Table of content

AL Rafdain Engineering Journal

مجلة هندسة الرافدين

ISSN: 18130526
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Al Rafidain Engineering Journal
Abstract

The first issue of Al Rafidain Engineering Journal published in 1993 by the college of engineering – University of Mosul. The journal is publishing at a rate of six issues in the year (Bi-Monthly).
The journal publishes the referred original and valuable engineering research papers.
Al Rafidain engineering journal includes the following titles:

• Architectural Engineering
• Civil Engineering
• Computer Engineering
• Electrical Engineering
• Environmental Engineering
• Mechanical Engineering
• Megatronic Engineering
• Water Resources Engineering
The aim of publishing the journal is to develop the knowledge in the fields of applied engineering science.

• irrigation and drainage engineering
• Computer Engineering
Target domain and
Rivers Engineering magazine aims to develop knowledge in the field of engineering and science related to it. Should contribute to the article submitted for publication in the development of engineering sciences in various fields will be considered in the dissemination of innovative and distinctive articles in these areas. Articles which are referred to the magazine for the purpose of evaluating the arbitrators with the reputation and extensive experience in the field of jurisdiction has been accepted for publication or apologize. And will be re-papers not accepted for publication to their owners.

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Contact info

ealrafidain@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2015 volume:23 issue:2

Article
The Effect of Mold Rotational Speed on Mechanical Properties of Functionally Graded Polymeric Matrix Composites
تأثير سرعة دوران القالب في الخواص الميكانيكية لمواد متراكبة بوليميرية متدرجة وظيفياً

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Abstract

In this research, a functionally graded polymeric matrix composites (FGPMCs) were produced using centrifugal casting method. These composites were fabricated from unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix and reinforced with silicon carbide particles (SiCp) of (106µm) and (6%)bulk volume fraction, using different mold rotational speeds(400,500,600 R.P.M) at room temperature (22Cº).Additional (3) samples of pure polyester were manufactured at the same conditions for comparison purpose .The aim of the present research was to study the effect of mold rotational speed on local values of volume fraction,hardness and Young modulus at specific points along the graded samples. Hardness was measured at these points then graded samples were cut to eight portions .Densityand volume fraction were evaluated,then standard homogenoussamples of constant but different volume fraction were manufactured. Results shows that local values of volume fraction, hardness and Young Modulus decreased in nearby positions of the center of rotation and increased in positions far away from the center of rotation with increasing mold rotational speed.


Article
Practical Analysis for Studying the Effect of Both Depth and Soil types on the Stresses Generated on the draw-bar During Plowing Process
تحليل عملي لدراسة تأثير العمق ونوع التربة على الاجهادات المتولدة على ساق المحراث اثناء عملية الحراثة

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Abstract

A study was conducted for the purpose of determining the stresses generated on the draw-bar as a result of different types of soil and depth produced during plowing process in two different soils. Laboratory analysis was conducted for studying the soil analysis in the department of Civil Engineering University of Mosul. Analysis revealed that there were two different types of soil (clay and mixed). At the same time mechanical properties and basic measurements of draw-bar was carried out. At the same time stress analysis of draw-bar was done using finiteelements program (Ansys releases 14.0 types), to determine the properties during application in different stress analysis parameters where used (x, y, z) and Von Mises in addition to principal stresses and percentage deviation of the direction of the three axes (x, y, z). During practical phrase, installation of strain gauges on draw-bar was done , for two types of soil at different depth level factors using three level (40, 45, 50) cm. The present results revealed that there was a difference in the stress values generated in relation to depth and types of soil.


Article
Laboratory Study of Flow Characteristics Over Piano Key Weir
دراسة مختبريه لخصائص الجريان فوق الهدار من نوع مفتاح البيانو

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Abstract

The main objective of this investigation is to obtain performance efficiency and the coefficient of discharge for Piano Key weir with downstream overhang. One hundred thirty five experimentswere conducted on models of Piano key weirs. Three slope of the inlet key (Si = 0.7, 0.6, 0.46), three different ratios for the inlet key width to the out let key width (Wi/Wo= 1, 1.61, 1.81) and three heights (p = 30, 25, 20) cm for each weir were used. The results showed that the slope of the inlet key (0.7) gavea lowervaluesof performance efficiency and a highest values of coefficient of discharge than (0.6, 0.46) keyswhile ratios of inlet key width to the out let key width (Wi/Wo = 1.81) gave a highest values of coefficient ofdischarge. An empirical relationship was found for estimate the coefficient of discharge and performance efficiency in relation to thenon dimensionless variable


