Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:56 issue:1C

Article
Determination of hydrogen peroxide in some local pharmaceutical disinfectants by continuous flow injection analysis via turbidimetric (T180o) and scattered light effect at two opposite positions (2N90o ) using Ayah 4SW-3D-T180o -2N90o -Solar - CFI Analyser
تقدير بيروكسيد الهيدروجين في بعض المطهرات الصيدلانية باستخدام تحليل الحقن الجرياني المستمر عن طريق قياس التعكريه (T180° ) وتأثير استطاره الضوء عند اتجاهين متعاكسين (2N90° ) باستخدام المحلل Ayah 4SW-3D-T180o -2N90o -Solar - CFI

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Abstract

An indirectly method is used to determine hydrogen peroxide. The method based on oxidation of chromium (III) ion by hydrogen peroxide in basic medium to form chromate ion which react with barium (II) ion to produce a yellow precipitate (BaCrO4). Under the optimum established conditions, the linear range of 0.50-25.00 mmol L-1 along with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9992, Limit of detection (LOD) 0.68 µg / 100 µL, precision expressed as relative standard deviation for six replication measurements at 5.0 mmol.L-1 H2O2 of less than 2% were obtained for hydrogen peroxide. The developed method was successfully applied for the estimation of H2O2 in three pharmaceuticals preparation of different companies using continuous flow injection or stop-flow injection technique.


Article
Investigation of Sn(IV) and Sn(II) by dianionicligand compounds Supported by Nitrogen-Based Ligands
تحليل مركبات Sn(IV) وSn(II) بواسطة الليكند ثنائية الايون المدعومه بليكندات قواعد النتروجين

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Abstract

Synthetic routes to a series of tin compounds incorporating nitrogen-based chelating ligands are described. The β-diketiminato tin chloride precursor was utilized to isolate the first tin-phosphorus tin compound using this ligand, [(HC{C(Me)NAr}2)SnPPh2]. A diamide ligand was employed to investigate tin (II) and (IV) compounds. Two tin (II) and (IV) compounds, [(Me2Si{ArN}2)SnPh2] and [Li(OEt)2](Me2Si{ArN}2)SnPh2], were formed via reaction of the lithiated preligand, [Me2Si{ArNLi}2]+Sn(IV). Finally a novel Sn(II) N-heterocyclic stannylene compound was formed by reaction of the preligand with SnCl4. The diamide ligand was found to be suitable for both Sn(IV) and Sn(II) compounds. Reaction to obtain the tin dichloride compound resulted in the formation of [Li(OEt2)2][LSnCl3], which was characterised to be the chloro-bridged lithium chloride adduct of the desired compound. To gain more information on this reaction it was repeated with SnCl2Ph2 to attain the tin diphenyl analogue, which was established with no problems. Reaction to generate a N-heterocylic stannylene was extremely interesting, as this compound has great potential for further reactivity both independently and with regards to the aim of this product, which was to generate a tin-phosphorus multiple bond.


Article
DFT, PM3, AM1, and MINDO/3 Quantum Mechanical Calculations for Some INHC Cs Symmetry Schiff Bases as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel
حسابات ميكانيك الكم DFT و PM3و AM1 وMINDO/3 لبعض قواعد شف المشتقة من المركب INHC ذات التماثل Cs كمثبطات تأكل للحديد المطاوع

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Abstract

Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/ 6-311G basis set level and semiemperical methods (PM3, AM1, and MINDO/3) were performed on six new substituted Schiff bases derivatives of INHC (N-(3-(phenylidene-allylidene) isonicotinohydrazide) using Gaussian-03 program. The calculated quantum chemical parameters correlated to the inhibition efficiency were studied and discussed at their equilibrium geometry and their correct symmetry (Cs). Comparisons of the order of inhibition efficiency of the Schiff bases derivatives, and local electrophilic and nucleophilic reactivity have analyzed. Some physical properties also were studied such as heat of formation, total energy and dipole moment...etc. Also vibration frequencies and IR absorption intensities were carried out for the calculated Schiff bases molecules.


Article
Variants of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 Levels Could be a Predictor of an Early Development of Cardiovascular Diseases in Type 2 Diabetes among Iraqi Patients
التغيرات في مستويات MMP-9و TIMP-1 الالتهابية ترتبط مع مخاطر امراض القلب الوعائية في السكري من النوع الثاني بين المرضى العراقيين

