Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2015 volume:46 issue:3

Article
MOLECULAR VARIATION BETWEEN OF MAIZE INBREDS
التغايرات الجزيئية بين سلالات من الذرة الصفراء

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This study was carried out at the Agricultural Research Laboratories during 2013. The objective was to investigate genetic diversity among 10 maize inbred lines. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) based on PCR with 11 primers. RAPD DNA markers were used to evaluate trends in genetic diversity among 10 0f inbred line .All of the RAPD primers used for initial screening were found to be polymorphic. A total of 108 DNA fragments were generated by 11 random decamer primers with an average of 10.7 per primer ranged. The number of amplified fragments produced per primer ranged from 5 for OPAV-03 primer to 17 for OPAW-10, from with molecular size ranged from 160 bp to 1800 bp. The total number of polymorphic fragment and the percentage of polymorphism were (74, 62.7 %) respectively. Maximum level of polymorphism was 80% 0bserved for the primer OPAK -15 while Primer OPAW -11 showed the lowest percentage of polymorphism. Maximum level of primer efficiency and ability distinction was 14.1%, 17.1% respectively. Based on the bivariate (1 -0) data and genetic similarity with the use of UPGMA cluster method, the dendrogram separated the studied populations in to A and B. Cluster analysis which compared between inbred lines in to dendrogram. Showed BK104 high genetic diversity was high genetic diversity between BK104 and BK164. Genetic similarities computed by Nei and Li,s similarity coefficient revealed that the highest estimate (0.839) was observed between inbred line BK164, BK147. While, the lowest genetic similarity between inbred line BK104, BK128 and BK104, BK164 (0.377, 0.396) respectively. Results indicated that RAPD were highly efficient in delecting the purity and genetic relationship among maize inbred lines.


Article
HORMONAL REGULATION OF TILLERING IN SORGUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR L. MOENCH) AND ITS INFLUENC ON GRAIN YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS
تنظيم التفريع في الذرة البيضاء هورمونيا وتأثيره في حاصل الحبوب ومكوناته الحاصل ومكوناته*

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A field experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm, Department of Field Crop, College of Agriculture-University of Baghdad during the spring and fall seasons of 2013. The aim was to investigate the possibility of hormonal regulation of tillering in sorghum and its relationship with grain yield and its components. Split-plot design with arrangement was used with three replicates where three sorghum cultivars (Inqath, Rabeh and Abu Al sabeen) occupied the main plots and seed soaking treatments with Gibberellic acid and Ethephon occupied the sub- plots . Seed soaking treatments were (T2 = 300, T3 = 600 and T4= 900 mg.L-1) of gibberellic acid and (T5= 500, T6 =1000 and T7= 500 mg.L-1) of ethephon besides two control treatments: un-soaked seeds (T0) and seeds soaked with only water (T1). The contribution percentages of the main stems and tillers in both grain and biological yields were significantly different in these varieties in both seasons. The highest contribution percentages of the main stem in the grain yield were (90.50 and 80.94 %) for Abu Al sabeen with the lowest percentages (9.94 and 13.06 %) of tillers in both seasons, respectively. By contrast, the contribution percentages of the main stems of Rabeh variety were less (84.57 and 84.94 %) which increased the contribution of tillers to 14.7 and 15.06 % in both seasons, respectively. However, seeds soaking treatments reduced the contribution of the main stems in the grain yield but increased it for the tillers. Ethephon treatment (T5) gave the lowest contribution percentages of the main stem (59.99 and 62.74 %) and the highest of the tillers (40.14 and 37.91 %) in the grain yield in both seasons, respectively compared with the GA3 treatments (T3 and T4 )which gave the highest percentages of the main stems (100 and 100 %) with no contribution of tillers in both seasons, respectively. This led to the highest grain yield (6.78 and 6.30 t.ha-1) for ethephon treatment (T5) compared with 4.61, 4.37 and 4.84, 4.53 t.ha-1 for GA3 treatments (T3 and T4 ) in both seasons, respectively. The control treatments (T0 and T1 ) and the highest concentration of ethephon (T7) gave the lowest grain yield (3.31, 3.82, 3.35, 3.92, 3.48 and 3.54 t.ha-1) in both seasons, respectively. These results suggest that there was a possibility to increase the grain yield of sorghum via the hormonal regulation of tillering in favor of increasing their contribution in the final grain yield.


