Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:56 issue:2A

Article
A new mode for an on-line determination of Pyrocatechol, Resorcinol, and Pyrogallol in pure commercial samples using CFIA with homemade Ayah 3SBGRx3- 3D solar cell microphtometer analyzer
نمط جديد للتقدير الأني للبايروكتكول, ريزورسينول و البايروكالول في نماذج تجارية النقية بأستخدام التحليل بالحقن الجرياني المستمر عن طريق استخدام محلل طيفي مايكروي مصنع محليا Ayah 3SBGR x3-3D solar cell.

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A new, simple, accurate, fast and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the analysis of Pyrocatechol, Resorcinol, and pyrogallolin pure commercial samples by continuous flow injection analysis. The method was based on the oxidation of the organic compounds with Ce(IV)sulfate in acidic medium to formed a brown colored species which determined using homemade Ayah 3SBGR x3-3D solar cell flow injection microphotometer. Optimum conditions were obtained using a high intensity green light emitted diode as an irradiation source forPyrocatechol, Resorcinol, whileblue light emitted diode as an irradiation source for pyrogallol. The linear dynamic range for the instrument response versus Pyrocatechol, Resorcinol, and pyrogallol concentrationswere5-40mmol.L-1 while the L.O.D was of 36.63, 17.17, and 41.61ng / sample respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9952, 0.9970, and 0.9960 while percentage linearity (r2%) was 99.05%, 99.41% and 99.22%forPyrocatechol, Resorcinol, and pyrogallol respectively. RSD% for the repeatability (n=8,7, and 8) was 1.4%, 0.63%, 1.78% for the determination of Pyrocatechol, Resorcinol,andpyrogallol, respectively at concentration of 30 mmol.L-1. The method was applied successfully for the determination of three organic compounds in purecommercial samples. A comparison was made between the newly developed method and the classical method (UV-Vis spectrophotometry) at wave length 492, 481, and 438 nm forPyrocatechol, Resorcinol and pyrogallolrespectively of analysis using the standard additions method via the use of paired t-test. It was noticed that there is no significant difference between two different methods for analysis three different organic compounds; in addition to no significant difference in the contribution of the Pyrocatechol, Resorcinol and pyrogallol to the oxidant reaction path, at 95% confidence level.


Article
Batch and Flow Injection Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Clonazepam in Pharmaceutical Preparations via Oxidative Coupling with Pyrocatechol
استخدام الطرق الطيفية(الدفعة والحقن الجرياني) لتقدير دواء كلونازيبام في المستحضرات الصيدلانية من خلال تفاعل الازدواج التاكسدي مع البايروكاتيكول

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A simple, fast, and sensitive batch and flow injection spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of clonazepam(CZP) in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed methods are based on the oxidative coupling reaction of the reduced clonazepam using Zn powders and conc. HCl with payrocatechol and in the presence of ferric sulphate. The resulting reddish colored product had a maximum absorbance at 515 nm. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters have been evaluated . The linear ranges for the batch and FI methods determination of CZP were 0.5-32, 50-400 μg mL-1 and the detection limits were 0.193, 22.60 μg mL-1 for both methods respectively. Statistical analysis of the results and comparison with results by the British Pharmacopoeia method are also reported.


Article
Batch and Flow Injection Spectrophotometric Determination of Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Doxycycline Hyclate in Pharmaceutical Preparations
التقدير الطيفي للتتراسايكلين هيدروكلورايد والدوكسي سايكلين هايكلات في المستحضرات الصيدلانية بطريقة الدفعة والحقن الجرياني

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Abstract

New, simple and accurate batch and flow injection spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determinationsof tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) and doxycycline hyclate (DCH) in pharmaceutical preparations. The methods are based on diazotization of metchlopramide and coupling reaction with either TCH or DCH in alkaline medium to form yellow–orange water soluble dye with absorption maxima at 414 and 436 nm for TCH and DCH, respectively. A graphs of absorbance versus concentration show that Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration ranges of 1 –52 µgmL-1 TCH and DCH for batch method and of 8 – 240 µg mL-1 TCH and 5 – 350 µgmL-1 DCH for FIA method. The limits of detection in batchmethods were 0.333 and 0.235µgmL-1for TCH and DCH respectively, and in FIA methods were 0.895, 0.612 µgmL-1for TCH and DCH respectively. Samplethroughputs in FIA procedures were 120 and 80samples per hour for TCH and DCH, respectively. Different chemical and physical experimental parameters affecting on the development and stability of the colored product were carefully studied and the proposed methods were successfully applied for determination of TCH and DCH in pharmaceutical preparations.


