Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:56 issue:2C

Article
New mode for the on –line determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride in pure and pharmaceutical preparations via the use of homemade Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar cell CFI Analyser
نمط جديد للتقدير الاني للميتاكلوبراميد هايدروكلورايد في المستحضرات الصيدلانية والنقية من خلال استخدام محلل مصنع محليا للحقن الجرياني المستمرAyah 6SX1-T-2D Solar cell

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A newly developed analytical method characterized by its speed and sensitivity for the determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP-HCl) in pure and pharmaceutical preparations via absorbance measurement by Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar cell-CFI Analyser. The method is based on the oxidation of the drug with Ce(IV)sulfate in acidic medium to form a red color species which determined using homemade Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar cell . Chemical and physical parameters were studied and optimized. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.05- 16 mMol.L-1with correlation coefficient r = 0.9855. The limit of detection(S/N = 3) 0.332 µg/sample from the step wise dilution for the minimum concentration in the linear dynamic ranged of the calibration graph. The RSD% at 2 and 6mMol.L-1 metoclopramide hydrochloride is less than 0.6% (six replicate). The method was successfully applied for the determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride in three pharmaceutical drugs. A comparison was made between the newly developed method analysis with the classical method (UV-Vis spectrophotometry at λ max 474 nm) using the standard addition method via the use of t-test. It was noticed that there was a significant difference between two methods at 95 % confidence level.


Article
Poly (N, N-dimethyl aniline) Coating for Stainless Steel, Synthesis, Characterization and Corrosion Protection in Sea Water 3.5% NaCl Solution
تركيب وتوصيف بولي ( N,N-ثنائي مثيل انيلين) في طلاء وحماية الفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ من التآكل في ماء البحر(3.5% محلول كلوريد الصوديوم)

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Abstract

This research involves the synthesis of conductive polymer includes: poly (N, N- dimethyl aniline) on metal surface which is stainless steel 316 by using electrochemical polymerization technique. Parameters of this research are voltage rang, scan rate, number of cycles. The tests for corrosion protection of the polymer coated and uncoated stainless steel substrate was investigated in artificial sea water of 3.5% NaCl solution by tafel and potentiodynamic procedures. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) were used to diagnose and describe the structure and morphology of the coating. Parameters of corrosion are: corrosion current Icorr, corrosion potential Ecorr, protection efficiency (PE %), polarization resistance (Rp) and the effect of different temperatures range (293 to 323) K in the inhibition efficiency of coated and uncoated stainless steel surface. Change in the free, enthalpy and entropy have been determined. Apparent energies of activation have been calculated for the corrosion process from the corrosion rates and Arrhenius plots. This results of corrosion test showed that Poly (N, N-dimethyl aniline) ensure chemically stable, environmentally viable and have good corrosion protection of stainless steel in artificial sea water of 3.5% NaCl solution.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Stability Constant study of New Schiff Bases Derived from 2-Amino -2-deoxy Chitosamine and aldehydes with Some Metal Complexes
تحضير وتشخيص ودراسة ثوابت الاستقرارية لمعقدات قواعد شيف الجديدة المشتقة من 2-امينو-2-ثنائي اوكسي جيتوسامين والالديهايدات مع بعض المعقدات الفلزية

Authors: Nada M. Abbass ندى مطير عباس
Pages: 1562-1571
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Two new Schiff bases (S1,S2) derived from 2-Amino-2-deoxy chitosamine and m-nitrobenzaldehyde (S1), and with salicylaldehyde (S2) were prepared and characterized using FTIR, UV and mass spectrometry. New complexes of the transition metal ions Co (II), Ni (II), Pd (II), Pt (II) with the two ligands were synthesized and their structures were elucidated depending on atomic absorption, FTIR, UV-visible spectra in addition to magnetic susceptibility and electrical conductivity measurement. Metal to ligand [M: L] ratio was obtained for all complexes in ethanol using molar ratio method, which gave comparable results with those obtained for the solid complexes. Stability constant of the complexes were determined using spectrophotometric method at 25oC and ionic strength was maintained constants using 0.1M KNO3.Stoichometry of the complexes by Job ,s method showed that metal : ligand ratio is 1:1.


Article
Preparation and Characterization of Yttrium Oxide Nanoparticles at Different Calcination Temperatures from Yttrium Hydroxide Prepared by Hydrothermal and Hydrothermal microwave Methods
تحضيروتشخيص دقائق اوكسيد الاتريوم النانوية في درجات حرارة تلدين مختلفه من هيدروكسيد الاتريوم المحضر بطريقتي الهيدروحرارية والهيدروحراريه ـ الموجات الدقيقة

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The Synthesis of yttrium oxide nanoparticles have been achieved via calcination of yttrium hydroxide produced from the reaction of aqueous solutions of yttrium nitrate and sodium hydroxide at pH = 13 using hydrothermal and hydrothermal microwave methods. Effect of heat treatment of the resulted yttrium hydroxide powder on the morphology and crystallinity of the resulting oxide was studied at calcination 500, 700 and 1000°C to obtain. The resulted products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and thermal analyses (TG).