Article
EFFECT OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR AND WATER IRRIGATION QUALITY ON GROWTH AND QUALITY CHARACTERS OF WHEAT
تأثير بعض منظمات النمو النباتية ونوعية مياه الري في نمو ونوعية حنطة الخبز

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The experimental field was carried out at the experimental farm of the Department of Field Crops, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu Ghraib during the winter of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. The objective of the experiments was to study effect of plant growth regulator and irrigation water quality on some growth and quality characteristics of wheat (IPA 99 var.). Randomized complete block design with three replications was used for the experiment. The experiment had the treatments of plant growth regulator (Ethephon 0.600 kg.ha-1 and Cycocel 0.277 kg.ha-1) and irrigation water quality (drainage, well and river water) in addition the control treatment. The experiment was carried out by Nested arrangement. The results showed that of plant growth regulators caused significant effect on the characteristics studied. Ethephon reduced plant height (by percentage 12.7% and 15.5%) for both seasons, respectively, and increase tillers number. Cycocel increase flag leaf area by 26.2% and 8.5% for both seasons, respectively. In addition, Cycocel increased tillers number by 22.9% for the second season, respectively. The irrigation by drainage water caused significant increasing in flag leaf area, tillers number by 21.3% and 27.2% for the first season, respectively, while in the second season irrigation by drainage water caused significant decreasing in plant height, crop growth rate by 2.4% and 13.1% respectively. The interaction between Ethephon and drainage water significantly gave increase flag leaf area by 46.4% for the first season. In addition, the interaction between Ethephon and river water significantly increased tillers number by 71.3% for the first season.


Article
EFFECT OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR AND WATER IRRIGATION QUALITY ON YIELD AND THEIR COMPONENTS OF BREAD WHEAT
تأثير بعض منظمات النمو النباتية ونوعية مياه الري في الحاصل ومكوناته لحنطة الخبز

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Abstract

نفذت تجربة في حقل تجارب قسم المحاصيل الحقلية للموسمين الشتويين 2011-2012 و2012-2013 بهدف معرفة تأثير السايكوسيل والأثيفون ونوعية مياه الري في الحاصل ومكوناته لحنطة الخبز صنف اباء 99. نفذت التجربة بتصميم القطاعات الكاملة المعشاة وزعت المعاملات بترتيب المعشش Nested بثلاثة مكررات. تضمنت التجربة معاملات معيقات النمو: الاثيفون 0.600 كغم.هـ-1 والسايكوسيل 0.277 كغم.هـــ-1 ونوعية مياه الري: مياه ابار ومياه بزل مخلوطة بمياه عادمة ومياه نهر فضلا عن معاملة المقارنة. اوضحت النتائج أن معيقات النمو اثرت معنويا في الصفات المدروسة فقد ادى الأثيفون إلى زيادة عدد السنابل (392 سنبلة.م-2) ووزن 1000 حبة (40 غم) وحاصل الحبوب (5.8 طن.ه-1) بنسب بلغت 49.0% و7.8% و65.7% للموسم الاول, بالتتابع. ادى السايكوسيل إلى زيادة عدد الحبوب بالسنبلة (51.9 حبة.سنبلة-1) بنسبة 20.7% للموسم الاول, وزيادة عدد السنابل ووزن 1000 حبة وحاصل الحبوب بنسبة 24.5% و11.7% و35.9% للموسم الثاني, بالتتابع. اوضحت نتائج التجربة أن نوعيات مياه الري قد اثرت معنويا في الصفات قيد الدراسة, فقد تسبب الري بماء البزل المخلوط بالمياه العادمة في إعطاء أعلى عدد سنابل وأعلى عدد حبوب بالسنبلة وأعلى حاصل حبوب وبنسبة زيادة 36.8% و7.8% و35.1% للموسم الاول, بالتتابع قياسا بمعاملة المقارنة. أما في الموسم الثاني فقد اعطت المعاملة بماء البزل أعلى وزن حبة وأعلى حاصل حبوب وبنسبة بلغت 10.1% و14.8% بالتتابع قياسا بمعاملة المقارنة. زادت المعاملة بماء النهر من وزن 1000 الحبة للموسم الاول بنسبة 4.8% قياسا بمعاملة المقارنة. حققت معاملة الرش بالاثيفون والسقي بماء البزل أعلى حاصل حبوب للموسمين وبنسب زيادة بلغت 139.0% و75.7% وأعلى عدد سنابل بنسب زيادة بلغت 117.1% للموسم الاول, واعطت المعاملة بالاثيفون وماء النهر أعلى وزن حبة بزيادة بلغت 16.8% للموسم الاول. نستنتج من بيانات هذا البحث أن المعاملة بالأثيفون والري بماء البزل زادت من مكونات الحاصل ومن ثم انعكس على حاصل الحبوب. عليه نوصي باستخدام منظم النمو الأثيفون والسقي بماء البزل لزيادة حاصل الحبوب.