Article
Synthesis & Characterization of Some 1, 3, 4-OxadiazoleDerivatives & new Cyclic Imides from Creatinine
تحضیروتشخیص بعض مشتقات 1,3,4- اوكسادايازول وایمایدات حلقیة جدیدة من الكرياتينين

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Abstract

A series of new 1,3,4- oxadiazole derivatives and cyclic Imides containing Creatinine heterocyclic molecule were prepared via following method:first step included Synthesis of amic acid from reaction between different cyclic anhydrides with Creatinine which subsequently dehydrated to the corresponding imide via treatment with acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate,.then,second step was trated amic acid with Thionyl chloride producing acid chloride which on amination with hydrazine hydrate in thierd step and the last turn to 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives by condensation reaction with Phosphorous Oxychloride(POCl3) and different benzoic acids. Cyclization to 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole derivatives. Antibacterial activity of some prepared new compounds against two types of bacteria were evaluated and result showed the new exhibit good moderate antibacterial activity.Prepared compounds were elucidated on the basis FT-IR,1H-NMR and MASS spectro data which agreed with the proposed structures

Keywords

Creatinine --- Amic Acid --- cyclic Imide --- 1 --- 3 --- 4-Oxadiazole


Article
The role of Interleukin -18 / Interleukin -18 BindingProtein in Rheumatoid Arithritis patients
دور الانترلوكين-18/والبروتين الرابط للانترلوكين- 18 لدى مرضى التهاب المفاصل الرثوي

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Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory polyarithritic disease associated with remission and exacerbation with different immunological features.Rheumatoid factor(RF) screening test was used quantitatively and qualitatively using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA), RF-isotypes (RF-IgG, RF-IgM, RF-IgA) , Interleukin-18 (IL-18) and Interleukin – 18 binding protein (IL-18BP) were detected quantitatively usingenzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Results indicated a 51% positivity in RF among RA patients and a prevalence of the RF-isotype (RF-IgM) with the highest level at (41.6±16.3 U/ml) (p < 0.05) among other RF-isotypes at a percentage of 85.5% , results also indicatedan elevated serum level of IL-18 and IL-18BP(225±24.8 pg/ml), ( 5.2 ± 2.1 ng/ml ) respectively compared to healthy control (HC)group (65±8.4 pg/ml )(p<0.01) , ( 2.9 ± 1.3 ng/ml ) (p<0.05) respectively, and ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP serum levels in RA patients were significantly higher than in HC group (p<0.05) which increased the importance of IL-18BP in therapeutic strategy. In conclusion RF-IgM may be an important complimentary detection method for RA among the other isotypes ,IL-18 with its IL-18BP may play an important role in RA which need to be further investigated.


Article
Detection of some heavy metals and bacterial contamination in canned vegetables
التحري عن بعض العناصر الثقيلة والتلوث البكتري في الخضروات المعلبة

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In this paper, thirty six samples of canned vegetables were collected randomly from different markets in Baghdad city from October 2013 till March 2014. The study includes identifying the concentration of some heavy metals (lead, nickel, zinc and iron) by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometery. It was found that the higher concentrations of heavy metals in canned vegetables, was lead 1.179 ppm in olive, nickel 0.9078 ppm in olive, while zinc 10.143 ppm green peas and iron 90.601ppm in white asparagus; but the lower concentrations represents with lead 0.0021 ppm in green asparagus, nickel 0.0202 ppm in mushroom, while zinc 0.528 ppm in white asparagus and iron 4.061 ppm in green peas. Canned food has been reported to be contaminated mainly by spores forming bacteria of the genera Bacillus main sources of a meal. The bacteria that reported in this study were bacillus spp.


Article
Estimation the Levels of Some Inflammatory Markers Among Young Iraqi Smokers and Non Smokers
تقيم مستوى بعض المؤشرات المناعية بين الشباب المدخنين وغير المدخنين العراقيين

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In this study it was found that a significant decrease in the level of leptin in young Iraqi smokers (16+ 0.7ng/mL) compared to non smokers(24.2+ 4.5ng/mL) while, B2 microglobulin and CRPwas significantly increased in the smokers (1.2 + 0.3µg/mL), (4.07+ 0.02mg/L) respectively, compared to non smokers (0.6 + 0.9µg/mL) ,( 2.88+ 0.002mg/L) respectively, the presented data indicates the effect of smoking on these immunological markers.