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Abstract

Dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on serum concentrations of MMP-9 and TIMP-1of T2DM patients without dyslipidemia (one of atherosclerosis risk factors) and with duration less than 5 years in comparison with T2DM patients with dyslipidemia and with duration more than 10 years and controls. Also to investigate if serum levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 could be potential markers for early detection of the development of cardiovascular complications in T2DM patients without dyslipidemia. This study consisted of 24 T2DM patients without dyslipidemia, 30 T2DM patients with dyslipidemia, and 26 healthy subjects. A variety of inflammatory markers including: MMP-9, TIMP-1, IL18 and hs-CRP were compared among the three groups. The BMI was similar among the three groups. A significant increase of WHR, WHtR, FPG, TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, AIP, atherogenic ratio-1, atherogenic ratio-2, hs-CRP, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and IL-18 with a significant decrease of HDL-C, β Cell% and S% among the three groups. MMP-9 of T2DM patients without dyslipidemia and with duration less than 5 years showed a significant positive correlation with FPG and a significant negative correlation with TC. MMP-9 of T2DM patients with dyslipidemia and with duration more than 10 years showed significant negative correlation with LDL-C. TIMP-1 of T2DM patients with dyslipidemia and with duration more than 10 years showed a significant negative correlation with TC, TG, VLDL-C and atherogenic ratio-1. The significant increased levels of both MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in T2DM patients without dyslipidemia and with duration less than 5 years compared to controls showed that those patients have risk factor for cardiovascular complications. This study suggests that MMP-9 and TIMP-1 may be potentially useful as markers in T2DM patients at risk of progression of cardiovascular diseases.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Nucleoside Analogues from Substituted Benzimidazole and Evaluation of Their Biological Activities
تحضير وتقدير لمماثلات نيكليوسيدات جديدة محضرة من بنزايميدازول المعوض وتقييم الفعالية البايولوجية

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Abstract

This research includes the synthesis of some new nucleoside analogues via 1,3- dipolar cycloadditon reaction starting with 1,3,4,6- Tetra- O-benzoyl –2 – azido-2- deoxy- β – D- fructofuranose (F3) which was prepared in three steps ,protection (benzoylation ) , bromination and azotation ((F1-F3) from D- fructose as sugar moiety while the base moiety , 2-substituted benzimidaole derivatives (A1-A5) were synthesized by condensation of O-phenylenediamine with different aromatic aldehyde . Nucleophilic substitution of propargyl bromide with benzimidaole derivatives (gave the N- substituted compounds (B1-B5) which were reacted with azido sugar through 1,3- dipolar cycloadditon reaction to give nucleoside analogues (C1-C5) . Debloking of these nucleoside using sodium methoxide in methanol afforded our target the free nucleoside analogues (D1-D5). All prepared compound were identified by FT-IR and some of them with 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The synthesized compounds (D1-D5) were screened for their in-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity.


Article
Study of Some Serological Tests on Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis
دراسة بعض الاختبارات المصلية على مرضى اللشمانيا الاحشائية

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This study aimed to measure the alterations in serum zinc (Zn) and acute phase proteins ( C-reactive protein and Ceruloplasmin) concentrations in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A total of 62 individuals were enrolled in this study : 52 individuals were infected with visceral leishmaniasis and 10 individuals as healthy control. Serum zinc levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in patient group(76.25 ± 4.59 µg/dl ) when compared with healthy control (103.75 ± 3.77 µg/dl ) . C-reactive protein , as a mediator of innate immunity, removed damaged cells by activating the classical complement pathway revealed elevated levels in patients (4.36± 0.23mg/l ) when compared with the healthy control (2.50 ± 0.28mg/l ). The level of Ceruloplasmin was also significantly (p<0.05) increased in VL patients (0.82±0.05 mg/dl) as compred with healthy subjects (0.43±0.03mg/dl). These results showed that serum essential trace elements Zn, C-reactive protein and ceruloplasmin concentrations have been changed in VL patients. This may be a part of defense strategies of organism


Article
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Cytomegalovirus in Aborted Women in Baghdad-Iraq
الإنتشار المصلي لطفيلي المقوسات الكوندية والفايروس المضخم للخلايا في النساء المجهضات في مدينة بغداد-العراق

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Aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among aborted women. This study was performed on 282 aborted women and 50 normal pregnant women (control group) collected from Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital and Fatima Al-Zahraa Hospital for Obstetrics and Children during October 2013 until the end of February 2014.The samples were tested with Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) and CMV Rapid Test Cassette as a primary screening for T. gondii and CMV antibodies in the women sera. The primary tests showed a percentage of positive antibodies of T. gondii in aborted women and normal pregnant women 99(35.1%), 13(26%) respectively, while for CMV, it was 101(95.3%), 36(72%) respectively for the same groups,. The second test used was Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) for the positive sera in (LAT) test of T. gondii antibodies and for the positive sera in cassette test of CMV antibodies. In this test, the women sera were divided into four groups: (IgG+ & IgM-), (IgG+ & IgM+), (IgG- & IgM+) and (IgG- & IgM-) for both aborted and normal pregnant women, the results of T. gondii were: 73(73.7%), 2(2%), 2(2%) and 22(22.3%) respectively compared with the control group 13(100%) for the first group only, while the results of CMV were: 98(71.5%), 0(0%), 2(2%) and 1(1%) respectively compared with the control group 35(97.2%) and 1(2.8%) for the first and second group respectively.