Article
Estimating the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus isolated from vagina against some pathogens of genital infections in group of women.
تقييم التاثير التثبيطي للعصيات اللبنيه المعزوله من المهبل ضد عدد من المسببات المرضيه للالتهابات التناسليه لدى مجموعه من النساء.

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Thirty- five vaginal swab samples were obtained from women vagina.All samples were subjected to conventional morphological and cultural characteristics, isolates distributed between Lactobacillus acidophillus(23)and Lactobacillus fermentum (12). Antibacterial activities were done by well diffusion and blank disk method. The Lactobacillus was used as aprobiotic treatment against bacteriaisolates from vagina .The isolated bacteria had strong activity against indicator strains.The results showed that Lactobacillus which was isolated from vagina by well diffusion method was effective against pathogenic isolates more than the Lactobacillus isolated by blank disc method , the highs inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus isolates by well give an inhibition zone reached to(18)mm , while the Lactobacillus by disc was lower with inhibition zone (12-15) mm. Also the results revealed that Lactobacillus spp. whole cell of Lactobacillus was more effective against pathogenic isolates more than usedsupernatant . The supernatant did not show any activity when was treated with NaOH and adjusted to pH 7. This indicates that the organic acid produced by the Lactobacillus isolates was may be actually responsible for the inhibition of the indicator bacteria.The result show that theLactobacillus strains could be considered asapotential antimicrobial probiotic strains against some human vaginal pathogens and should be further studied for their human health benefits.


Article
Seasonal Variation of Phytoplankton in AL-Diwaniya River
التغيرات الفصلية للهائمات النباتية في نهر الديوانية/العراق

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This study was conducted from January to October 2014, the samples were collected monthly from four stations in AL-Diwaniya River at AL-Diwaniya city. Phytoplankton species which are diagnosed during study period are (506) and the numbers of common types in four sites are (61). Bacillariophyceae is dominate on other classes and Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae then Chrysophyceae and Euglenophyceae. The study shows that there are (150), (144), (118) and (94) species in the first, second, third and fourth sites. The species that have highs numbers are (Achnanthes, Cymbella, Nitzschia, Navicula). Other types are dominant in their existence and number during study period (Cycltella comta, Cylotella Ocellata, Cycletella meneghiniana, Cyleotella Kutzingana, Pediastrum somplex, Diatoma elongatum and Cocconeis Placentula) During the study period, there are seasonal and site changes in total number of phytoplankton which ranged between (440.61-2994.3 cell×103/L).


Article
Determination of Toxoplasmosis Disease Activity by Estimation of IL-6 Cytokine
تحديد نشاط داء المقوسات الكوندية بواسطه تقدير مستوى الانترلوكين 6

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Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle and Manceaux ) infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Early diagnosis and determining the infective stage are critical for treating immunosuppressed individuals and pregnant women with toxoplasmosis. This parasite modulates pro- and anti-inflammatory responses to regulate parasite multiplication and host survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the probability of using IL-6 as a marker of toxoplasmosis disease activity (acute and chronic) in different groups of women (miscarriage, pregnant and single) and estimate the relationship between infection and gestational age and history of abortion in miscarriage and pregnant women. The most abortion were occurred at the first trimester in chronic infected miscarriage women also, the most abortion were occurred at the first trimester in acute infected pregnant women. The result showed that acute infected miscarriage women with previously abortion scored high significant percentage of infection in comparison to non- abortifacient, chronic infected one and pregnant women. IL-6 was significantly higher in acute infected miscarriage women in comparison to single and pregnant acute one but chronic infected pregnant women characterized by the lowest level of this cytokine in comparison to all studied groups.

Keywords

toxoplasmosis --- IL-6 --- miscarriage --- pregnant.


Article
Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection in Clinical Samples Using Immunofluorescence Test
الكشف عن الأصابة بفيروس Respiratory Syncytial Virus في العينات السريرية بواسطة اختبار التألق المناعي

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Current study aimed to investigate the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in nasal secretion and throat swab samples of hospitalized patients with symptoms of respiratory tract infection using Immunofluorescence test. Previously these samples were tested for Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection by reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. The positive samples were tested by Immunofluorescence assay in monolayer confluent of Hep 2 cell line. The results showed that the positive samples using the RT-PCR test were positive in this test. These results reveal that Immunofluorescence test is sensitive method for detection the infection with RSV.