Article
Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in AL-Muthanna Province (Iraq) Patients
انتشار التهاب الكبد الفايروسي نمط إي في مرضى محافظة المثنى (العراق)

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Hepatitis E (HE) is an inflammation of the liver caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. Iraq is one of the Asian countries with high incidence and prevalence of hepatitis. In this paper, HE prevalence will be determined in Al-Muthanna province /Iraq. Commercially available Micro-ELISA for marker of hepatitis E (HEV IgM, Foresight, USA) kit was used to test (270) patients for HEV IgM antibodies. Also (10) blood samples from normal healthy individuals were used as normal control in this study. Among the (270) analyzed serum samples, a total of (72) samples (26.66 %) were found to be positive for anti-HEV IgM antibodies, and all these patients were tested for confirmatory test at central public health laboratories (CPHL) in Baghdad province. These patients consist of (45) females and (27) males were all negative for routinely screened markers of Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. The positive sera anti-HEV IgM also were tested for total serum bilirubin (TSB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) colorimetrically. The age ranged between (4-74) years old. Highly significant differences (χ2 =10.271, p ≤ 0.01) appeared among age groups. This study showed that the HEV IgM is more common among younger age group ( 15-24), with a percentage of )41.67%(. And higher in females (63%) than in males (37%).


Article
Effect of Plant Growth Regulators (IBA, BA, and CCC) on Some Vegetative Characters of Three Hybrid Lily Cultivars of (Lilium spp. L.)
تأثير منظمات النمو (IBA و BA و CCC) في بعض الصفات الخضرية لثلاثة اصناف مهجنة من ال Lilium spp. L.

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Abstract

The present study was conducted in the nursery of Floriculture Unit, University of Baghdad in Iraq during September to December of 2013. Vernalized bulbs of hybrid lily cultivars were imported from the Netherlands. The experiments were included some hybrid lily cultivars which represent the main groups of lily (longiflorum hybrids, Asiatic hybrid and trumpet hybrids). The three lily cultivars named as Tiger (Oriental), Brunello (Asiatic) and White Heaven (Longiflorum) were sprayed two times, at five weeks after planting and at eight weeks after planting with a solution of Cycocel (100 mg /l), solution of Indole butyric acid (50 mg/l) and Benzyl adenine (50 mg /l). The results indicated that foliar spray with IBA lead to increase in plant height, leaf number, leaf area, fresh weight of leaf and stem and dry weight of stem in Brunello. It increased in plant height, leaf area, and fresh and dry weight of stem in White Heaven. Tiger Edition increased in fresh and dry weight of the bulb while decreasing in dry weight by the application of IBA. BA leads to increase in plant height, dry and fresh weight of a leaf, and leaf number in Brunello. It increased in dry weight of a leaf and bulb, and leaf area in Tiger Edition . Also increased in dry weight of stem and bulb, and fresh weight of bulb in White Heaven. While foliar spray with CCC lead to increase in leaf number, leaf area, dry weight of a leaf, dry and fresh weight of stem, and fresh weight of the bulb in Brunello. Dry weight of leaf, and dry and fresh weight of bulb increased in Tiger Edition . Also lead to decrease in fresh weight of a leaf, and increase in fresh and dry weight of bulb in White Heaven. From these results, Brunello was more responsive to PGRs. CCC more PGRs was affected on lily cultivars.

Keywords

Lilium --- IBA --- BA --- CCC --- Vegetative characters


Article
Removal of Lead and Chromium From Industrial Wastewater by LocallyCitrobacter spp.Isolates
ازالة عنصري الرصاص والكروم من مياه الفضلة الصناعية بوساطة عزلات محلية من بكتريا Citrobacter spp.

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Abstract

Biosorption is an effective method to remove toxic metals from wastewaters. In this study biosorption of lead and chromium ions from solution was studied using Citrobacter freundii and Citrobacter kosari isolated from industrial wastewater. The experimental results showed that optimum grwoth temperature for both bacteria is 30oC and the optimum pH is 7 &6 for C. freundii and C. kosari respectively. While the optimum incubation period to remove Pb and Cr for C. freundii and C. kosari is 4 days and 3days respectively. Also the biosorption of Pb and Cr in mixed culture of bacteria and mixed culture of Pb and Cr was investigated. Result indicate that uptake of Cr and Pb for C.freundii, C. kosari and in mixes culture of both bacteria is 58%, 53% and 82% respectively for chromium in solution containing 1000ppm of Cr and 59%, 63% and 78% respectively for lead in solution containing 1000ppm of lead. But the uptake decreases in solution containing both heavy metals lead and chromium.

Keywords

Biosorption --- Lead --- Chromium --- C. freundii --- C. kosari.


Article
Study the Prophylactic Role of Anti-Type IV Pili (fimbriae) Antibody Against Pulmonary Infection Caused by P.aeruginosa in vivo (mice)
دراسة الدور الوقائي للمصل المضاد لخمل النمط الرابع في الوقاية من الالتهاب الرئوي من قبل بكتريا P.aeruginosa داخل جسم الكائن الحي ( الفأر)

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This study was aimed to investigate the effect of anti- type 4 pili antibody in prevention pulmonary infections caused by P. aeruginosa in vivo. This was achieved by Evaluation of biofilm formation by the microtiter plate method to select P.aeruginosa isolate with highest biofilm formation capacity, Extraction and the partial purification of type IV pili from the selected isolate, then Preparation of type IV pili antibodies by rabbit immunization. The lung histological sections of non immunized mice were severly damaged ,while the damage were markedly decrease in the lung of immunized mice with anti-type 4 pili antibody.


Article
دراسة آلية المقاومة المتعددة للأدوية في بكتريا Acinetobacterbaumannii المعزولة من حالات مرضية مختلفة فيمستشفى الرمادي التعليمي
Study of Multi-drug Resistant Mechanism inAcinetobacterbaumannii Isolated From Nosocomial Infections in Educational Ramadi Hospital

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In this study, A 320 clinical specimens were collected fromIntensiveCareUnits, Surgery and burn units in educational Ramadi hospital. The enrichment and isolation of A. baumannii from collected specimens led to isolate 30 bacterial strains from 337 bacterial isolates with rate (8.9%), which similar in morphology for that standard strains. The rate of A. baumannii isolated from burn specimens was 80%, the wound specimens (13.33%), and sputum (6.67% The study detect resistance of A. baumanniifor different antibiotics, All isolates showed multidrug resistant, the isolates was 100% resistant for Ampicillin, Cefazolin, Cefotaxime, Cloxacillin, Colistin and Trimethoprim, as showed high resistance to carbapenems reached to 80%, but it showed low resistance (20%) against Levofloxacin. So 100% of A. baumanniiisolates (n=30) were produced AmpC β-Lactamases which hydrolyze a broad-spectrum of cephalosporins, and 60% from isolates (n=18) were producedMetalo β-Lactamases (MBL) which hydrolyze a broad array of antimicrobial agents, including carbapenems.


Article
Effect of High Dose of Soybean Meal on the Histology and Function of the Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat at Pre- and Postpuberty
تأثير الجرعة العالية من كسبة فول الصويا على التركيب النسجي ووظيفة الغدة الدرقية في الجرذ الابيض بمرحلتي ماقبل وبعد البلوغ

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The study aimed to determine the effect of soybean meal on the histological structure and some functional parameters of the thyroid gland was investigated in this study. For this purpose, 24 white male rats were divided into four groups each of six rats, as following (G1): normal control rats, at the prepubertal life stage, were dissected after 40 days from the weaning (i.e., from Postnatal Day "PND" 21), (G2): prepubertal rats, were treated with high dose of soybean meal "40% of daily diet" for 40 days after the weaning, (G3): normal control rats, at the postpubertal stage, were dissected after 40 days from the puberty (i.e., from PND 60), (G4): postpubertal rats, were treated with high dose of soybean meal (40%) for 40 days after the puberty. Phenotypic, histological and physiological changes were examined. The results reported that, consumption of soybean at prepuberty decreased the thyroid activity by the increasing of the cold "inactive" follicles, while at postpuberty, soybean caused hyperactivity of the thyroid which led to the hyperplasia and hypertrophy, then to the goiter, significant increase in the ratio of cold follicles in the (G2) and significant decrease in the (G4), significant decrease in the height of follicular cell in the (G2) and significant increase in the (G4), significant increase in the diameter of follicular lumen in the (G2) and significant decrease in the (G4). Also, soybean meal caused significant increase in the body weight and significant decline in (T3 and T4) hormones levels. From the results of the present study, it is concluded that the high doses of the soybean affect adversely the function and tissue of the thyroid at both life stages, pre and postpuberty.

Keywords

Soybean --- Histology --- Function --- Thyroid --- Puberty


Article
Study the capability of Eclipta alba plant to remove of lead from the polluted water by phytoremediation technique
دراسة قدرة نبات الفريش لازالة عنصر الرصاص من المياه الملوثة بوساطة تقنية المعالجة بالنبات

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One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soils by toxic heavy metals.The aim of current study was estimatation the ability of Eclipta alba plant for the removal of (Pb) from the polluted water by phytoremedation technique and study the effect of a number of parameters(Pb concentration, contact time and pHvalues). The plant showed higher removal efficiency (99.2%) after 7 days of treatment at 50ppm.The best removal efficiency of Pb 98.95% at 100ppm was occurred at pH7. The root ability to accumulate Pb was more than the shoot ability, after 7 days treatment of water and pH=7, they were 2852.5 mg/kg, 2497.5 mg/kg and 502.5 mg/kg in roots, stems and leaves respectively. These results showed that Eclipta alba can be used in biological treatment of polluted water.


Article
The Inhibitory Effect of Some Plant Extracts on Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Mice
التأثير المثبط لبعض المستخلصات النباتية في فعالية إنزيم اسيتل كولين استريز في الفئران

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The results of the phytochemical analysis of the crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), peppermint (Mentha piperita) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) contain active compounds : Phenols, Flavonoids and Tannins and missing of Steroids and Coumarines in all extract but Saponins and Alkaloids found in methanolic extract only, while terpens were present in peppermint and basil and absent in Myrtle. Administrating to animals with different extracts showed no effect on serum Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) compared with these fed on ethanol liquid diet, Methanolic and aqueous extracts of Myrtle, peppermint and basil in the serum of decreased Acetylcholinesterase level significantly(p≤0.05) [(1.25 ∆pH/30 min, 1.23 ∆pH/30 min, 1.28 ∆pH/30 min, 1.20 ∆pH/30 min, 1.26 ∆pH/30 min, 1.28 ∆pH/30 min), liver (0.35 ∆pH/30 min, 0.34 ∆pH/30 min, 0.34∆pH/30 min, 0.36∆pH/30 min, 0.42∆pH/30 min, 0.39∆pH/30 min) and brain (0.32∆pH/30 min, 0.37∆pH/30 min, 0.39∆pH/30 min, 0.36∆pH/30 min, 0.34∆pH/30 min, 0.37∆pH/30 min)] respectively compared with animals fed on ethanol liquid diet [(1.37 ∆pH/30 min), (0.47 ∆pH/30 min), (0.45 ∆pH/30 min)] respectively.


Article
Electric Quadrupole Transitions of Some Even-Even Neon Isotopes
الانتقالات الكهربائية رباعية القطب لبعض نظائر النيون الزوجية – زوجية

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The reduced electric quadrupole transition strengths B(E2) from the first excited 2+ state to the ground 0+ state of some even-even Neon isotopes (18,20,22,24,26,28Ne) have been calculated. All studied isotopes composed of 16O nucleus that is considered as an inert core and the other valence particles considered to move over the sd-shell model space within 1d5/2, 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 orbits. The configuration mixing shell model with limiting number of orbitals in the model space outside the inert core fail to reproduce the measured electric transition strengths. Therefore, and for the purpose of enhancing the calculations, the discarded space has been included through a microscopic theory which considers a particle-hole excitations from the core orbits and from the model space orbits into the higher orbits with excitations. These effects are called core-polarization effects. The transition strengths have been calculated with effective nucleon charges deduced from the core polarization calculations, and calculated with standard effective nucleon charges for the proton and for neutron. The calculations are based on sd-shell model space with USDB interactions. The harmonic oscillator potential is used to generate the single particle matrix elements, where the value of the size parameter b is adjusted to get the experimental root mean square matter radii for each isotope.


Article
PETROLOGY OF THE INJANA FORMATION (UPPER MIOCENE)AT ZAWITA, AMADIYA AND ZAKHO AREA, NORTHERN IRAQ
صخارية تكوين انجانة (المايوسين الاعلى) في مناطق زاويته وعمادية وزاخوشمال العراق

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This study deals with the petrology of Injana Formation (Upper Miocene) at Zawita, Amadia and Zakho areas. The sandstone of Injana Formation is of two types namely, litharenite and feldspathic litharenite. The rock fragments of Injana Formation are mostly sedimentary and hence the sandstones are classified as sedarenite and more specifically chert arenite owing to the predominance of chert rock fragments. The sandstone is mineralogically submature ranging from mechanically and chemically stable to unstable. The petrographic studies reveal nearness of source area with arid to semi-arid climate. The source rocks are sedimentary, low- to medium-grade metamorphic and basic volcanic rocks. They are mostly supplied from the rising mountain farther north and east (Taurus and Zagros Ranges) during the Alpine Orogeny induced by the continent-continent collision between Arabia and Eurasia.The mudstone consists of mixture of clay and silt with variable percentages. The major clay minerals are chlorite, kaolinite and mixed-layer illite-smectite. The non-clay minerals are calcite, quartz and subordinate feldspars.


Article
Paleoecology of Albian – Santonian succession of Surdash to Shaqlawa area, NE Iraq
البيئة القديمة لتتابع الالبيان – سانتونيان من منطقة سورداش الى شقلاوة , شمال شرق العراق

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Three formations to be studied along Surdash, Qallat, Khalakan, Hezob, Sektan, Degala and Shaqlawa areas in the Sulaimaniya and Erbil governorates, NE Iraq. These are: Dokan, Gulneri and Kometan formations. The paleoecology and depositional environment of these formations are determined by studying the ecology of the planktonic and benthic foraminifera. The depositional environment of are ranged from the continental shelf to the abyssal, and the paleotemperature, salinity and paleoclimate were discriminated in each section along the study area.

Keywords

Paleoecology --- Foraminifera --- Albian --- Santonian --- Dokan --- Gulneri --- Kometan


Article
Radionuclides content and the radiological hazard of sediment of the Euphrates River and sprigs-western Iraq
المحتوى الاشعاعي والمخاطر الاشعاعية لرواسب نهر الفرات والينابيع –غرب العراق

Authors: Kamal K. Ali كمال كريم علي
Pages: 1098-1110
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Sediments samples from ten stations along the Euphrates River and seven samples from selected springs within Al –Anbar governorate, (western part of Iraq), were collected and analyzed for radioactivity. Sediments samples were dried at 100 ºC for 24 hours. Radioactivity in 1 kg of each sample was measured using gamma spectrometer system based on a pure germanium detector with efficiency 30%. The activity of Ra-226, Th-232, K-40 were measured to be within the typical average of the radioactivity in sediment in world rivers, while relatively elevated concentration were found in the sediment of some of the studied spring. In current study activity concentrations of Cs-137 in the sediments were detected which may be caused by the global fallout as well as caused by transferring of cesium from the relatively high concentration areas in western desert by the rainwater within the valleys to the sediments of the Euphrates. The radiological aspects were investigated by calculating the radiological hazard indices such as absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, hazard indices and gamma index. The radiological hazard indices were below the recommended international values. Ra-226 and Cs-137 concentrations in water and radiation doses due to drink water of the Euphrates River were estimated. The maximum estimated interior doses which caused by 137Cs and 226Ra in water were found to be 1.93 x 10-5mSv/y and 4.01x10-3 mSv/y, respectively.


Article
Dynamics and Chaotic of Polynomials on Quasi Banach Spaces
ديناميكية وفوضوية متعددات الحدود على فضاءات شبه بناخ

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In the present paper, the concepts of a quasi-metric space, quasi-Banach space have been introduced. We prove some facts which are defined on these spaces and define some polynomials on quasi-Banach spaces and studied their dynamics, such as, quasi cyclic and quasi hypercyclic. We show the existence of quasi chaotic in the sense of Devaney (quasi D-chaotic) polynomials on quasi Banach space of q-summable sequences lq , 0


Article
Certain Types of Weakly Closed Function
انواع معينة من الدوال المغلقة الضعيفة

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The purpose of this paper is to give the condition under which every weakly closed function is closed and to give the condition under which the concepts of weakly-semi closed function and weakly pre-closed function are equivalent. Moreover, characterizations and properties of weakly semi closed functions and weakly pre-closed function was given.


Article
Some Results on Essentially Quasi-Dedekind Modules
بعض النتائج للمقاسات شبه-الديديكاندية الواسعة

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Abstract

In this paper we give many connections between essentially quasi-Dedekind (quasi-Dedekind) modules and other modules such that Baer modules, retractable modules, essentially retractable modules, compressible modules and essentially compressible modules where an R-module M is called essentially quasi-Dedekind (resp. quasi-Dedekind) if, for all N ≤e M (resp. N ≤ M). Equivalently, a module M is essentially quasi-Dedekind (resp. quasi-Dedekind) if, for each , Kerf ≤ e M implies f = 0 (resp. implies ).


Article
On Goldie lifting modules
حول مقاسات الرفع من النمط غولدي

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Abstract

Let R be an associative ring with identity and let M be a unital left R- module. We introduced the following concept .An R- module M is called a Goldie lifting module (briefly


Article
Multi-Objective Set Cover Problem for Reliable and Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks
مشكلة تغطية المجموعة متعددة الأهداف لموثوقية وكفاءة شبكات الأستشعار اللاسلكية

Authors: Bara'a Ali Attea براء علي عطية
Pages: 1147-1160
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Abstract

Achieving energy-efficient Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that monitors all targets at all times is an essential challenge facing many large-scale surveillance applications.Single-objective set cover problem (SCP) is a well-known NP-hard optimization problem used to set a minimum set of active sensors that efficiently cover all the targeted area. Realizing that designing energy-efficient WSN and providing reliable coverage are in conflict with each other, a multi-objective optimization tool is a strong choice for providing a set of approximate Pareto optimal solutions (i.e., Pareto Front) that come up with tradeoff between these two objectives. Thus, in the context of WSNs design problem, our main contribution is to turn the definition of single-objective (SCP) into a multi-objective problem by adopting an additional conflicting objective to be optimized. To the best of our knowledge, improving coverage reliability of WSNs has not been explored while simultaneously solving SCP problem. This paper addresses the problem of improving coverage reliability of WSNsusing a realistic sensing model to handle coverage uncertainty. To this end, this paper formulates the so-called multi-objective SCP with the goal of selecting the minimum number of sensors so that the selected set reliably covers all the targets.To cope with two optimization objectives rather than one objective, this paperinvestigates the use of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, the so-called non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm for tackling the formulated problem. Moreover, it adopts a heuristic crossover operator designed specifically to improve the performance of the algorithm.The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified in terms of sensors cost and coverage reliability under extensive simulations.


Article
Fuzzy Based Clustering for Grayscale Image Steganalysis
التجمع الضبابي لتحليل الاخفاء في الصورة الرمادية

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Abstract

Steganography is the science that involves communicating secret message in a multimedia carrier. On the other hand, steganalysis is the field dedicated to detect whether a given multimedia has hidden message in it. The detection of hidden messages is revealed as a classification problem. To this end, this paper has two contributions. Up to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time todefine grayscale image steganalysis, as a fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) problem. The objective of the formulated fuzzy problem is to construct two fuzzy clusters: cover-image and stego-image clusters. The second contribution is to define a new detector, called calibrated Histogram Characteristic Function (HCF) with HaarWavelet(HCF^HW). The proposed detector is exploited, by the fuzzy clustering algorithm, as a feature set parameter to define the boundaries of the cover- and stego- images clusters. Performance evaluations of FCM with HCF^HW in terms of accuracy, detection rate, and false positive rate are investigated and compared with other work based on HCF Center of Mass or HCF-COM andcalibrated HCF-COM by down sampling. The comparison reveals out that the proposed FCM with (HCF^Hw)significantly outperforms other work.


Article
Keystroke Dynamics Authentication based on Naïve Bayes Classifier
مصادقة المستخدم باستخدام مصنف نيف بايز استنادا على ديناميكية ضغطة المفتاح

Authors: Mays M. Hoobi ميس محمد هوبي
Pages: 1176-1184
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Abstract

Authentication is the process of determining whether someone or something is, in fact, who or what it is declared to be. As the dependence upon computers and computer networks grows, the need for user authentication has increased. User’s claimed identity can be verified by one of several methods. One of the most popular of these methods is represented by (something user know), such as password or Personal Identification Number (PIN). Biometrics is the science and technology of authentication by identifying the living individual’s physiological or behavioral attributes. Keystroke authentication is a new behavioral access control system to identify legitimate users via their typing behavior. The objective of this paper is to provide user authentication based on keystroke dynamic in order to avoid un authorized user access to the system. Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC) is applied for keystroke authentication using unigraph and diagraph keystroke features. The unigraph Dwell Time (DT), diagraph Down-Down Time (DDT) features, and combination of (DT and DDT) are used. The results show that the combination of features (DT and DDT) produces better results with low error rate as compared with using DT or DDT alone.


Article
Joint Source-Channel Coding for Wireless Image Transmission based OFDM-IDMA Systems
ترميز المصدر والقناة المشترك لنقل الصورة لاسلكيا باستخدام أنظمةOFDM-IDMA

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Abstract

The source and channel coding for wireless data transmission can reduce distortion, complexity and delay in multimedia services. In this paper, a joint source-channel coding is proposed for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - interleave division multiple access (OFDM-IDMA) systems to transmit the compressed images over noisy channels. OFDM-IDMA combines advantages of both OFDM and IDMA, where OFDM removes inter symbol interference (ISI) problems and IDMA removes multiple access interference (MAI). Convolutional coding is used as a channel coding, while the hybrid compression method is used as a source coding scheme. The hybrid compression scheme is based on wavelet transform, bit plane slicing, polynomial approximation model and absolute moment block truncation. The wavelet transform is exploited to decompose the image into approximation and detail sub bands, while the polynomial model is used to code the approximation image band. Simulation results show that the proposed system reduces distortion efficiently (i.e., preserving image quality) and achieves a simple method for image multiuser transmission over wireless channels.


Article
Simulation of Fraunhofer Diffraction for Plane Waves using Different Apertures
محاكاة حيود فرانهوفر للموجات المستوية باستخدام فتحات مختلفة

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Abstract

In this paper a two dimensional numerical simulation have been applied using MATLAB program for generating Fraunhofer diffraction pattern from different apertures. This pattern is applied for three types of apertures, including, circular, square, and rectangular functions, and it's could be generated any wavelength in the visible light. The studying demonstrated the capability and the efficiency of optical imaging systems to observe a point source at very long distance. The circular aperture shows better results across the shape of Fraunhofer pattern and optical transfer function (otf). Also, the minimum values of the normalized irradiance of different diffracted apertures have been computed at different dimensions of these apertures, and found that the smallest value belongs to the circular aperture and equal to (1.0×10-8) at radius (R=60 pixel).


Article
Predicting Water Depth of Lake Using Remote Sensing image
تخمين عمق المياه باستخدام الصور الفضائيه

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Abstract

One of the most important of satellite image is studying the surface water according of its distribution and depth. In this work, three images have been taken for Baghdad and surrounding for year (1991, 1999 and 2014) and by using of envi program has been used. Different classes have been evaluated for Al-Habania and Al-Razaza River according to its depth and water reflectance. In the present work four types of water depth (very shallow, shallow, moderate, and deep area) have been detected.


Article
Wind Resource Estimation and Mapping at Ali Al-Gharby Site (East-South of Iraq) Using WAsP Model
تخمين قدرة الرياح لموقع علي الغربي (جنوب شرق العراق) باستخدام نموذج WAsP

Authors: Ali K. Resen علي كاظم رسن
Pages: 1216-1223
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Abstract

The wind atlas analysis and application program, WAsP, is used to assess wind energy potential, wind climate from geostrophic winds of a given area. In this paper, metrological data from Ali Algharby station was used to predict the wind resource and wind turbine energy production at Ali Algharby site. Data from metrological station was used to draw up observed wind climates at the anemometer site. Site contour map was digitized using WAsP Map Editor tool. Observed wind climate, digitized contour map, terrain roughness length, obstacle groups and their porosity were used as input to the WAsP model. Vestas V182, 1.65 MW turbine was used. Weibull probability distribution graph of wind speed, power density were drawn. A directional wind rose for January to December 2011 were drawn for site. Results showed that the studied area have Annual Energy Production (AEP) about 5 GWh as mean value. The calculation was obtained at 70 m hub height for the turbine and the roughness length (0.0, 0.03, 0,1,0,4, 1.5) m for the selected area.

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