Article
In Vivo Effect of Catharanthus roseus Crude Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Skin infections
تاثير مستخلصات نبات عين البزون Catharanthus roseus في البكتريا المرضية المعزولة من الالتهابات الجلدية داخل جسم الكائن الحي

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This study includes collection of 70 swabs samples of burns from patients were admitted in three hospitals (Baghdad, Al- Numaan and burns injuries Hospital). All swabs samples were cultured on blood and MacConkey agar media to isolate and identify pathogenic bacteria according to their morphological , biochemical and growth characters. Growth of bacteria on selective media showed the following results: Pseudomonas aeroginosa 44.28% , Klebsiella pneumonia 30% , Staphylococcu saureus 8.57% , Escherichia coli 4.28% , Proteus vulgaris 4.28 % , Enterobacter spp. 5.71% , Acinetobacter baumanni 2.89 %. Different concentrations were prepared from leaves ethanolic crude extract of Catharanthus roseus , then the anti-bacterial activity of this extract was evaluated in vivo. Burns were achieved experimentally in Albino mice and contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and evaluate the ability of extract in healing of these infected burns. Results showed that the extract accelerate burns healing within 7days.


Article
Prevalence of Proteus spp. in some hospitals in Baghdad City
انتشار بكتيريا Proteus spp. في بعض مستشفيات مدينة بغداد

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In this research, 152 clinical samples were collected from different hospitals in Baghdad city, 30 isolates of Proteus spp. were identified from urine, wounds and burns by using different bacteriological and biochemical assays. It was found that 20 (66.6%) samples were identifies as Proteus mirabilis and 10 (33.3%) samples were Proteus vulgaris. Among the 30 isolates of Proteus spp., 18 isolates (60%) were isolated from urine samples; 7 (23.3%) isolates from wounds samples and 5 (16.6%) isolates from burns samples. Out of 20 isolates of P. mirabilis, 13 (65%) isolates were from urine samples, 4 (20%) isolates were isolated from wounds samples and 3 (15%) isolates from burns. According to the gender, out of 30 Proteus spp., 17 (56%) were from female and 13 (43%) from male at different age.


Article
Isolation and identification of fungi from two hospitals in Baghdad city and effect of disinfectants on some fungi
عزل وتشخيص الفطريات من مستشفييين في مدينة بغداد وتاثير المطهرات على بعض الفطريات

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Swabs from two hospitals at Baghdad city were collected from the period 28-October-2013 to 31-March-2014, to found out the prevalence and distribution of fungi. These isolates were collected from hospitals' environment and most of the items used for hospital work in order to detect the nosocomial pathogens persistent. All fungal isolates were identified depending on the morphological and microscopic examinations as well as biochemical tests. Out of 220 environmental samples, 146 fungal isolates was obtained, Aspergillus flavus was more frequency and occurrence 23.29% and 15.45% respectively, followed Aspergillus niger was 15.57% and 10.45% then Penecillium spp. was 13.27% and 8.64%. In Al -Yarmouk Teaching Hospital more places contamination was burns 75%, followed dialysis 72.72% then RCU units 69.23%, while more places contamination in Imam Ali General Hospital was wards 70%, followed burns and Kitchen 58.33% then operation hall 57.14%. Determining the minimum inhibitory concentration for five types of disinfectants which are used in hospitals, the MIC values of disinfectants against fungal isolate were Chlorhexidin 7.5%, Chloroxylenol 1.25%, Formaldehyde 1.25%, Povidine iodine 10% and Sodium hypochlorite 7.5%. Chloroxylenol had significantly the most effective compound on fungi, followed formaldehyde then Sodium hipochlorite. This study found that hospitals contain different fungal species and genus, antiseptics and disinfectants have an effect on the fungus if it used correctly and permanent change in the use of antiseptics and disinfectants to avoid resistance of fungi.


Article
Examining of Certain Physical and Chemical Variables of Potable Water in Three Types of Home Stored Tanks in Baghdad
دراسة بعض الخواص الكيمياوية الفيزياوية لمياه الشرب بعد فترات خزن في ثلاث انواع من الخزانات المنزلية في بغداد

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Various types of storing tanks are used to store municipal water at homes. This study was carried out to examine several water physical and chemical variables such as pH, EC, TSS and TDS after different storing periods. The obtained results showed no significant differences between the mean of pH values which ranged from 7.27 ± 0.04 in a water sample of galvanized tank after six days of storing to 8.10 ± 0.12 in water sample of aluminum tank after nine storing days. In case of electric conductivity, Highest mean values (1.85±0.09 µS/cm and 1.44 ± 0.21µS/cm) were found in galvanized tank samples for different storing periods while the lowest mean values (0.58±0.06 µS/cm and 1.04±0.06 µS/cm) were recorded in aluminum tank samples. However in plastic tanks samples, the mean values were moderated (0.94 ±0.05 µS/cm and 1.16±0.03 µS/cm) between means of both tanks. In case of TSS, the current data have shown significant differences between mean values of examined stored water samples where highest values (730.0±31.97 mg/l - 1060.0±141.42 mg/l) were in galvanized tank water samples and the lowest mean values (27.67±21.36 mg/l – 118.33 ±18.46 mg/l) were in plastic tank water samples whilst in aluminum tank water samples, these values were varied from 193.33±10.66 mg/l – 253.33±22.2 mg/l). In general, only water samples stored in galvanized tank had mean value significantly higher that of control sample which had 251.33±3.21 mg/l. Regarding TDS, this study has found that highest mean values (800.0±40.0 mg/l – 1600.0±100.0 mg/l) were recorded in water samples of aluminum tank and the lowest mean values (40.0±10.0 mg/l – 120.0±10.0 mg/l) were found in water samples of plastic tank while water samples of galvanized tank had mean values varied from 680.0 ±10.0 mg/l – 1172.0 ±18.08 mg/l. Control sample, however had mean value of 495.0±5.0 mg/l which was only higher than that of plastic tank