Article
Evaluating performance of Hydrus-1D model in simulating evaporation from soil surface for different wetting intervals
تقييم أداء Hydrus-1D في محاكاة التبخر من سطح التربة لفواصل ترطيب مختلفة

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Abstract

In this study, Hydrus-1D model was used to simulate the evaporation from the soil surface for different wetting intervals for northern region(sandy loam and clay loam) using input for climatic data , and data of class Apan evaporation.The results showed that data of pan evaporation class A can be relied on in simulating and calculation of evaporation from the soil surface, where the standards of statistics (IOA, R2) calculated on the basis of evaporation pan class A data are better for the wetting intervals (2,4, 8, 16 ) days compared with the values of those standards based on full climate data and both types of soil. The study also showed that the wetting intervals and their impact on evaporation from the soil surface and evaporation stages reasonably agree with the results of field experiments that have been made in this area.


Article
Pipelined Parallel Implementation of CryptosystemsBased on Advanced Encryption Standard
تنفيذ توازي خط الأنابيب لنظام تشفير مبني باستخدام خوارزمية معيار التشفير المتقدم

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Abstract

A hardware architecture implementation of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is globally adopted to encrypt data for variant communications systems, taking into account that AES is reliable, secured and immunized against attacks. A single crypto system is suggested to encrypt and/or decrypt different types of data .These types of data are assumed to be as a text data .The image is considered as a case study for the type of data that is to be encrypted in real time. Then the proposed architectures are used to encrypt the video within the time ≤ 33 m sec . Two architectures are proposed . The first one is a hybrid of both stream and block ciphering. This architecture is used to increase the encryption security by reducing the correlation among image pixels. The resulting encryption time for an image of (32x64)pixels is equal to 16.76 µ sec. The second architecture is proposed for CTR mode of AES algorithm. The same time achieved in the first architecture is also achieved in this implementation. However ,the half of the hardware resources in comparison with the first architecture is achieved in implementing the second, but if it is used for either encryption or decryption , not for both simultaneity. The real time implementation is achieved due to using parallel computation that is based on pipelining technique. The architecture are synthesized on Spartan-6 LX(XC6SLX16) using ISE 14.2 .


Article
Effect of Some Operating Parameters on the Performance of Ballasted Flocculation Technique for Water Treatment
تأثير بعض العوامل التشغيلية على أداء تقنية التلبيد المثقّل لمعالجة المياه

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Abstract

The study aimed to apply the concept of Ballasted Flocculation (BF) at modified jar test for different turbidities for Tigris rivers raw water in order to find out the optimum values for each of :the additives chemicals, the ballasted agent doses and the operating conditions which are each of the detention time and velocity gradient A study of366 samples for six levels of initial synthetic turbidity of the Tigris River showed that it is possible to ad optBF technique successfully, and it reduces the time of the treatment phase and increase the stability of the quality of water treatment, but doesnotreducetheconcentrationsofthe chemicals which are used. The study showsthattheuseofalumconcentrationof30-40mg/Lwithpolymerconcentrationof0.2-0.4mg/L and BAconcentrationof0.5-2.5g/L forthe range of diametersbetween75-212 μmachievea residualturbidity ~1 NTU for supernatant water


Article
Considering the Spatial Adjacency and Syntactic Properties Affecting the Functional Performance of the Socially Sustainable Schools in Iraq
إعتبار خصائص التجاور والتركيب الفضائي المؤثرة في الأداء الوظيفي للمدارس المستدامة اجتماعياً في العراق

