Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2014 volume:26 issue:3

Article
The effect of various endodontic irrigants on the sealing ability of Biodentine and other root perforation repair materials (In vitro study)

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Abstract

Background: This in vitro study was carried out to evaluate the effect of various endodontic irrigants (sodium hypochlorite, ethylene diaminetetracetic acid and normal saline) on sealing ability of (Biodentine, mineral trioxide aggregate, and amalgam) used to repair furcal perforations. Material and methods: One hundred and twenty extracted human molars with divergent roots were used in this study. A standard root canal access cavity was prepared in each tooth and furcal perforation was made and was standardized by using k file size 100 instrument to get a perforation of (1.32mm) in diameter .The teeth were randomly divided in to three groups of 40 teeth according to the type of material used to repair the perforations (Group A: The furcal perforations were repaired with Biodentine, Group B: The furcal perforations were repaired with MTA ,Group C: The furcal perforations were repaired with Amalgam). Each group was then subdivided into 4 subgroups according to irrigation regimens applied over the repair site (Subgroup 1: without irrigation, Subgroup 2: the pulp chamber was gently irrigated with 10 mL 5.25% Sodium hypochlorite for 10 minutes, Subgroup 3: Pulp chamber was gently irrigated with 10 mL 17% Ethylene Diaminetetracetic acid for 10 minutes, Subgroup 4: pulp chamber was gently irrigated with 10 mL normal saline for 10 minutes. Each tooth was coated with two layers of nail varnish and then sticky wax except 1 to 2 mm around the perforation site. Each tooth was placed in glass vial containing 3 ml of buffered Methylene blue dye at (37°C, pH 7) and kept in an incubator for 72 hour at 100% humidity. After dye application, the teeth were washed in running water for 5 min. Each tooth was sectioned longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. Results: The results showed that group A has least mean of dye penetration and the difference was highly significant with group C and non-significant with group B.Saline and NaOCl increase the sealing of all groups while EDTA significantly increased the dye penetration of Biodentine and MTA respectively. Conclusions: Biodentine has the best sealing ability of the tested materials while amalgam showed the highest dye penetration of all tested materials. Saline and NaOCl increase the sealing ability of Biodentine and MTA where as EDTA decreased the sealing efficacy of MTA and Biodentineالھدف من ھذه الدراسة كان لتقییم تأثیر مواد مختلفة لغسل قنوات الجذور (محلول الاثیلین دایمین تیترا استك اسد , محلول الھایبوكلوراید و المحلول الملحي العادي ) على قدرة الختم لمواد (البایودنتین , مادة تجمع المعدن ثلاثي الاوكسد و الاملكم ) المستعملة في ترمیم ثقب مفترق الجذور . استخدمت في ھذه الدراسة مئة و عشرون ضرس سفلیة حدیثة القلع , متباعدة الجذور .تم تحضیر قناه الجذر القیاسیة لكل سن ثم عمل انثقاب لمفترق الجذر و تم معایرتة بحیث یصبح مقیاس 100 , قسمت الاضراس عشوائیا الى ثلات مجموعات تحوي على اربعین رحى استنادا لنوع المادة المستعملة في ترمیم انثقاب k بقطر ( 1,32 ملم ) بواسطة استخدام مبرد مفترق الجذر كالاتي : مجموعة أ : رممت انثقابات الجذور بمادة البایودنتین . مجموعة ب : رممت انثقابات الجذور بمادة تجمع المعدن ثلاثي الاوكسد . مجموعة ج : رممت انثقابات الجذور بمادة الاملغم ثم تم تقسیم كل مجموعة إلى 4 مجموعات فرعیة وفقا لنظم الري التي تم تطبیقھا على موقع إصلاح مفترق الجذور على النحو التالي: المجموعة الفرعیة الاولى : لم یجري أي ري . المجموعة الفرعیة الثانیة : تم ري غرفة اللب بلطف مع 10 مل من محلول الھایبوكلوراید 5.25 ٪ لمدة 10 دقائق . المجموعة الفرعیة الثالثة :تم ري غرفة اللب ب 10 مل من محلول الاثیلین دایمین تیترا استك اسد لمدة 10 دقائق المجموعة الفرعیة الرابعة : تم ري غرفة اللب ب 10 مل من محلول الملحي المتعادل لمدة 10 دقائق 2 ملم - تركت جمیع الأسنان لتجف لمدة 24 ساعة ثم ملئت الاسنان بالحشوة المؤقتة. كل سن تم تغطیتھ بواسطة طبقتین من مادة طلاء الاظافر تلیھا طبقة من الشمع اللاصق باستثناء 1 حول موقع انثقاب مفترق الجذور . وضع كل سن في قارورة زجاجیة تحتوي على 3 مل من صبغة المیثیلین الزرقاء مخزنة في ( 37 درجة مئویة، ودرجة الحموضة 7 ) و حفظ في حاضنة لمدة 72 ساعة وبعد تطبیق الصبغة، تم غسل الأسنان في المیاه الجاریة لمدة 5 دقائق . تم قطع كل رحى طولیا على طول المحور الطولي في الاتجاه الدھلیزي اللساني من خلال الانثقاب باستخدام القرص الماسي . اظھرت النتائج ان المجموعة الاولى المرممة بمادة البایودنتین كان لھا القیمة الوسطیة النسبیة الاوطا لاختراق الصبغة و كان الاختلاف ذو فرق معنوي احصائي عال جدا مع المجموعة الثالثة المرممة بواسطة مادة الاملكم و كان الفرق بین المجموعة الاولى و الثانیة المرممة بمادة تجمع المعدن ثلاثي الاوكسد غیر معنوي . كما اظھرت النتائج ان المحلول الملحي العادي و و محلول الھایبوكلورایت یزید قابلیة الختم جمیع المجموعات في حین محلول محلول الاثیلین دایمین تیترا استل اسد سبب في زیادة كبیرة في اختراق الصبغة من البایودنتین و مادة و تجمع المعدن ثلاثي الاوكسد على التوالي.

Keywords

Biodentine --- MTA --- EDTA --- NaOCl --- root perforations


Article
Micro CT analysis of amount of dentin removal created by SAF vs. ProTaper systems

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Abstract

Background: Dentin removed during root canal system instrumentation for creating adequate geometry for the canal and cleaning the canal. A new instrument had been marketed with the aim of optimum shaping of all parts of the canal system, however, no information present about the amount of dentin removal compared to conventional rotary system. This study investigated the amount of dentin removal when the canal instrumented by SAF compared with ProTaper by using high resolution computed tomography (micro CT). Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted single canalled teeth were utilized for this study; and randomly divided into 2 groups. In the first group, the root canals were prepared by using protaper rotary system till F2 and the root canal irrigated with 1ml of normal saline after each instrument. The root canals in the second group were prepared using SAF for 2min, with continuous irrigation (normal saline). After rescanning, the amount of dentin removal was calculated. Result: It was clear that the use of SAF system had increase the amount of dentin removal and in quantity larger than that did by ProTaper system & the mean of net difference was (0.288mm ± 0.051). By using t-independent test, there was highly significant difference between the two groups at (p=0.001), with in favor of the SAF system over ProTaper system at p< 0.01; in dentin removal quantity Conclusion: Root canal preparation with SAF-system resulted in more and effectively removed dentin when compared with protaper rotary files


Article
Effect of zirconia surface treatments on the shear bond strength of veneering ceramic