Article
Prevalence of IgM and IgA Antibodies for the Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Infants and Young Children in Baghdad
انتشار الاجسام المضادة المناعية IgM وال IgA لفايرس المخلوي التنفسي Respiratory Syncytial Virus في الاطفال الصغار والرضع في بغداد

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Abstract

Respiratory Syncytial Virus is the most common cause of acute viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and young children. This study is designed to examine the presence of anti-RSV IgM and IgA antibodies in infants and young children aged between 2 months up to 5 years old. ELISA was used to examine the levels of IgM and IgA antibodies in the serum samples from 90 individuals (60 are with respiratory symptoms and 30 healthy as controls). The results were analysed by systematically dividing those individuals into two groups according to their age and clinical status. The age groups included infant between 2 months and 1 year of age and young children between 2-5 years whereas the clinical grouping includes the severity of infection of those hospitalized with acute respiratory symptoms and /or with chest pain from two main children hospitals in Baghdad. ELISA results revealed that anti-RSV IgM levels were 80% and 72% for those with acute infection and those with chest pain, respectively, whereas the levels of IgA were 45% for both groups. On the other hand, the level of IgM for individuals from group I and group II of age distribution were 63% and 35%, respectively; while the levels of IgA were only 27% for group I and 8% for group II. This study showed that the level of IgM antibodies for RSV is indicative of early detection of viral infection and it is more likely to be associated with the onset of recent infection with RSV regardless of the severity of infection. By including another test together with IgM detection may significantly improve early detection of RSV infections. These results may contribute for better understanding for the prevalence of RSV among infants and young children as well as the status of respiratory infection with RSV in children from Baghdad areas which may eventually lead to better rationale for the unnecessary prescription of antibiotics in community.

Keywords

RSV --- respiratory infection --- bronchiolitis --- ELISA --- IgM --- IgA --- children.


Article
Acute toxicity effects of 2,4-D herbicide on common carp(Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 ) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella valenciennes,1844)
التأثيرات السمية الحادة لمبيد الاعشاب 2,4-د على اسماك الكارب الاعتيادي( Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus,1758 و الكارب العشبي(Ctenopharyngodon idella valenciennes,1844)

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The acute toxicity effects of (2,4-D) pesticide to the common carp and grass carp was determined through 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr. Group of eight Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae) and group of eight of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were exposed to the 2,4-d. Lethal concentration (LC50) was determined with probit analysis. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values for common and grass carp were (157.77, 157.25, 156.41 and 152.62) and (115.92, 114.92, 112.94 and 96.52) respectively. Behavioral changes of the above mentioned species were examined for various herbicide concentrations.

Keywords

Herbicide --- Common carp --- Grass carp --- 2 --- 4-D.


Article
Isolation, identification and treatment of Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis
عزل وتشخيص ومعالجه بكتريا المكورات العنقودية البشروية المقاومة لمضاد الفانكومايسين

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Out of Hundred clinical samples, taken from different sources include burn, blood , wound and nasal swabs infections ; 90 isolates developed growth on mannitol salt agar. Among these, 40 (44.4%) were Coagulase positive (Staphylococcus aureus) isolates and 50 (55.5%)belong to coagulase negative staphylococci, in which the last Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were 30(60%).Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates to 12 antibiotics were determined using disc diffusion method . The results revealed that high resistance to Penecillin G10 and Amoxiclav (Amoxicillin- clavulanic acid) ( 100%) and the high sensitivity to Imipenim (95%). The pattern of minimum inhibitory concentration of S.epidermidis isolates to vancomycin , was determined using MIC method; The results revealed that 12 S.epidermidis isolates ( 40 %) were vancomycin resistant, the MIC of them between (256- 32 μgml) , 4 S.epidermidis isolates (13.3%) were intermediate resistance , the MIC to 3 of them were 16 μgml and the last was 8 μgml.


Article
Genetic Comparative Study of Staphyolococcus aureus& Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolated from Wounds, Burns and Skin Flora
دراسة وراثية مقارنة لبكتريا المكورات العنقودية الذهبية و العنقوديه البشرونيه المعزولة من أخماج الجروح و الحروق و الفلورا الطبيعية