Article
THE EFFECT OF IRRIGATION METHODS AND MAGNETIZATION OF WATER IN YIELD OF SUNFLOWER
تأثير طرائق الري ومغنطة المياه في حاصل زهرة الشمس ومكوناته

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This experiment was carried out at the experimental farm of Field Crop Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu-Ghraib during two spring seasons of 2012 and 2013 to study the response of Sunflower cultivar Akmar to irrigation methods and water of magnetization technology on yield and yield components. The experiment was laid out as a split plot in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Four irrigation methods were used as a main plots: Furrow irrigation (I1), unfixed alternate furrow irrigation (I2), fixed alternate furrow irrigation (I3) and basin irrigation (I4), while four levels of magnetized water (0, 1000, 2000, and 3000) Gauss were used as sub-plot treatments. Results showed that unfixed alternate furrow irrigation method (I2) did not increase the yield of sunflower for both seasons and fixed alternate furrow irrigation method in the first season but it could reduce irrigation water by 40%. Yield reached 3.08 and 2.82 ton.ha-1 in the two seasons respectively 3.07 for fixed alternate furrow irrigation in the first season, were as irrigation water reduced from 425 to 259 mm per season in 2012 season and reduced from 362.3 to 320.3 mm per season in 2013 season were an increment of water use efficiency (WUE) by 63.5% to 61.4% for unfixed alternate furrow irrigation and 50.0 to 48.2 for fixed alternate furrow irrigation were accrued during growing seasons respectively in comparison with full irrigation treatment (I1). No significant effect was detected between I1 and I2 in yield components of sunflower. Results displayed a positive effect of using magnetized irrigation water on all measured traits. Yield was increased by and 30.7 to 43.2%, WUE increased by 44.9 to 55.5%, number of seeds per head increased by 45.8 to 23.5%, head diameter improved by 22.6 to 16.9 %, fertility percentage by 1.80 to 2.98% and harvest index by 16.96 and 27.7 % for both spring seasons respectively, and 100 seeds weight increased by15.5% in the second season. Interaction between two factors were significant in fertility percentage. There is compensational effect for irrigation water magnetization on yield and components.


Article
EFFECT OF PLANTING DATES AND PLANTING METHODS ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF TRITICALE
تأثير موعد وطريقة الزراعة في حاصل ونوعية القمح الشيلمي

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This experiment was carried out in the experimental station of Coll .of Agric .Abu-Ghraib, Univ. of Baghdad during the winter seasons of 2011 and 2012 to find out the effect of planting dates (15 Nov., 25 Nov., 1 Dec., and 10 Dec.) and two planting methods (rows and broadcasting) of Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack). Factorial experiment was used with RCBD at three replicates. Results showed that planting date 15 Nov. gave higher plant height (119.00 and 121.50) cm, spike length (10.60 and 10.90)cm, number of spikes.m-2 (288.33 and 289.17) and number of tillers.m-2 (424.00 and 421.20) while the planting date 25 Nov. gave higher number of grain per spike (59.67 and 62.50), grain yield (4.97 and 5.22) ton.h-1 and 1000 grain weight (39.67 and 42.67) gm. The planting date 10 Dec. gave higher protein percentage (14.50 and 14.65)% for both seasons respectively. The treatment planting method rows gave higher plant height (106.75 and 110.50) cm, spike length (10.58 and 10.99 cm), number of spikes.m-2 (276.08 and 273.33), number of tillers.m-2, (360.4 and 363.2), 1000 grain weight (35.42 and 38.17) gm and grain yield (4.56 and 4.73) ton.h-1 for both seasons respectively. The interaction effect was significant between two factors in most of studied traits for both season, respectively. However, the combination of planting method rows with planting date 25 Nov. gave the highest grain yield (5.07 and 5.37) ton.h-1 for both season, respectively. It may be concluded that the best planting date was during the period 15-30 November with planting method rows and any delay in Triticale planting might reduce of the grain yield.


