Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

Loading...
Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:56 issue:2B

Article
Turbidimetric Determination of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Preparation via the Use of A new Homemade Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar Cell-Continuous Flow Injection Analyser
التقديرالتعكري لميتاكلوبراميد هايدروكلوريد في المستحضرات الصيدلانية من خلال استخدام محلل جديد مصنع محليا للحقن الجرياني المستمر Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar cell

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A newly developed analytical method characterized by its speed and sensitivity for the determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP-HCl) in pure and pharmaceutical preparation via turbidimetric measurement (0-180o) by Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar cell-CFI Analyser. The method was based on the reaction of phosphomolybdic acid with metoclopramide hydrochloride in acidic medium to form yellowish white precipitate for the ion-pair complex. Turbidity was measured via the reflection of incident light that collides on the surface precipitated particles at 0-180o. Chemical and physical parameters were studied and optimized. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.0005-3 or 0.0005- 4 mMol.L-1, with correlation coefficient r = 0.9947&0.9845 respectively. The limit of detection 3.543 ng/sample from the step wise dilution for the minimum concentration in the linear dynamic ranged of the calibration graph with RSD% lower than 0.3% for 1, 3 mMol.L-1 (n=8) concentration of metoclopramide hydrochloride . The method was successfully applied to the determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride in three pharmaceutical drugs. A comparison was made between the newly developed method analysis with the classical method (HANNA instrument for turbidity measurement) using the standard addition method via the use of t-test. It was noticed that there was no significant difference between two methods at 95 % confidence level.


Article
Quantum Mechanical Calculations for Some PINH Cs Symmetry Schiff Bases as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel
حسابات ميكانيك الكم لبعض قواعد شف المشتقة من المركبINHC ذات التماثل Cs كمثبطات تأكل للحديد المطاوع

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G basis set level was performed on six new substituted Schiff base derivatives of PINH [(phenylallylidene) isonicotinohydrazide], The calculated quantum chemical parameters correlated to the inhibition efficiency are EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy), the energy gap [ΔE(HOMO-LUMO)], hardness (η), softness (S), dipole moment (μ), electron affinity (EA), ionization potential (IE), the absolute electronegativity (χ), Global electrophilicity index (ω) and the fraction of electron transferred (∆N), all have discussed at their equilibrium geometry and their correct symmetry (Cs). Comparisons of the order of inhibition efficiency of the Schiff bases derivatives, and local reactivity were analyzed using Mulliken population analysis. The local reactivity has been studied through condensed softness indices in order to predict both the reactive centers and to know the possible sites of nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks. Also vibration frequencies and IR absorption intensities were carried out for the calculated Schiff bases molecules. Also some physical values were studied such as heat of formation and total energy.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Metal Complexes of 2-phenyl-2-(p-tolylamino) and 2-phenyl-2-(phenylamino) Acetonitrile Compounds
تحضير وتشخيص بعض المعقدات الجديدة لمركبات ]2-فنيل-2-(بارا- توليلامينو) و2-فنيل-2-(فنيل امينو)[ اسيتونتريل

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The synthesis and characterization of new complexes of Cr(III), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with bidentate [L1: 2-phenyl-2-(p-tolylamino) acetonitrile] and [L2: 2-phenyl-2-(phenylamino) acetonitrile] ligands has been described. The two ligands were prepared by the reaction of p-toluidine and aniline with benzaldehyde, respectively in the presence of potassium cyanide and acidic medium. The complexes were synthesized by treating an ethanolic solution of the ligand with metal salts in a mole ratio of [1:2] [M:L]. The complexes were characterized by using metal and elemental analyses, electronic spectra, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis TGA, molar conductivity and magnetic susceptibility. According to the obtained data the probable coordination geometries of metal ions in these complexes were suggested as octahedral. Some complexes were found to be non-electrolyte others were found to be weak electrolyte in ethanol.