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Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments of zirconia (grinding and sandblast with 50μm, 100 μm) on shear bond strength between zirconia core and veneering ceramic. Material and methods: Twenty-eight presintered Y-TZP ceramic specimens (IPS e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar vivadent) were fabricated and sintered according to manufacturer’s instructions. The core specimens were divided randomly in to 4 groups, group 1: no surface treatment, group2: zirconia specimens were ground with silicon carbide paper up to1200 grit under water cooling, group3: zirconia specimens were ground and sandblast with 100 μm alumina, group 4: zirconia specimens were ground and sandblast with 50 μm alumina. Surface roughness of specimens were analyzed by surface profilometer, then veneering ceramic (IPS e.max ceramic, Ivoclar vivadent) was applied on the specimens& fired according to manufacturer’s instructions. All specimens were subjected to shear force in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. The shear bond strength values were analyzed with one-way ANOVA; the fractured surfaces were examined with a stereo-microscope to observe the failure mode. Results: The mean of shear bond strength values in MPa were 24.75 for group 4, (17.72) for group 3, (17.68) for group2, (14.61) for group 1.The airborne-particle abrasion with 50μm group showed significantly higher bond strength than other groups. The airborne-particle-abraded with 100 μm group was not significantly different from grinding group. Conclusion: With limit of this study, the sandblast with 50 μm alumina was enhance the SBS between zirconia &veneering ceramic, and zirconia-veneering ceramic bonding is not only influenced by surface roughness. But also may be other factorsالغرضمن ھذه الدراسھ لفحصتأثیر الطرق المختلفھ لمعاملھ السطح لماده الزركونیم على قوه الربط القصي بین ھیكل الزركونیم وقشره السیرامیك . تم تحضیر ثمان وعشرین عینھ من ماده الزركونیم (زركاد ,ایماكس ,ایفوكلار فیفادینت) حسب تعلیمات المصنّع،وتم توزیع العینات عشوائیاً الى اربع مجامیع:المجموعھ الاولى:لا توجد معاملھ للسطح ، المجموعھ الثانیھ::شحذ(حك) العینات بأستخدام اوراق الحك(سیلكون كارباید) تدریجیا الى الحجم 1200 مایكرومیتر,المجموعھ الثالثھ :حك العینات ثم تخدیشھا بواسطھ الالومینیوم اوكساید حجم ( 100 مایكرون)، المجموعھ الرابعھ: حك العینات ثم تخدیشھا بواسطھ الالومینیوم اوكساید حجم ( 50 مایكرون)، بعد عملیات الحك والتخدیش یتم فحص خشونھ سطح العینات بواسطھ جھاز قیاس خشونھ السطح(البروفایلومیتر)، ثم تم بناء ماده السیرامیك على جمیع العینات ثم تم صھر ماده السیرامیك حسب تعلیمات المصنّع،تم قیاس قوه احادي الاتجاه، ثم تم فحص العینات بواسطھ المایكرسكوب(ستیریو مایكرسكوب) لتحدید نوع الكسر لكل ANOVA الربط باستخدام جھاز(الانسترون)،تم اجراء الاحصائي بواسطھ عینھ. اظھرت النتائج ان معدل قوه الربط للمجموعھ الرابعھ( 24,75 ) میكاباسكال,وللمجموعھ الثالثھ( 17,72 ) میكاباسكال,وللمجموعھ الثانیھ ( 17,68 ) میكاباسكال،وللمجموعھ الاولى( 14,61 ) میكاباسكال، قوة الربط للمجموعھ الرابعھ مجموعھ الحك ثم التخدیش ب 50 مایكرون) كانت اعلى من المجامیع الاخرى,واظھرت النتائج انھ لایوجد فرق بین المجموعھ الثالثھ(مجموعھ الحك ثم التخدیش ب 100 مایكرون) والمجموعھ الثانیھ(مجموعھ الحك فقط). ضمن حدود ھذه الدراسھ فان عملیھ التخدیش ب 50 مایكرون بعد عملیھ الحك تزید قوه الربط بین ھیكل الزركونیم و قشره السیرامیك,وقد اظھرت الدراسھ ان قوه الربط بین المادتین لا تتأثر فقط بخشونھ سطح الزركونیم .


Article
An evaluation of an Iraqi phosphate-bonded investment and a commercial type on the marginal fit of ceramometalcopings using three different investing and burnout techniques

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Background: The accuracy of fitness of any dental casting is imperative for the success of any prosthodontic treatment. From the time that dental casting was first introduced, efforts have been made to produce more accurate and better fitted castings with minimal marginal discrepancy. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of three different investing and burnout techniques on the vertical marginal discrepancies ofceramometalcopings invested with two types of phosphate- bonded investments. Materials and methods: Sixty wax patterns were fabricated on a standardized prepared brass die representing an upper central incisor by the aid of a custom-made split mold. Three different investing and burnout techniques were applied for an Iraqi investment and a commercial type; Group I:Ring investing with conventional burnout technique (RC);Group II: Ringless investing with conventional burnout technique (RLC);Group III: Ring investing with accelerated burnout technique (RA).Twenty wax patterns of each group were divided into two subgroups according to the type of investment material used (10 for each subgroup) represented as (B) for the BellaStar XL and (W) for the WYMvest investments. Complete castings were finished and seated on the metal die. The accuracy of fit of each coping was determined by measuring the vertical marginal discrepancies between the finish line on the metal die and the margins of each coping at four specific reference points on the labial, mesial, palatal, and distal aspects of the die by the aid of a light microscope supplied with a digital camera.The arithmetic mean of each three records was computed and regarded as the amount of the marginal discrepancy of each coping and was used as a unit for the statistical analysis Results: Mean marginal accuracy for W(RLC)was found to be the least (13.839+4.5724 um) while the highest mean value related to B(RLC) (29.033+2.102 um). In general, ANOVA test showed significant results among the mean values of the Binvestment subgroups while LSD test showed non-significance between the (RA) and both the (RC) and (RLC) subgroups. On the other hand, significance was present between the (RLC) and (RA)of the Winvestment subgroups while non-significance was located between the (RC) and both the (RLC) and (RA) subgroups. Comparing similar subgroups of the two tested investments, the Student's t-test showed non-significance between the (RC) subgroups while high significance was located between the (RLC) and (RA) subgroups respectively.Concerning the vertical marginal discrepancy of the copings, applying the (RC) technique for both investments caused non-statistical significance between the labial, mesial, palatal, and distal aspects.The (RLC) technique caused high significance between the four aspects, while the (RA) technique caused non-significance between the labial aspect only and the others. Conclusion: The Iraqi investment generally produced less vertical marginal discrepancies (using the three different investing and burn-out techniques) than the commercial investment.In order to achieve a better marginal fit, it seems that ceramometalcopings invested with the commercial investment tested are better be cast using the conventional ring investing and burnout technique


Article
Analysis of antimicrobial activity of root canal sealers against endodontic pathogens using agar diffusion test (In vitro study)

Authors: Maha A. Habeeb
Pages: 27-34
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Background: Antibacterial action of root canal filling is an important factor for successful root canal treatment, so the aim of the study was to identify and to compare the antimicrobial effect of new sealer (GuttaFlow) to commonly used endodontic sealers (AH Plus, Apexit and EndoFill) against four endodontic microbes. Materials and methods: Twenty patients aged (30-40) years with infected root canals were selected. Four types of microorganisms were isolated from root canals (E faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, E coli and Candida albicans) and cultured on Mueller Hinton agar Petri-dishes. After identification and isolation of bacterial species, agar diffusion method was used to assess the antibacterial action of four contemporary endodontic sealers used in root canal obturation (AH Plus, Apexit, EndoFill and GuttafFlow). Four wells measuring (5mm depth and 4mm diameter) were created in each Petri dish and sealer was applied into them incubated overnight at 37 C° for bacterial species and 48 hr. at 37 C° for Candida albicans prior to determination of results. Zones of inhibition (no growth of bacteria) were examined around the wells containing sealer & diameters of the zones were measured in mm. The mean of inhibition zones for each group was measured and statistically analyzed among groups using ANOVA and between groups using LSD tests. Results: There was a highly significant difference (P<0.001) among all the tested groups. EndoFill showed the maximum antibacterial action against tested microorganisms. GuttaFlow showed moderate to weak antimicrobial effect, Apexit had weak effect, while AH Plus had no antibacterial action. Conclusion: All the tested materials except AH Plus had antibacterial efficacy against E faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, E coli and Candida albicans. EndoFill had favorable results among tested sealers and E faecalis was the most resistant bacteria, but none of the materials totally inhibited microbial growth. Thus, endodontic treatment must be performed under aseptic conditions


Article
The antibacterial evaluation of dandelion extracts as root canal irrigating solutions (A comparative study)

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Background: Irrigation has a central role in endodontic treatment. Several irrigating solutions have the antimicrobial activity and actively kill bacteria and yeasts when introduced in direct contact with the microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root and leaf extracts as possible irrigant solutions, used during endodontic treatments, and both were compared to Sodium hypochlorite, Propolis and Ethyl alcohol. Materials and Method: Forty seven human extracted single rooted teeth were selected. The teeth were decoronated using a diamond disk to have a length of 15 mm ±1 mm and they were instrumented using the hybrid technique. All roots were sterilized by an autoclave, five roots without bacterial inoculation served as the negative controls, the rest were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, then five roots were selected randomly as the positive controls, then the remaining 37 roots were divided into five groups of 8 samples each except group V with 5 roots. Group I: irrigated with Propolis extract. Group II: irrigated with Dandelion leaf extract. Group III: irrigated with Dandelion root extract. Group IV: irrigated with Sodium hypochlorite. Group V: irrigated with Ethyl alcohol. Bacterial swabs were taken from each root and cultured. Bacterial growths were calculated by counting the number of colonies appeared on the cultures. Results: the results were statistically analyzed; within the limitation of this in vitro study, the Dandelion leaves extract and Dandelion root extract proved to have some antimicrobial properties. Sodium hypochlorite has the best antimicrobial effect, followed by Propolis, Dandelion root, Ethyl alcohol then Dandelion leaf. Conclusion: Dandelion root and leaf extracts are possible irrigant solutions that can be used successfully during endodontic treatments, to aid disinfection of the root canal systemان غسل قنوات جذرالاسنان لھ دور اساسي خلال معالجتھا. ھنالك مواد مختلفة تستعمل لغسل قنوات الجذرور وھي مضادة للبكتریا وتستطیع القضاء على البكتریا و الفطریات عندما تستعمل وتوضع بصورة مباشرة مع ھذه الكائنات المرضیة الدقیقة. الغرض من ھذه الدراسة ھو تقییم القابلیة المضادة للمایكروبات لمستخلص الجذور ومستخلص الاوراق لنبات الھندباء لاستعمالھ كمادة لغسل قنوات جذور الاسنان خلال عملیة معالجة قنوات جذور الاسنان, ومقارنة ھذه المستخلصات مع ھایبوكلورایت الصودیوم و العكبر (صمغ النحل) و الكحول الاثیلي. لھذه الدراسة تم اختیار سبع واربعون سن بشري, الاسنان قصرت الى طول 15 ملم عن طریق قطع تاج السن وتم تحضیر القنوات باستخدام التقنیة الھجینة. تم تعقیم الجذور بواسطة جھاز التعقیم, ثم تم زراعة قنوات الاسنان ببكتیریا المكورات المعویة وتم تقسیم الاسنان الى 5 مجامیع. عشرة اسنان تم غسل قنواتھا باستعمال مستخلصالعكبر. : I مجموعة عشرة اسنان تم غسل قنواتھا باستعمال مستخلصاوراق نبات الھندباء. : II مجموعة عشرة اسنان تم غسل قنواتھا باستعمال مستخلصجذور نبات الھندباء. : III محموعة عشرة اسنان تم غسل قنواتھا باستعمال ھایبوكلورایت الصودیوم. : IV مجموعة سبعة اسنان تم غسل قنواتھا باستعمال الكحول الاثیلي. : V مجموعة بعد ذلك تم اخذ مسحة بكتیریة من كل قناة جذر وتم زراعتھا. تم حساب عدد البكتیریا المزروعة بواسطة حساب عددالمستعمرات البكتیریة التي ظھرت على الوسط الزرعي.و معالجة النتائج احصائیا. ضمن الظروف المختبریة التي تمت خلالھا ھذه الدراسة, وجد ان مستخلصاوراق ومستخلصجذور نبات الھندباء یحتوي على بعضالخواصالمضادة للبكتیریا.