Article
EFFECT OF SEED TREAMENTAND SEED SIZE ON SEED VIGOR, FIELD EMERGENCE AND GRAIN YIELD OF SORGHUM
تأثير معاملة البذور وقياس البذرة في قوة الإنبات والبزوغ وحاصل الحبوب لمحصول الذرة البيضاء

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A Field experiment was conducted at the farm of the field crop department-College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during spring and autumn seasons in 2013. Both lab and field experiments were conducted with CRD design for the former and RCBD for the latter. The objective was to study the effect of seed treatment and seed size on seed vigor, emergence and yield and its components of grainy sorghum (Inqath cultivar). The field and lab experiments had the same factors, which composed of grading seed into three sizes 3.1-3.5, 3.6-4.0 and more than 4 mm. Then, T1 the treatments included untreated seed, T2 primed seed with soaked KCl at 4% concentration for12 hours, T3 treated seed with insecticide (cruiser), T4 soaked seed in hot water for 25 Second,T5 primed seed with distilled water for10 Hours. Results of the laboratory and field trial revealed that T4 treatment gave the highest values of germination percentage in first count test and plumule length in the same test (79.4% and 13.7cm) and also was superior in crop growth rate (CGR) amount to 25.7 gm.m-2day-1 in the spring season, also T2 treatment gave the highest values of germination percentage in the examination of germination final count and the length of radical and the percentage of emergence of the Season spring and yield dry matter and grain yield of the Season autumn average (86.8% and 10.4 cm and 79.3% and 16.21 ton.ha-1and 7.543 ton.ha-1) sequentially, whilst T5 treatment gave the highest values of dry weight of seedlings and field emergence of the season autumn average (17.2 gm and 83.2%), however T3 treatment gave the highest values of CGR and TDM of the season autumn average (39.0 gm.m-2day-1 and 18.29 ton.ha-1and 7. ton.ha-1). Outperformed large seeds in all laboratory tests while Outperformed seed medium and small in all the studied traits in the field experiment, We concluded from this study that seed grading and priming of sorghum before sowing is considered a powerful technique to increasing emergence percentage, field establishment and yield and tolrerance a wider range of environmental condition.


Article
EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS GROWTH OF PADDY STRAW MUSHROOM (VOLVARIELLA VOLVACEA)*
تأثير العوامل البيئية في نمو عرهون قش الرز Volvariella volvace

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The research aims to detect the best medium ,temperature and PH in growth of Paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea ) under laboratory conditions. the results showed that there were differences in response between the tested fungal strains V97, VD, V35 and V9 in growth on synthetic culture media PDA, YEA and MEA after five days of incubation. V97 strain gave the highest mean growth on the three culture media( 8.729 cm ) while V9 strain gave the lowest mean growth 2.708 cm. The natural culture media, Paddy straw, Wheat straw,Corn cobs and Palm wastes gave best growth for the fungal strains ,the mean growth for all the strains ranged 5.625-9.000 cm with the superior of the two strains VD. and V35 which gave the highest mean growth 9.000 cm diameter on all used culture media, while V9 strain gave the lowest growth on the four used growth media ,The mean growth 6.703 cm. The results of the effect of temperature on growth of V. volvacea strains showed that the two strains VD. and V35 gave the best growth on 30°C and 35°C, the mean colony diameter reached 9.000 cm diameter for the two strains, while the two strains V97 and V9 gave the highest myceilal growth on 35°C which reached 9.000 cm diameter , the lowest growth recorded of VD and V35 strains on 25°C which reeched 4.000 and 5.375 cm respectively. The two strains V9 and V97 gave the lowest mean growth on 45 °C which recorded 2.625 and 6.906 cm for the two strains respectively. Results of study the effect of PDA culture media and PH on growth of V. volvacea strains showed that the optimum PH ranged between7.5-8.0,The two strains VD and V9 gave the highest growth (9.000 cm) in PH 7.5, while the highest mean growth for the two strains V97 and V35 (9.000 cm) was recorded in PH8.0.