Article
Synthesis and characterization of 4-(((3-mercapto-5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-4-yl)imino)methyl)-2-methoxyphenol and its complexes with Zr(IV), Cd(II) and Sn(II) ions
تحضير وتشخيص 4- (3-مركبتو-5-فنيل-1,2,4-ترايازول(مثيل(-2- ميثوكسي فينول) ومعقداته مع أيونات الزركونيوم (IV) والكادميوم (II) والقصدير(II)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A series of coordination compounds of Zr(IV), Cd(II) and Sn(II) ions with 4-(((3-mercapto-5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-4-yl)imino)methyl)-2-methoxyphenol, as a ligand has been successfully prepared in alcoholic medium. The prepared complexes were characterized quantitatively and qualitatively by using: elemental analysis CHNS, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, 1H and 13CNMR, atomic absorption measurements, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analysis)TG and DTG) and conductivity measurements. This ligand coordinates as a bidentate that to the metal ions through sulphur and nitrogen of (azomethine group) atoms. According to the spectral data, Cd(II)- and Sn(II)-complexes have coordination of 6 with octahedral geometry while the Zr(IV)-complex has coordination of 7 with exhibited a pentagonal bipyramid.


Article
New Mode of On- Line Automation: Chemilumino-Fluoro Metric Method for the Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide by Fluorescence Energy Transfer Using Ploy Acrylic Acid Gel Beads
نمط جديد أني شبه تلقائي بطريقة البريق الكيميائي والفلورة لتقدير بيروكسيد الهيدروجين بوساطة الفلورة بأنتقال الطاقة بأستخدام حبيبات الجل لمتعدد حامض الاكريلك

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Hydrogen peroxide was determined by a new , accurate , sensitive and rapid method via continuous mode of FIA coupled with total luminescence measurement which include the chemiluminescence generated ,based on the oxidation of Luminol which is loaded on poly acrylic acid gel beads by hydrogen peroxide in presence of Cobalt (II) ion as a chemiluminescence catalyst and the fluorescence that was created by the insitu radiation of the released chemiluminescence light. Fluorescien molecule was used as an accepter fluorophore where it is irradiated internally and instantly by the generation of luminol chemiluminescence light as internal source for irradiation of fluorescien molecule (Fluorescence Energy Transfer (FRET) ) . It can easily give fluorescence light (i.e , no external source for irradiation is used ) at λmax =530 nm. The method is based on the absorbance of the donor molecule (Luminol) by fourteen poly acrylic acid gel beads located in specially designed cell, this cell will measure instantly the emitted light (FRET) . A sample volume of 80 μL was used throughout the whole work. Linear calibration curve extend from 0.1 - 100 μMol .L-1 , with correlation coefficient of 0.9985 and limit of detection L.O.D (S/N =3) 217.60 pg/sample using step wise dilution of the minimum concentration that was achieved by the calibration graph. Repeatability (RSD%) of less than 0.5% for six successive measurement of 50 μMol .L-1 of hydrogen peroxide. The method was applied successively in determination of hydrogen peroxide in some pharmaceutical disinfectants .


Article
The Correlation between CMV Infection and Hypertension in Iraqi Patients
العلاقة بين الاصابة الفيروسية لفيروس المضخم للخلايا وارتفاع ضغط الدم عند المرضى العراقيين

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In order to study the correlation between CMV infection and increase in blood pressure among Iraqi patients, 201 blood samples were collected including; 88 male, 113 female hypertensive patients and 40 control samples. Patients sera were grouped into patients who are under medication (T), and patients who do not take any treatment for hypertension(NT). Samples were tested for CMV-IgM/IgG by ELISA, renin enzyme and interleukin-6(IL-6) levels were determined by ELISA too. The optical density readings difference for CMV-IgG were significant between (T) and (NT) groups as well as when each group compared to control, level of renin en-zyme showed significant difference between patients group(T and NT) and between each group compared to the control, (135 ± 98), (201 ± 102) and (130 ± 90) respec-tively, while IL-6 level was not significant either between the groups nor within the group. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the optical density readings of (NT) group for CMV-IgG and renin enzyme level with the systolic and diastolic blood pressure with r-value ranged (0.4-0.6). This study may high light on the role of previous infection or re-infection by CMV and increase in blood pressure.


Article
Screening for in Vitro Biofilm Formation Ability of Locally Isolated Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC)
التحري عن تكوين الاغشية الحيوية خارج الجسم الحي لعزلات محلية لبكتريا E.coli المعزولة من اخماج المسالك البولية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Seventy-six urine specimens were collected from of patients suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Specimens were bacteriologically analyzed, fifty (65.8%) of isolated bacterial strains were belonged to E.coli. 100% of isolated uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC)strains displayed a biofilm positive phenotype under optimized condition using microtiter plate assay. 21 of E.coli strains classified as highly positive biofilm producers (42%), and 29 (58%) as weakly positive biofilm producers.