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Abstract

The socially sustainable school is an emergent conceptappearedwithin the context of many significant changes in the world schools’ designs.Also, the functional performance is considered as a principal constituent for the socially sustainable schools. On the other hand, Iraqi schools are suffering, generally, from being of low functional performance; a problem resulted, as this research believes, from certain forms of considering the spatial adjacency and syntactic properties which are the mostinfluencing factors for the schools’ functional performance. This research tackles the problem that there are no clear conceptions about the extent and how those properties are consideredin the design practices of the Iraqi elementary schools. It adopts the objective of defining these conceptions using a method which includes defining the related influencing spatial adjacency and syntactic properties firstly, then measuringto what extent and how the defined properties are considered in the designs of Iraqi schools in comparision withthe world design practice framed by the general theory of the socially sustainable schools. After discussing the results, the final conclusions which define theweaknesses and defecitsof the local schools’ design practices regarding the consideration of the properties of interest are presented


Article
Estimation of Model Parameters, for Torsional Vibration Analysis ofa Turbo-Generator Unit with Reference to Mosul Gas-Turbine Station
تخمين معلمات النموذج لغرض تحليل الاهتزازات الالتوائية في وحدة توليد توربينية بالرجوع الى محطة توليد كهرباء الموصل الغازية

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Abstract

In the design stage or analysis of any dynamical system a detailed or comprehensive model is essentially required. In this work, different parts and components that are contained in the model of a turbo-generator unit (T.G) for torsional vibration analysis are considered and the governing equations of which are presented and developed to estimate their respective parameters. These parts and components are mainly compressor seventeen stages and blades, turbine two stages and blades, reduction gear system with the safety shaft, the rotor of the generator, the exciter and the fluid film bearings on which the whole system is supported. The data upon which the system model is built are referred to Mosul gas turbine station units.The estimated parameters are those related to rotational inertia, damping and stiffness effects of the different components in the system.A detailed model of the system should be useful for the purpose of torsional vibrational during rotation with normal steady loading or under severe loading conditions utilizing a block diagram via Matlab. The system eigen values natural frequencies (critical speeds) and mode shapes are determined.


Article
Numerical study of natural convection heat transfer from a heater placed in an enclosure with adjacent inclined sidewall
دراسة عددية لانتقال الحرارة بالحمل الطبيعي من مسخن موضوع في حيز ذو جدار مائل

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Abstract

In this investigation , natural convection heat transfer from a heater placed on the bottom of a square enclosure with adjacent inclined wall was carried out . The inclined wall has a constant lowtemperature , while the heater element has a constant high temperature ,and the remaining walls are insulated . The working fluid used is air with Prandtl number (Pr=0.72) . The governing equations of the problem are solved numerically by using finite differencemethod . The numerical solution is presented for various Rayligh numbers,Ra(103-105) , with different dimensionless parameters as length of heater (Yh¬) (0.1,0.3,0.5), different locations of the heater (Xh) (0.25,0.5) and inclination angle of inclined cold wall  (10o, 20o, 30o). The results are presented by isotherms and streamlines to show the behavior of the flow and temperature distribution .While the numerical results of heat transfer are presented by average Nusselt number and local Nusselt numbers at right , left and top sides of heater.The results show the effect of dimensionless parameters on heat transfer and Nusselt number.It is observed that the Nusselt number increased by increasing Raylig number , heater length , inclination angle of cold wall and where the heater is near the cold wall (Xh=0.5).


Article
Optimum design of a heat pipe
التصميم الأمثل لأنبوب حراري

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Abstract

This research deals with the optimum design of the heat pipe components using Matlab program, version 7, at the determined operating conditions. The heat pipe is used to transfer maximum available thermal energy to heat the feed water entering steam boiler . The affecting parameters on heat pipe performance were detailed as well as the transport limitations and the thermal resistances of the heat pipe parts. Satisfactory results were obtained for the heat pipe dimensions, components and design influentials. Also, the parameters affecting the heat transfer rate and the working fluid mass-flow rate were discussed. From the important results, the heat pipe heat transfer capability is directly proportional with each of the heat pipe bore, the wick c/s area and the heat pipe effective length, and inversely with each of the capillary radius and the working fluid viscosity.