Article
Evaluation of corrosion behavior of bioceramics coated commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy

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Background: This study report the corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples without coating and with hydroxyapatite, partial stabilized zirconia and mixture of partial stabilized zirconia and hydroxyapatite coating and comparison between them through electrochemical polarization tests in 37 0 C Hank's solution. Materials and methods: Electrophoretic deposition technique (EPD) was used to achieve the coating from each one of three types of the coating materials (HAP, PSZ and mixture of 50% HAP and 50%PSZ) on Cp Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy samples. The electrochemical corrosion test was performed when samples were exposed to Hank's solution prepared in the laboratory and the polarization potential, corrosion rate and the open circuit potential of the samples were measured. Results: The results indicated that the corrosion rate is significantly higher for Ti-6Al-4V than for Cp Ti .The three types of coating significantly reduced the corrosion rate for Cp Ti while did not for Ti-6Al-4V alloy .After coating the corrosion rate for Ti-6Al-4V remained significantly higher than the coated Cp Ti samples .The open circuit potential (OCP) for both Cp Ti and Ti-6Al-4V samples was in the following sequence PSZ > HAP> mixture of HAP and PSZ >uncoated. Conclusions: Cp Ti showed less corrosion rate than Ti-6Al-4V alloy with and without coating .Coating significantly decreased the corrosion rate of Cp Ti but did not for Ti-6Al-4V alloyالمقدمة: ان تحقق نجاح عملیة زراعة الاسنان سریریا لیس بسبب المتانة المیكانیكیة او الانسجام الحیوي المتمیز لمادة الزراعة وحسب بل بسبب صفات اخرى لمادة الزراعة مثل خواصالسطح وسلوك التاكل. المواد وطریقة العمل: استعمل الترسیب بالھجرة الكھربائیة للحصول على طلاء متجانس لواحد من ثلاثة انوع من طبقات الطلاء (الھایدروكسي ابیتایت ,الزركونیا المثبتة جزئیا وخلیط .(Ti-6Al-4V ) الھایدروكسي ابیتایتاوالزركونیا المثبتة جزئیا)على النماذج المكونة من التیتانیوم النقي وسبیكة اما بالنسبة لاختبارات التاكل الكھروكیمیاوي فقد تم قیاسھا للنماذج في محلول الجسم المماثل المحضر مختبریا وایضا قیاس جھد الاستقطاب ومعدل التاكل وجھد الدائرة المفتوحة عند مقارنتھا مع التیتانیوم النقي .ولقد لوحظ ان معدل التاكل قل بشكل واضح لنماذج التیتانیوم النقي Ti-6Al-4V النتائج: تشیر نتائج ھذة الدراسة الى ان ھناك معدل تاكل عالي لسبیكة بعد الطلاء أعلى من التیتانیوم النقي . Ti-6Al-4V وایضا بقي معدل التاكل لسبیكة .Ti-6Al-4V المطلیة بالطلائات الثلاث بینما ذالك لم یظھر لسبیكة Ti-6Al- ثر على سلوك سبیكة θ قبل الطلاء وبعد الطلاء .الطلاء قلل معدل التاكل للتیتانیوم النقي بینما ذالك لم ی Ti-6Al-4V الاستنتاجات: معدل التاكل للتیتانیوم النقي اقل من سبیكة .4V


Article
Sonographic evaluation of masseter muscle thickness in bruxist and non-bruxist subjects

Authors: Areej A. Najm اريج نجم
Pages: 49-52
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Background: Masseter muscle is a jaw closing muscle of the mandible involved in Para functional habits; which include lip and cheek chewing, fingernail biting, and teeth clenching or bruxism which can be classified as awake or sleep bruxism. Patients with sleep bruxism are three to four times more likely to experience jaw pain and limitation of movement than people who do not experience sleep bruxism. The aim of this study is to measure the thickness of the masseter muscle in bruxist subjects and compare it with non-bruxist subjects by using sonography. Materials and Method: Forty Iraqi subjects with age ranged (20-40) divided into two groups according to the presence of bruxism. Clinical examination was made and masseter muscle thickness measured for both groups using sonography. Results: For bruxist subjects the mean thickness of masseter muscle in relaxation and clenching were (11.7 ± 1.4 mm) and (16.4 ± 1.3 mm). For non bruxist subjects were (11.2 ± 0.4 mm) and (13 ±0.3 mm) respectively. There was an extremely high statistical significant difference in masseter muscle thickness under clenching between bruxist and non bruxist subjects ( it was higher in bruxist group). Masseter muscle thickness under relaxation was significantly lower than that under clenching for both groups. Also there was a positive correlation between masseter muscle thickness and muscle function in bruxism situation. Conclusion: Masseter muscle in bruxist subject was thicker when compared to non-bruxist subject. Masseter muscle thickness was found to be positively correlated with increasing muscle function. The findings of this study indicate that the functional capacity of the masseter muscle affected by bruxism and may be considered as one of the factors influencing muscle thicknessالعضلة الماضغة حي إحدى العضلات المسؤولة عن غلق الفك السفلي والتي تستخدم في بعض العادات مثل مضغ الشفة والخد, قضم الأظافر وصك او صریف الأسنان والتي تصنف الى نوعین عند الیقظة و عند النوم. ھدف الدراسة ھو قیاس سمك العضلة الماضغة لدى مرضى صك الاسنان ومقارنتھ مع مجموعة سلیمة 40 سنھ) تم فحصھم وتقسیمھم الى مجموعتین تبعا - وذلك باستخدام التصویر بالموجات فوق الصوتیة.شارك أربعون متبرع في الدراسة تراوحت اعمارھم بین ( 20 لوجود حالة صك الاسنان ومن ثم تم قیاس سمك العضلة لدى المجموعتین باستخدام الموجات فوق الصوتیة. اظھرت النتائج ان سمك العضلة لدى مرضى صك 0,3 ملم) على ± 0,4 ملم) و ( 13 ± 1,3 ملم). للمجموعة السلیمة كانت القیاسات ( 11,2 ± 1,4 ملم) و ( 16,4 ± الاسنان في حالتي استرخاء وانقباض العضلة ( 11,7 التوالي. كانت ھناك فروقات احصائیة ذات دلالھ عالیة جدا في سمك العضلة عند الانقباض بین المجموعتین (كان اكثر لدى مرضى صك الاسنان) كذلك سمك العضلة عند الاسترخاء كان اقل بكثیر من السمك تحت الانقباض ولدى المجوعتین.الاستنتاج: العضلة الماضغة لدى مرضى صك الاسنان اسمك مقارنة مع الاشخاص الطبیعین.سمك العضلة یتناسب طردیا مع زیادة وظیفتھا. القدرة الادائیة للعضلة الماضغة تتاثر بحالة صك الاسنان وتعتبر من احدى العوامل التي تؤثر على سمك العضلات.