Article
Optimum Condition of Inulinase Production from Bacillus cereus (Be9)
الظروف المثلى لانتاج انزيم الانيولينيز من بكتريا Bacillus cereus Be9

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Fifty isolates of Bacillus spp were obtained from rhizosphere soil of compositae plant roots. The ability of inulinase production by these isolates was screened. Bacillus Be9, which isolated from soil of lettuce root, was the highest inulinase producer; it was identified as Bacillus cereus. Optimal culture medium and condition for inulinase production were determinatd; the highest inulinase production was obtained when the bacteria was cultured in inulin medium which contained 0.5% inulin, 0.4% peptone as carbon and nitrogen source at pH 7.0 inoculated with 1ml of bacterial suspension and incubated at 40˚C for 48hrs.


Article
Production, Purification and Characterization of Cellulose from Local Isolate of Pantoea spp
انتاج وتنقية وتوصيف انزيم السيليليز من العزلة المحلية Pantoea spp

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Soil samples from fields cultivated with barley and wheat in addition to samples from spoiled orange and apple fruits and carrot roots were collected with the aim to isolate cellulase producing bacterial strains. Bacterial isolates obtained from these samples were grown on a selective medium containing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a sole source for carbon and energy. Results showed that nine isolates out of fifty were able to produce cellulase.The specific activity of cellulase in culture filtrate of the most efficient isolate was 1.601 u/mg protein.This isolate was identified according to its morphological characteristics and biochemical tests, and then by using Api 20-E and VITEK-II identification systems and was identified as Pantoea dispersa. Cellulase produced by P. dispersa was purified throughout four purification steps including ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis followed by purification with ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose, and then gel filtration throughout sephadex-G200. Purification results showed that the specific activity of the purified enzyme was 1181.8 u/mg protein with a purification fold and yield 115.2 and 26.6% respectively. Purified cellulase from Pantoea dispersa was well characterized by studying some enzyme characteristics. The molecular weight of cellulase was 15148 dalton, and pH 7.0 was the optimum for enzyme activity and stability, while 30 ºC was the optimum for enzyme activity and stability.


Article
Study the Hardness and Some Ions in Central Karbala Drinking Water Treatment Station
دراسة العسرة وبعض الايونات في محطة ماء كربلاء المركزية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study included the compromised the containing Hardness and some ions of treated water in central Karbala drinking water treatment station with Iraqi and international drinking water criteria. Also, this study was attempted to focus on probable pollution sources. The Hardness and other waters salts Sulphates (SO4), Chloride ion (Cl-), Calcium ion (Ca+2), and Magnesium ion (Mg+2) tests criteria were determined on water samples taken from Al-Hussainia River water source, treated drinking water during October-November 2013 to August - September 2014.Study results revealed an increasing in Total hardness (TH), sulfate, chloride, calcium, in winter (December- January) 2014. In addition, the results showed a decrease in above mentioned criteria in (August-September) 2014.Study finding revealed that the values of chloride, calcium, sulphate, were out of the Iraqi and the international standards water. While total hardness, magnesium, and chloride concentrated were within Iraqi and international acceptable standards.


Article
Efficacy of Amphotericine B drug Against Promastigote and Axenic Amastigote of Leishmania tropica in Vitro
تاثير عقارالامفوترسين بي ضد الطور الامامي السوط وعديم السوط لليشمانيا الجلديه خارج جسم الكائن الحي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Leishmania are protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae that cause high morbidity and mortality levels with a wide spectrum of clinical syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the effect of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) drug on promastigote and axenic amastigote stages of Leishmania tropica. From the 20 isolates of cutaneous leishmaniasis collected from patients attended to the AL-Karama Teaching Hospital in Baghdad during the period from October 2013 until February 2014, only three isolates successfully transformed to motile promastigote stage in the culture media. The most active one is included in this study. Different concentrations of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) and pentostam Sb (V) drugs were investigated against Leishmania tropica promastigote and axenic amastigote. The IC50 values of SbV and AmBisome drugs on promastigote were 5.42 mg/ml and 2.14 µg/ml, respectively, while they were 0.88µg/ml and 0.75 µg/ml respectively, for axenic amastigote. The present study concluded that axenic amastigote was more sensitive than promastigote against both drugs, and AmBisome drug showed high effectiveness against both stages with low concentrations in comparison with pentostam.


