رووداوةكانى ميَذووي نةتةوايةتيمان بوونةتة سةرضاوةيةكى جوان و هونةرى بؤ نووسيني رؤمانى كوردي، ديارة ئةمةش بةهؤي تيَكةلَ كردنى خةيالَة بةو بابةتانة و بؤ ئةوةى هةستيَكى هوشياريى لاى خويَنةر بؤ رووداوةكان دروست بكات. 4. ئةطةر سةرنجيَكى قوولَ و ورد بدةينة ئةو كلتوور و كةلةثوورةى ميللةتانى دراوسيَ و بيَطانةكان، ئةوانةى ليَمانةوة نزيكن و ماوةيةكى زؤرة بةيةكةوة دةذين، شيَوةى ذيان و سروشتى خاك و نزيكي ئاينةكان لة يةكترى بوونةتة مايةى ئةوةى، كة زؤر شتمان لة يةك بضيَت لة داب و نةريت و شيَوةى بير كردنةوة و هةنديَ لايةنى بيروباوةرِى ميللي و ئةوةش وايكردووة بكةوينة ذيَر كاريطةرى يةكتر و سوود بة يةكدي بطةيةنين. ئةمةش بة قةد قةوارةى ئةو كةلةثوورة نيية، كة لة مةزراندنى كةلةثوورى ناوضةييدا خراوتةرِوو، ئةمةش بةلَطةيةكى روون و ئاشكراية، كة رؤمانى كوردي زياتر هةنطاوى بةرةو رةسةنايةتى و بةرجةستة كردنى كةلةثوورى ناوضةكةى ناوة و تايبةتمةندي كةلةثوورةكةيةتى.

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Article
زمان و بير

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Abstract

ثيَشةكي زمان سيستميَكة لة هيَما دةنطييةكان، مرؤظ بةكاري ديَنيَت بؤ طوزارشت كردن لة بيرؤكةكاني ، هةلَضوون و ئارةزووةكاني ، زؤربةي زمانةوان و فةيلةسووفةكان وا دةبينن كة زمان و بير بةتةواوةتي وابةستةي يةكترن ، ضونكة هيض بيرؤكةيةك بةشيَوةيةكي رِووتةوالَة لة زمان نايةتة دي و زمانيش دانامالَريَت لة بير . لةم ليَكؤلَينةوةيةدا كة بة ناونيشانى (زمان و بير)ةوةية هةولَ دةدةين ثةيوةندي توند و تؤلَي نيَوان بير و زمان بخةينة رِوو و شييان بكةينةوة. ليَكؤلَينةوة زانستييةكان لةبارةى زمانةوة ، لاي هةنديَ تويَذةران ، ئةوةيان سةلماندووة كة ناكريَ بوتريَ بير ثيَشترة لة زمان ، يان يةكيَكيان لةثيَشى ئةوي ديكةيانة بةشيَوةيةطي طشتي هةردووكيان لةذيَر كاريطةري يةكتردان ، دةطونجيَ وةك يةك كار لةيةكتر بكةن ، بةلَكو كاريطةري زمان لةسةر بير رِةنطة بةهيَزتر بيَت لة كاريطةري بير لةسةر زمان . بةلآم طروثيَكي كةم واي بؤ دةضن ، كة هيض وابةستةييةكي جؤري لةنيَوان بير و زماندا نيية و ثيَشيان واية كة بير بوونيَكي سةربةخؤ و جوداي هةية لة وشة و وةرطرتني زمان (فيَربووني) مةرجيَكي سةثاو نيية بؤ ثرؤسةي بيركردنةوة ، بةلَطةي هةنديَكيشيان بؤ ئةمة كةرِ و لالَة ، كة وةك خةلَكي تر بير ئةكةنةوة ، بةلآم بةبيَ زمان ، لة هيض حالَةتيَكيشدا ناكؤكي نيية لةمةرِ بووني ثةيوةندييةكي ئةزةلي لة نيَوان زمان و بيردا . زمان يةكيَكة لة رِةطةزةكاني ضييةتي ماهييةتى مرؤظ ، بؤية فةيلةسووفةكان لة كؤندا كة ثيَناسةى مرؤظيان كردووة ، وتويانة ئاذةلَيَكي طؤياية ، كاتي خؤي وشةي (ناطق) بةماناي ئاوةز ، يا قسة بووة ، ثاشتر سةلميَنرا بير نيية بةبيَ قسة و قسةش نابيَت بةبيَ بير ، بةلَطو هةريةكةيان ئةوي تريانة .

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Article
واتاى وشة لة نيَوان ديدى فرديناند دى سؤسيَر و هاليداىدا

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Abstract

ناونيشانى ليَكؤلَينةوةكة: ناونيشانى ليَكؤلَينةوةكة (واتاى وشة لة نيَوان ديدى فرديناند دى سؤسير و هاليداىدا)ية، كة باس لة واتاى وشة دةكات لة رِوانطةى ئةم دوو زمانةوانةوة كة هةريةكةيان سةر بة ريَبازيَكن و بيروبؤضونى جياوازييان لة بارةى شيكردنةوةى واتاى وشةدا هةية ، سؤسير رِابةرى رِيَبازى دامالَراو/ رِووت( تجريدى)ة ، واتاى وشةى لة ميانةى شيكردنةوةى ضةمكى هيَماى زمانى دةخاتة رِوو، باوةرى واية كة واتاى وشة دةبىَ دوو لايةنى هةبيَت فؤرِم و واتا يان( ناو و ناوليَنراو)، بةلاَم لةسةر ئةوةش سوورة كة ئةم دووانة لة يةكتر ناكريَنةوة و ثةيوةندى نيَوانييان لة خؤوةية(اعتباطى). سؤسير ثةيوةندى نيَوان فؤرِم و واتا بة (هيَما) دادةنىَ بة لايةوة هيَما دانةيةكى سةرةكى ثةيوةندى كردنة. لة بةر ئةوةى (هيَما) بة شيَكة لة زمان و خؤشى بريتيية لة ثةيوةندى، هيَما دانةيةكى هؤشةكيية بةم جؤرة زمان بة لايةوة بريتيية لة ثيَرةويَكى هيَمايى. هالَيداش رِابةرى رِيَبازى ئةركى(وظيفى)ة ، واتاى وشةى لة رِيَطاى بيرؤكةى هاوريَيةتى(التساوق) شيدةكاتةوة، كة لة ناوةرِاستى شةستةكاندا خستية رِوو بةلايةوة واتاى هاورِيَيةتى ئةو واتايةية كة لة ئةنجامى هاورِيَيةتى وشةيةك لةطةلَ وشةى تردا ديَتة كايةوة . ئةم ليَكؤلَينةوةية بة شيَوةيةكى طشتى باسى وشةدةكات لة روى واتاوة لة هةندىَ حالةتدا وشةكان لة ناو رِستة و دةقدا بةكاردةهيَنريَن بؤئةوةى واتاكانيان رِوونببيَتةوة.

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