Article
Assessment of serum and salivary ceruloplasmin level in patients with oral lichen planus

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Background: Oxidative stress is a deleterious process that can be an important mediator of damage to cell structures and consequently various disease states. Exposure to free radicals from a variety of sources has led organisms to produce a series of defense mechanisms. The antioxidant ceruloplasmin is a copper-containing ferroxidase that can oxidize ferrous iron (Fe2+) to its nontoxic ferric (Fe3+) form. Ferrous iron (Fe2+) is extremely damaging because of its ability to generate toxic free radicals. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease of unknown etiology. Previous studies reported that reactive oxygen species may be involved in the pathogenesis of lichen planus. The aim of this study was to estimate the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of OLP through the study of serum and saliva ceruloplasmin as a marker of antioxidant status. Methods: Forty eight patients with histologically confirmed OLP by oral pathologist were included in this study. The sample group was split up in to two groups according to the clinical presentation of the lesions, 21 patients with reticular formation and 27 patients with erosive form together with 32 healthy looking volunteers that were agematched with the patients. Serum and saliva ceruloplasmin activity was determined by oxidation of PPhenylenediamine to give a blue - violet color that measured spectrophotometricaly at 525 NM. Results: Statistically, there was a substantial increase in serum and saliva ceruloplasmin levels of OLP patients group as compared to controls (p<0.01) and there was no statistically significant differences in serum and saliva ceruloplasmin when compared between reticular and erosive forms (p>0.05). The study showed that there was no statistically significant correlation between serum and saliva ceruloplasmin levels in OLP patients group (r=-0.029, p>0.05). Conclusion: Oxidative status play a role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus represented by increased serum and saliva ceruloplasmin levels


Article
Oral hygiene practices and self-perceived halitosis among dental students

Authors: Ghufran A. Hasan
Pages: 58-62
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Background: Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. It is common among humans around the world and is usually caused by an accumulation of bacteria in the mouth as a result of gum disease, food, or plaque. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of oral hygiene practices, smoking habits and halitosis among undergraduate dental students and correlate the oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions to the prevalence of self perceived oral malodor. Materials and Methods: Clinical examination of 250 dental students and a self-administered questionnaire were included in this study. A questionnaire was developed to assess the self-reported perception of oral breath, awareness of bad breath, timing of bad breath, oral hygiene practices, caries and bleeding gums, dryness of the mouth, smoking and tongue coating. Results: The results indicated that female students had better oral hygiene practices. Significantly less self-reported oral bad breath (P = 0.000) was found in female dental students (40%) as compared to male (70%). It was found that smoking had statistically highly significant correlation with halitosis (P = 0.000). Presence of other oral conditions such as dental caries and filled carious lesions also showed higher prevalence of halitosis in dental students. Conclusion Oral hygiene practices and oral health conditions are very important factors in halitosis. Females exhibited better oral hygiene practices and less prevalence of halitosis as compared to male students


Article
Validity of computed tomographic in assessment of genial tubercle and anterior mandible as a reference guide to locate osteotomy in genioglossus advancement

Authors: Hanan J. Kadem --- Ahlam A. Fatah
Pages: 63-65
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Background: Genioglossus advancement is a surgical procedure to advance the tongue in some patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.The important step in this procedure is that of accurately capturing the bone segment attached to the genioglossus muscle to avoid complications such as mandibular fracture, devitalization of the inferior incisor roots, and incomplete incorporation of the genioglossus Materials and Method: Computed tomography scans were taken for 53 Iraqi adult patients (28 male and 25 female) range from (18-35) years with skeletal class I classification and intact anterior mandible dentition included in this study using sagittal and axial sections. The measurements were done for genial tubercle and anterior mandibular region. Results: The mean values of some measurements weresignificantly higher in males than in females. The effect of gender difference was evaluated as a strong effect. The mean value of the other measurements slightly higher among males compared to females, but the difference fail to reach the level of statistical significance. The effect of gender difference on this parameter was evaluated as a moderately strong effect.The results showed that there was no effect of age on all selected measurements in male and female. All selected measurements showed no statistically significant linear correlation with the age. Conclusions: The variable position and dimensions of this bone segment among patients suggest the need for CT before attempting genioglossus advancement for exact localization, avoiding the expected surgical complication


Article
The validity of salivary microRNAs (hsa-miR-200a, hsamiR- 125a and hsa- miR-93) as oral squamous cell carcinoma biomarker

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Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma represents the vast majority of oral cancer it is a common malignant tumor with an increasing incidence. Around the world, the 5 year mortality rate of oral cancer is about 50%. Thus novel biomarkers for early detection oral squamous cell carcinoma are needed. The level of three salivary microRNAs namely hsa-miR-200a, hsa-miR-125a and hsa- miR-93 were measured in saliva of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared their levels in saliva of healthy control subjects to determine their potential as oral cancer biomarker. Materials and methods: The level of these three microRNAs was measured by using revers transcription, preamplification and quantitative PCR. Results: Only miR-200a present in a significantly lower level (p<0.05) in the saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients than in control. miR-200a was the strongest parameter (most affected by disease status) in the context of differentiation between OSSC and healthy controls (having the highest ROC area of 0.781 which is significantly higher than the area associated with equivocal test). Coming next in order of importance in the context of case-control differentiation was normalized CT values for hsa-miR-93, which has a reasonably high ROC (0.650), but failed to show statically significance differences, P>0.05. Conclusions: The detection of miRNAs in saliva can be used as noninvasive and rapid diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of oral cancerالخلفیة : سرطان الخلایا الحرشفیة للفم یمثل الغالبیة العظمى من سرطان الفم ھو ورم خبیث مع حدوث زیادة في معدلات الاصابة في جمیع أنحاء العالم ، اذ إن معدل الوفی ات 5 س نوات اللعابی ة microRNAs من سرطان الفم ھو حوالي 50 ٪. وبالتالي ھناك حاجة إلى مؤشرات حیویة جدیدة للكشف المبكر عن س رطان الخلای ا الحرش فیة للف م. لق د ت م قی اس مس توى ثلاث ة في اللعاب من المرضى الذین یعانون من سرطان الخلایا الحرشفیة للفم و مقارنة مستویاتھا في اللع اب م ن مجموع ة اص حاء لتحدی د كفائتھ ا miR-200a, miR-125a, miR- وھي 93 والقی اس (preamplification) تض خیم ،(Revers transcription) باستخدام النسخ العكسي microRNAs كعلامات بیولوجیة لسرطان الفم. المواد و الطرق : تم قیاس مستوى ھذه .(Real-time PCR) الكمي المعلم ة الاق وى ( الأكث ر miR-200a ف ي لع اب المرض ى س رطان الخلای ا الحرش فیة للف م مقارن ة م ع مجموع ة الاص حاء. وك ان (p> اق ل بكثی ر ( 0.05 miR-200a النتائج : مستوى م ن 0.781 وھ و أعل ى بكثی ر م ن المنطق ة المرتبط ة ) . المقبل ة القادم ة ف ي ROC و مجموع ة الاص حاء (وج ود أعل ى منطق ة OSSC تضررا من حالة المرض) في سیاق التمایز ب ین P > ، مرتفعة بشكل معقول ( 0.650 ) ، لكنھ فشل في اظھار ثابت ف روق ذات دلال ة ROC والتي لدیھا ، miR- الترتیب من حیث الأھمیة في سیاق الحالات والشواھد في التمایز ھو 93 . 0.05 في اللعاب كأداة تشخیصیة واسعة وسریعة لتشخیصسرطان الفم. miRNAs الاستنتاجات : یمكن استخدام


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of MMP1 and TIMP1 as markers of migration in Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the head and neck region (A comparative study)

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Background: Malignant lymphoma is a term that describes primary tumors of the lymphoreticular system, almost all of which arise from lymphocytes.MMP-1 is the most ubiquitously expressed interstitial collagenase, a subfamily of MMPs that cleaves stromal collagens. It is also called collagenase-1.TIMPs which inhibits MMP activity and thereby restrict extracellular matrix breakdown, TIMP-1 is a stromal factor that has a wide spectrum of functions in different tissues. Material and Methods: This study was performed on (68) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks, histopathologically diagnosed as lymphoma (head and neck lesions). Immunohistochemical staining of MMP1and TIMP1 was performed on each case of the study sample. Results: The expression of MMP1was cytoplasmic, the study cases showed a 98.5% positive reaction to MMP1, score 3 was the most common and found in 60.3% of all cases.The expression of TIMP1was cytoplasmic, 92.6% of cases expressed positive reactions to TIMP1, score 1 was the most common and found in 57.4% of all cases. Conclusion: This study showed for the first time the effect of MMP-1 in HL, which is considered to be as an invasive and migratory cell marker. A significant difference was found among the subtypes of NHL in relation to TIMP1, TIMP1inhibits the effect of MMP1 and as MMP1 is elevated the TIMP1 will be elevated too


Article
Validity of Hounsfield Units from computed tomographic images of mandibular bone in detection of osteoporosis