Article
Study of the Ultrasonic Behavior in (α + β`) Brass Alloy
(α + β`) دراسة سلوك الموجات فوق الصوتية في سبيكة براص

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Abstract

Copper is one of the few metals with significant commercial uses. Although frequently used as a pure metal or with small amounts of metal additives, copper can form 82 binary alloys. Two of the most common are brass (copper-zinc) and bronze (copper-tin). This research work tries to study the ultrasonic behaviour in one of the important brass alloys represented by (α + β`) brass alloy. Specimens of (α + β`) brass were machined to cylindrical shape with different thicknesses in order to study the effect of the sound scanning distance on the acoustic attenuation of the ultrasonic waves. The results indicate that it is plausible to inspect (α + β`) brass using both 2MHz and 4MHz frequencies, and that the acoustic attenuation of ultrasonic waves has increased when 4MHz probe was used. In addition, the results illustrate that the acoustic attenuation increases as the sound path distance increases.

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Article
Neuro-Fuzzy Based ECG Signal Classification with A Gaussian Derivative Filter
تصنيف اشارة القلب باعتماد النظام العصبي المضبب ومرشح نوع مشتقة كاوس

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In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy classification method is used for identifications of ECG signals. A feature extraction method with a QRS like filter (first order Gaussian derivative filter) is used. Five standard parameters (energy, mean value, standard deviation, maximum and minimum) are extracted from these diseasefeatures and then used as inputs for the neuro-fuzzy classification system. The ECG signals are importedfrom the standard MIT-BIH database. Five types of ECG signalsare used for classification; they are normal sinus rhythm (NSR), left bundle branch block (LBBB), right bundle branch block (RBBB), premature ventricular contraction (PVC) and pacemaker (PM). The proposed system combines the neural network adaptive capabilities and fuzzy inference system with the suitable filter design to give a promising classification accuracy of 99%.


Article
RAM-Based Neural Network Parallel Implementation on a Reconfigurable Platform and Its Application for Handwritten Digits Recognition
تصميم شبكة عصبية مبنية على ذاكرة الوصول العشوائي وتنفيذها على الوحدات القابلة لإعادة التشكيل وتطبيقها في تمييز الأرقام المكتوبة باليد

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Abstract

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are widely used in different areas of nowadays applications. Many challenges are imposed on the practical implementation of ANNs. Some of them are: the number of samples required to train the network; the number of adders, multipliers, nonlinear transfer functions, storage elements; and the speed of calculations in either training phase or recall phase. In this paper, the RAM-based neural network is investigated. No weights, adders, multipliers, transfer functions are required to implement it neither in hardware nor in software, but at a cost of large RAM utilization. In addition, a small number of samples are required for training. However, in hardware implementation, a large size of memory is required to train it.The network is implemented on the FPGA platform. The Stratix IV GX FPGA development board, which is provided on large on board RAM, is used. A considerable speedup of 237is achievedin either training or recalling phases. A comparable error rate of 7.6 is achieved when MNIST (Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology) database are used to train the network on handwritten digit recognition.


Article
Mechanical Properties of Wood Shavings-Cement Lightweight Composites
الخواص الميكانيكية لمركبات رقائق الخشب والسمنت خفيفة الوزن

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Abstract

Abstract The use of wood shavings, as a recycled waste product from the wood furniture industries is an interesting technique to produce lightweight cement composites. This study aims at examining the mechanical properties of wood shavings-cement lightweight composites. First, the wood shavings were pre-treated with water or superplasticizer or Cement Based Bitumen Emulsion (CBBE). Then, the compressive strength and tensile strength of the wood-cement matrix were experimentally evaluated. Finally, it is shown that the addition of wood shavings to cement paste gives a composite with satisfactory mechanical strengths with respect to its weight and higher toughness in addition to environmental and economic benefits.


Article
Experimental study of lightweight concrete used for the production of canoe
دراسة تجريبية للخرسانة الخفيفة الوزن المستخدمة في صناعة القوارب الخرسانية

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Abstract

Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the properties of lightweight concrete produced by the inclusions of polystyrene beads and perlite that can be used for production of Canoe.Different percentages of polystyrene (20, 35, 50 and 65%) were used.Besides, the 50% of polystyrene beds with different percentages of perlite (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60%) as partial replacement of sandwere used. The fresh density, compressive strength, flexural strength and absorption capacity of the mixes were tested. The results show that the uses of 50% of polystyrene with 50% of perlite as partial replacementof sand exhibit suitable ranges of density, compressive and flexural strengths of lightweight concrete used for canoe production. Thus, the Canoe produced from these inclusions of polystyrene and perlite show a clear success in terms of floating.

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