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One hundred specimens from wounds, burns, and skin swabs were collected from patients laying and attended to Balad general hospital. It was found that 50 isolates belong to Staphylococcus spp., 38 isolates were identified as S. aureus and 12 isolates were identified as S. epidermidis according to microscopic, cultural and biochemical testing. The study of seven extracellular enzyme as virulence factors including the enzymes: urease, lipase, DNase, haemolysin, coagulase, β-lactamase, and lecithinase. Reavealed that 100% of S.aureus had the ability to produce these enzymes, while S. epidermidis isolates were unable to produce the enzymes DNase, lipase, coagulase, but they were capable to produce haemolysin, urease, lecithinase, and β-lactamase, the range for production of these factors were 58.33 %,80,%, 10,%, and 45% respectively. Eighteen Staphyolococcus isolates were selected according of their ability for production most of studies virulence enzymes for detection of genes encoding for the enzymes heamolysine (hly) and coagulase (coa) by using of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The Gene hIy was detected in all isolates and coa was detected in 14 isolates only


Article
Histopathological Effects of Cadmium Chloride on Barbus sharpeyi
التأثيرات النسجية المرضية لكلوريد الكادميوم في اسماك البنيBarbus sharpeyi

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The present study including determined pathological changes in Barbus sharpeyi, as well as description behavior and growth of bunni fish by used 180 fingerlings, Fish were distributed randomly upon four treatments in addition to control group. First treatment (T1) contained cadmium 0.093mg/L with changing water and added cadmium continuously, the second treatment (T2) contained cadmium 0.093mg/L with changing water without adding cadmium, third treatment (T3) contained cadmium 0.046mg/L with changing water and adding cadmium continuously, fourth treatment (T4) contained cadmium 0.046mg/L with changing water without adding cadmium. In order to estimate LC50 used 120 fingerlings of fish B. sharpeyi, were exposed to 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0mg/L. The LC50 of cadmium was 0.932mg/L for 48h of exposure. Fish behavior was recorded showed abnormalities after exposure to the various cadmium concentrations such as swimming disorders, the fish tended together at the surface, fast movement, fish aggregate in aquarium border, fish weakness, opened and closed in operculum festally, as well as a significant decrease at (P≤0.05) in body weight of T1,T2 and T3. Histopathological changes in gills characterized by lamellar fusion, lifting of secondary lamella, The main findings in liver tissue were hydropic swelling and fatty degeneration of some hepatocytes, focal or diffuse necrosis, Kidney result varying degrees of tubular necrosis with severe congestion together with melanomacrophage infiltration. Intestine results showed slauphing and necrosis of mucosal epithelial of intestinal villi and diffuse MNCs infiltration, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of goblet cell. Spleen observed severe destruction in spleenic parenchyma, severe reduction in hemopoitic tissue.


Article
Combining Effect of Lower Rate of Trifluralin Herbicide and Sunflower residues on mycorrhizal association with cowpea and soil nitrification
تأثير جرعة منخفضه من مبيد الترفلان مع مخلفات زهرة الشمس على الفطريات الجذرية المتعايشة وعملية النترجة

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Field and laboratory experiments were conducted during the course of study to test if the sunflower residues along or with 50% full rate of trifluralin herbicide has any impact on mycorrhizal association and soil nitrification which are important processes for improving growth and productivity of crops. Results revealed that incorporation of sunflower residues significantly increased spores number at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of residue decomposition compared to control treatment. However, when the residues applied in combination with reduced rate of trifluralin herbicide, sporulation was appreciably decreased by sunflower residues at 3 t ha-1 but it remains almost the same at 6 t ha-1 rate of residues. Field soil amended with label rate of trifluralin showed lower sporulation during the first six weeks from beginning of the experiment. Colonization rate was appreciably increased by application of sunflower residues at 6 t ha-1 and decreased by label rate of herbicide and weed free treatments. The highest colonization intensity (83.4) was recorded by application of sunflower residues at 6 t ha-1, followed by treatment of sunflower residues at 3 t ha-1 (72.2). Label rate of herbicide recorded the least colonization intensity (54.4). Incorporation of sunflower residues at 3 and 6 t ha-1 significantly reduced nitrification rate at all incubation periods in comparison to control. However, when the residues was applied along with the reduced rate of herbicide, nitrification rate was significantly increased over the sole application of sunflower residues at all incubation periods except 4 and 8 days incubation periods but it remains below control. Soil sterilization treatment showed the least nitrification rate at all incubation periods. In all bioassay experiments, the amounts of NH4+ converted in the incubated soil was significantly correlated with the amount of NO3- produced over the periods of incubation suggesting that soil incubation is efficient method that can be used for measuring nitrification process.It can conclude Sunflower residues amended in field soil was found to provide a good medium for growing Glomus mosseae fungus and best way to inhibited nitrification rate and thus may contribute in alleviating losses of NO3 used by plants and reducing the environmental pollution.


Article
Extraction of Aloin from Aloe Vera plant and study its effect in Micronucleus Formation in Acute Lymphoid Leukemia
استخلاص الألوين من نبات الصبار ودراسة تأثيره في معامل التكون النوى الصغيرة لمرضى سرطان الدم الحاد.

