Table of content

Jornal of Biotechnology Research Center

مجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية

ISSN: 18151140
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Biotechnology Research Center (BRC) in a Al-Nahrain University issued in 2007 the first edition of a tightly seasonal scientific journal named as the journal Biotechnology Research Center (JBRC) which got authorization in 2005 and held an impact number ISSN: 1815-1140.The journal accepts scientific researches in Arabic and English.
JBRC’s main interest is Biotechnology researches in the Medical, Molecular, Agriculture and environmental fields which have an important impact on the public and private sectors in Iraq.
JBRC’s structure consists of editing committee (headed by the manger of the BRC and the editor in chief), consulting committee (contains a well- known iraqi scientists in biotechnology) and editing secretary.
All researches are submitted to the JBRC’s regulations which is mainly is that they must be according to the journal directions and instructions , then the researches will be evaluated by three well-known scientists in the field and after that reviewing occurred by the editing committee to ensure and verify all JBRC’s instructions and regulations are taken into consideration .
A special edition of JBCR is issued to cover all researches that presented to the BRC’s scientific conferences which subjected to all regulations and instructions of publishing in JBCR.

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brcn2012@yahoo.comيتم الاتصال عبر البريد الالكتروني لمجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية


0096407707766148او للاتصال تلفونيا
بسكرتارية التحرير
م.م. سعاد محمد مجيدب
محمد منير حسين

Table of content: 2015 volume:9 issue:2

Article
Cytotoxic Effect of Gliotoxin, Hemolysin, Protease and Melanin purified from Aspergillus fumigates on REF Cell Line, in vitro Study
التأثيرالسمي لسم الكلايوتوكسين و البروتيين المحلل للدم وانزيم البروتييز وصبغة الميلانين المنقاة من الرشاشيات الدخناء على خط الخلايا الليفية لجنين الجرذ، دراسة خارج الجسم الحي

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Aspergillus fumigates especially clinical isolate produces a series of toxic substances and proteinaceous hemolysin, protease and pigment like melanin which appear to act in an additive and synergic way on cells. In this study, gliotoxin, hemolysin, Protease, and Melanin were used in an experimental model to study their Cytotoxic activity by evaluating their effect on REF cell line (Rat embryonic fibroblast ), for exposure time of 24 hrs at three different concentrations of each compounds triplicate of each concentration were used, cytotoxicity of the purified compounds were active against REF cell line under study and a toxic effect was clear with a significant difference at the level of probability (p≤ 0.05) and this effect was contrasted among different concentrations for each purified compound growth inhibition of REF cell line was increase gradually with the increase of compound concentration.


Article
The Effect of Sex Chromatin on Some Reproductive Traits of local Sheep in Erbil
تأثير الكروماتين الجنسي (Sex Chromatin) في بعض الصفات الأنتاجية لدى الأغنام المحلية في أربيل

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This study was conducted on local sheep belongs to private flock in Erbil plain during the period 4 /11/2011 till 25/10/2012. The investigation included 65 local sheep to study the effect of sex chromatin frequency on the Daily Milk Yield (DMY), weight and age of ewes in addition the calculation of Regression and Correlation coefficients between the studied traits of local sheep. The overall means of frequency of sex chromatin (drum stick, Appenx without stick, tear drop and small club). Appeared with normal Neutrophils were 1.897, 1.034, 1.241, 0.741 and 95.86% respectively. The overall means of DMY was 533.6g. The results showed that there was significant (P≤0.05) in relationship to DMY, the highest rate of DMY was shown among the sheep had sex chromatin drum stick (675. 5g), while the rate of DMY was at lowest production among the sheep which had sex chromatin of small club (425.4g). A significant effect of weights and age of sheep on the patterns of sex chromatin were observed. The highest rate of DMY among the sheep was at the age of 4 years raised high rate of sex chromatin type (drum stick). A significant(P≤0.05) positive Correlation coefficient between DMY and sex chromatin type (drum stick) with value of 0.673, while there was a negative and significant (P≤0.05). Regression coefficient of DMY on sex chromatin coefficient (small club ) with coefficient of Regression value (-0.074). In addition the highest value of Correlation between the DMY and sex chromatin of (drum stick) was (0.856), followed with Correlation coefficient value between type of birth and weights of ewes (0.784), while the lowest Correlation value was (-0.087) between DMY and sex chromatin of (small club).