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Background: The figure for the clinical application of computed tomography have been increased significantly in oral and maxillofacial field that supply the dentists with sufficient data enables them to play a main role in screening osteoporosis, therefore Hounsfield units of mandibular computed tomography view used as a main indicator to predict general skeleton osteoporosis and fracture risk factor. Material and Methods: Thirty subjects (7 males &23 females) with a mean age of (60.1) years underwent computed tomographic scanning for different diagnostic assessment in head and neck region. The mandibular bone quality of them were determined through Hounsfield units of CT scan images and were correlated with the bone mineral density values obtained from t-scores of lumbar spine using dual x-ray absorptiometry scans (DEXA). Results: There was a highly significant positive correlation [p-value 0.000 (HS)] of bone mineral density that measured by t-score of dual x-ray absorptiometrical scan and Hounsfield units with very strong relation in measuring the bone density (r test) = 0.969, this close relation lead to predict osteoporosity and the chance of fracture occurrence using a statistical equation that classified the patients as osteoporotic. Conclusion: Hounsfield units obtained from computed tomography scans that are made for any purposes can provide an alternative clinical parameter to predict osteoporosis at no additional cost to the patient and no additional radiation.الخلفیة : لقد تزاید التطبیق السریري للتصویر المقطعي بشكل كبیر في مجال الفم و الوجھ والفكین مما قدم لأطباء الأسنان بیانات كافیة تمكنھم من لعب الدور الرئیسي في فحص ھشاشة العظام ، وبالتالي اصبح استخدام وحدة ھاونسفیلد في التصویر المقطعي للفك السفلي یوصف بكونھ مؤشرا رئیسیا للتنبؤ بھشاشة العظام الھیكلي العام و معامل خطر لحدوث الكسور. المواد و الطریقة : ثلاثون شخصا ( 7 ذكور و 23 إناث) بمتوسط عمر ( 60.1 ) سنة تم استخدام المسح الشعاعي الطبقي لھم لغرضالتشخیصالتقییمي في منطقة الرأس و الرقبة و تحدید نوعیة العظم للفك السفلي من خلال وحدات ھاونسفیلد لصور الاشعة المقطعیة وربطھا مع قیم كثافة العظام التي تم الحصول علیھا من فحص العمود الفقري القطني باستخدام المسح الامتصاصي المزدوج للأشعة السینیة . مع وجود علاقة احصائیة قویة جدا في قیاس p value) ( النتائج : كان ھناك ارتباط ذات دلالة عالیة من الإیجابیة بین و حدات ھاونسفیلد وقیمة كثافة المعادن في العظام 0.000 0.969 ، وھذا یؤدي إلى علاقة وثیقة التنبؤ وفرصة حدوث الكسر باستخدام المعادلة الإحصائیة التي تصنف المرضى على اساس ھشاشة العظام . = (r-test) كثافة العظام الاستنتاج : ان استخدام وحدات ھاونسفیلد في المسح التصویري المقطعي التي یتم إجراؤه لأي غرض توفر البدیل السریري للتنبؤ بمرض ھشاشة العظام دون أي تكلفة إضافیة او اي اشعاعات إضافیة.للمریض


Article
Correlation between crevicular C-reactive protein level with its serum level in chronic periodontitis patients

Authors: Basima Gh. Ali
Pages: 84-88
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Background: The main purpose of this study is to find if there is any correlation between the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) in gingival crevicular fluid with its serum level in chronic periodontitis patients and to explore the differences between them according to the probing depth. Materials and methods: Forty seven male subjects enrolled in this study. Thirty males with chronic periodontitis considered as study group whom further subdivided according to probing depth into subgroup 1 with pocket depth ≤6mm, subgroup 2 with pocket depth >6mm. The other 17 subjects considered as controls. For all subjects, clinical examination where done for periodontal parameters plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). The gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were collected using filter paper size 30 from gingival sulcus of the controls and from (138) pocket site (75 sites > 6mm. and 63 ≤ 6mm.). The weight of the GCF was measured by reading the difference in the weight of filter paper before and after absorption of GCF. Crevicular level of CRP was measured calorimetrically. The serum level CRP was measured using latex test. Results: Highly significant difference in the weight of GCF, crevicular and serum level of CRP between chronic periodontitis and control groups. Subgroup 2 got higher scores of weight of GCF and positive record of crevicular and serum CRP compared with subgroup 1 with a non-significant difference. A highly significant difference in the number of sites with positive crevicular and serum CRP compared to the negative number between chronic periodontitis and control groups also between subgroup1 and subgroup 2. Weight of GCF gets a negative significant correlation with GI at control group and subgroup2. Serum level of CRP exhibits a negative significant correlation with PLI for chronic periodontitis and control group and positive significant correlation for GI at subgroup 1. The crevicular CRP get significant negative correlation with GI of subgroup 1. Conclusions: Crevicular fluid is very good marker for the degree of inflammation of the periodontal pocket. The crevicular level of CRP may be considered as a good tool for estimating the systemic effect and predictor for the effect of periodontitis on the general health and the correlation of crevicular with serum CRP aid to high light this effect.الھدف الرئیسي من ھذه الدراسة ھو معرفة تركیز البروتین الارتكاسي في السائل اللثوي ومقارنتھ مع تركیزه في مصل دم مرضى النسغاغ المزمن بالمقارنة مع المجموعة الضابطة ایضا تحاول الدراسة ایجاد علاقات بین تلك التراكیز ومؤشرات ماحول الاسنان السریریة في مجموعة الدراسة والمجموعة الضابطة. توصلت الدراسة الى انھ ھناك فرق واضح في التراكیز بین كلا المجموعتین وكذلك فان مستوى البروتین الارتكاسي یختلف باختلاف شدة الاصابة بمرض النساغ المزمن وخلصت الدراسة الى ان مرضالنساغ المزمن مع مؤشراتھ المناعیة قد یعكس صورة تاثیر ھذا المرضعلى الصحة العامة


Article
Stem cells a novel approach to periodontal regeneration (A review of literature)

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In this review of literature, the light will be concentrated on the role of stem cells as an approach in periodontal regeneration

Keywords


Article
Pharyngeal airway volume and its relationship to the facial morphology in nasal breathing and mouth breathing subjects (A comparative computerized tomography study)

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Background: The value of lateral cephalometric radiographs to evaluate the pharyngeal airway is limited because it provided 2-dimensional (2D) images of complex 3-dimensional (3D) anatomic structures. Three dimensional analyses of the airway volumes are required to understand oral and pharyngeal adaptations in mouth breathing and nasal breathing subjects. The aim of this study was to measure the pharyngeal airway volume and the size of the face, then compare between pharyngeal airway volume in mouth breathing and nasal breathing subjects and find the gender difference in each group, also to study the relation between pharyngeal airway volume and the size of the face. Material and Methods: Fifty patients including 28 males and 22 females with an age ranged between 18-35 years suffered from clinical symptoms of nasal obstruction and mouth breathing was detected by otolaryngologist and sent to be imaged by Brilliance™ 64, Philips multi-detector computed tomography. Twenty normal subjects (10 males and 10 females) were selected as control. Angular and linear variables were measured in addition to the size of the face and the pharyngeal airway volume. Results: A statistically significant relationship between the pharyngeal airway volume and the mode of respiration and between pharyngeal airway volume and genders were detected. The pharyngeal airway volume was larger in nasal breathers than in mouth breathers and it was larger in males than in females. The size of the face was larger in males than females. Conclusion: CT volumetric images provide more reliable and accurate information for measurement of the pharyngeal airway volume, so the changes in the pharyngeal airway volume can be studied before and after surgery and this will aid in selection of the best treatment option in addition to control the relapse after orthodontic treatment with mouth breathing patients


Article
Apexification and periapical healing of immature teeth using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

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Background: Apexification is a method to induce a calcified barrier in a root with an open apex or the continued apical development of an incomplete root in teeth with necrotic pulp. MTA apexification has several advantages such as it neither gets resorbed, nor weakens the root canal dentin, and also sets in the wet environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of MTA in apexification and periapical healing of teeth with incomplete root formation and periapical infection. Materials and method: Apexification was carried out on fourteen permanent immature teeth of eleven children aged 7-12 years attended the teaching hospital of College of Dentistry, Baghdad University using mineral trioxide aggregate followed by obturation of the root canal using gutta percha. The teeth were monitored at 3, 6 and 12 months intervals by clinical examination and radiographical evaluation of root development and healing of periapical lesion. Results: After a 12 months interval, all the teeth appeared to be asymptomatic so that the rate of clinical success in all of the cases was (100%). Radiographically, the success rate was 100% for thirteen teeth while that tooth which was started the treatment with large periapical lesion, showed regression of the periapical destruction suggestive of bone healing and regeneration of the root apex around the MTA material, end with small one so that it started unhealthy but finished with improved healing process. Conclusion: Mineral trioxide aggregate showed both clinical and radiographical success as a material used to induce root-end closure in permanent teeth with immature root formation. This material had the primary advantage of reduction in the number of appointments, development of proper apical seal and healing of periapical lesionsھو أسلوب للحث على تكوین حاجز كلسي في قمة الجذر غیر مكتمل النم و أو ھ و تحفی ز اس تمرارنمو قم ة ج ذر الأس نان المنخ ورة الل ب غی ر مكتمل ة نموالقم ة Apexification : خلفیة لھ العدید من المزایا كونھ لا یحصل لھ ذوبان او تاكل ، ولا یضعف عاج قناة الجذر ، و یتصلب أیضا في بیئة رطبة. الھدف من ھذه الدراس ة ھ و تقی یم apexification MTA . الجذریة ف ي تك وین القم ة الجذری ة للأس نان ودوره ف ي تش كیل ونموقم ة الج ذر للاس نان ف ي حال ة وج ود التھ اب مص احب للقم ة الجذری ة. apexification ف ي MTA فعالی ة اس تخدام 12 س نة وف دوا ال ى المستش فى التعلیم ي لكلی ة ط ب الأس نان، جامع ة - أجریت الدراسة على أربعة عشرة سن دائمیة غیر مكتملة نمو القمة الجذریة من أحد عشر طف لا تت راوح أعم ارھم 7 وقد تم رصد ومتابعة حالة الأسنان عل ى فت رات 3 و 6 و 12 ش ھرا م ن خ لال الفح ص gutta percah یلیھ سد القناة الجذریة باستخدام مادة حشوة الجذر MTA بغداد ,باستخدام مادة ال السریري والتقییم الشعاعي لحالة القمة الجذریة وملاحظة شفاء القمة الجذریة من اي التھاب مصاحب لھا. كانت النتائج بعد م رور 12 ش ھرا، ان جمی ع الأس نان كان ت ب دون اي أع راض سریریة بحیث كان معدل النجاح السریري في جمیع الحالات ( 100 ٪ ) وفیما یخصالأشعة السینیة ، كان معدل النجاح 100 ٪ ل ثلاث عش رة س ن ف ي ح ین أن الس ن الت ي ب دأت الع لاج اي ان الس ن انتھ ى بالتھ اب ص غیر ج دا م ع أنھ ا ب دأت ، MTA مع آفة ذرویة كبیرة ، أظھرت انحسارا كبیرا موحیة بشفاء مصحوب بتك ون عظم ي و تجدی د ذروة الج ذر ح ول م ادة ال ن م ع الانتھ اء م ن المتابع ة ل وحظ التحس ن الكبی ر ف ي عملی ة الش فاء. على حد سواء كمادة تستخدم للحث على إغلاق الجذر في نھایة الأسنان الدائمة مع تشكیل قم ة الج ذور MTA الاستنتاج : أظھرت الدراسة نجاح سریري واشعاعي في استخدام مادة ال غیرمكتملة النمو . كان لھ ذه الم ادة می زة رئیس یة ف ي اختص ار ع دد زی ارات الم ریضللمستش فى ، ووض ع خ تم او ح اجز قم ي س لیم و ك ذلك المس اعدة عل ى الش فاء م ن الآف ات الذروی ة المصاحبة للقمة الجذریة غیر مكتملة النمو.