Article
EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES IN GROWTH PRODUCTION AND QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE PADDY STRAW MUSHROOM STRAIN VD
تقويم كفاءة اوساط زرعية مختلفة في معايير النمو والانتاج والصفات النوعية لعرهون قش الرز سلالة VD

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Results of the paddy straw mushroom (psm) V.volvacea and producfion on different substrates showed that the Paddy straw substrate surpassed in extended time for psm mycelium growth completion with 3.25 days, pinheads emergence for 6 days and in fruiting bodies formation emergence for 4.25 days after pinheads stage .meanwhile, mean of psm fruit weight was 110g/2kg substrate weight while bio-efficiency was 23.89%. stalk length and cap diameter psm were exceeded on corncobs substrate with 5.42 and 7.82cm respectively compared with 3.67 and 7.47cm on paddy straw respectively. On wheat straw, psm mycelium growth completion, pinheads emergence and fruiting bodies took the longest time with 6.25, 9.25 and 5.75 day after psm pinhead stage. on wheat straw substrate it was found that stalk length, cap diameter, fruit weight and bio-efficiency means were 2.92 cm, 5.98 cm, 55.5 g/2 kg and 9.31 respectively. Chemical analysis showed that contain the highest content of moisture and protein percentages with 90.73%and 40.70%respectivily. Corncob substrate recorded the highest percentage of psm fruit ash with 12.03%.higher fat percentage was found in fruits grown on paddy straw and corn substrate with same percentage, 1.266% for both substrates. 19.36% and 53.93% were the highest percentage of manufactured fiber and carbohydrates were found to be in psm grown on corn cobs substrate and palm waste respectively.


Article
INDUCED SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE IN EGGPLANT AGAINST THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODES, MELOIDOGYNE SPP BY Β-AMINOBUTYRIC
استحثاث المقاومة الجهازية في الباذنجان ضد ديدان تعقد الجذور باستعمال حامض البيتا امينوبيوتيرك

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This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in inducing systemic resistance in eggplant CV. Iraq wonder against root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. BABA was used at 40 mM to soak the seeds for 4 hours and drenching with 2.5 and 5 mM. Dipping seeds in 40mM of BABA and watering the soil with 5mM was found to be more effective in reducing root gall index (gi) , disease severity and the number of second stage juveniles (j2) root penetration, 1.67, 33.3% and 61.67 j2 respectively compared with plants watering with 40 mM only given 2.67, 53.33%, 72.33 j2, and 4, 80%, 120.33 j2 in untreated but nematode infected plants (control) respectively. The reduction of disease severity was associated with promotion the growth of treated plants as manefected by increasing fresh and dry weights of foliage and root system 7.35, 0.74, 0.86, 0.35 g and 5.79, 0.61, 1.08, 0.45 g respectively compared with 4.04, 0.39, 1.24, 0.70 g in control respectively. Treatment with BABA increased the total protein in dry leaves of treated plants compared control. 24.56% in plants resulted from seeds dipped in 40mM BABA and watering with 5mM compared with 21.95% in plants from seeds dipped in 40mM BABA only and with 18.63%.


Article
EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BIOAGENTS WITH BLTANOL TO CONTROL RHAIZOCTONIA SOLANI ON COTTON SEEDLINGS
فاعلية مبيد البلتانول والعوامل الاحيائية في مقاومة الفطر الممرض Rhizoctonia solani على بادرات القطن

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This study was conducted at field of Plant Protection Dept., College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during the summer season 2012-2013. The study included evaluation of Trichoderma harzianam and Psuedomonas fluorescens and beltanol against Rhizoctonia solani causal of seed decay and damping off seedling of cotton pre and post emergence. Field results indicated that treatment of cotton seed with T.h. and P.f. significantly achieved highest seed germination (86.0%) and disease severity 0.4 compared to other treatment. Also, all treatments indicated superiority on control treatment (Pathogenic fungus) which showed 16% seed germination and disease severity 3.8. Activity of different treatments increased plant length, dry matter for root and vegetative part of cotton plant. Treatments of integration between bioagents and beltanol at half rate achieved good activity in controlling R. solani which help in reducing environmental pollution.