Article
Effect of Bio-chemical Fertilizer on Proline Accumulation, Catalase and Peroxidase Enzymes Activity in Leaves of Two Wheat Cultivars (Ipa99 and Rabyaa) Under Water Deficit Stress.
اثر الاسمدة الحيوية والكيمياوية على كمية البرولين و فعالية الانزيمات الكتليز والبيروكسيديز في اوراق صنفين لمحصول الحنطة اباء 99 وربيعة تحت ظروف الجفاف

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Field experiment was carried out during 2013- 2014 at the research field of the Department of Biology, College of Science, Baghdad University, to study the effect of bio-chemical fertilizers and chemical fertilizers on some agronomic traits and yield components of two wheat cultivars (IPA99 and Rabyaa) under drought stress conditions. The bio-chemical fertilizers were mixture of (Azotobacter chroococcum. Azospirillum brasilense. and Pseudomonas fluorescens.) with chemical fertilizers (only 50% of the recommended dosage of N and P), while the chemical fertilizers was 100% of recommended dosage of N and P. Field plots (1×1 m) were randomly made in the field equipped with rainfall shelter to avoid rains. Grains of wheat cultivars were sown manually in their respective plots in rows with a distance of 20 cm between rows and at seed rate of 3 g per row (150 kg/ha). The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) under split plot arrangement with five replications. Adding fertilizer were kept in the sub plot, while water stress treatment was assigned as main plot. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Water stress was applied by irrigated the plots to the soil field capacity then withheld next irrigation until the soil moisture of the respective plots depleted to 80 (control), 30 % of soil field capacity. The results also showed significant decrease antioxidant enzymes activity with the decreased water stress. Also, the antioxidant enzymes activity (CAT and POD) were more activity after 107 days than 65 days because of no irrigation for harvesting preparation. Besides, at high drought level, the response of the antioxidant enzymes activity (CAT and POD) and proline accumulation were similar to that observed in control treatment, while with bio-chemical fertilizers the significant decreased respectively. These bio-chemical fertilizers would play key role in productivity and sustainability of protect the environment as eco-friendly fertilizers and cost effective inputs for the farmers. With using bio-chemical fertilizers that contain different microbial strains has led to decrease in the use of chemical fertilizers, which can be help achieving sustainability of farms and with no harmful agrochemicals for human safety.


Article
Indoor Air Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Two Shisha Smoke Cafés in Baghdad
تراكيز المعادن الثقيله للهواء الداخلي في مقهيين لتدخين الشيشه في بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Shisha smoke represents one of the causes of indoor air pollution. Heavy metals represent the main components in shisha smoke. In this research study, the indoor concentrations of heavy metals in shisha smoke café sites was investigated, samples were taken from two café sites (site1, site 2) which differ in their volume. Site1 volume was 77m3, while site 2 was 437.5m3. Sample were taken by using a low volume sampler (sniffer), and then examined by the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The results showed that indoor air shisha smoke samples for both experimental sites have shown a significant amount of heavy metals as compared with control sampling values. The mean concentration values of (Pb, Zn, Co, Ni, Cr) in site 1 were (11.004, 9.544, 24.088, 19.84, 24.98 µg/m3) respectively, while the mean concentration values of these heavy metal in site 2 were (5.574, 6.578, 16.684, 26.114, 9.636 µg/m3) respectively. Results and conclusions referred those indoor air concentrations during shisha smoking times were high and exceed the WHO standard limits.


Article
Study the Effect of Pyocyanin Extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa on DNA Fragmentation of Human Lymphocytes Cells
دراسة تأثير الصبغة الخضراء المزرقة البايوسيانين المستخلصة من الزائفات الزنجارية على تجزئة الدنا لخلايا الانسان اللمفاوية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Eight isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained out of 90 water samples. The isolated colonies were identified based on their morphology and biochemical characteristics, were confirmed as P. aeruginosa by the API 20E test system. The percentages of P. aeruginosa recovery in this study were 8.8%. All isolates were able to produce greenish blue pigment (pyocyanin). Pyocyanin at all concentrations was significantly increased the percentage of fragmented DNA of peripheral blood lymphocyte cells compared to control , results showed that DNA fragmentation percentage was higher in concentration 50 μg/ml (70%,74.3%) at 24 hr,48hr respectively. In summary, results of recent study demonstrate that the pyocyanin, induces apoptosis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes


Article
Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) in the Tigris River through Passing Baghdad Province
تحديد المركبات الاروماتية الحلقية في مياه نهر دجلة خلال مروره بمحافظة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Tigris River receives many pollutants while passing through Baghdad province due to increasing of population, discharge of untreated industrials, agricultural wastes on the river. The present study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 on the Tigris River starting from Al-Muthana Bridge to Al-Zaufurania city before it's jointed with Diyalla Tributaries. Six stations were chosen on the Tigris River along Baghdad city. The study was included measuring the bimonthly concentrations and distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the samples of surface water. The sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed by USEPA as priority pollutants (Naphthalene, Acenaphthalene, Acenaphthene, Fluorene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, Flouranthene, Pyrene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(b)flouranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Pyrene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and Inden(1,2,3-cd)pyrene) were detected. The highest value of total PAHs was 0.279 ppm recorded during August 2013 whereas the lowest value was 0.007 ppm during October 2013 at Al-Durah power plant discharge sit. The lowest value of (0.0002) ppm was recorded for Fluorene and Fluoranthene, while the highest value of (0.2) ppm for Naphthalene at Al-Durah power plant sit.

Keywords

PAHs --- petroleum --- oil spill --- Tigris River.


Article
Determination the Relationship between Some genetic Aspects with the Capsule Formation for Pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae Serotypes K1 &K2
تحديد العلاقة بين بعض المعاير الوراثية الخاصة بتصنيع كبسوe Klebsiella pneumonia المرضية ذات الأنماط المصلية K1 و K2

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A total of 47 samples were collected from different clinical specimens (urine, wounds, burns, sputum, blood, stools) during the period from November 2013 to January 2014, only 18 isolates (38.29%) were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ,11isolates (23.4%) as E. coli , 9 isolates (19.1%) as S. aureus, 3isolates (6.3%) as Psedomonase spp., 2 isolates (4.2 %) as K. terrigena and 4 isolates (8.5%) as K. oxytoca. The results were shown the elevation of K. pneumoniae percentage among the bacterial isolates depending on cultural, microscopically, biochemically characteristics and confirmed by using the API 20E and VITEK 2 system . Also K. pneumoniae isolates were more frequently in sputum samples then burns, stools , urine, wounds ,and blood in different percentages (33.3%, 16.6%, 16.6%، 11.1%، 11.1%، 11.1%) respectively. The in vitro sensitivity tests of K. pneumoniae isolates against (19) antimicrobial agents were determined through disc-diffusion method. It was found that all isolates were 100% resistant to (Ampicillin /Cloxacillin, Amoxicillin, Carbencillin, Oxacillin, Penicillin G and Ceftazipime, whereas they indicated variable resistance to the other antibiotics used. While Amikacin , Gentamicin and Imipenem revealed that were the most effective drugs used in the present study. Moreover K. pneumoniae isolated from sputum, urine and blood samples are more resistant to antimicrobial agents at percentages (78.9%), the most resistance isolates, 6 isolates were selected .The molecular detecting of some capsular polysaccharide genes (cps) were investigated by using PCR specific primers. Genotyping of 6 selected K. pneumoniae isolates were indicated by using K1,K2 specific PCR primers. The results were shown, that there is no isolate belong to K1 serotype, while 4 isolates (66.6%) are belonged to K2 serotype, and 2 isolates (33.3%) showed negative result for both K1/K2.


Article
Molecular Characteristics of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Baghdad Hospitals
الخصائص الجزيئية لبكتريا Acinetobacter baumannii متعدده المقاومة للمضادات الحيوية والمعزولة من مستشفيات بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A total of 100 clinical sample from (urine, sputum and swabs of wound , burn and ear) were collected from patients in different hospitals of Baghdad during the period from December 2013 to May 2014. 15 isolates (15%) identified belong to Acinetobacter baumannii, swabs of wounds were represented in high percentage of A.baumannii isolates (40%) while percentage of other samples were variable. Susceptibility of 15 A.baumannii isolates were tested toward 16 different Antimicrobial agents, the results showed all isolates were multi drug resistant. In addition, Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique (PCR) was performed to detection the resistance genes encoding the Oxacillinases enzymes. The PCR analysis showed that the presence of insertion sequence (ISAba1) in 13 isolates whereas blaoxa51like gene was represented in 12 isolates. Furthermore, the results of detection other genes were not appear any amplification for all A.baumannii isolates with genes encoded for bla oxa 58 and bla oxa 143 enzyme.