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Aloin extracted into alcohol-rich phase with high extraction efficiency, meanwhile majority polysaccharides, proteins, mineral substances and other impurities were extracted into salt-rich phase. Partitioning of AQs[Anthraquinones] is dependent on hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bond interaction, and salting-out effect in Aqueous tow –phase system [ATPS]. Aloin was partially purified by using 1-propanol [NH4] 2SO4, the use of this solvent showed high efficiency 90.61% compared with other solvent [2-propanol and ethanol]. The concentration of aloin detected by HPLC technique, which reached to 91.84% as focus turns out that there is compatibility between the sample and the standard in shape and retention time which reached [1.462] compared with the standard [1.465]. After the treatment of blood leukemic patient cultures, three concentrations of aloin were used [100, 200 and 400] µg/ml, the last concentration showed the ability to reduce the coefficient of micronucleus formation to [0.0062] micronucleus/cell, compared with non- treated culture which reached to [0.0236] micronucleus/cell.

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Article
Investigation of the Nuclear Structure of 174-206Hg Isotopes Using Skyrme-Hartree-Fock Method
دراسة التركيب النووي للنظائر 174-206Hg باستخدام طريقة سكيرم-هاريتري-فوك

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Abstract

The effective Skyrme type interactions have been used in the Haretree-Fock mean-field model for several decades, and many different parameterizations of the interaction have been realized to better reproduce nuclear masses, radii, and various other data. In the present research, the SkM, SkM*, SI, SIII, SIV, T3, Sly4, Skxs15, Skxs20 and Skxs25 Skyrme parameterizations have been used within Haretree-Fock (HF) method to investigate some static and dynamic nuclear ground state properties of 174-206Hg isotopes. In particular, the binding energy per nucleon, proton, neutron, mass and charge densities and corresponding root mean square radii, neutron skin thickness and charge form factor. The calculated results are compared with the available experimental data. From present calculation, we can deduce that the Skyrme–Hartree–Fock (SHF) method with above parameterizations provide a good description on the Hg isotopes.


Article
The Development of Semi – Empirical Relationship for the Determination of the Half –Lives of Even – Even Heavy Nuclei that Emit Alpha – Particles
تطوير علاقة شبه تجريبية لتحديد أنصاف أعمار النوى الزوجية – الزوجية الثقيلة الباعثة لجسيمات الفا

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Abstract

The study involved the determination of the half – lives Logarithm for heavy even – even nuclei that contain atomic numbers in the range between 82≤Z≤102 through revisiting of the one particle model suggested by Gurney Condon and Gamow in 1928. This model is based upon the formation of an alpha particle in the parent nucleus before its tunneling decay. In addition, a simple modification process is done on the nucleus radius. in which it was found that the nucleus radius (2%) will change the decay constant value (2-3 times) which will greatly affect the nucleus half-life logarithm as well as its effect on the inverse proportion between the nucleus radius and the potential barrier rise. The half – life logarithm for the nuclei being studied was determined, through several common models that belong to another studies alongside our proposed (present work) Model (P.W.M) that contains semi – empirical relation based on the Geiger & Nutall rule. That is with suitable constants that were obtained through trial and error as the model contain a term represented by the relative neutrons excess ((N-Z_p)/A) which was extremely important in half life logarithm suitability and its approach to experimental values. The comparison process depending on statistical procedures that we undertook as in the calculation of root mean square deviation (rmsd) as well as the standard deviation (σ) alongside the relation between the theoretical and experimental half-life logarithm ratio .Results showed that the half-life logarithm increases with the increase in neutrons numbers (N) for all nuclei except those that contain magic numbers in their atomic numbers (Z) or neutron numbers (N) or both. The fitting equations that link between theoretical and experimental half-life logarithm and for two Model (P.W.M) and (K.M), were obtained.


Article
The facies analysis of the Cenomanian –Turonian succession of Surdash –Shaqlawa area, NE. Iraq
التحليل السحني للتتابع الطباقي من السينومانين – التوروني من منطقة سورداش الى شقلاوة ، شمال شرق العراق

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Abstract

Three formations were studied from seven outcrops extend from Surdash to Shaqlawa (Cenomanian – Santonian), they comprise Dokan, Gulneri and Kometan Formations. Four microfacies and eight submicrfacies are identified depending on this microfacies, we determine the depositional environments. Dokan Formation is deposited in open-marine deep shelf environment; it could be deposited at deeper shelf to slope and basinal settings. While Gulneri Formation deposited in open sea shelf, as well as at outer shelf settings, the sediments consist of organic–carbon rich black shale and consider a record of the ocean anoxic event 2, Kometan Formation represent pelagic sediments characterize the deep-marine basins in open marine.


Article
Sub-Surface Investigation of Khashim Al-Ahmer Gas Field Using Seismic Reflection Data
استقصاء تحت سطحي لحقل الخشم الاحمرالغازي باستخدام المعلومات الزالزلية الانعكاسية