Article
Real-Time PCR Detection of Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV) among Adults with Pneumonia
أستخدام تفاعل سلسلة البلمرة اللحظي(RT-PCR) في تشخيص ا لفيروس المخلوي التنفسي(RSV) بين البالغين المصابين بالالتهاب الرئوي

Authors: Hula Y. Fadhil حُلا يونس فاضل
Pages: 1617-1621
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This study aimed to confirm the presence of RSV using real-time PCR in nasal and throat swabs which had no visible cytopathic effect in tissue culture technique from adults of moderate-to-severe pneumonia with influenza-like illness. Results of real-time RT-PCR found that viral RNA in 11.63% (5/43) of adult with pneumonia and flu-like illness symptoms. A significant incidence of RSV infection in Dec. and Jan. 2014 was appeared among patients aged more than 45 years. The results showed that viral load significantly associated with disease severity. In conclusion, multiplex RT-PCR is recommended to diagnose RSV and influenza viruses in winter season in older patients with pneumonia and can decrease sever illness in the elderly.


Article
Combining Effect of Different Rates of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Residues and Reduced Rates of Trifluralin on Weeds in Mung Bean Field
تأثير التداخل بين معدلات مختلفة من مخلفات الذرة البيضاء مع جرع منخفضة من مبيد الترفلان في ألأدغال النامية في حقل محصول الماش

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Field and laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of sorghum residues alone or in combination with reduced rate of trifluralin herbicide on weeds in mung bean field. The field experiment was conducted during 2014 season at the Research Farm of Biology Department, College of Science, Baghdad University by using randomized complete Block design (RCBD) to test the effect of sorghum residues at rates of 5 and 10 t ha-1 alone or in combination with reduced doses of trifluralin (30 and 60% of recommended dose) on weeds and mung bean crop. Weedy check and label rate of trifluralin (2.4 Lha-1) were also included for comparison. Each treatment was replicated four times. Total phenolics in field soil amended with sorghum residues at 10 t ha-1 was determined in at 0, 14, 28 and 42 days of sorghum residues decomposition. Also bioassay experiment was conducted to test the allelopathic effect of sorghum residues at 10 t ha-1 incorporated into the field soil on seedling emergence and growth of Portulaca oleracea weed during the above mentioned decomposition periods. Results showed that incorporation of sorghum residues at 5 t ha-1 reduced weed density by16.9 and 18.8% of control after 30 and 60 days from sowing, respectively. The reduction was increased when sorghum residues were incorporated at 10 t ha-1 and reached to 30 and 30.5% of the control after 30and 60 days from sowing, respectively. However, the suppression of weed population and dry weight biomass was further improved when the plots were treated with 30 and 60% of label rate of trifluralin and sorghum residues at 5and 10 t ha-1. The highest suppression of weed population and dry biomass was achieved by application of reduced rate of trifluralin (60%) to plots amended with sorghums residues at 10 t ha-1. Integration of reduced herbicide and sorghum residues at 5and 10 t ha-1 resulted in more weed suppression than sole application of the respected sorghum residues. The results also revealed that weed suppression was directly translated into yield of mung bean. Application of trifluralin herbicide at 60% of label rate in plots amended with sorghum residues at 10 t ha-1 recorded the highest biological and grain yield, number of pods per plants and weight of 100 seeds. Chemical analysis indicated that total phenolics started to increase at14 and 28 days of decomposition and decline thereafter until vanished 6 weeks of decomposition. Biological activity test of field soil revealed that suppression of Portulaca oleracea weed was highly correlated with total phenolics (R2 = 0.95for seedling emergence and 0.87 for dry biomass) of soil suggesting that high weed suppression was mainly due to high activity of phenolics.


Article
Detection of Adenovirus antigen and its correlation with clinical signs among children with gastroenteritis
التحري عن مستضد الفيروس الغدي وعلاقته مع وجود علامات سريرية بين الأطفال الذين يعانون من التهاب المعدة والأمعاء

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A total of 90 stool sample was collected from patients with gastroenteritis to detect adenovirus antigen among diarrhea cases. They were tested by general stool examination (GSE), rapid immunochromatographic test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). GSE showed that adenovirus gastroenteritis infection resulted in non-bloody diarrhea, the existence of RBCs in 7% and Pus in 37% of the samples, Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite and cyst were seen in 3% and 2% of the samples respectively. The rapid test showed that 21% of samples were positive for rotavirus, 8% for adenovirus and 3% for astrovirus. Meanwhile, the ELISA test showed that adenovirus was positive in 9% of the samples. These findings established the evidence that adenovirus is significantly the second viral agent that cause gastroenteritis among children after rotavirus. Furthermore, it must be stated that rapid diagnostic methods are important for detection of adenovirus infection.


Article
The study of variations in lipid profile and GLP-1 enzyme levels of obese in sample of Iraqi population
دراسة التغايرات في مستويات مرتسم الدهون وانزيم GLP-1 للمصابين بالبدانة في عينة من المجتمع العراقي

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The present study conducted on 120 males obese and 50 healthy males, their age ranged from 20-50 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Central Obesity (CO.); it has noticed that there is a significant relation between both indexes. Effect of the obesity on the lipid profile was investigated, the results showed that there is an elevated in TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C and lowered in HDL-C for all three obesity groups compare with control group. Also, Significant differences (P≤0.05) revealed in TG, TC, LDL-C and VLDL-C among three obesity groups and the greatest differences recorded in group III obesity (279.52±1.10, 261.02±1.13, 169.32±1.81, and 55.08±1.33 mg/dl respectively) followed by group II obesity (216.58±1.79, 228.20±1.28, 135.41±1.21 and 40.34±1.17 mg/dl respectively) and then group I obesity (152.00±1.81, 168.47±1.11, 104.33±1.99 and 27.90±1.46 mg/dl respectively). No significant differences observed in HDL-C among groups I, II and III obesity (34.23±1.59, 36.65±1.78, 35.08±1.12 mg/dl respectively). The study included investigate for serum GLP-1 enzyme levels, a lowered in GLP-1 levels was observed in groups I, II and III obesity (39.33±1.31, 35.58±1.87, 35.56±1.66 pM respectively) compare with control (62.50±1.50 pM). Besides having a highly significant correlation (P≤0.01) between GLP-1 level and both indexes (BMI and CO.) in which an elevated in BMI and CO. were correlated to an lowered in GLP-1 level.


Article
The Antimicrobial Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Peganumharmala L Seeds on Clinically Isolated Gram Negative and Gram Positive Bacteria
التأثير الضد مايكروبي للمستخلص الكحولي لبذور الحرمل Peganumharmala على البكتريا الموجبة والسالبة لصبغة غرام المعزولة سريريا

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The aim of the present study was assess the antimicrobial effect of Peganumharmala L seeds extracts by ethanol (80%) on gram negative and gram positive bacteria and four concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100) mg/ml were prepared. Four clinical isolates of bacteria were used; two were positive and two were negative bacteria; that include: Bacillus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The results showed that all concentration that have been used had antimicrobial effect against gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best concentration that have the best antimicrobial effect was 100 mg/ml and the effect of alcoholic extraction was greater on gram positive bacteria than gram negative bacteria, also the antimicrobial effect of two antibiotics were tested on these four clinical isolates these antibiotics are imipeneme and gentamycin. The effect of imipeneme was greater than the effect of gentamycin also the effect of imipeneme on gram positive bacteria was greater than on gram negative bacteria. The synergistic effect of alcoholic extraction of PeganumharmalaL seeds and antibiotics was studied and the result show that the antimicrobial effect of antibiotics (imipeneme and gentamycin) was increased when these antibiotics discs were saturated with 100mg/ml of seeds extracts. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the alcoholic extracts of Peganumharmala L seeds on these four clinical isolates were tested and the result show that the MIC was: for Bacillus : 3.12 mg/ml , Staphylococcus aureus:1.56 mg/ml, Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 6.25 mg/ml and Escherichia coli:3.12 mg/ml) and the MBC was :( for Bacillus : 3.12 mg/ml , Staphylococcus aureus:3.12 mg/ml, Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 12.5 mg/ml and Escherichia coli: 6.25 mg/ml.


Article
The Effect of Prodigiosin Extracted from Serratia marcescens on DNA Fragmentation of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Cells
تاثير البرودجيوسين المستخلص من Serratia marcescens على تجزؤ الدنا للخلايا اللمفيه للدم المحيطي للانسان

Authors: Huayda K. Abid هويدة كريم عبد
Pages: 1661-1666
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Prodigiosin, is a natural red pigment produced by various bacteria that firstly characterized from Serratia marcescens. It is an alkaloid secondary metabolite with a unique tripyrrol structure.This pigment is a promising drug owing to its reported characteristics of having antifungal, immunosuppressive and anti-cancer activity. In this study prodigiosin was produced by Serratia marcescens., which was isolated from soil identified and characterized by morphology, Gram’s staining, biochemical and carbohydrate fermentation tested and confirmed by the API 20E test. From these samples, six isolates of Serratia marcescens( 24) % were obtained out of 25 soil samples. Ability of these isolates in prodigiosin production was examined to select the efficient isolate in prodigiosin production.Results showed that all of these isolates are prodigiosin producers, and among them one isolate was the most efficient in prodigiosin production. The apoptotic effect of the pigment was assessed in blood lymphocytes cells by DNA fragmentation analysis assay collected from anticoagulated human blood , prodigiosin at all concentrations were significantly increased the percentage of fragmented DNA of peripheral blood Lymphocyte cells compared to control. This study reveals that Prodigiosin has possessed apoptotic property.


Article
Ecological observations on two species of Gastropoda (Family Hygromiidae) : Monacha cantiana and Candidula gigaxii In three central Iraq provinces
ملاحظات بيئية لنوعين من صنف بطنية القدم Gastropoda (عائلةHygromiidae ) : Monacha cantiana و Candidula gigaxii في ثلاث محافظات وسط العراق

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This study was carried out on two species of the Hygromiidae family Monacha cantiana and Candidula gigaxii collected from six sites in three central Iraq provinces (Baghdad , Babylon and Karbala) . A total of 1318 individuals of Monacha cantiana and 173 of Candidula gigaxii have been examined during the study period from October 2013 to July 2014.The study included estimation of species relative abundance, population density and relationship with some physico- chemical properties of the soil; temperature, moisture and pH. The Monacha cantiana was present at all sites but with varying numbers, while Candidula gigaxii was confined to only three sites: Aljadiriyah and Zafaraniya at Baghdad, and Hindiya dam at Babylon. Results showed that the highest relative abundance of Monacha cantiana was 60.8% in April 2014 at Al-Al-Hussainia, Karbala and the lowest was 12.6% in January 2014 at Zafaraniya, Baghdad. The highest value of relative abundance of Candidula gigaxii was 51.9 % in January 2014 at the Zafaraniya , Baghdad and the lowest value was 7.3 % in March 2014 at Hindiya dam , Babylon. Population density of Monacha cantiana showed that highest value was 12.5 individual / m2 in January 2014 at Al-Al-Hussainia, Karbala and the lowest value was 0.8 individual / m2 in October 2013 at Aljadiriyah , Baghdad. Highest population density of Candidula gigaxii was 13.6 individual / m2 in December 2013 at Zafaraniya, Baghdad, and the lowest was 0.4 individual / m2 in October 2013 in Aljadiriyah, Baghdad. Soil temperature varied between 7and 30 C˚ in January and July 2014 at Twereje, Karbala, and Aljadiriyah at Baghdad respectively. Moisture values were between 9 and 33% in July and January 2014 at Alexandria and Hindiya dam, Babylon, respectively. Values of pH varied from 7.31 to 7.96 in December 2013 and July 2014 at Alexandria, Babylon and Zafaraniya, Baghdad respectively. These results showed that ecological factors may have affected abundance and population density of the snails at all of the study sites .


Article
Correlation between virulence factor and biofilm formation in Proteus spp.
العلاقة بين عوامل الضراوه وتكوين الغشاء الحياتي في جنس Proteus spp.

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Urinary Tract Infection is an infection that caused by the members of the genus Proteus that depends mainly on the availability of virulence factors ;Various virulence factors including biofilm, swarming migration , polysaccharide ,heamolysin,protease, DNase, urease production weredetermined for 45Proteus isolates that obtained from clinical specimens of Urinry Tract Infection patient . The distribution of virulence factors was showed variation among the testedisolates and strain specific in most cases. All Proteus isolates showed 45 (100%)biofilm , polysaccharide andSwarming capabilities with different extents. High ureaseproduction was demonstrated in most isolates 40 (88.8%);In addition, they were abling to produce protease,DNase and heamolysin, in 30(66.6%) , 28 (62.2%) and26(57.7%) respectively. The result of susceptibility test for Proteus spp. against seven antibiotics commonly used to treat UTI infection caused by Proteus spp. ; P.mirabilis were 90% sensitive for Meropenem , 80% to Ciprofloxacin , 60% for both Cephalothin , Nitrofurantion , 50% , 40% and 30% for Amikicin, gentamicin and ceftriaxone respectively ,butP.vulgaris isolates were sensitive to 80% for Meropenem ,70% Ciprofloxacin and Nitrofurantion and sensitive to 60%,50% ,40 % and 30 % for Cephalothin, gentamicinAmikacinand ceftriaxone respectively.(This studyaimed to detect and evaluate the presence of some virulence factors in Proteus species isolates causing Urinry Tract Infection .

Keywords

Biofilm --- Swarming --- DNase.


Article
Using ISSR markers to build a phylogenetic of Barley Genotypes
استخدام مؤشرات التفاعل الضمني البسيط لبناء الشجرة الوراثية لأصناف الشعير

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This study is attempts to build a phylogenetic between nine Iraqi barley genotypes based on ISSR-PCR analysis by determine the level of genetic similarity among them. Nine issr primers used in this study produced 41 bands across nine studied varieties. Of these bands, 28 bands were polymorphic and the remaining monomorphic bands were 13. The average polymorphic rate was 70.5% ranged between 25%-100% , and average of polymorphic bands /primer was 4.5.The size of the amplified bands ranged 140-1600 bp. It was generated a 5 unique bands in this study, these bands can be used as a DNA profiling of all studied genotypes. The results were showed Genetic distances ranged between (0.0854-0.9897) among barley varieties. Based on phylogenic tree, a dendrogram were constructed among studied barley varieties, cluster analysis grouped the nine varieties into two main clusters depending on their ancestors and their morphological traits. The use of cultivars from various clusters and sub clusters offer the possibility of obtaining an appropriate genetic variability in hybrid population.


Article
Study of Mechanical, Thermal and Barrier Properties of Biodegradable Polylactic acid-Polyethylene Glycol- Alumina Nanocomposite
دراسة الخصائص الميكانيكية والحرارية والحجزية لمتراكب بولي لاكتك اسيد-بولي اثلين كلايكول –الومينا

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Tensile , thermal, and barrier properties of polylactide PLA-based nanocomposite films that were prepared by solvent casting method with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and alumina were studied. PLA/PEG blend showed decrease in tensile strength and Young modulus but increased in elongation in PLA/PEG and increased in crystalline of PLA but decrease in glass transition temperature with the increasing of PEG concentration . A nano blend composites of PLA/PEG/alumina (50/50/4) when compared to PLA/PEG blend indicated that tensile strength , Young modulus and glass transition temperature (Tg) increased with adding alumina nano particles, concentration and barrier properties improvement due to its nucleating and reinforcing function mineral when add nano alumina to PLA/PEG blend . These results indicated that the incorporation of Al2O3 enhanced the Oxygen barrier properties of the PLA.


Article
Sorption efficiency of kaolinte in removal Cd from aqueous solutions
كفاءة إمتصاص الكاؤلينايت في إزالة الكادميوم من المحاليل المائية

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Because of the contaminants represented by heavy metals in the aquatic environment have an adverse effects need to be addressed, therefore, a laboratory simulation was conducted on Cd using kaolinite that collected from Ga’ara Formation as considered as a natural sorbent material that can be used to remove heavy metals from aqueous environments. Mineralogical study was conducted on kaolinite using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (ESM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) for the purpose of investigating the micro-texture. It was found that kaolinite has pure phase of very fine grains with a very little quantity of quartz and has a number of active sites for adsorption. Chemical analyzes were performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), Electron Probe Micro analyzer (EPMA) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques confirmed a purity of kaolinite due to high alumina content, except a rare slica content originated from quartz. Kaolinite sorption efficiency was investigated through a series of laboratory experiments. The optimal reaction conditions were determined to be as: pH 5 to 9, but the best is 9, and the eqilibrium reaction time is 40 minutes, and the solid to liquid ration is 1.25 gm to 50 ml. The effect of the initial Cd concentration on the sorption efficiency of kaolininte was also investigated and shows that the sorption proportionally increases with high concentration. All the laboratory experiments indicate that the reaction is an indothermic.


Article
Evaluation of the Ground Water in Baghdad Governorate / Iraq
تقييم المياه الجوفية في مدينة بغداد/ العراق

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Abstract

The coverage area of Baghdad Governorate area is considered as a part of the Mesopotamia plain, which belongs to the unstable shelf. This area is totally covered by quaternary sediments. The sediments are composed mainly by cyclic alteration of clay, silt, sand and very fine gravels. Quaternary sediments represent the main aquifer for all parts of Baghdad governorate. Arc GIS 9.3 and GMS 6.5 programs were used in drawing high accurate estimating maps, to define salinity, type of the ground waters, the general direction of their movement, the distribution values of transmissivity of upper aquifer, with distribution and the amount of draw down for these wells, also drawing map for the ground waters depth zones. It can be concluded that the salinity of the ground water in Baghdad Governorate ranges between (fresh water – Brine water) in general, with the predominance of chloridic water type and the presence of sulphatic water type in other places. The direction of the ground water movement is mainly from the west towards the east and north and southeast, with the presence of local movements other directions. The transmissivity coefficient ranges between (50 – 350) m2 / day in general, but these values decrease toward the east, especially east of the Tigris River as indicated by the level of draw down in the wells, which ranges between (2 – 10) m. The results reflect that the ground water depth in Baghdad Governorate ranges between (2 – 50) m depending on the distance from the river and irrigation channels, which are considered as sources of water recharge to the ground water.


Article
Use of radium in studying water resources in Shanafiya-Samawa area- south Iraq
استخدام نظير الراديوم في دراسة عن مصادر المياه في منطقة الشنافية - السماوة-جنوبي العراق

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Abstract

The water resources, Groundwater and surface water, in Shanafiya – Samawa area- southern Iraq were investigated using radium-226. The study examines the use of radium as tracer whether saline surface water (Sawa Lake) seeps and interacts with water of the Euphrates River and where groundwater interacts with surface water, Euphrates, Atshan River and Sawa Lake. As well as examine the radiological doses caused by consumption of these waters. Thirteen water samples were analysis for radium-226 content by precipitation with barium carrier by using gamma spectroscopy based on hyper-pure Germanium with efficiency 30%. The result shows that Sawa Lake contains radium concentration higher than that of groundwater and other sources of surface water. The high value of Ra in the Sawa Lake can be related to the high salinity. Groundwaters generally have Ra concentrations that broadly correlate with salinity or with total dissolved solids (TDS). The radium content in the different water depends on the hydrochemistry of water especially chlorine and TDS. The radium contents accumulate as clusters in different groups when plotted with chlorine and TDS which reveals no intermixing between the different water resources. While the relatively high concentration of Ra-226 in Sawa Lake may be caused by accumulation of Ra by maxing with groundwater according the hypotheses that states: in high salinity water system the dissolution of radium increases and accumulates in the solution. While low Ra-226 concentration in river water reveals that no intermixing has occurred between groundwater and river water. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of groundwater and river water in the study area were estimated to be less than the values recommended by IAEA and WHO.

Keywords

Radium --- water resources --- effective dose --- Iraq


Article
Processing and interpretation of 3D seismic data of an oil field in central of Iraq using AVO techniques
معالجة وتفسير البيانات الزلزالية ثلاثية الابعاد لاحد الحقول النفطية في وسط العراق باستخدام تقنيات تغير السعة مع الازاحة

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Abstract

In this research, a qualitative seismic processing and interpretation is made up through using 3D-seismic reflection data of East-Baghdad oil field in the central part of Iraq. We used the new technique, this technique is used for the direct hydrocarbons indicators (DHI) called Amplitude Versus Offset or Angle (AVO or AVA) technique. For this purposes a cube of 3D seismic data (Pre-stack) was chosen in addition to the available data of wells Z-2 and Z-24. These data were processed and interpreted by utilizing the programs of the HRS-9* software where we have studied and analyzed the AVO within Zubair Formation. Many AVO processing operations were carried out which include AVO processing (Pre-conditioning for gathers), AVO modeling and AVO analysis. Analyzing these variations in amplitude within offset or with angle (AVA), reveals the identification of one type of reservoir which is related to the fluid contents and lithology.


Article
3D seismic reflection study for subsurface structural picture of Dujaila Oil Field, South of Iraq
دراسة زلزالية انعكاسية بالابعاد الثلاثة للصورة التركيبية تحت السطحية لحقل الدجيلة, جنوب العراق

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Abstract

This research represents a 3D seismic structural study for 602.62 Km2 of Dujaila Oil Field which is located 55 Km Northwest of Mysan province and 20 Km Southwest of Ali-AlSharki region within unstable Mesopotamian basin. Synthetic traces are prepared by using available data of two wells (Du-1, Du-2), in order to define and pick the reflectors. Two reflectors are picked that represent the top and bottom of Mishrif Formation, in addition to five units within this Formation are picked, they named Units 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Time maps for the top and bottom of Mishrif reflectors are drawn to get the structural picture, these maps show general dip of layers toward NE, and thus, there are two enclosure domes in the middle of Dujaila Oil Field where two wells (Du-1, Du-2) are found.


Article
Building A 3D Geological model Using Petrel Software for Asmari Reservoir, South Eastern Iraq
بناء موديل جيولوجي ثلاثي الابعاد بأستخدام برنامج البتريل لمكمن الاسمري جنوب شرق العراق

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Abstract

Building a 3D geological model from field and subsurface data is a typical task in geological studies involving natural resource evaluation and hazard assessment. In this paper a 3D geological model for Asmari Reservoir in Fauqi oil field has been built using petrel software. Asmari Reservoir belongs to (Oligocene- Lower Miocene), it represents the second reservoir products after Mishrif Reservoir in Fauqi field. Five wells namely FQ6, FQ7, FQ15, FQ20, FQ21 have been selected lying in Missan governorate in order to build Structural and petrophysical (porosity and water saturation) models represented by a 3D static geological model in three directions .Structural model shows that Fauqi oil field represents un cylindrical anticlinal fold which contains number of culminations at northern and southern parts separated by depressions. After making zones for Asmari reservoir, which is divided into 4 zones (Jeribe/ Euphrates and Kirkuk group which includes Upper Kirkuk, Buzurgan member, Lower and Middle Kirkuk) , Layers are built for each zone of Asmari reservoir depending on petrophysical properties. Petrophysical models (porosity and water saturation) have been constructed for each zone of Asmari reservoir using random function simulation algorithm. According to data analyses and the results from modeling, the Upper Kirkuk zone which divided into five layers is a good reservoir unit regarding its good petrophysical properties (high porosity and low water saturation) with high presence of oil in economic quantities. Cross sections of porosity model and water saturation model were built to illustrate the vertical and horizontal distribution of petrophysical properties between wells of Fauqi oil field.


Article
Paleoenvironments and Sequence Development of the Miocene succession , Western and Southern Iraq
البيئات القديمة وتطور تتابع المايوسين لغرب وجنوب العراق

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Abstract

The Miocene succession of western and southern Iraq is represented by the Euphrates, Ghar, Jeribe, Nfayil, Fatha, and Injana formations. The Euphrates Formation (Early Miocene) consists mainly of shallow marine facies; it`s equivalent the Ghar Formation (Early- Early Middle Miocene) is represented by continental clastic facies. The Jeribe Formation (Early Middle Miocene) represents shallow marine environment. The Nfayil Formation (Middle Miocene) also of shallow marine environment, it`s equivalent the Fatha Formation is represented mainly by supratidal marine environment. The Injana Formation (Late Miocene) represents the clastic continental facies. The studied succession was highly affected by many diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, dedolomitization, dissolution and cementation with less effective micritization, neomorphism, and compaction. Four third order cycles were recognized in the studied sections, These include: cycle A of the Miocene Euphrates Formation and it`s equivalent the lower part of the Ghar Formation, cycle B of the Early Middle Miocene Jeribe Formation and it's equivalent the upper part of the Ghar Formation, cycle C of the Middle Miocene Nfayil Formation and it`s equivalent the Fatha Formation, and cycle D of the Late Miocene Injana Formation. Each third order cycle can be subdivided into a number of fourth order cycles. All of the fourth order cycles are assymmetrical reflecting an imbalance between the relative sea level and carbonate production. A variation between the different sections in nature of cyclic deposition reflects the difference of local tectonic effect on the sequence development.


Article
Models for long range forecast to the dust storms
نماذج للتنبؤ بعيد المدى للعواصف الغبارية

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In this research ,we will study the phenomenon of dust storms for all types (Suspended dust , rising dust , dust storm) , and its relationship with some climate variables (Temperature , rainfall ,wind speed , Relative humidity ) through regression models to three different locations ( Kirkuk , Rutba , Diwaniya ) almost covering Iraq area for the period (1981 – 2012) . Time series has been addressing the phenomenon of storms and climate variables for the time period under study to attain the best models for long range forcast to the dust storms.


Article
On some generalization of normal operators on Hilbert space
حول بعض تعميمات المؤثرات الاعتياديه المعرفه على فضاء هلبرت

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Abstract

In this paper we introduce a new class of operators on Hilbert space. We call the operators in this class, - powers operators. We study this class of operators and give some of their basic properties.


Article
On some generalization of normal operators on Hilbert space
حول بعض تعميمات المؤثرات الاعتياديه المعرفه على فضاء هلبرت

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Abstract

In this paper we introduce a new class of operators on Hilbert space. We call the operators in this class, - powers operators. We study this class of operators and give some of their basic properties.


Article
Best Way to Detect Breast Cancer by UsingMachine Learning Algorithms
أفضل طريقة لأكتشاف سرطان الثدي بأستخدام خوارزميات تعليم الالة

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Abstract

Breast cancer is the second deadliest disease infected women worldwide. For this reason the early detection is one of the most essential stop to overcomeit dependingon automatic devices like artificial intelligent. Medical applications of machine learning algorithmsare mostly based on their ability to handle classification problems, including classifications of illnesses or to estimate prognosis. Before machine learningis applied for diagnosis, it must be trained first. The research methodology which isdetermines differentofmachine learning algorithms,such as Random tree, ID3, CART, SMO, C4.5 and Naive Bayesto finds the best training algorithm result. The contribution of this research is test the data set with missing value and without missing value, where the missing value is one attribute is missing from one sample for data set. The test result is show SMO is the best algorithm, especiallywhen the research removes the samples that contained the missing value.


Article
Hand Written Signature Verification based on Geometric and Grid Features
برنامج التحقق من التواقيع المكتوبة بخط اليد باستخدام الخصائص الهندسية

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Abstract

The fact that the signature is widely used as a means of personal verification emphasizes the need for an automatic verification system. Verification can be performed either Offline or Online based on the application. Offline systems work on the scanned image of a signature. In this paper an Offline Verification of handwritten signatures which use set of simple shape based geometric features. The features used are Mean, Occupancy Ratio, Normalized Area, Center of Gravity, Pixel density, Standard Deviation and the Density Ratio. Before extracting the features, preprocessing of a scanned image is necessary to isolate the signature part and to remove any spurious noise present. Features Extracted for whole signature first, then extracted for every part after dividing the signature into four sections. For verification, statistical verification techniques are used (Euclidean Distance, Hellinger Distance and Square Chord Distance). The system is trained on three datasets of signatures. The first and the second datasets have English signatures while the third one is collected from people; it contains Arabic and English signatures. The system has been tested on every dataset. The experimental results show that the Euclidean Distance has the average accuracy of 94.42, the Hellinger Distance has the average accuracy of 95.27 and the Square Chord Distance has the average accuracy of 93.14. That result for whole the image and the following average accuracy for image using grid the Euclidean Distance has the average accuracy of 93.54, the Hellinger Distance has the average accuracy of 95.87, and the Square Chord Distance has the average accuracy of 95.93.

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