Article
Comparison of the inhibitory effect of the alcoholic extract of pomegranate peel and antibiotics against some intestinal bacterial isolates
مقارنة التأثير التثبيطي للمستخلص الكحولي لقشور الرمان والمضادات الحيوية ضد بعض العزلات البكتيرية المعوية

Authors: Raghad A. Aziz رغد أكرم عزيز
Pages: 1400-1408
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research included isolation of 18 bacterial isolates from children stool with diarrhea and acute bloody water and under the age of five, if possible get a 9 isolates of the bacterium Escherichia coli and 5 isolates of the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and 4 isolation of the bacterium Shigella flexneri, subjected all of these isolates tests AGRO and microscopic and biochemical and diagnosed using Vitek2 system. Tested the effectiveness of inhibitory extract alcohol to peel pomegranate Punica granatum L. in the growth of isolates bacterial intestinal and using the diffusion method in drilling Well diffusion as well as determine the focus damper Near Minimum inhibitory concentration MIC and focus killer Near Minimal bactericidal concentration MBC extract against these isolates bacterial, showed alcoholic extract of the peel pomegranate a clear impact on all isolates bacterial intestinal and this effect compared with the effect of 10 antibiotics included (Rifampicin, Amoxicilln, Ampicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Trimethoprim, Cefotaxim, Ceftriaxon, Neumycin, Tetracyclin, Chloramphenicol). Inhibitory effect of the alcoholic extract of peel pomegranate has been getting increasing with the concentration of extract, as the focus value of damper minimum MIC and focus killer Near MBC extract against all of the bacteria Escherichia coli and bacteria Shigella flexneri were 1 and 2 mg / ml, respectively, while the damper minimum focus MIC extract value against bacteria Salmonella typhimurium is 2 mg / ml while the killer is not specified minimum value of MBC focus extract against these bacteria.


Article
Temperature Dependence of AC Conductivity and Complex Dielectric Constant of Cd2Si1-xGexO4 Compound
اعتماد التوصيلية المتناوبة وثابت العزل المركب على درجة الحرارة لمركب Cd2Si1-xGexO4

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this work, samples of Cd2Si1-xGexO4 prepared by powder technology for (x = 0, 0.3, 0.6) were studied. The effect of (Ge) additives at different ratio of Ge (x=0, 0.3, 0.6) on the behavior of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and a,c conductivity were measured as a function of temperature at a selected frequencies (0.01 – 10) MHz in the temperature range 298 K to 473 K. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss obtained different behavior with the additives of (Ge). The activation energy for the electrical conduction process was studied.


Article
Using Environmental Isotopes for Water Resources Evaluation in Altun Kopri Basin, NE Kirkuk
استخدام النظائر البيئية في تقييم الموارد المائية في حوض التون كوبري – شمال شرق كركوك

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Recently, the environmental isotopes are adopted to figure out the hydrological processes, recharge areas, flow paths, groundwater origin and the interaction between different watery bodies. Currently, five samples of the rainwater have been collected since January to April 2012, as well as December 2011. Those sampling periods have highest amounts of precipitation events. Meantime, 25 samples of groundwater, 5 of the Lesser Zab River and 3 of overland flow have been picked up during the wet period. The dry sampling of groundwater and the Lesser Zab River has been achieved in summer 2011. The Local Meteoric Water Line lies between Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) and East Mediterranean Water Line (EMWL). The lowest, highest and average of δ18O in precipitation are -4.00‰, -3.60‰ and -3.84‰, while δ2H equal to -17.20‰, -14.00‰ and -15.60‰ respectively. The ranges of δ18O and δ2H of the Lesser Zab River in dry period are -3.12‰ to -2.82‰ and -12.80‰ to -12.00‰ sequentially. In the wet period, runoff samples are added to the Lesser Zab River. The lowest and highest of δ18O are -5.30‰ and -4.87‰ respectively, while δ2H extends from -30.00‰ to -28.65‰. Groundwater samples have δ18O and δ2H increased with well depths somewhat. Signatures of the wells have been fallen into two groups within two sampling campaigns; dry and wet periods. The first well samples are dropped above the GMWL and the second samples are classified below the GMWL.