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Abstract

This paper is carried out to detect the subsurface structures that have geological and economical importance by interpreting the available reflection seismic data of an area estimated to be about (740) km2. The Khashim Al-Ahmer structure is partial of series structures of (Injana – Khashim Al-Ahmer – Mannsorya) from the (NW to the SE), it is located within for deep faulted area. The component of the one elongated dome of asymmetrical of structure which has(SW) limb more steeper than the (NE) limb.Twenty three seismic sections had been interpreted for two seismic surveys and the total length of all seismic lines is about (414.7) Km. Interpretation of seismic data was focused on two reflectors (Fatha and Jeribi) Formations which belong to Lower and Middle Miocene age. The reflectors were picked and identified by tying them directly to well Khashim Al-Ahmer-2, the Lower Fars(Fatha Formation) reflector was picked at TWT ranging from (0.3-1.7) sec while the Jeribi reflector was picked at TWT ranging from (0.83- 2) sec. The depth map showed that the depth of the Jeribi Formation ranges between (1100 - 2000) m, and the velocity maps of studied reflector showed increase of velocity values to the south east and there is a local closure in the north east of the study area and decrease to the north west and the velocity values decrease and give closure situated below well KA-2.The magnitude of velocity values ranges in Jeribi velocity map from (3100 to 3400 m/sec). Seismic attributes techniques (instantaneous phase) is important to detect the hydrocarbon accumulation on seismic sections. Major faults (reverse and thrust) were picked along study area on instantaneous phase sections. These faults extend in NW-SE trend and the displacement of the fault ranges between (400-660) m. The velocity, time and depth maps were drawn by the aid of GeoFrame and petrel software.


Article
Delineation of Quaternary Aquifers by Using Long 2D Imaging in Southern Al-Shihaby Area (Wasit Governorate), Eastern Iraq
تحديد خزانات العصر الرباعي باستخدام التصوير ثنائي البعد الطويل في جنوب منطقة الشهابي (محافظة واسط ) شرق العراق

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An electrical survey was carried out by using 2D imaging technique at (15) station. The study area is located southern Al-Shihaby area, south-east of Wasit governorate, Eastern Iraq. The numbers of the employed electrodes were (120) and the (a) spacing equal to (10m), and the total length of survey line is (1200m). The inverse models of 2D imaging showed one Quaternary aquifer located in the Quaternary deposits which comprises in alluvial fan and wind deposits of (Pleistocene – Holocene) ages. Layers of aquifer consist of gravel and sand with little silt. Low resistivity values reflected the presence of clay layers, and increasing salinity of water gradually with the depth. The aquifer occurs at minimum depth equal to (12m) approximately in the inverse model of 2DSh10 station and maximum depth equals to (153m) approximately in 2DSh2 station. In addition, the minimum thickness of aquifer was (7m) approximately as appeared in 2DSh15 station and the thickness increased to (91m) approximately in 2DSh4 station. The results indicated that the type of aquifer is unconfined.


Article
Shedding Further Light on Upper Cretaceous – Neogene Subsurface Lithostratigraphy of Southwestern Iraq
القاء المزيد من الضوء على طباقية و صخارية تحت السطح للكريتاسي الأعلى-النيوجين في جنوب غرب العراق

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Exploratory activities carried out by oil companies in the latter half of the past century proved the existence of voluminous reserve of oil and gas in the southwestern area of Iraq. In view of this, it seemed more than prudent to add a new knowledge to that currently existing about the subsurface lithostratigraphy of this area. As a first step in fulfilling this mission, this paper will attempt to do so by covering the time interval from the Upper Cretaceous to the Neogene. In turn, this effort had entailed both the description of about 4707 metres of fully recovered cores, plus the subjection of more than 4000 samples to existing petrologic analyses. Findings worth mentioning does include the observation that with the exception of the Paleogene sequence, the Upper Cretaceous and Neogene sequences are no different from those found in other parts of southern Iraq. For instance, the Upper Cretaceous sequence is found to be consisted of the common Hartha, Qurna, and Tayarat Formations. The same could be said about the Neogene sequence which is found to be again made of the common Ghar, Euphrates, Fatha, and Zahra Formations. In contrast, the Paleocene – Lower Eocene sequence lithology is found a bit different from those commonly encountered in other parts of southern Iraq. This difference emanates from the intense sulphidzation as manifested in the common occurrence of anhydrite, gypsum, and vanished evaporite being observed through the lower Paleogene sediments of south west, Iraq. Because this phenomena exhibits strong vertical as well as lateral variation, this sequence is divided into an intensely evaporitic portion, which is introduced in this article under the name of the Jerishan Group (Paleocene - Lower Eocene), inclusive of Umm Er Radhuma, Rus, Jil/Rus, and Jil Formations. The latter formation is recently introduced stratigraphic rock unit representing the non-evaporitic equivalent for the Rus Formation. The less evaporitic portion (the Dammam Formation) of the Paleogene was found to be the same as the ones found in other parts of the south Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.


Article
Using Linear Local Dependence Measure to Study the factors that are Leading to the Growth of Preferring the Application in Private Universities of Iraq
استخدام مقياس للاعتمادية الخطية لدراسة العوامل المؤدية الى الاقبال الشديد على الجامعات الاهلية في العراق

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In this paper a measure of linear local dependence has been used between two random variables and a study is conducted for the properties of this measure where two examples of bivariate probability distributions has been considered, which are bivariate Gumbel distribution and bivariate Beta-Stacy distribution, and applied on data collected by using a questionnaire conducted to study the reasons for the increase of application in private collages in Iraq. Five elements has been considered as random variables and the dependence has been measured between every two elements to estimate how correlated these elements are and their effect on the application in private collages of Iraq generally and Baghdad specifically.