Article
The relation between the mesio-distal crown widths of the deciduous second molars and the permanent first molars

Authors: Dunia A. Al-Dulayme
Pages: 113-117
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Background: This study aimed to find whether there is a relation between the mesio-distal crown diameters of the deciduous second molars and the permanent first molars in an Iraqi sample from Baghdad city. Material and methods: The sample consisted of 54 Iraqi children aged 8-9 years at the mixed dentition stage. The measurements included the mesio-distal crown width of the deciduous second molars and the permanent first molars on the study casts using digital sliding vernier. Results: The results revealed absence of the side difference of the widths of teeth measured. High significant gender difference was detected for the permanent first molars and the deciduous second molars except mandibular permanent first molar. On the other hand, high significant difference was found between the maxillary and mandibular arches for the permanent first molars and the deciduous second molars except for the permanent first molar in males. A direct strong significant correlation was found between the width of the permanent first molars and the deciduous second molars. Conclusion: The findings of the present study may be used as predictive factor for tooth – jaw disharmony and the possibility for the crowding in the future


Article
Frictional resistance of aesthetic brackets

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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the static frictional forces produced by monocrystalline ceramic (sapphire) bracket and polycrystalline ceramic bracket. Materials and methods: one hindered twenty brackets/segment of archwire combinations were used, each bracket/segment of archwire combination was tested 10 times. The tests were performed in a universal testing Instron machine. The data was submitted to in depended t-test. Results: The independent sample t-tests showed a highly significant difference in the static frictional forces between monocrystalline ceramic (sapphire) bracket and polycrystalline ceramic bracket. Conclusion: According to the biomechanical result gained from the present study, the monocrystalline ceramic (sapphire) brackets produced lower static friction level than polycrystalline ceramic bracket


Article
Dental caries and salivary physiochemical characteristics among osteoporotic old adult women

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Background: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder affects general health in addition to effect on salivary physical and chemical composition which lead to an adverse effect on oral health status. This study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of glycoprotein (osteonectin) in saliva and its effect on dental caries in relation to salivary flow rate and viscosity among osteoporotic women and compared to control group. Materials and Methods: The total sample composed of 60 females aged 60-65 years attending Al-Yarmook Teaching Hospital, 30 females diagnosed with osteoporosis by measuring bone density at the spine and femur with a dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry at T-score of >2.5, and 30 women without osteoporosis with T-score of -1 (control group).The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was through the application of D1-4MFS index according to criteria of Mühlemman (1976). Stimulated salivary samples were collected under standardized condition, according to Tenovuo and Lagerlöf, (1994). The flow rate and viscosity were estimated and then the saliva was analyzed for estimation of glycoprotein (osteonectin) by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The percentage of dental caries occurrence was 100% among osteoporotic group and control group. Results revealed that DMFS value was higher but statistically not significant among osteoporotic women, Concerning DMFS components, the data of the present study showed that the DS was lower but statistically not significant among osteoporotic women, while MS value was significantly higher among them (t=2.044, P<0.05, df =58), on the other hand the opposite figure was found concerning filling component FS however the difference was not significant. Correlation coefficients of caries experience with salivary flow rate revealed a weak negative not significant correlation with D1-4MFS and its component.On the other hand, the data of the present study showed that salivary viscosity correlate weakly not significant in negative direction with DS and its severity and in positive direction with MS, FS, DMFS.. The correlation coefficient between salivary osteonectin and dental caries were weak significant in positive directions concerning Ds and its severity except D3 and FS component as the relation were in negative direction, the positive not significant relation were also found between salivary osteonectin and MS,DMFS. Concerning the relation between salivary osteonectin and physical properties of saliva, the data of the present study revealed a non-significant relation in negative direction with salivary flow rate and in positive direction for salivary viscosity. Conclusions: Dental caries revealed lower percentage of occurrence among osteoporotic group


Article
Periodontal condition in relation to nutritional status among kindergarten children in Al-Ramadi city/Iraq

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Background: Nutrition can affect periodontal disease through contributing to microbial growth in the gingival crevice, affecting the immunological response to bacterial antigens and assisting the repair mechanism of the connective tissue at the local site after injury from plaque and calculus. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Oral hygiene (plaque and calculus) and gingivitis in relation to age, gender and nutritional status. Materials and methods: The sample included (444) kindergarten children at age of (4 and 5 years old) males and females from urban areas in Al-Ramadi city. The assessment of nutritional status was performed using anthropometric measurements (Waterlow's indicator). Plaque index of Silness and Loe (1964) used for plaque assessment, gingival index of Loe and Silness (1963) was used for recording gingival health condition. Ramfjord index teeth (1959) were applied to assess oral cleanliness and gingival condition. Results: The mean value of plaque, Gingival and Calculus indices were found (1.64±0.02, 0.38±0.02, 0.0004±0.0002 respectively). Plaque index and gingival index were reported to be higher among malnourished children than well nourished described by Waterlow´s indicator, with statistically highly significant differences. No significant difference was recorded in calculus index between the malnourished and well nourished children. Conclusions: There was a direct relationship between periodontal condition and malnutrition


Article
Acceleration of canine movement by laser assisted flapless corticotomy [An innovative approach in clinical orthodontics

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Background: Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment is done to induce a state of increased tissue turnover and transient osteopenia, which is followed by a faster rate of orthodontic tooth movement. It considered as an adjunct treatment option for orthodontic treatment of adults. The aim of this Study was to elucidate the effectiveness of a new surgical approach for acceleration of maxillary canine retraction in human with laser assisted flapless corticotomy and evaluate its effect on vitality of pulp and gingival sulcus depth. Materials and methods: the sample comprised of 15 Iraqi patients (9 females and 6 males; mean age 21.7), who were required extraction for their maxillary first premolars followed by retraction of the canines as part of their orthodontic treatment plan. The study was designed as a split-mouth study. Decortications were done in the second stage of orthodontic treatment using Er:YAG laser to perform series of holes mesially and distally to the canine at the side with more space between the canine and second premolar without reflecting a surgical flap. The net canine movements and molar anchorage loss were calculated after six weeks. Vitality test, radiographical assessment and gingival sulcus depth were investigated. Results and Conclusions: The canines on the laser corticotomy side showed statisticaly higher mean value of retraction than their controls during six weeks period. Pulp vitality response and post surgery gingival sulcus depth showed no significant difference between the pre-laser and post-laser surgery. Based on the result of our study, flapless laser assisted corticotomy can be considered for acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement in humansیؤدي نزع قشرة العظم الجراحي ل دعم المعالج ھ التقویمی ھ للاس نان ال ى حال ھ م ن زی ادة مع دل الانت اج النس یجي و نقص ان العظ م المؤق ت. ال ذي یتبع ھ ازدی اد س ریع ف ي مع دل الحرك ة التقویمیھ للاسنان.وتعتبر كخیار مساعد للعلاج التقویمي للبالغین. الھدف من الدراسھ : لتقییم فعالیھ تدخل جراحي جدید من نوعھ لتس ریع حرك ھ الن اب العل وي ف ي الانس ان بواس طھ تقش یر العظ م جراحی ا ب دون رف ع س دیلھ جراحی ھ وباس تخدام اللی زر وتقییم تاثیرھا على حیویھ لب السن و عمق اخدود اللثھ المحیط بالسن. المواد والطرق: تكونت عینة الدراسھ من 15 مریض عراقي ( 9 اناث , 6 ذكور, معدل العمر 21.7 ) الذین كان القلع الجراح ي للاس نان الض احكھ العلوی ھ الاول ى م ع س حب لاح ق لانیاب الفك العلوي جزئا من الخطھ التقویمیھ لعلاجھم. تمت عملیة نزع قشرة العظ م ف ي المرحل ھ الثانی ھ م ن الع لاج التق ویمي باس تعمال اللی زر لعم ل سلس لة م ن الثق وب للجھ ھ الدانی ھ والقاصیھ للناب والضاحك الثاني العلویین في جھة الفك التي تكون فیھا المسافھ بین الناب والضاحك الثاني اكبر بینما ابقی ت الجھ ة الثانی ة م ن الف ك كعنص ر ثاب ت للمقارن ھ.ت م احتس اب حصیلة حركھ الناب وفقدان المقاومھ للطواحن بعد ستة اسابیع وتم التحري عن حیویة لب الاسنان , التقییم بواسطة الاشعة السینیھ واحتساب عم ق اخ دود اللث ھ المح یط بالس ن ف ي ھ ذه الدراسة . النتائج: احصائیا اظھرت الجھة المقشره باللیزر قیم معدل عالیھ للسحب مقارنةبالجھة غیر الجراحیھ خ لال فت رة س تة اس ابیع. ك ذلك لا یوج د ف رق ف ي فق دان مقاوم ة الط واحن م ا ب ین الجانبین. لم یكن ھناك فرق كبیر بین عمق اخدود اللثھ وقیم الاستجابھ الحیویھ للب السن قبل وبعد الجراحھ اللیزریھ. الاستنتاج: استنادا لنتائج دراستنا ھذه تبین ان التقشیر الجراحي للعظم بدون رفع سدیلھ جراحیھ وباستخدام اللیزر یمكن اعتباره وسیلة لتسریع الحركة التقویمیھ للاسنان في الانسان.