Article
EFFICIENCY OF BREAD YEAST AND SA AGAINST PENICILLIUM DIGITATUM THE CAUSAL AGENT OF GREEN MOLD ON ORANGE
فعالية خميرة الخبز وحامض السالسلك ضد الفطرPenicillium digitatum المسبب لمرض العفن الأخضر على ثمار البرتقال

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The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and salicylic acid to induce systemic resistance in fruit against Penicillium digitatum which caused green mold on orange fruit Citrus sinensis L. Results showed that the highest inhibitory effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.against Penicillium digitatum on PDA was obtained at 1 × 10 8 cell/ml after a week of incubation at 25±2 C. Salicylic acid at 1000 ppm have completely inhibited P. digitatum growth on PDA after a week of incubation at 25±2 C. S. cerevesiae filtrate induced high reduction in spore germination 38% and germ tube length 15 micrometers compared with 98 % and 65.1 µm in control respectively . the liquid culture of S. cerevesiae containing living cells showed higher reduction in spore germination percentage 11 % and germ tube length ‎2 µm. Salicylic acid at 1000 ppm completely inhibited spore germination.and germ tube elongation on PDB after 19 hours of incubation at 25±2 C. All the concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) used have positively influenced the growth of S. cerevesiae. The addition of SA to in cell suspension of S. cerevesiae at 500 ppm significant induced increase (p=0.05) in the yeast population 25-28 % compared with 0.0 % in control after 19 hour of incubation at 28±2 C on NYDB. Results showed that all the inducing factors were able.to induce resistance in orange fruit and the best treatment was the combination of SA and S. cerevesiae compared with SA acid and as proved by the activity of peroxidase 600 and 450 units/ml after 6 days of treatment. Results of cold storage experiment showed the efficiency of the combination SA+S. cerevesiae with wax vapor gard has completely prevented the incidence of green mold on orange fruits. inoculated with P. digitatum during 60 d of storage at 4 C.


Article
MASHERING ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY OF WHEAT IN IRAQ (WASIT PROVINCE AS A CASE STUDY)
قياس الكفاءة الاقتصادية والإنتاجية الكلية للموارد لمزارع القمح في العراق (محافظة واسط أنموذجا)

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Wheat has an economic importance crop in terms of production and consumption, and has a major contribution in Iraqi agriculture. In spite of many followers of policies aims to increase production and improve the productivity levels, the donum productivity still low as compared with other countries. This may be due to many reasons, including the low level of overall productivity in the most important areas, where the crop is crown, as well as the ability of farmers to achieve economic efficiency. This study aimed to identify the reality of wheat production and diagnosis of the most important sources of growth. This requires measurement of the total factor productivity and to determine the optimal economic use of the resources used. The study adopted data envelope method to measure the total factor productivity of the resources and factors affecting the economic efficiency of farmers in Wasit province, a random sample of 182 farmers. The study included number of explanatory variables, namely area, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, number of irrigations and labor. Results indicated that average technical efficiency of the production function, in a manner accordance with the data envelope, averaged 87 % in volume changes attributable to capacity. On the other hand, the specific and economic efficiency were 77.7% and 68.1 % respectively. When measuring the amount of resources that achieved the economic efficiency using a production function under the change of the returns size to scale and compare them with the resources used by the farmers, an existence of surplus was observed averaged 26, 23,91, 19,0 4, 37.84, 10 and 18% respectively. Furthermore, The estimated technical efficiency using randomized limits analysis was higher than its predecessor. The average change in the overall productivity using the Malmquist index was 1.403%. The results revealed that farmers have access to the same level of wheat production using fewer resources. Most of the farmers in the sample did not achieve an economic efficiency despite the fact that most of whom have achieved technical competence. This suggesting that Wasit farmers do not care price relations during the allocation of the necessary quantities of the production resources. The study recommends re-distribution economic resources by reducing the resources wastage, as well as to study the product prices and inputs quantities during the development of plans that ensure the optimal combinations of resources achieve the economic efficiency needed for growth and study the factor which influence the total factor productivity of the sources.


Article
MEASURING THE ECONOMIC EFFCIENCY OF POTATOES BAGHDAD PROVINCE AS A CASE STUDY
قياس الكفاءة الاقتصادية لإنتاج البطاطا (محافظة بغداد – أنموذجآ تطبيقيآ)

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This study was conducted with the aim of economic performance evaluation in Baghdad province, using data DEA analysis method (Data Envelopment Analaysis),the potato growers harvest through a personal interview for 260 farms season productive 2013 to 2014, the study included a number of variables, namely, (seeds, fertilizer, space, anti-material, and labor) either output consisted production and using a specimen of linear with guidance Aladkhala who returns after changing amplitude is assumed converted to the corresponding specimen to assess the economic efficiencyHas been included under the constant and variable returns capacity as well as the measurement of economic efficiency and components, has been shown that the technical efficiency under variable returns to scal amounted to about ut 73.2%, while in the light of the stability of earnings capacity amounted to about 43.6%,and capacity efficiency amounted to about %61.7,as well as the results showed that the average allocative and economic efficiency under variable returns to scale producers of potatoes (30.5,23.5) respectively, moreover that the reason for the low o efficiency allocative high resource prices, as well as the presence of a waste of resources and this maittalb re-exploitation of resources are optimized and pay attention to the ways in high productivity and methods at a reasonable price, in addition to the on agricultural Extenion to provide its services to the farmers for the purpose of increasing the production quantity and quality at low cost all this leads to the achievement of efficiency,in addition to the need rational exploitation and optimization of inputs used and make it close or equal to the quantities of inputs achieve economic efficiency while maintaining the same level of production.


Article
AN ESTIMATION OF INDIVIDUAL DEMAND FUNCTION FOR CHICKENS IN IRAQ DURING THE PERIOD (1980_2012)
تقدير دالة الطلب الفردي على لحوم الدجاج في العراق للمدة 1980-2012

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Abstract

The chicken meat considered as one of the important food sources for human, there was an increased in the demand about it in Iraq in the last term because of the high prices of red meat as a chief rival for the white meat, which includes chicken meat and fish, So be required to prepare such a study to identify the current status of the demand for chicken meat in Iraq, by the most important determinants of the demand for chicken meat in the period (1980-2012) . Variables model, parameters were estimated using a standard model in several formulas. The results showed that the double logarithmic function is the best of those functions as first and second class tests, and its agreement with the concepts of economic theory, and through the cross elasticity of demand turns out that there was substitution between red meat and chicken meat. The satisfaction obtained from the consumption of chicken meat was appropriate because of the low Income elasticity of demand, were classified as normal commodity necessary because the modulus of elasticity lie between (zero and one). Finally, the study included a number of conclusions and recommendations include ,the Iraqi production of chicken meat was not enough to meet the need of domestic consumption as noticed the presence of compound annual growth rate the production -1.9%, so the Iraq fills the needs of current product concerned through the private importation from various countries around the world. The study recommended the achievement of self-sufficiency and financial resources saved from dropping out of the country because of import cover the deficit or supplement the requirements of the offer, equivalent to the demand.


Article
EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF PROTEASE FROM LOCALLY OKRA PODS (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS)
استخلاص وتنقية بروتييز قرنات الباميا Abelmoschus esculentus المحلية

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Abstract

This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the protease of local Okra Abelmoschus esculentus pods. The extraction process was conducted using ten extraction solutions with different pH and ionic strength values. Phosphate buffer solution with (pH 7, 0.05M, containing 2% sodium chloride) gave the highest activity which was (7.2 Unit/ml) as compared to other solutions, which ranged from 0.8-5.9 Unit/ml. The extracted enzyme purified by several stages. Being, precipitation by gradual addition of Ammonium sulphate from 20 to 85% saturation, then the precipitated enzyme was dialyzed and fractionated through DEAE-Cellulose (22X1.1cm), the enzymic fractions were pooled. The specific activity, purification fold and the enzyme yield values were 21.52 units/mg, 1.24 and 82.83% respectively. For further purification the enzyme fractions applied to G-75 Sephadex column (65x 1.5cm), the specific activity, enzyme yield and purification fold value were 98.82Unit/mg, 46.70%, 5.1, respectively .Electrophoresis analysis in the absence of SDS showed single band as indicator for enzyme purity. In conclusion, Okra pods could be one of natural source for proteases and this study recommended further studies regarding the adequate means for removal of the mucilage in order to increase the extraction efficiency.


Article
PREPARATION OF PROTEIN ISOLATE AND HYDROLYSATE FROM DEFATTED SUNFLOWER SEEDS AND STUDYING THEIR CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
تحضير المعزول والمتحلل البروتيني من بذور زهرة الشمس منزوعة الدهن ودراسة تركيبها الكيميائي

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Abstract

This study aimed to prepare protein isolate and hydrolysate (enzymic method) from defatted sunflower seeds and studying the chemical composition of both product, Sunflower seeds(Helianthus annuus L)were defatted ''using organic hexan''and used to prepare the sunflower meal. The protein content extracted and isolated using alkali extraction, protein precipitated at isoelectric point. The obtained isolate treated with Flavourzyme (300 unit) and the hydrolysis carried out at 55ºC for 4h. till the degree of hydrolysis reached to 21.6% . The final products dried under vacuum. The results showed that the chemical composition of sunflower meal were 50.89%, 4.9%, 4.53%, 4.32%, 27.14% and 1.61% for protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture, soluble sugars and total polyphenols respectively, while for protein isolate those values were 85.82%, 0.76%, 5.30%, 1.16%, 3.62%, 2.18% and 0.70% respectively. The protein hydrolysate content of protein was higher (91.5%) than that for protein isolate, whereas the other component values were lower.


Article
EFFECT OF SPRAYING AGROSOL AND ENRAIZAL ON TOMATO PRODUCTION AND QUALITY
تأثير الرش بالـمغذيات Agrosol وEnraizal في كمية ونوعية حاصل الطماطة

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Abstract

To enhance tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Elisan hybrid production and quality, this experiment was undertaken at the vegetable field Horticulture and landscape department/Agriculture College/Baghdad University, that was in spring 2013, plants spraying four times two week interference, Agrosol (Ag) spraying with 0, 3, and 6 g L-1 and Enraizal (En) with 0, 2 and 4 ml L-1 with interaction, 9 treatment was adopted, RCBD with three replicate at 16 plant for each treatment was adopted, ,means compared under 0.05 probability, Ag3+En2 increased plant leaf, leaf area at 213.5 leaf.plant-1 and leaf area at 122.85dcm2.plant-1 as compared with control treatment, Dry vegetative weight increased at 342 g.plant-1 in Ag6+En2 treatment, higher total chlorophyll at 304.4 mg.100g-1 in Ag6+En4, fruit number, plant yield and total yield at plant-1, 299,7 mg 100g-1, 31.13 fruit plant-1, 2.673 kg plant-1 and 84.87ton ha-1 respectively, Nitrogen percentage was increased in Ag6+En0 at 1.82% as compared with 1.20% in control treatment, Ag3+En0 treatment increased phosphorus percentage at 0.44% as compared with 0.24% in control treatment, Ag3+En4 treatment increased potassium percentage at 2.36% as compared with 1.23% in control treatment, higher fruit weight in Ag3+En0, Beta-carotene and TSS increased in Ag3+En2, lycopen increased in Ag6+En4, acidity increased Ag3+En4 and Ag6+En0 treatment, it was concluded from these results that Agrosol and Enraizal enhanced most yield and quality characters, Ag3+En2 treatment significantly increased most studying characters.


Article
A SUGGESTED EXTENSION PLAN TO EXHIBITION FOUNDATION FOR DATES PALMS AND EXHIBITION IN Al-DIWANIYA AGRICULTURAL DIRECTORATE
الية تخطيط المعارض النوعية للنخيل والتمور في مديرية زراعة الديوانية

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Abstract

The objective of this reseach, suggestion extenion planning for exhibition of dates palms by specialist in agriculture guides working in Al_Diwaniya Agriculture Directorate, and thier agreement leveal. According to the principles and basice of agri-cultural extension planning with preparing the methods, to contribute in developing date palms and adopting and separating the modern techniquesin dates palms field.. Also targeted research to identify some of the factors (age, educational attain-ment, job specialization, the number of exhibitions by the participant), also identify the development proposals. Data was collected from sample of 150 specialist agricultural staff waking in deffrent levels in al-diwaniya agricultural directors, by questionnaire. A scale of four degrees has been made to mesure the agreement leveal to suggust extension planning to exhibi-on foundation for date palms, which contain 3 axes and 74 item, the higher and the lower degree is between 27-205 degree, the agreement leveal avrege was 110.8 degree, with stander deviation 10.5 degree. The result show the rate agreement leveal was ranking between 87-146 degree. There was a positive agreement leveals and factors founding to this exhibion. The research conclusion is majority of the research sample were mention according to the degree of importance on a scale of five degrees, the weighted average reached 4.43 ,4.22 through the use of media, films, posters inside the agricultural exhibition pavilions and foucusing in training courses for the staff whom dealing with exhibition foundion in the work process of exhibition managment and how dealing with audience and beneficiary from farms owners and the visitors to this specific exhibition due to it consider from the most importand extesion methods to spread the scientific research results and agricultural technigues in this field. It was concluded the importance of mainstream planning mechanism exhibitions quality of dates palms when we publish the results of agricultural technigues.

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