Article
On Jordan Generalized Reverse Derivations on -rings
حول تعميم مشتقات جوردان المعكوسة لحلقات– 

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In this paper, we study the concepts of generalized reverse derivation, Jordan generalized reverse derivation and Jordan generalized triple reverse derivation on -ring M. The aim of this paper is to prove that every Jordan generalized reverse derivation of -ring M is generalized reverse derivation of M.


Article
Air Quality Over Baghdad City Using Ground and Aircraft Measurements
تقييم نوعية هواء مدينة بغداد باستخدام القياسات الارضية وقياسات الطائرة.

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In this paper, the air pollutants concentrations measurements such as Total Suspended Particles(TSP), Carbon Monoxides(CO),Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and meteorological parameters including temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and wind speed & direction were conducted in Baghdad city by several stations measuring numbered (22) stations located in different regions, and were classified into (industrial, commercial and residential) stations. The results show that the concentrations of pollutants (TSP, CO, and CO2) have exceeded the air quality standards set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Iraqi limitation in the stations of the Baghdad city. The program (ArcGIS) used to prepare maps of air pollution in Baghdad city, as well as MS Excel used for drawing the concentrations of pollutants in ground and to show changed the concentrations with altitude. Aircraft measurements of gaseous pollutants including ozone (O3), Carbone monoxide (CO) , Carbone dioxide (CO2) and the particulate matter concentrations ( PM10 , PM2.5 ) were conducted in the Baghdad city from ( 2 January 2014 to 4 Mars 2014 ),the data of total 10 flight (22 h flight time ),the vertical profile of (CO ,CO2 ,O3 ,PM10and PM2.5 ) have been obtained at different altitude over the Baghdad city covering the lowermost troposphere up to 2100 feet altitude above ground level (AGL) during all flights were obtained by A bell 407 aircraft and A king aircraft. The objective was to characterize the spatial and vertical distributions of these air pollutants.The results indicate that the air pollution levels were severe over the Baghdad city. The pollutants concentrations were generally decreasing with altitude in the boundary layer in the flight measurements .These results are valuable for studying vertical distribution characteristics of gaseous pollutants and particulate matters in the boundary layer over the Baghdad city and for providing important basic data to environmental assessment and decision-making. The reasons for this increasing due to increase in anthropogenic emissions, mainly due to the increase in fossil fuel use for heating, the burning of the fuel used in various types of vehicles, as well as the low quality of fuel and the age of the vehicles, the use of generators, the dry climate, soil erosion, lack of roadside vegetation, paved areas, substantial rise in number of vehicles and poorly maintained vehicles have all been held Responsible.


Article
Computer Generation of Low Light-Level Images
توليد حاسوبي لصور ذات مستوى ضوئي واطئ

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As result of exposure in low light-level are images with only a small number of photons. Only the pixels in which arrive the photopulse have an intensity value different from zero. This paper presents an easy and fast procedure for simulating low light-level images by taking a standard well illuminated image as a reference. The images so obtained are composed by a few illuminated pixels on a dark background. When the number of illuminated pixels is less than 0.01% of the total pixels number it is difficult to identify the original object.


Article
Optimal Spatial Distribution of Gasoline Stations in Baghdad Province Utilizing GIS Techniques
التوزيع المكاني المثالي لمحطات توزيع البنزين في محافظة بغداد باستخدام تقنيات نظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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Studying the spatially distribution pattern of fuel station in province of Baghdad was done by utilizing GIS techniques which they are the most powerful tools for design, display and analysis for the spatial data. Nearest Neighbor Analysis method was applied for analyzing the spatial distributions of the fuel stations. Baghdad was considered to be divided in to two main parts (outskirts of Baghdad and center of Baghdad). The nearest neighbour for all parts of Baghdad indicates for the distribution pattern is random and differs from place to another in randomly rate.


Article
An Adaptive Automatic Algorithm for Extracting Geological Lineaments in AL-Dibdibba Formation Basin
خوارزمية آلية مطورة لاستخلاص التراكيب الخطية الجيولوجية في حوض تكوين الدبدبة

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Iraq is one of the Arabian area countries, which considered from the drier areas on the earth, though it has two main rivers that pass through(Tigris and Euphrates); it suffers the same problem as them (drought), only the rivers' nearby regions make use of their water for (domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes(. One of the usable solutions is to utilize the groundwater (especially in the desert regions). Using the Remote Sensing and geographic information system is a rapid and coast effective techniques, they provide information of large and inaccessible area within short span for assessing, monitoring, and management of groundwater resources. In this study, an adaptive algorithm based on Canny edge detector noise reduction idea and directional filters scheme submitted for lineaments automatically extraction from LandSat7 (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) ETM+ band 7 data considering the lineaments spatial and spectral characteristics, yet the algorithm validation examined using ancillary data of the same interest (Iraq tectonic map and 90m SRTM DEM). The analysis process achieved using Arc GIS 9.3 to recognize the potential groundwater renewal and/ or accumulative zones in the selected arid to semi-arid area (AL-Dibdibba formation basin).

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