Article
Salivary C- reactive protein in relation to periodontal health among a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Iraq

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Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic destructive inflammatory disease associated with destruction of joint connective tissues and bones, affecting 0.5%–1% of the population worldwide reporting higher prevalence of periodontitis among rheumatoid arthritis patients. The purpose of this study is to estimate level of salivary C-reactive protein in relation to the occurrence and severity of the periodontal disease and other oral parameters among group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis Material and methods: Fifty women patients with rheumatoid arthritis; twenty five on Methotrexate treatment and twenty five on combination treatment of Methotrexate and Etanercept selected as study groups with an age range (30-40) years old and twenty five gender, age and Body Mass Index matched healthy looking persons were selected as control. The diagnosis and recording of periodontal condition recorded through the application of community periodontal index according to WHO1997.Collection of unstimulated salivary samples was carried out under standard conditions, in addition to estimation of salivary C-reactive protein. Results: Regarding count of sextants with community periodontal index, median count of sextant with CPI-score 0 was highest among controls (2) and lowest among both rheumatoid arthritis cases (0).The median count of sextant with CPI-score 3 was lowest among controls (0) and highest among both RA cases (2) and the difference observed in median count of sextant with CPI-score 3 between three groups was statistically significant (p< 0.01).The mean rank of salivary C-reactive protein was highest among controls 39.7mg/L However, the difference was not significant between three groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: The results of the current research revealed that periodontal diseases were higher among rheumatoid arthritis patients without impact of both treatments on periodontal health without significant role of salivary Creactive protein clinically in assessment of disease activity


Article
The effects of various beverages on the shear bond strength of light-cured orthodontic composite (An in vitro comparative study)

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Background: This study was conducted to assess the effects of various beverages on the shear bond strength of lightcured orthodontic composite used to bond stainless steel orthodontic brackets on human teeth and to determine the site of bonding failure of this material. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human premolars were selected and randomly divided into five equal groups each with 10 teeth according to the beverage type (Control, One Tiger, Milk, Green tea and Coffee). After bonding, the teeth were immersed in specific beverages for 5 minutes twice daily with equal intervening intervals then washed and stored in distilled water at 37º C for the reminder of the day. The process was carried out for 30 days. The samples were then tested for shear bond strength using Tinius-Olsen testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/minute. For adhesive remnant index, the enamel surface and bracket base of each tooth were inspected under magnifying lens (20X) of a stereomicroscope. Results: Milk, coffee and one Tiger energy drink reduced the shear bond strength of the light-cured composite significantly unlike the green tea. The predominant site of bond failure was between the bracket base and the adhesive leaving the composite on the tooth rather on the brackets base. Conclusions: Orthodontic patients should be instructed to reduce the intake of acidic and fatty beverages to prevent debonding of the orthodontic bracketsالخلفیة : أجریت ھذه الدراسة لتقییم تأثیر المشروبات المختلفة على القوة القاصة لحاصرات تقویم الاسنان الفولاذیة ، وتحدید موقع فشل الارتباط مع الاسنان. المواد و الأسالیب: تم اختیار خمسون من الضواحك البشریة والتي قسمت عشوائیا إلى خمس مجموعات متساویة كل منھا 10 اسنان وفقا لنوع الشراب (ماء مقطر ، مشروب الطاقة وقد º النمر الاول ، الحلیب ، الشاي الأخضر والقھوة ). تم غمر الاسنان في المشروبات لمدة 5 دقائق مرتین یومیا ثم تم غسلھا وتخزینھا في الماء المقطر في درجة حرارة 37 أجریت عملیة لمدة 30 یوما . تم اختبار القوة القاصة لحاصرات تقویم الاسنان باستخدام آلة اختبار خاصة و بمعاییر معینة. النتائج: كانت القوة القاصة لحاصرات تقویم الاسنان الفولاذیة في الحلیب ، القھوة و مشروب الطاقة النمر الاول اقل بشكل ملحوظ مما ھي علیھ في المجموعة الضابطة على عكس الشاي الأخضر. الاستنتاجات : یجب الاقلال من تناول المشروبات الحمضیة والدھنیة لمرضى تقویم الأسنان.


Article
Effects of three different types of intracoronal bleaching agents on shear bond strength of stainless steel and sapphire brackets bonded to endodontically treated teeth (An in vitro study)

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Background: evaluate the effects of three different intracoronal bleaching agents on the shear bond strengths (SBS) and failure site of stainless steel and monocrystalline (sapphire) orthodontic brackets bonded to endodontically treated teeth using light cured orthodontic adhesive in vitro. Materials and methods: Eighty extracted sound human upper first premolars were selected, endondontically treated and randomly divided equally (according to the type of the brackets used) into two main groups (n = 40 per group). Each main group were subdivided (according to the bleaching agent used) into four subgroups 10 teeth each; as following : control (un bleached) group, hydrogen peroxide group (Hp) 35%, carbamide peroxide group (CP) 37% group and sodium perborate (SP) group . The bleaching process was applied three times (4 days intervals) sequentially and the bleached teeth were stored in artificial saliva four weeks before bonding. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with a light cure composite resin and cured with LED light. After passing 24 hours of bonding procedure, the brackets were debonded by a Tinius-Olsen universal testing machine, to measure the shear bond strength. After debonding, each bracket base and the corresponding tooth surface were examined using a stereomicroscope and their Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was recorded. Results: The ANOVA test showed that the SBS of stainless brackets was significantly reduced by intracorornal bleaching agents. Furthermore, LSD showed no significant difference in SBS between the three types of bleaching agents used in stainless steel group. Whilst for sapphire group, the results The ANOVA test showed no significant difference in SBS between the bleached groups and the control group. Chi-square comparison no significant difference in failure site between bleached and control groups in both brackets types used. Conclusion: The effect of intracoronal bleaching on SBS was reduced SBS of stainless steel and not for sapphire. However, the intracoronal bleaching had no effect on the failure site of orthodontic brackets used.

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Article
Gingival health in relation to salivary vitamin C and total protein among dental students

Authors: Nada J.M.H. Radhi,
Pages: 156-159
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Background: The protective roles of vitamin C and total proteins in gingival inflammation were reported by several studies. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of salivary vitamin C, total protein and their relation to gingival health among dental students. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 67 dental students (33 males and 34 females) from College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad. Sillness and Löe (1964) was used for recording of dental plaque, while the gingival index (GI) was measured according to Löe and Sillness criteria (1963). Stimulated salivary samples were collected and chemically analyzed in Poisoning Center/Surgical Specialty Hospital by using colorimetric method to measure the salivary vitamin C and total protein. SPSS version 18 was used for analyzing data. Results: A higher percentage of dental students were found with mild type of gingivitis. Higher mean value of salivary vitamin C was reported among dental students with mild type of gingival index compared to those with moderate type, while the opposite picture was noticed for total protein, differences were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Significant associations between salivary vitamin C, total protein and gingivitis were found in the present study. The protective rule of salivary vitamin C and total protein may offer a route to improve oral healthcareسجلت دراسات عدیدة الدور الوقائي للفیتامین ج والبروتینات الكلیة في التھاب اللثة. الھدف من ھذه الدراسة ھو لقی اس تركی ز فیت امین ج والب روتین الكل ي ف ي اللع اب وعلاقتھم ا بص حة اللثة لدى طلبة طب الاسنان. المواد والطرق: تكونت العین ة م ن س بعة وس تین طال ب م ن طلب ة كلی ة ط ب الاس نان/جامع ة بغ داد (ثلاث ة وثلاث ون ذك ر واربع ة وثلاث ون انث ى). اس تخدم مؤش ر دلی ل اللویح ة الجرثومی ة تم جمع عینات من اللعاب المحفز وحلل ت كیمیائی ا ف ي مختب ر الس موم/مستش فى .(Löe and Sillness, بینما استخدم مؤشر اللثة تبعا لتصنیف ( 1963 ، (Sillness and Löe, 1964) .SPSS لقیاس فیتامین (ج) والبروتین الكلي. حللت البیانات احصائیا باستخدام 18 (colorimetric method) الجراحات التخصصیة باستخدام النتائج: وجد ان النسبة العالیة من طلبة طب الاسنان مصابین بالتھاب اللث ة الخفی ف، كم ا س جل ل دیھم ارتف اع قیم ة متوس ط فیت امین (ج) ف ي اللع اب مقارن ة ال ى ال ذین ل دیھم التھ اب اللث ة المتوسط. بینما لوحظ العكس للبروتین الكلي، مع فروق معنویة احصائیا. الخلاصة: وجدت ھذه الدراسة علاقات معنویة واضحة بین فیتامین (ج)، البروتین الكلي والتھ اب اللث ة. ان ال دور الوق ائي لفیت امین (ج) والب روتین الكل ي ربم ا یك ون الطری ق ال ى العنای ة بصحة الفم.