Article
Study the Activity of Thuja occidentalis Plant Against High Sugar Levels in Blood of Rats
دراسة الفعالية التنشيطية لنبات العفص ضد ارتفاع مستوى السكر في دم الجرذان المختبرية

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This study focused on the ability of aqueous extract of Thuja occidentalis plant (225mg/kg) to decrease blood sugar in male and female of laboratory rats and following its ability later on. The effect of this extract on most blood components was mild (p≤0.05), but the effect was highly obvious (p≤0.01) on the platelet count. Finally the effect was also obvious to a little extent (p≤0.05) in decreasing of rats average body weight in treatment groups.


Article
Enhancement of Innate Immunity in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio Using local Probiotic
تحفيز االمناعة الامية في اسماك الكارب الشائع Cyprinus carpioباستعمال المعزز الحيوي المحلي

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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of four levels of local probiotic compared with commercial probiotic on immune status of common carp Cyprinus carpio as biological control. One handared and eight speciement of Cyprinus carpio average weight of 57.85±0.3g were fed during 42 days at 0.05,0.1,0.5 and 0.75mg local probiotic per Kg diet compared with 2mg commercial probiotic per Kg diet in comparison with the control group without additive. The phagocyctic index of blood macrophages, reduction of nitrobluetetrazolium (NBT) by radical oxegen produce from neutrophils cell ,and alternative complement pathway (ACP) activities were evaluated. A positive correlation was found between the levels of phagocytosis, nitrobluetetrazolium index and alternative complement pathway activities in blood and the level of inclusion of local probiotic compared with commercial probiotic and control group.


Article
Targeting Mice Mammary Adenocarcenoma Cells with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
إستهداف خلايا سرطان الغدة اللبنية الفأري بجسيمات أوكسيد الزنك النانوية

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Abstract

The cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles against mice mammary adenocarcenoma cells was carried out in vitro. The used nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid methods; the used liquid was deionized water. Colloidal suspension of zinc oxide nanoparticles was synthesized by Q-switched Nd: YAG pulse laser device (1064 nm) laser energy was 600 mJ and pulse duration was 10 nanosecond. High purity metallic zinc plate was submerged in 10 ml deionized water in 50 ml glass baker and ablated with 1000 pulse at room temperature. The nanospecificities of the synthesized nanoparticle colloidal were characterized with UV-Vis scanning spectrophotometer. Atomic force microscope was used to determine the particle size distribution and particles shape. The ZnO crestless formation was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Mice mammary adenocarcenoma cells was treated with 25, 50, 100 ppm of ZnO nanoparticles. Results indicated a significant toxicity of the ZnO nanoparticles toward cancer cells, this toxicity correlated directly with ZnO nanoparticles elevated concentrations. These result need to be further investigated and the molecular mechanism of ZnO nanoparticles effect should be more clarify.


Article
Genetic Variation of Sinorhizobium meliloti Isolates Differing in Their Ability to Drought Tolerance
الاختلافات الوراثية بين عزلات Sinorhizobium meliloti في قابليتها على تحمل الجفاف

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Soil bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti had enormous agricultural value, due to their ability in fixing nitrogen symbiotically with an important forage crop legume- alfalfa. The aim of this study (i) isolate indigenous S. meliloti from different field sites in Iraq, (ii) evaluate the isolates tolerance to induce drought using polyethylene glycol-6000, (iii) assessing genetic diversity and genetic relationships among isolates of natural population with drought tolerant abilities. Drought tolerance study revealed vast variations between Sinorhizobium isolates, the highest tolerant isolates to drought were twelve from total thirty 40%, tolerated from -3 up to -4 Mpa (mega pascal), while the drought sensitive isolates tolerated upto – 1.5 Mpa, except isolate Bs58 which tolerated upto -1 Mpa water potential. The growth declined with the increase of drought stress. Cluster analysis based on RAPD-PCR showed significant differences among S. meliloti isolates, and the results gave almost identical grouping of isolates in regards to drought experiment. Among indigenous isolates two divergent groups could be determined, the first major group included drought tolerant isolates and the second major group comprised all drought moderate and sensitive isolates with 40% similarity between the two major groups.