Article
Crude Oil Analyses of the Yamama Formation in the Subbah, Ratawi, Tuba and Luhis Oil Fields, Southern Iraq
تحاليل النفوط لتكوين اليمامة في حقول صبه, رطاوي, طوبة واللحيس,جنوب العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

It is evident from this study that Yamama Formation is reservoir rocks and source rocks at the same time, based on occurrences of crude oil and source rocks. Bulk properties of Yamama oil in six wells as well as comparing several samples of Yamama oil by using the biological mark have indicated multi source of hydrocarbons with some pay having Jurassic and Lower Cretaceouse source affinity that belongs to the Yamama Formation.


Article
Sorption Efficiency of Bentonite in Removal Cd from Aqueous Solutions
كفاءة امتصاص وامتزاز البنتونايت في ازالة الكادميوم من المحاليل المائية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A series of adsorption laboratory experiments were conducted to study the sorption efficiency of bentonite in removal Cd from aqueous solutions. The bentonite was found to be a good receptive to the adsorption of Cd under specific laboratory conditions. The sorption capacity for Cd onto bentonite was investigated through the variation in pH and initial Cd2+ concentration. The sorption efficiency onto bentonite was examined as a function of pH, initial ion concentration, equilibrium reaction time and solid mass/ liquid volume ratio. The maximum sorption (%) of Cd from solutions were determined when solid to liquid ratio is 2 gm of bentonite versus 50 ml solution, the equilibrium reaction time is 50 minute at pH ranges from 5-7. The sorption was gradually increased with increasing concentrations of Cd in solution, it was found that the highest sorption was 81.7% when the Cd concentration in the solution was 80 ppm, but it suddenly declined to 72% with highest concentrations (100 ppm Cd) because of competing cations on the negative sites on the surface of clay minerals.


Article
Petroleum System Modeling of Halfaya Oil Field South of Iraq
موديل ألنظام ألنفطي في حقل حلفاية جنوب العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The petroleum system of Halfaya oil field shows that the hydrocarbon generation of these Formations such as Sha′uiba and Nahr Umr are immature and have generated few oil TR ≤ 50% which are neglected as compared to Formations below them which are very rich source rock. The Formations of Yamama, Ratawi and Sulaiy are mature with TR ≤ 100%. Other Formations such as Sargelu ,Najma,Zubair and Gotnia are with very high maturity with TR ≥ 100% and completely generated hydrocarbon and depleted after hydrocarbon are expelled and migrate to reservoir rock of structure traps and this study indicates that the major seals of Upper Jurassic are Gotnia and Allan Formations and of Middle Miocene is LowerFars fatha Formation.


Article
Sequence Stratigraphy and Reservoir Characterization of the Upper Campanian-Maastrichtian Succession, Buzurgan Field, Southeastern Iraqi
طباقية التتابع والصفات المكمنية للكامباني الاعلى- الماسترختي في حقل بزركان, جنوب شرق العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The Upper Campanian-Maastrichtian succession in Buzurgan oil field of Southeastern Iraq consists of Hartha and Shiranish formations. Three facies associations were distinguished in the studied succession. These include shallow open marine environment within the inner ramp, deep outer ramp and basinal environments. The Hartha Formation in the study area was deposited on a shallow carbonate platform with distally steepened ramp setting. The studied succession represents two 3rd order cycles. These cycles are asymmetrical and start with cycle A which is incomplete where the lower part of the Hartha Formation represents the deep outer ramp facies of the transgressive system tract.and the upper part of the Hartha Formation reflects deposition within the shallow open marine condition of the highstand systems tract. The overlying Shiranish Formation represents the transgressive system tract of cycle B only where it is basinal extent to Aliji Formation. The lower part of the Hartha Formation characterized mainly by microporosity, whereas the middle and upper part of the formation are less porous with interparticle porosity. This high porosity zone includ the lower part of the overlying Shiranish Formation. Where porosity is mainly intraparticle with moldic and fracture porosity being less dominate. The upper part of the Shiranish Formation is less porous.


Article
Evaluation of Three Important Electrode Arrays in Defining the Vertical and Horizontal Structures in 2D Imaging Surveys
تقييم ثلاثة ترتيبات كهربائية مهمة في تحديد التراكيب العمودية والافقية في المسوحات ثنائية البعد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Three important electrode arrays in 2D imaging surveys were tested in this study through synthetic model to determine which array is the most successful in defining the vertical and horizontal geological structures. These arrays are Wenner-Schlumberger, Wenner and Dipole - dipole. The numerical modeling was created through vertical fracture zone and three separate cavities surrounded by horizontal layers. The results showed that the Wenner-Schlumberger is the most suitable electrode array when both vertical and horizontal structures are present in the subsurface. It is the best in imaging the vertical and horizontal contacts and represented these structures more accurately than the Wenner and Dipole-dipole arrays.