Article
Dental caries and treatment needs among 12 year-old school children in Heet city/Al-Anbar governorate/Iraq

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and disability across all age groups and still consider as a major cause of tooth loss. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental caries and treatment needs among school children in Heet city. Materiales and methods: The sample included all school children at age of (12 years old) males and females from urban areas in Heet city. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries and treatment needs were done according to the criteria of WHO. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was (90.2%). The DMFS/dmfs values were (5.85±0.168, 1.57±0.146) respectively for the total sample. Females were found to have higher value as compared to males with statistically highly significant difference (P< 0.01) for DMFS, while the opposite picture was found for dmfs. The higher percentage of examined children were in need of preventive or fissure sealant (91.6%), followed by those in need of one surface filling (80.4%). Conclusions: School children were found to have a high prevalence of dental caries, thus there is a need for preventive programs among those children


Article
Caries severity in relation to oral health knowledge and behavior of third and fifth year dental students / University of Baghdad (A comparative study)

Authors: Nibal M. Hoobi
Pages: 164-168
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Background: The knowledge of dental students is important because these individuals are the future dental health providers. The purpose of the present study was to explore the severity of dental caries in relation to oral health knowledge and behavior between two different grades of undergraduate dental students in the College of Dentistry / University of Baghdad. Materials and methods: One hundred dental students were included in this study (50 third years and 50 fifth year students). A questionnaire was distributed among them to evaluate their oral health knowledge and behavior. Dental students were examined for recording of dental caries severity. Results: Data analysis revealed that third year dental students had higher mean of decayed surfaces (DS) and missing surfaces (MS), compared to the other group, the difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.01) for DS and significant for MS (P<0.05), while fifth year dental students were found to have higher mean value of filled surfaces (FS) and the difference was highly Significant (P<0.01). However, higher DMFS value was recorded for final year students without any significant difference. Oral health knowledge was better for fifth grade and the difference was highly significant (p<0.01) except for the question about complete removal of dental plaque by brushing only, the difference was significant (p<0.05) .Oral health behavior of third grade students was at lower level, the difference was highly significant (P<0.01) except for the questions about frequency of brushing and sweet eating, it was significant (p<0.05) and it was not significant difference regarding use of siwak. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlights that increase the theoretical education of dental students in addition to clinical experience will improve their oral health knowledge and behavior, which in turn affect positively the oral hygiene towards health promotion and prevention of oral diseasesكا ن الغرض من ھذه الدراسھ ھو معرفة مدى شدة تسوس الاسنان وعلاقتھا بمعرفة صحة الفم و السلوك بین مرحلتین مختلفتین من طلاب كلیة طب الاسنان /جامعة بغداد شملت ھذه الدراسھ مائة طالب (خمسون طالب من المرحلھ الثالثھ وخمسون طالب من المرحلھ الخامسھ).وقد تم توزیع استبیان مكون من مجموعة اسئلھ فیما بینھم لتقییم معرفتھم بصحة الفم والسلوك بالاضافھ الى فحص شدة التسوس لھؤلاء الطلاب.وكشف تحلیل البیانات ان طلاب المرحلھ الثالثھ لدیھم متوسط اعلى من الاسطح المتسوسھ والاسطح المفقوده وكان الفرق احصائیا معنویھ عالیھ للاسطح المتسوسھ في حین كان طلاب السنھ الخامسھ لدیھم قیمھ اعلى لسطوح الاسنان التي تم علاجھا وكان الفرق احصائیا معنویھ عالیھ وسجلت قیمھ اعلى لمجموع الاسطح المتسوسھ والمفقوده والمعالجھ لطلاب المرحلھ الخامسھ وكان الفرق احصائیا غیرمعنوي.كانت معرفة صحة الفم والسلوك الصحي افضل للمرحلھ الخامسھ.اوضحت ھذه الدراسھ ان التعلیم النظري لطلاب المرحلھ الخامسھ بالاضافھ الى الخبره السریریھ ادت الى تحسین معرفتھم بصحة الفم والسلوك وھذا بدوره اثر ایجابیا على العنایھ بالفم نحو تعزیز الصحھ والوقایھ من الامراض.


Article
Nugget mechanical properties of combination (rectangular and round) welded and soldered stainless steel wires

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Abstract

Background: This study aimed to compare the mechanical properties between four groups of newly fabricated combination wires according to their method of union, according to the gauges of wires and a comparison were made between them and their originals. Materials and method: A total of 60 stainless steel combination wires were fabricated , divided into four groups according to gauge of wires and their method of union, each of them with 15 samples, the groups were welded (0.016x0.022-0.016 and 0.016x0.022-0.018) and soldered (0.016x0.022-0.016 and 0.016x0.022-0.018), samples were made according to certain parameters which were : for the welded samples: length,weight, duration of pulsation and size of copper electrode tips used; for the soldered samples: length, weight, distaince from the heat source and duration of heat application Results: The descriptive statistics showed that the maximum value for ultimate force and ultimate tensile strength was for the soldered 0.016x0.022+0.018 inches combination wires, while the minimum was for the welded 0.016x0.022+0.016inches wires. Elastic modulus showed higher values for the soldered 0.016x0.022+0.016 and resiliency values for the welded 0.016x0.022+0.016 were the highest. Comparison between combination wires and their originals showed a decrease in the mechanical properties after soldering and welding. Conclusion: Higher gauge wires and soldering method of union showed better mechanical properties than the other groups and both soldering and welding method showed changes in the mechanical properties of the newly fabricated wires when comparing them with their originalsالمقدمة: تھدف ھذه الدراسة إلى المقارنة بین الخواص المیكانیكیة بین أربع مجموعات من الأسلاك المركبھ وفقا لطریقتھم في الاتحاد،وفقا لقیاسات الأسلاك وتم إجراء مقارنة بینھا وبین الاسلاك الاصلیھ. المواد والطریقھ: مجموعھ من 60 سلك مصنوع من مادة الفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ ، قسمت الى أربع مجموعات وفقا لقیاسات الأسلاك وطریقةاللحام، كل واحد منھم یتكون من 15 عینة، 0.022 ) وفقا لبعض الضوابط والتي كانت: الطول، الوزن،ومدة النبض وحجم نحاس االاقطاب x0.016+ 0.022 و 0.018 x0.016+ تم لحم الاسلاك ذات القیاسات التالیھ ( 0.016 المستخدمة (بلنسبھ للعینات الملحومھ عن طریق التیار الكھربائي) ومدة عملیة اللحام والبعد من مصدر الحراره (للعینات الملحومھ عن طریق الحراره). 0.018-0.022 ) قیم عالیة بالمقارنة مع العینات الاخرى الاقل × النتائج:أظھرت النتائج للقوه القصوى المحتملھ ولقوة الشد القصوى للعینات الملحومھ عن طریق الحراره ( 0.016 0.016-0.022 ) قیم عالیھ بلمقارنھ مع العینات الاخرى × حجما والملحومة عن طریق التیار الكھربائي, و اظھرت نتائج معامل المرونھ للعینات الملحومھ عن طریق الحراره( 0.016 (0.016 -0.022 × الاكبر حجما الملحومھ عن طریق التیار الكھربائي , اما نتائج معامل الطاقھ المخزونھ فقد اظھرت قیم عالیھ للعینات الملحومھ عن طریق التیار الكھربائي ( 0.016 وقد لوحظ انخفاضا في الخواصالمیكانیكیھ عند مقارنة الاسلاك المركبھ مع الاسلاك الاصلیة قبل اللحیم. الخلاصة أظھرت الأسلاك ذات القیاس الأعلى وأسلوب لحام عن طریق الحراره خواصامیكانیكیة أفضل من المجموعات الأخرى وعلى حد سواء عند مقارنة الاسلاك الجدیده مع النسخ الأصلیة الخاصة بھم اظھرت النتائج انخفاضا في الخواصالمیكانیكیھ بلنسبھ للاسلاك المركبھ الجدیده.

Table of content: volume:26 issue:3