Article
Effect of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seeds Treatment by Diode Laser Radiation in Seedlings and Calli Growth
تأثير معاملة بذور زهرة الشمس(Helianthus annuus L.) باشعة ليزر الدايود في نمو البادرات والكالس

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The effect of the exposure of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds to red light laser radiation with 650 nm 50 mw/cm2 by diode laser in germination and growth of seedlings and calli had been studied. Seeds were irradiated with red light for different periods of time 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. The percentage of seeds germination and the average of roots length were different according to exposure time used. Increasing the time of exposure led to the best results in seed germination percentage (100%), rooting and shooting behavior and flowering acceleration compared with control. Initiation of calli from explants (roots, stems and leaves) of sunflower seedlings on Murashige and Skoog media containing 1.0 mg/l of Benzyl adenine and 0.5 mg/l of Naphthalene acetic acid were succeeded very well from the irradiated seeds. The best irradiation time was 20 minutes for growth and durability of leaf calli. The fresh weight, protein, DNA, RNA contents and the specific activity of dihydrofolate reductase of calli of different explants were increased with increasing the duration of seeds exposure to red light at 30 and 60 days of growth on media. Results also illustrate increases in protein and oil contents in the irradiated seeds over control seeds, specially at 20 minutes. Using red laser rays for 5 and 20 minutes, resulted in roots and shoots production from calli of stem and leaf respectively.


Article
Association of Vitamin D Receptor Ggene Ppolymorphisms and Type 1 diabetes in Egyptian Population
ارتباط التباين الجيني لمستقبلات فيتامين دي مع مرض السكري النوع الاول في المجتمع المصري

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The human vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is located on chromosome 12q12–q14, and four common nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Several studies have found a relationship between polymorphisms of the (VDR) gene and development of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The association of VDR polymorphisms and susceptibility to T1DM in the Egyptian population were examined in 60 individuals with type 1 diabetes and compared with healthy 60 persons. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping was performed using PCR and BsmI and FokI, by using two techniques, allele specific PCR technique and restriction fragment length polymorphism – PCR (RFLP-PCR). Data were analyzed using the chi square. The result approved that the genotype TA in SNP FokI was risk factor among type 1 diabetes mellitus patients combination which conferred strongest susceptibility to T1DM (P=0.004) while the SNP BsmI did not showed any significance between cases as compared with control (P=0.493). The results of the current study indicated that VDR polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of T1DM in the Egyptian population. The difference in the association of the aforementioned SNPs variants with T1DM among different populations may be attributed to the presence of multiple susceptibility alleles.


Article
Association Between PTPN22 Gene Polymorphism and Type1 Diabetes in Egyptian Population
اثبات الارتباط بين التباين الجيني للجين PTPN 22ومرض السكري من النوع الاول في المجتمع المصري

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The protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor 22 gene (PTPN22) maps at human chromosome 1p13.3 which encodes an important negative regulator of T-cell activation, lymphoid-specific phosphatase (Lyp). The PTPN22 gene has been shown to associate with a risk for multiple autoimmune diseases, including type1 diabetes (T1DM). This study aimed to analyze the association of three PTPN22 polymorphisms in Egyptian population .The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at positions -1123 (rs#2488457), 1858 (rs#2476601), and +2740 (rs#1217412) were genotyped in 60 persons with T1DM, and 60 control persons, all three SNPs were genotyping using two technique, allele specific PCR technique and restriction fragment length polymorphism – PCR (RFLP-PCR). The 1858 C/T did not show any significance differences between patients and control groups. (MCP=1.0) whereas, respectively -1123 G/C and +2740 A/G were significantly associated with T1DM disease (P≤0.0001) and (P=0.012).These results suggest that the PTPN22 gene of SNPs polymorphisms were associated with type 1 diabetes in Egyptian population. The difference in the association of the aforementioned SNPs variants with T1DM among different populations may be attributed to the presence of multiple susceptibility alleles


Article
Increasing the Production of Spilanthol in Spilanthes acmella (L.)Murr. by Using Tissue Culture Techniques
زيادة أنتاج مركب الـ spilanthol في نبات مقلة العينSpilanthes acmella (L.) باستعمال تقنية الزراعة النسيجية

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This study was aimed to increase the production of Spilanthol from S. acmella by using tissue cultures. Seeds were sterilized and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations 2.0,4.0,6.0 mg/l of Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA),1.0 , 2.0 , 3.0 mg/l Benzyl adenine (BA)and 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg/l Benzyl amino purine (BAP). These growth regulaters were used for callus induction from leaf segments, plus 0.1 gm casein hydrolysate in combination with the same growth regulaters for callus induction and Spilanthol production. Quality and quantity of Spilanthol were investingated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), results showed that using 1.5% sodium hypochlorate for 15 min was very effective for disinfecting and survival . The combination of 3.0 mg/ l BAP, 6.0 mg/l NAA with 0.1 gm casein hydrolysed was most effective for callus induction from leaf segments ,The highest mean fresh weight and the highest amount of Spilanthol reached to 80.46 mg/g in combination of 2.0 mg/lBAP, 2.0 mg/l NAA with 0.1 g casein hydrolysed. This increased the Spilanthol compound to its highest amount when compaired with the original plant.


Article
Evaluation of Some Biochemical Markers in Patient's with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
تقييم بعض الدالات البايوكيميائية لدى مريضات متلازمة تكيس المبيض

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The present study aims to detect several biochemical markers associated with PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome) in Iraqi women comparing the results with control normal fertile women and also studying the effect of obesity on the same biochemical markers. Ninety eight women with PCOS, 51 non-obese [body mass index (BMI) less than 25 kg/m2] and 47 obese (BMI >25 kg/m2) were enrolled for the study. Each group of them was compared forty normal fertile women as control group matched for each in age and BMI. The first part of this study was devoted to the measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), subdivided PCOS according to the body mass index, and measurement of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA), HbA1c and lipid profile. A significant differences was found in HbA1c (P≤0.0001) VLDL (p≤0.0001), triglyceride (p≤0.05) and cholesterol (p≤0.05) between obeses and lean PCOS patients. Insulin serum level (P≤0.0001) was highly significantly increased in obeses PCOS patients as compared to obeses control, the serum insulin (P≤0.0001) also significantly increased in lean PCOS women when compared with lean control. There was a significant differences between HOMA (P≤0.05) in obeses PCOS patients than in the obese control group and between obese and lean women PCOS patients.


Article
Detection and Diagnosis for Blue Green Algae Toxin-Producing in Al-Rasheed Drinking Water Plant in Baghdad
الكشف والتشخيص عن الطحالب الخضر المزرقة المنتجة للسموم في مياه الشرب لاسالة الرشيد في مدينة بغداد

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Diagnosed algae in the final drinking water tanks for the liquefaction at Al-Rasheed plant located in the city of Baghdad on the Tigris River Rusafa site, showing through results seen that algae greens bluish are striking and through examination bio-counting biomass of algae toxin-producing of the Division of algae greens bluish and along the seasons of the year the quantity of high prosperity is vital, reaching numbers of algae 10400002, 4046, 2844 and 3497 cells/ liter during the summer, spring, winter and autumn season, respectively, in the pelvis final drinking water, represented by algae wandering Chroococcus minor, Microcystes aergenasa and Oscillatoria limnetica which Almsoalh for excretion of toxins moss, algae while conjoined prevailed more than wandering prevailed algae Lyngbya connectens, M. aergenasa, O. limnetica, O. tenuis, O. geitleriana, O. formosa, O. subbrevis, Nostoc linkal, Phormidium tenue and Anabaena sp, but the most important algae conjoined within the basin final drinking water, represented by Phyto Anabaena sp, Chroococcus minor, Lyngbya connectens, Microcystes aergenasa, Oscillatoria limnetica, Nostoc carneum and Phormidium tenue, which helped the algae to flourish in this density is a memorial in concentrations of plant nutrients of nitrates, nitrites and ammonia and phosphorus concentration of 3.01, 1.2, 1.47 and 0.6 mg / l during the summer and 1.84, 0.2, 0.23 and 0.3 mg/ l during the spring and 0.76, 0.2, 0.09 and 0.1 mg/ l, respectively during the winter, 0.736, 0.3, 0.13 and 0.1 mg/ L, respectively, during the autumn and Bekorh stood at 57.0 , 19, 16 and 11.5 UNT, respectively, during the seasons of the year set forth above, and some other nutrients such as calcium, sulfur and aluminum are shown in the results note that all of the calcium, ammonia, turbidity and electrical conductivity are higher than the permissible limits of the specification for the Iraqi drinking water.


Article
Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Bioremediation of Some Heavy Metals
إستخدام خميرة Saccharomyces cerevisiae فـي المعالجة الحيوية لبعض المعادن الثقيلة

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The study aimed to use of baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Bioremediation of some heavy metals. Several isolates were obtained from different sources. These isolates were subjected to serial diagnostic tests to ensure its belongings to S. cerevisiae. The ability of these isolations to remove of metal elements under constant conditions including incubation period (24 hours), pH ( 6 ), temperature 25C° and stirring speed (150 rpm / min) with inoculation size 1 × 106 cell / ml in a solution containing the metals in a concentration of 1 mg/ L as individual or as a collection were investigated. The results have been shown that the isolate which designated as Sc6 has the best ability to remove the metals over the all others. Chrome, Lead, iron and copper removing efficiency as individual by this isolate were 47.35%, 70.87%, 95.15% and 50.28%, respectively with a rate of 43.63%. While the rate of removal efficiency of lead, iron and copper as a group was 81.18%, but the rate of removal efficiency of chrome, nickel, cobalt and cadmium as a group was only 19.00 %.


Article
Antifungal Activity of Alkaloids and Phenols Compounds extracted from black pepper Piper nigrum against some pathogenic fungi
فعالية مركبات القلويدات والفينولات المستخلصه من الفلفل الأسود ضد بعض الفطريات الممرضه

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This study focused on the production of alkaloids and phenols from dry black pepper Piper nigrum fruit; and its effect on thirteen species of fungi isolated from dermal infection. The antifungal activity of different concentrations alkaloids and phenols were evaluated using agar dilution method. Statistics revealed different inhibition percentages; that are gradually increased with the increasing in the concentration of the used compound. Minimal inhibitory concentration MIC and maximum fungicidal concentration MFC were obtained 0.4, 0.002 mg/ml respectively. Confirming the presence of alkaloids and phenols were done by fast liquid chromatography; showed the presence of two types of alkaloids and ten types of phenols.


Article
Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion Process Combining Pre-digestion with Methanization
عملية معالجة حمأة الصرف الصحي بمرحلتين مقترنة بعملية انتاج الميثان

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Anaerobic digestion of a mixture of manure and sewage sludge by combination of the biological pre-digestion at 73°C with methanization at 55°C was studied with regard to the biogas process efficiency, energy balance and sanitation effect. Performance of the two-stage digestion was compared with the conventional, one-stage moderate thermophilic digestion at 55°C and mesophilic digestion at 37°C, respectively. The best performance was achieved by the two-stage treatment both in terms of Volatile Solids (VS) removal and biogas yield. Up to 60% of VS was removed and a specific methane yield of 300 ml CH4 gVS-1 was achieved. Sanitation effect was measured as inactivation of the indicators of bacterial pathogens - the faecal enterococci and spores of Clostridium perfringens. Elimination of faecal enterococci to non-detectable level occurred only during treatments at 73°C and 55°C. Numbers of Clostridium perfringens spores were reduced solely by the combined 73°C/55°C treatment.


Article
Effect of Contraceptive Pills, Fungal Alkaloids and Wild Carrot Seeds Oil on Apoptosis in Albino Female Mice Lymphocytes
تأثيرحبوب منع الحمل, القلويدات الفطرية و زيت بذور الجزر البري على الموت الخلوي المبرمج في الخلايا اللمفاوية لإناث الفئران البيض

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This study compared three types of contraceptives agents by measuring the percentage of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Anti-fertility agents included contraceptive pills (Yasmin), fungal alkaloids (Cafergot) and the oil extract of the wild carrot seeds Daucus carota. Comparison process depended on the evaluation of apoptosis percentage in mice lymphocytes, that treated orally for five successive days with the contraceptive agents by using the concentration of (60 µg/kg) of Yasmin pills, (20 µg/kg) of Cafergot and (0.1 ml) of wild carrot seeds oil. These were compared with the negative and positive control methotrexate (MTX) (50µg/kg). Results showed that the percentage of apoptosis by using wild carrot seeds oil was 0% which was the least in comparison to contraceptives and equal to the negative control 0%. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the percentage of apoptotic cells with Cafergot treatment 0.1% in comparison with the negative control, while Yasmin pills treatment led to a significant increases (P≤0.05) in apoptosis percentage to 0.6% in comparing to negative control. This response also significantly increased (P≤0.05) in MTX treatment reaching 1.8%. As conclusion the results of this work showed that, the oral contraceptive pills (Yasmin) was the most inducing contraceptive drugs to apoptosis, while Cafergot and wild carrot seeds oil were the least effective in comparison to the negative and positive control.


Article
Incidence and Antibiotics Sensitivity of Multidrug-Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn’s Patients and Environmental Samples fromThree Hospitals in Baghdad
المقاومة المتعددة للمضادات الحيوية لإصابة الزائفة الزنجارية المعزولة من مرضى الحروق والعينات البيئية لثلاث مستشفيات في بغداد

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Two hundred swab samples were collected from burn patients and burn units for the period, beginning from August 2012 to the end of April 2013 from a number of hospitals in Baghdad governorate including: Al-Kindi General Teaching Hospital, Al-Yarmuk General Teaching Hospital and Al-Imam Ali Hospital. The collected samples were cultured on different media and tested biochemically in order to find out the profile of bacteria that colonize burn patients wounds and environment of burn units. The results of bacterial culturing revealed that out of 200 samples, 105 samples 52.5% were observed to have bacterial growth (positive samples), while negative samples represented 95(47.5%). The profile of the bacteria in the cultured samples revealed: Pseudomonas aeruginosa 40.95% was the most common isolate followed by Staphylococcus aureus 20.0%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 17.1%, Escherichia coli 8.5%, Pseudomonas putida 4.76%, Enterobacter aerogenes 3.80%, Acinetobacter baumannii 2.85% and Proteus mirabilis 1.90%. Forty three P. aeruginosa isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The results showed most isolates were potentially resistant to different antibiotics as follow, all isolates 100% had resistance to Ceftriaxone, Cefepime, and Chloramphenicol, and showed high resistance to Tobramycin 95.3%, Gentamicin 93.0%, Ceftazidime 88.3%, Cefotaxime 86.0%, Piperacillin 83.7% and Amikacin 79.0%, beside illustrating low resistance to Aztreonam 67.4%, Ciprofloxacin 46.5%, and Imipenem 13.9% among these antibiotics, Imipenem was the most effective antibiotic because 86.0% of the isolates appeared to be high sensitive to it.


Article
PCR Detection of Some ESBLs (bla) Genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn’s Units in Bagdad Hospitals
الكشف عن بعض جينات البيتا لاكتام الواسعة الطيف لبكتريا الزائفة الزنجارية المعزولة من وحدات الحروق لمستشفيات بغداد باستخدام تفاعل سلسلة البلمرة

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Multi drug resistant (MDR) and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBLs) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium responsible for severe infections in burn’s units, plasmid DNA analysis and encoded many types of genes responsible for beta-lactamases. To determine the type of genes responsible for beta-lactam broad spectrum in P. aeruginosa strains isolated from 100 swabs of burn’s units environment, using a molecular methods (PCR) by primers specific to ESBLs (bla ) genes oxacillin hydrolyzing capabilities OXA-10, OXA-4 and Vietnam Extended-Spectrum β-Lactame VEB-1. The results revealed that 15 strains were isolated from burn units environment. All of 15 (100%) were positive OXA-10 and only one (6.6%) for OXA-4 while the other gene VEB-1 was found in 6 (40%) isolates.


Article
Study the Relationship Between Obesity and Fertility in Diabetic Iraqi Men
دراسة العلاقة بين السمنة والاخصاب عند الرجال العراقيين المصابين بداء السكري

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The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between obesity and fertility in Iraqi diabetic men whose body mass index (BMI) more than 25Kg/m2, and compare the results with control group corresponding age and BMI. Forty samples of men semen's were divided into two groups with and without diabetes and each group subdivided into two subgroups according to BMI. The parameters that measured in this study are( glucose, insulin and lipid profile in fasting state) also (testosterone, prolactin, alkaline phosphatase) were measured for each of four subgroups [controls(I, II) and diabetes(III, IV)]. Semen's analysis included (sperm concentration in ml, total count per ejaculate and viability). In diabetic subgroup (III) the mean levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated, while significantly decrease in testosterone, prolactin, high density lipoproteins- cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase and total sperm count but there were no significant difference in total cholesterol, the sperm concentration and viability as compared with control subgroup(I). In diabetic subgroup (IV) the mean levels of fasting blood (glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides) were significantly elevated, while significantly decrease in (testosterone, prolactin, high density lipoproteins-cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, sperm concentration, viability and total sperm count) but there were no significant difference in fasting (insulin and high density lipoproteins- cholesterol) as compared with control subgroup(II). In diabetic subgroup(III) the mean of BMI and the mean levels of fasting blood (glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides) significantly elevated, while there were significantly decrease in(testosterone, alkaline phosphatase, sperm concentration, viability and total sperm count but there were no significant difference in fasting (insulin, high density lipoproteins- cholesterol) and prolactin, as compared with diabetic subgroup(IV). For all the above biochemical parameters investigated we can conclude that there is inverse- relationship between obesity and fertility which increase in the presence of diabetes.


Article
The Exposure Effect of Water Pipe Smoke (WPS) on the Total Count leukocyte, Mitotic Index, Micronucleus Formation and Chromosome Aberration in Albino Male Mice
تاثير التعرض لدخان الارجيله على العدد الكلي لكريات الدم البيضاء , معامل الانقسام , تكون النوى الصغيره والانحرافات الكروموسوميه في ذكور الفئران البيضاء

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the hematological and cytogenetic effects of water pipe smoke (WPS) in albino male mice. The investigated parameters were total count of leukocytes (TCL), mitotic index (MI), micronucleus (MN) formation and chromosomal aberrations. The results of our study showed that, mice were exposed to WPS using a special inhalation glass chamber (whole body exposure). Mice exposed daily to 100 puffs of WPS on the bases of (1h exposure per day). The exposure experiment continued daily for the periods of 3, 5, 7 weeks consequently. The results revealed that the TCL significantly decreased in the second and third treatment (5930, 4120 cell/ cu. mm. blood) respectively, in comparison to control (6200 cell/ cu. mm. blood), while the MI decreased in all 3 treatment after 3, 5, 7 weeks. Nevertheless, both the MN cells and chromosomal aberration remain the same percentage as the control in the first treatment and then began to be higher than the control in the second and third treatment. The results indicated that the WPS has cytotoxic and mutagenic effects, according to the obtained results of MN cells and chromosomal aberration assays in the three types of treatment.


Article
Inactivation of Staphylococcal Virulence Factors Using a Diode Laser light-Activated Antimicrobial Agent
تثبيط عوامل الضراوة لبكتريا العنقوديات الذهبية بإستخدام الليزرالثنائي الصمام

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Abstract

Total of 120 samples were collected from different body sites and lesions for patients from both sexes. There were 78 isolates (65%) Staphylococcus aureus from them 37 isolates were Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Each isolate was exposed to diode laser 632nm wavelength with 300µM of methylene blue (MB) at 458.6 watt/cm2 for 15 minutes, both phenotypic and genotypic changes in virulence factors and the antibiotic-resistance were evaluated before and after irradiation with laser light. It was observed that the effect of sub-lethal dose on the antibiotic sensitivity was isolate-dependent. In general, results showed large variations in the susceptibility of antibiotic. Exposure to diode laser increased resistance to Vancomycin, in contrast increased sensitivity to Methicillin, Ciprofloxacin, and Norfloxacin. Also Results showed decreases the activity of β-haemolysin, with 33 (90.3%) isolates of S. aureus in comparison to the control as shown in blood agar method and haemolytic titration assay, but there was no effect on thermonuclease enzyme after irradiation. Detection of three genes represented in MRSA isolates by a confirmatory test was carried out using PCR technique. The results of the PCR amplification of mecA gene noted that it was present in 27(72.2%) S.aureus isolates and 14(83.3%) isolates showed reduction in β-toxin production after exposure to laser light, with no altered or deficiency in thermonuclease gene (nuc).


Article
Detection the Ability of Aspergillus flavus Isolated from Wheat Grains for Aflatoxin B1 Production using RT- PCR
التحري عن قدرة الرشاشيات الخضراء المعزولة من حبوب الحنطة على أنتاج السم الفطري افلاتوكسين B1 باستخدام تقنية RT- PCR

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Abstract

Aspergillus flavus is aflatoxinogenic and potential aflatoxins producers in agricultural commodities. The present study was conducted determine the ability of eleven strains of A. flavus isolated from Iraqi wheat grains Triticum aestivum. The isolates have been detected by molecular methods using Reverse Transcriptase RTPCR. In this study, RNA was extracted from A. flavus, cDNA synthesis and rapid assessment of eleven isolates of A. flavus was accomplished using primer pair for the aflatoxin regulatory gene aflR Reverse transcription-Polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR).Positive amplification was achieved for all the isolates with a molecular weight 798 to aflR1 and 400bp to aflR2. Also the result of the amplification showed there are no differences with the two molecular weight between the 11 isolated strains of A. flavus in their aflatoxin B1 production, but the first strain differed in their banding florescence as compared with others strains this reflect the genetic differences in aflatoxin B1 production between them.


Article
Polymorphism of The Promote Region of Chicken Insulin like Growth Factor-1 and Association With Bone Abnormalities
التغايرات الوراثية في منطقة المشغل لجين IGF-1لعينات الدجاج وعلاقتها بتشوه العظام

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Abstract

The insulin like growth factor-1(IGF-1) is important regulators in stimulating growth, protein synthesis, cell proliferation and differentiation in a variety of cell types. To achieve this goal, blood samples were collected from 50 Gallus gallus affected from bone abnormalities (distortion) and 50 samples a control group from the Animal farm/ College of Veterinary medicine/ University of Baghdad. DNA was isolated and the IGF-1genewas amplified by using specific primers for promoter region and 5' UTR of this genes, then DNA sequencing was performed by using AB13730XL, (Applied Bio system, Macro Gen company, USA). The DNA sequencing results of flank sense of IGF-1gene from a control group was found to be compatible 100% with wild type of Gallus gallus from the Gene Bank. On the other hand, sequencing results of the same gene from 35cases abnormalities (distortion) revealed of 99% compatible and score 1351 and expect 0.0 with the wild type sequences of gene bank. The minor differences could be attributed to two transversion substitutions of (G>T,T>G) and (C>T) on locations 404, 104, and 249 nucleic acid respectability. Fifteen cases of bone abnormalities (Distortion) of Gallus gallus, 99% compatibility have one Transversion substitution G>T on position 404 andone transition substitution (C>T) on 249 positions, under number Sequence ID: gb|JX414253.1|. In conclusion, our case study suggests that polymorphisms of IGF-1gene are strongly associated with vertebrate growth and development of some chicken breeds in Iraq. The aim of this study is to identify the genetic polymorphisms of IGF-1gene and its association with vertebrate growth and development of some chicken breeds in Iraq.

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