Article
Semigroup Theory for Dual Dynamic Programming
نظرية شبة الزمرة للبرمجة الديناميكية المواجهة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, the nonclassical approach to dynamic programming for the optimal control problem via strongly continuous semigroup has been presented. The dual value function VD ( .,. ) of the problem is defined and characterized. We find that it satisfied the dual dynamic programming principle and dual Hamilton Jacobi –Bellman equation. Also, some properties of VD (. , .) have been studied, such as, various kinds of continuities and boundedness, these properties used to give a sufficient condition for optimality. A suitable verification theorem to find a dual optimal feedback control has been proved. Finally gives an example which illustrates the value of the theorem which deals with the sufficient condition for optimality.


Article
A Genetic Based Optimization Model for Extractive Multi-Document Text Summarization
نموذج أمثلية مستند على الخوارزمية الجينية للتلخيص الاقتطاعي للمستندات النصية المتعددة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Extractive multi-document text summarization – a summarization with the aim of removing redundant information in a document collection while preserving its salient sentences – has recently enjoyed a large interest in proposing automatic models. This paper proposes an extractive multi-document text summarization model based on genetic algorithm (GA). First, the problem is modeled as a discrete optimization problem and a specific fitness function is designed to effectively cope with the proposed model. Then, a binary-encoded representation together with a heuristic mutation and a local repair operators are proposed to characterize the adopted GA. Experiments are applied to ten topics from Document Understanding Conference DUC2002 datasets (d061j through d070f). Results clarify the effectiveness of the proposed model when compared with another state-of-the-art model.


Article
Determination the Heating Rate and the Characteristic Age for Pulsars Stars
تعيين نسبة التسخين والعمر المميز للنجوم النابضة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Pulsar stars are rotating Neutron stars can be divided into two types Millisecond and Normal Pulsars. In this work the magnetic field are concentrated depends on the period (P), and Period derivative (P) for a sample Normal, Millisecond and Radio stars which adopted. In addition, the values of spin down luminosity and Heating rate are determined by depending on (Ostriker and Gunn) model. The results showed that older Millisecond define as having greater ages specified how long pulsars lives at that ages very long period pulsars to be observable have particularly large surface magnetic field. The results indicate that spin down of luminosity for Millisecond and Normal star must due to the main energy loss rotation axis to align with magnetic axis as pulsar age. In addition, the Heating rate decreases with the star’s age, beside Characteristic age calculated.


Article
Feature Extraction Using Remote Sensing Images
استخراج الميزة باستخدام صور الاستشعار عن بعد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Feature extraction provide a quick process for extracting object from remote sensing data (images) saving time to urban planner or GIS user from digitizing hundreds of time by hand. In the present work manual, rule based, and classification methods have been applied. And using an object- based approach to classify imagery. From the result, we obtained that each method is suitable for extraction depending on the properties of the object, for example, manual method is convenient for object, which is clear, and have sufficient area, also choosing scale and merge level have significant effect on the classification process and the accuracy of object extraction. Also from the results the rule-based method is more suitable method for extracting most features, since it depends on different variable which belong to the objects.


Article
Modified Model to Calculate Low Earth Orbit (LEO) for A satellite with Atmospheric Drag
نموذج مطور لحساب المدار الواطئ للقمر الصناعي بوجود كبح الغلاف الجوي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, the satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO) with atmospheric drag perturbation have been studied, where Newton Raphson method to solve Kepler equation for elliptical orbit (i=63°, e = 0.1and 0.5, Ω =30°, ω =100°) using a new modified model. Equation of motion solved using 4th order Rang Kutta method to determine the position and velocity component which were used to calculate new orbital elements after time step (∆t) for heights (100, 200, 500 km) with (A/m) =0.00566 m2/kg. The results showed that all orbital elements are varies with time, where (a, e, ω, Ω) are increased while (i and M) are decreased its values during 100 rotations.The satellite will fall to earth faster at the lower height and width using big values for eccentricity (e) and (A/m) ratio. Were the results got lifetime at height = 200, e = 0.1 equal 11 days for A/m =0.02 m2/kg, while satellite's lifetime at height = 200, e = 0.1 for A/m = 0.09 m2/kg equal 6 days.

Table of content: volume: issue: