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المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية

ISSN: 18154794
الجامعة: جامعة بغداد
الكلية: معهد الهندسة الوراثية والتقنيات الاحيائية
اللغة: English

This journal is Open Access

حول المجلة

تاسست المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية سنة2001 وصدر اول عدد منها سنة 2002، وهي مجلة علمية محكمة نصف سنوية تصدر عن معهد الهندسة الوراثية والتقنيات الإحيائية في جامعة بغداد، متخصصة في الهندسة الوراثية والتقانات الإحيائية في مجالات علوم الحياة والبيئة والعلوم الزراعية والطب البشري وطب الأسنان والصيدلة والطب البيطري والبحوث المتخصصة بموضوع المعلوماتية الحيوية Bioinformatics)).

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معلومات الاتصال

E-mail:journal@ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq
www.iqjb.net
www.ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq : موقع المعهدعلى شبكة
الإنترنت
TEL:7789300
Baghdad-AL-Jadriyah -p.o.box:12074

جدول المحتويات السنة: 2014 المجلد: 13 العدد: 2-2

Article
Study the Effect of Locally isolated Lactobacillus acidophilus and its components as anticancer in vivo
دراسة تأثير بكتريا Lactobacillus acidophilus المعزولة محلياً ومكوناتها كعامل مضاد للسرطان في داخل الجسم الحي

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الخلاصة

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Lactobacilli as a probiotic in colon cancer treatment in rats. Accordingly 29 isolates of Lactobacilli was obtained from 11 samples of feces of newborns. As well as isolating and diagnosis one isolate of Lactobacilli from standard yoghurt named (canon) which used as control for acid and bile salt tolerance. Screening of isolate according to its ability of acid resistance, showed that six isolates were able to stand in pH3.5 for 90 min. The number of living cells were 1.73×105 to 6.3×105 CFU/ml. Accordingly the number of living cells of other isolates were significantly decreased after 90 min incubation in MRS broth with pH3.5 . The isolate from standard yoghurt did not revealed high resistances to acidity since the living cells were decreased with a rrange equal about to one logarithmic cycle or more. This behaviors is important from static point of view which indicates no high acidity resistance. The isolates which appear high acidity resistance were selected to test its resistance to bile salts. Lactobacillus acidophilusone of diagnosed isolates, appeared high resistance to bile salts, since it was the most efficient isolate among the selected isolate in its high resistance to bile salts. While for Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp bulgaricus which was used for comparison with the other isolates, revealed no resistance for bile salts since the number Components of Lactobacillus acidophilus were separated. Colon cancer was induced in rats using Azoxymethane (AOM) at 15mg/Kg (animal body weight) by adding methyl group to guanine (O6- methyl guanine). Two restriction enzymes were used to detect the methylation. The first HpaII which is sensitive to presence of methyl group and the second is MspI which is resistant to methyl group so the samples treated with former will give a clear band of methylated DNA in gel electrophoresis while MspI will give diffused band when the DNA is methylated. The prophylactic effect (pretreatment) and the therapeutic effect (post- treatment) of Lb. acidophilus cells and its separated components was studied in vivo on the molecular level, DNA was extracted from rat colon and treated for methylation. The results revealed that the DNA extracted from treated animal showed smear in gel electrophoresis after digestion with HpaII which means that lactobacillus could modulate the DNA methylation, in contrast to positive control group which had specific DNA methylation band which indicates the presence of methyl group in the DNA of this animals.

الكلمات الدلالية

lactobacillus --- colon eancer --- methylation --- MspI --- HpaII.


Article
Genetic Study of The Etiology of Some Bacterial Pathogens in People with Inflammation of The Eye and to Investigate The Prevalence of The SEA gene
دراسة وراثية لبعض المسببات البكتيرية الممرضة في الأشخاص المصابين بالتهاب العين والتحري عن نسبة انتشار المورث SEA

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الخلاصة

The current study was conducted to investigate the bacterial causes of eye infection which include inflammation of Conjunctivitis,eye lid infection (Blepharitis) and Dacryosystitis. One handered ninety one swabs were collected from the eyes of infected people who reviewed Al-Hilla teaching hospital and Alnoor child hospital and Babylon maternity and paediatric hospital from November 2011 to May 2012.Culture investigations showed 176 positive bacterial growth from 191,the bacterial isolates include 119 isolates Gram positive and 57 isolates Gram negative,the Gram positive isolates include, S. aureus show high percentage of isolate(38.06%),PCR assay were performed to identify the presence of some genes related to pathogenicity in bacteria responsible from inflammation of the eye. Staphylococcus aureus represented the largest causative agent of inflammation of the eye the study revealed the presence of certain gene in some isolate of bacteria, including the gene SEA that gave large proportions in the study isolates rate 87.5%.

الكلمات الدلالية

Bacterial isolation --- S. aureus --- PCR.


Article
Molecular detection of Proteus mirabilis using PCR technique among urinary tract infection patients
التشخيص الجزيئي لبكتيريا Proteus mirabilis باستخدام تقنية التفاعل السلسلي البلمري بين المرضى المصابين بالتهاب المسالك البولية

المؤلفون: Munther Adnan1 Ismail Hussein Aziz2 Mahdi Saber Al-Deresawi3
الصفحات: 35-47
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الخلاصة

The study included isolation and diagnosis of bacteria Proteus mirabilis from patients suffering from urinary tract infection (UTI) with different types (simple and complicated cases) and from clinical urinary tract infected patients. Isolated of bacteria from (UTI) infected patients and from patient urinary tract catheter which was used in complicated cases and from defective urinary tract patients. Three hundred and ten (310) samples from (UTI) patients in different hospitals of Baghdad and Al-Kut. From period 1/1/2013 to 1/8/2013. The results observe (218) positive isolates for bacteriological exam and by the biochemical tests and Api appear Proteus spp (17.88 %) and P. mirabilis ( 92.3%) but P. vulgaris(7.7) %. PCR by used specific primer (16SrRNA) for detected genus Proteus and to differentiate it from other enterobacteria used (UreR) primer to detect the genome which was controlled for urease enzyme production. The results of primer UreR observe 36 isolates were positive. Results of the Nitrogen bases sequence of the PCR technology of the samples in this study revealed consistency reaching up to 98 % with the Nitrogen bases sequence of the UreR gene present in the P. mirabilis strain of the WHO. This study presented high specificity and sensitivity for the diagnosis of P. mirabilis using the PCR technology which is cheaper and faster than the conventional methods currently used in the hospitals and laboratories.

الكلمات الدلالية

Proteus mirabilis --- urinary --- 16srRNA.


Article
Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Diabetic Retinopathy
العامل المستمد من ظهارة الصباغ وعامل النمو البطاني الوعائي في اعتلال الشبكية السكري

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الخلاصة

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major mediator of vascular permeability and angiogenesis and also an important mediator of retinal ischemia-associated intraocular neovascularization. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a strong inhibitor of angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the correlation between VEGF and PEDF in DR. A total of 117 subjects (healthy, diabetic without retinopathy and diabetic retinopathy) were studied. Serum VEGF and PEDF were measured. Result revealed a significant positive correlation between PEDF and VEGF (OR=0.820, p<0.01) in all subjects so the concentrations of PEDF and VEGF predict adverse outcomes, and their measurement may facilitate risk estimation, and PEDF-based interventions might be considered.


Article
Molecular Detection to Toxoplasma gondii in Serum Sheep Samples
الكشف الجزيئي عن طفيلي التوكسوبلازما (داء القطط) في عينات مصل الاغنام

المؤلفون: Balkes Fadel Hade
الصفحات: 58-65
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الخلاصة

Toxoplasma gondii an obligate intracellular protozoan is one of the most common parasites that infect warm blooded animals including man. Polymerase chain reaction was applied for the detection DNA of the pathogenic protozoan T. gondii based on 35-fold-repetitive gene (the B1 gene) as a target. Blood samples from (66) sheep were taken to extracted serum from it, the result indicated that (51) serum were positive by enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELIZA) and (15) serum apparently healthy as control group, same serum samples were taken to extract DNA from it and to detect the B1 gene if present. The B1 gene was present and conserved in all T. gondii strains and to detect this gene from purified DNA samples, a two-stage of PCR (nested) was conducted employing oligonucleotide specific primers for detected this gene. Results indict that (39) sheep are infected with the parasite. This combination of specificity which detected of the B1 gene based on PCR which is regarded a very useful method for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in sheep.

الكلمات الدلالية

Toxoplasma gondii --- sheep --- serum --- PCR.


Article
Evaluation of Some Genetic Factors in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients in Iraq
تقييم بعض العوامل الوراثية في مرضى التهاب المفاصل الرثوي في العراق

المؤلفون: Israa K. Al –Yasiri Jaafar K. Al-Mousawi Ali M.Al- Mohana
الصفحات: 66-74
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الخلاصة

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, destructive autoimmune disease affecting the joints. With more sophisticated and effective therapies becoming available and with the understanding that early intervention is crucial in preventing irreversible joint damage. The main purpose of this observational study was to evaluate and detects a good genetic factors may be used in early detection of RA. A total of 40 patients with RA who were fulfilled four or more of the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR), 20 patients with joints problems (JP), 20 RA patient relatives (PR) and 10 apparently healthy control individuals were included in this study. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping was performed using Mr. Spot SSO system. The distribution of HLA class II genotypes in 20 RA patients and 30 control groups were studied. HLA-DRB1*04 was significantly most common genotypes in the RA patients (70%) compared to control groups (23.3%). While, the frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 was very high among controls (53.3%) compared to RA patients (25.0%), but the difference was not statistically significant. RA susceptibility in most Iraqi patients was associated with the HLA-DRB1*04 genotype. The HLA-DRB1*04 allele contributed significantly to the development of RA .HLA- Therefore, HLA-DRB1*04 allele appears to play an important pathogenic role in all subsets of RA.

الكلمات الدلالية

Rheumatoid arthritis --- HLA.


Article
hsp70-2 Polymorphism in Urinary Bladder Carcinoma
تعدد طرز الجين المشفر لبروتين الصدمة الحرارية hsp70-2في سرطان المثانة البولية

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الخلاصة

hsp70-2 or (hspa1b) is one of the human HSP70 genes, it was originally found specifically in primary spermatocytes and spermatids, that played an important role in spermatogenesis. Now HSP70-2 has attracted increased interest due to its possible involvement in carcinogenesis of non-testicular tissues. HSP70-2 has been identified as a potential cancer-promoting protein expressed at abnormal levels in a subset of human cancers such as bladder urothelial cancer. So, the present study aimed to study the HSP70-2 polymorphism in 50 blood sample of patients with urinary bladder carcinoma (UBC) and 15 healthy subjects, also study HSP70-2 gene expression in 40 paraffin tissue sections of patients with urinary bladder carcinoma UBC and 10 paraffin tissue section in patients with urinary bladder diseases UBD. A PCR-RFLP test was used to study the HSP70-2 gene polymorphism. r RT-PCR was used to study HSP70-2 gene expression. Genotype distribution and allele frequencies of HSP70-2 polymorphisms showed HSP70-2 P1P2 genotype frequency and HSP70-2 P2 allele were significantly increased in the patients with UBC compare to healthy subjects(p≤0.01).Also, the expression mean of HSP70-2 gene is 39.4 fold higher in UBC than in UBD patients.

الكلمات الدلالية

Urinary bladder carcinoma --- HSP70-2 polymorphism --- PCR.


Article
The Association of Maternopaternal Age and Cytomolecular Abnormalities in Iraqi Down Syndrome Children
العلاقة بين عمر الام والاب والفحوصات الخلوية الجزيئية غير الطبيعية في الاطفال العراقيين المصابين بمتلازمة داون

المؤلفون: Haider A. Salman1 Ban A. Majeed 2
الصفحات: 87-95
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الخلاصة

Down syndrome is the most commonly seen genetic disease in genetic outpatient units. And a common cause of mental and physical handicap. The study aimed to ascertain the relation of parental ages (maternal and paternal), and the occurrence of Down syndrome. It also aimed to detect the chromosome 21 abnormalities and their paternity origin, depending on polymorphisms using karyotyping as well as to implement the FISH technique in confirming abnormal karyotyping. Fifty six families (56 Ds child, 56 mothers, 56 fathers), were included. Patients were recruited at the genetic unit of the Teaching Laboratories in Medical City who were referred to the unit for genetic consultation. Tow laboratory techniques including Karyotyping and Fluorescent in situ hybridization were used in establishing diagnoses and polymorphisms. The results of these methods were then compared and analyzed statistically. Eighty four percent of cases were of maternal origin and 14 percent were of paternal origin. Fifty two cases of the samples were single in each family. They resulted from additional non disjunctional chromosome. Three cases resulted from translocation. One case revealed an isochromosome. There was no effect of consanguinity on the results of the study. Increasing maternal age led to the increase frequency of Down syndrome, but not the paternal age. Karyotyping had more ability to recognize the source of disease either from mothers or fathers than fluorescent in situ hybridization while the latter had higher ability to diagnose Down syndrome than karyotyping. There is recurrence risk in the families resulting from fixed translocation in mothers.

الكلمات الدلالية

Down syndrome --- parental ages --- FISH --- Karyotyping.


Article
Cytotoxic Effect of Hot Crude Extract of Fresh aloevera Plant on HepG2 Tumor Cell Line
التأثير السمي للمستخلص الحار لنبات الصبار في خط الخلايا السرطانية HepG2

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الخلاصة

This work Aimed to study cytotoxic study crude extract of fresh leaves aloe vera plant on HepG2 tumor cell line. To achieve this goal, hot crude extract of fresh leaves Aloe vera plant, the study utilized on in vitro evaluated of cytotoxic effect of hot crude extract on HepG2 tumor cell line at different concentrations and exposure at 72 hour treatment. The hot crude extract concentration ranging (0.3906-50) mg/ml in two fold serial dilution were used to treat HepG2 tumor cell line for 72 hour intervals. The results, appeared tumor cell line showed highest deity toward sensitivity toward the cytotoxic effect of the hot crude extra at concentration 3.125 mg/dl compare with normal cell line showed novel behavior effect, the lowest concentration of treatment give the most significant (P<0.01) inhibitor effect, however, lower inhibitor effect when exposure of 0.3906 mg/dl of hot crude extract. The conclusion is that there is enough evidence to support the claim that Aloevera plant, is chemotherapeutic agent against cancer.

الكلمات الدلالية

Aloevera plant --- HepG2 --- cytotoxic assay.


Article
Association of HLA-DRB1, DQB1 with Thyroid Disorders in Sample of Iraqi Patients
ارتباط المؤشرات المناعية HLA-DRB1, DQB باختلالات الغدة الدرقية في عينة من المرضى العراقيين

المؤلفون: Mithal A. Abdoun1 Amina N. AL-Thwani 2 Laith A. Kamel 3
الصفحات: 102-109
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الخلاصة

This study was carried out to evaluate some immunogenetic parameters of some Iraqi patients with thyroid disorders. Forty patients suffered from thyroid disorders who were admitted to the Department of Radiation, Nuclear Medicine Hospital in Baghdad and 30 healthy control during the period from June to October- 2011. The age of patients and healthy individuals ranged between 13-71 years. The HLA-class II typing was conducted for three groups the first group consisted of patients with hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid non toxic goiter patients, the second group consisted of thyroid cancer patients and the third group consist of healthy individuals. By using molecular methods polymerase chain reaction- sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR- SSO) for HLA-Typing , the results showed that high frequencies of HLA DRB1*13and HLA-DRB1*10 (P<0.01 and P<0.05 , respectively) in thyroid cancer patients when compared with control group. Whereas the frequency of HLA-DQB1*06 significantly (P<0.05) increased in healthy control group compared to thyroid disorders patient groups. The results suggested that the immunogenetic markers such as HLA-DQB1*06 allele may have a protective effects against the development of thyroid disorders.

الكلمات الدلالية

HLA-DRB1 --- DQB1 --- Thyroid disorders --- PCR.


Article
Detection of K-ras Codons (1213 and 61) Genetic Variations in Iraqi
التحري عن التغيرات الوراثية لجين K-rasفي الكودونات 12/13 و 61 لدى مرضى سرطان الثدي العراقيين

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الخلاصة

Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy recorded in the cancer registries of almost all countries within the Eastern Mediterranean Region and most prevalent malignancy in women in Western countries currently accounting for one third of all female cancers. K-ras is proto-oncogene is a Kirsten ras oncogene, K-ras, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the K-ras gene located on the short arm of chromosome 12 (12p12.1). Women who are not carriers of BRCA genes may have a K-ras-variant. Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) were used to detection of the K-ras genetic aberrations in breast cancer Iraqi patients and their consent were taken, to determine K-ras gene ability to predict prognosis, by extracting the DNA from the samples and amplified the area of interest by using the modern techniques for genetic analysis like HRM (High resolution melting) and Sequencing by using specific designed primers. The aim of this study to assessments of K-ras patients with breast cancer and find the correlation between the K-ras mutations and breast cancer. In this study K-ras gene mutations can be present in breast cancer patients representing somatic mutations. However, they should be confirmed as a germ-line mutation in patients. I recommend establishing K-ras mutations in breast cancer patients as a routine study in specialized centres by amplification and sequencing and detection more variation especially in BRCA negative breast cancer patients.

الكلمات الدلالية

Breast cancer --- K-ras gene --- Gene --- Iraq --- Mutation. Codon 12-13 --- Codon 61..


Article
Detection of Anti-HBc and HBV-DNA in Blood Donors Negative for Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen in Mosul Central Blood Bank-Iraq
كشف مضادات دنا HBC و HVB في عينات دم متبرعين غير حاوية على المستضد السطحي لراشح التهاب الكبد B في مصرف الدم المركزي في الموصل

المؤلفون: Mohammad Dawaj Khalid
الصفحات: 119-127
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الخلاصة

Though sensitive screening assays for detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) are available, occasional cases of post-transfusion hepatitis B virus infection (PTH) still occur. The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) positivity and presence of HBV-DNA in serum sample of healthy blood donors negative for both HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody in Mosul Central Blood Bank-Iraq. Since anti-HBc detection is mandatory in Iraq. Two thousands serum samples negative for both HBsAg and anti-HCV collected from healthy blood donors were tested for the presence of anti-HBc antibody. All samples positive for anti-HBc antibody were then investigated for determination of anti-HBc titre, anti-HBs titre, HbeAg and anti-HBe antibody by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Every sample that tested negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc alone or in with other serological markers was also examined for the presence of HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two thousands samples tested, 20 (1%) blood samples were found to be positive for anti- HBc. HBV DNA was detected among 16 of 20 (80%) anti-HBc positive specimens. The mean level of viral load were 3500 copy/ml. Anti-HBsAg (50%), HBeAg (25%), Anti-HBeAg (30% v) were detected among anti-HBc positive samples. The liver function test results were all in normal range except in 4 of 16 HBV-DNA positive subjects. The mean levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in HBV-PCR positive subjects were 14 IU/l and 23.7 IU/l respectively. Anti-HBc antibody should be tested routinely on volunteers blood donors and if the sample found positive regardless of anti-HBs titre, the blood should be discarded.

الكلمات الدلالية

Hepatitis B virus --- HBsAg --- anti-HBc --- ALT.


Article
Detection of CTX-M-1 gene Among Klebsiella pneumonia Isolates in An Najaf Province
الكشف عن جين CTX-M-1في عزلات Klebsiella pneumonia في محافظة النجف

المؤلفون: Raed Ali Hussein Shabaa
الصفحات: 128-133
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الخلاصة

Resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniaes trains to the broad-spectrum antibiotics may be caused by extended-spectrum β-lacta+mases (ESBLs). This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamase gene (CTX-M-1) among isolates of K. pneumoniae.A total of 62 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from two hospitals in An Najaf -Iraq, during 6-month study (2013-2014). The antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined by disc diffusion method and interpreted according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) recommendations. Production of ESBL was determined by the presence of CTX-M-1gene using PCR technique. Most of the isolates showed high level of resistance: 37 isolates were simultaneously resistant to Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Aztreonam, and Ceftazidime (37/62, 59.6%). All were susceptible to Imipenem and Ciprofloxacin. The results of PCR study revealed that 60.1% of the isolates were ESBL positive. This study highlighted the need to establish antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks for K. pneumoniae to determine the appropriate empirical treatment regimens

الكلمات الدلالية

CTX-M-1 --- K.pneumonia --- PCE Antibiotics --- ESPL.


Article
Evaluation of PIK3CA Status in Breast Cancer and their Correlation with ER, PR, and HER-2 expressions in Iraqi female patients
تقييم حالة PIK3CA في سرطان الثدي وعلاقتها بالتعبير الجيني لـجينات ER ، PR و HER-2 في مريضات عراقيات

المؤلفون: Rand Muhammed Abdul-Hussain Al-Hussaini
الصفحات: 134-143
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الخلاصة

The present study revealed that the PIK3CA, catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), is mutated in breast cancer. This study was carried out in the laboratory of molecular biology in the Department of Biology in the College of Science – Kufa University, during the period from July 2013 through March 2014. Paraffin blocks of thirty one patients with breast carcinoma were included in this study. These samples were collected from laboratory of histopathology in Alsader Teaching Hospital in Al-Najaf governorate. Six samples with normal breast tissues were considered as control group for this study. Their ages ranged from 30 to 65 years, with a mean age of 49.9 years. Carcinoma tissue samples were evaluated previously for ER, PR and HER-2 by Immunohistochemical analysis. The diagnosis was under the supervision of pathologist in the hospital. The clinicopathological assessment revealed that 14 (45.16%) were hormone dependent carcinoma: ER+PR+, 3 (9.67 %) and 9 (16.12%) were probably hormone dependent carcinoma: ER+PR-; ER-PR+, and 5 (29.03%) were hormone independent carcinoma: ER-PR-. HER-2 expression was found in 7(22.58%) of cases. Mutational analysis of PIK3CA was done in 31 breast cancers and, finally, 11 (35.48%) mutations were identified in total. The frequency of PIK3CA mutations in ER-positive tumors was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that in ER- negative tumors , and the frequency of PIK3CA mutations in PR-positive tumors tended to be higher than that in PR-negative tumors. HER2 expression was not significantly associated with PIK3CA mutations.

الكلمات الدلالية

PIK3CA --- Breast cancer --- HER-2 --- ER


Article
Effect of Environmental Contamination on Cell Division of Chick Embryos
تأثير التلوث البيئي في الانقسامات الخلوية لأجنة الدجاج

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الخلاصة

This study aimed to use chick embryos as a biological indicator for assessing the genotoxic activity of environmental pollutants and used it as a living test system or a useful tool when a study on the target species is difficult or impracticable. Fertilized eggs were collected from AL-Twietha(contains the Iraqi nuclear reactor)represents a control group . Cytogenetic analysis for chick embryos have been done by studying Blast index (BI), and Mitotic index (MI), Replicative index (RI) and Sister Chromated Exchange (SCE) for embryonic cell in 2-7 days age. Results were compared with those that were held to chick embryos for eggs collected from AL-Kadhimiya and AL-Baya as a control group. Result showed significant increase in MI and RI in embryonic cells for chicks collected from AL-Twietha with age were as embryonic cells for chicks collected from AL-Kadhimiya and AL-Baya that decreased as age increase. SCE values showed a significant increase for eggs collected from AL- Tuwaitha area. These results show a defect in the genetic material and inability of the cell to repair the DNA damage, which resulted in a rise in SCE value. From this study it can be conclude that the possibility of using chick embryos as a biological indicator to detect the effect of pollutants and adoption as an alternative method for in vitro blood cultures for being easy ,accurate, and economic method.


Article
A Study of FLT/ITD Mutations in Cytogenetically Normal Iraqi Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients
دراسة الطفرات الوراثية في جين FLT/ITD لبعض مرضى ابيضاض الدم الحاد العراقيين ذوي الخلايا الطبيعية

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الخلاصة

The present study was designed to shed light on the molecular effects caused by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathogenesis in three cases before, during and after treatment with chemotherapy (in vitro) in lymphocytes. It was also aimed to investigate FLT3/ITD point mutations in cytogenetically normal-AML region 100-300 bp compared to healthy control. The study comprised of 30 AML Iraqi patients and their ages ranged between 2.5-81 years. It included 12 females and 18 males compared with 26 healthy controls. Results revealed that the extracted DNA from 30 AML patients and amplified by PCR to obtain FLT3/ITD gene from exon 11 to 12 showed larger bands (470 and 460) bp in 2 patients when compared to wild type (330) bp. Among six patients, three of them displayed point mutations of deletion and substitution, while the others were normal since no mutations were detected. The percentages of mutation types were substitution 77.8% and deletion 22.2%. The types of mutations were missense mutations as (55.54%), deletion (22.22%) and nonsense (22.22%).

الكلمات الدلالية

AML --- point mutation --- FLT/ITD


Article
Molecular Localization of Epstein Barr Virus and Rb Tumor Suppressor Gene Expression in Tissues from Prostatic Adenocarcinoma and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
التموضع الجزيئي للتعبير الجيني لراشح الابشتاين بار والجين الكابت السرطاني Rb في أنسجة البروستات السرطانية والحميدة

المؤلفون: Saad Hasan Mohammed Ali 1 Shakir H. Mohammed Al-Alwany 2
الصفحات: 161-172
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الخلاصة

Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous in that infecting more than 90% of adult population worldwide. Recently, EBV has been linked to the development of variety of human malignancies including prostate tissues that range from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) to prostatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). Somatic point mutations in Rb gene have been detected in prostate cancer and are involved in progression steps of prostate carcinogenesis. To analyze the distribution and impact of concordant Rb expression and latent EBV infection on a group of prostate adenocarcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Seventy- two formalin-fixed, paraffin- embedded prostatic tissues were obtained in this study; 40 biopsies from prostatic carcinoma and 20 from benign prostate hyperplasia as well as 12 apparently normal prostatic autopsies control group. Detection of EBV-EBERs was done by ultra-sensitive version of in situ hybridization method where as immunohistochemistry detection system was used to demonstrate the expression of Rb gene. Detection of EBV-EBERs -ISH reactions in tissues with PAC was observed in 19 out of 40 (47.5%), while in the tissues from BPH was detected in 10% (2 out of 20). No EBV-EBERs positive – ISH reaction was detected in healthy prostate tissues in the control group. The differences between the percentages of EBERs detection in tissues PAC and each of BPH & control groups were statistically highly significant (p < 0.01). Positive Rb immune histo chemical (IHC) reactions were observed in 19 PAC cases (47.5%) and in 2 BPH cases (10%). Our results indicate that the EBV might contribute to the development of subset of prostate tumors. In addition, the significant percentage of expression of possible Rb gene as well as EBV in prostate adenocarcinoma could indicate for an important role of these molecular and viral factors in prostatic carcinogenesis.


Article
Evaluation of Micronucleus, Nuclear Division Index and Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Human Lymphocyte for Local Samples of Al-Tuwaitha Region-Iraq
تقييم فحوصات النوى الصغيرة، معامل الانقسام النووي والتبادل الكروماتيدي الشقيقي في الخلايا اللمفاوية لدم الإنسان لعينات محلية من منطقة التويثة-العراق

المؤلفون: Abdulsahib Kadhim Ali Amel Jabbar Muttar
الصفحات: 173-185
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الخلاصة

During the period February 2007 till May 2008. Micronucleus (MN) in binucleated lymphocytes, nuclear division index ( NDI) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were performed among 183 persons living at Al- Tuwaitha region surrounding previously to the Iraqi Atomic Energy commission .This number included sixty samples from Eshtar village, aged 15 - 50 years, thirty one samples from Al-Wardia region, aged 17-61 years, fifty two samples from Al-Readh region, aged 18-62 years and forty samples from Al-Tameem region, aged 18 - 58 years. Control group, which included 100 samples aged 16 - 68 years from other regions of Baghdad was also studied. The results of the frequencies of MN and SCE were revealed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the males and females of human lymphocyte in these regions of studies as compared with the control group. While the results of the average of NDI were significant decrease (p<0.05) in the males and females of human lymphocyte in these regions of studies as compared with the control group. In addition, the results of MN , NDI and SCE for various ages and genders were compared in the studied groups. In conclusion, the results of our experiment suggest that the accumulation of genetic damage is detectable in peripheral lymphocytes of local samples of Al-Tuwaitha region. As well as, the increase frequencies of MN and SCE indicate the cumulative effect of low-level chronic exposure to radiological and chemical materials. The current results of MN and NDI frequency were within normal values according of the technical report of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) No. 405 , 2001.


Article
Comparative Study Between Serological and Molecular Diagnosis test for HBV and HCV in Chronic Renal Failure Patients on Hemodialysis in Nineveh Government/Iraq
دراسة مقارنة بين طرق الفحص المصلية والجزيئية من أجل الكشف عن رواشح التهاب الكبد (HBV) و (HCV) في مرضى الفشل الكلوي المزمن في محافظة نينوى – العراق

المؤلفون: Mohammed D. Khalid
الصفحات: 186-192
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الخلاصة

Patients under hemodialysis treatment for chronic renal failure (CRF) are among the groups with the highest prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses due to frequent blood transfusion and nosocomial transmission. A group of CRF patients living in Nineveh governments were tested with serological markers for hepatitis B and C using the ELISA Enzyme linked immunosor bent Assay test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The validity parameters for the serological results were measured based on the PCR results. Of the 62 patients on hemodialysis during the study, 13 (21%) were HBsAg positive, 49 (79%) were anti-HBS positive 8 (61.5%) were anti-HBC positive and 16 (25.8%) were anti-HCV positive, the PCR tests results in 13 (21%) HBV-DNA positive, the mean viral load were 78950 copy/ml and 15 (24.1%) were HCV-RNA positive the mean viral load were 125000 copy/ml, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of Elisa for HBsAg were 90.6%, 50% and 94.8%, and the same parameters were 92.6%, 87.5% and 92.9% for anti-HCV. Based on the results just the negative predictive value for anti-HCV (98.2%) is reliable test in CRF patients on hemodialysis tests are the indicated methodology to diagnosis HBV and HCV infection in these patients. Serological and/or molecular tests are the indicated methodology to diagnosis HBV and HCV infection in these patients.

الكلمات الدلالية

hepatitis B and C --- ELISA --- PCR --- HBsAg --- HCV-RNA.


Article
Evaluation of p53 and K-ras Gene Mutations Frequency in Iraqi Women with Ovarian Carcinoma
تقييم تردد الطفرات للجينين p53 و K-ras في النساء العراقيات المصابات بسرطان المبيض

المؤلفون: Maisaa Gazi Jumaa
الصفحات: 193-206
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الخلاصة

Ovarian cancer represents the fourth most frequent type of cancer among females and is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer in the western world. More recently, ovarian tumors have been broadly classified into two distinct groups with unique histological, clinical and molecular profiles. Type I tumors in which BRAF and K-ras somatic mutations are relatively common, and type II tumors which display high levels of genomic instability with few common mutations, other than TP53, which is altered in over 90% of the cases. In the present study 58 samples with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer were analyzed for detecting the frequency of p53 and K-ras gene mutations in Iraqi ovarian cancer patients, as well as 15 samples of apparently healthy women used as a control group. The analysis was based on conventional PCR amplification of exons 5 and 7 of the p53 gene and codon 12 of K-ras. For both p53 and K-ras genes, none of healthy control exhibited mutation in those genes. p53 mutations detected in 13(22.4%) of ovarian cancer samples, which was significantly higher in compare with healthy controls (p<0.05). The results showed that out of thirteen mutant ovarian cancer samples, exon-5 mutation was the most frequent and detected in 10 (76.9 %), followed by exon-7 that detected only in 3(23.07%) of cases. Statistically there were no significant differences in mutational rates of p53 gene in patients with age, menopausal state, tumor histological subtypes, and different FIGO stages. K-ras mutation detected in only 3(5.17%) of ovarian cancer samples. There were no significant difference in mutational rates of K-ras gene in patients with age, menopausal state, tumor histological subtypes, and different FIGO stages, but all these three mutant samples with stage I. Out of 58 samples only one patient 1(1.7%) have been identified with mutations in both genes. In conclusion, the present study results show that mutations of the p53 gene are not rare events, and K-ras mutations status is not a prognostic factor in ovarian carcinomas.

الكلمات الدلالية

Ovarian tumor --- p53 --- K-ras --- mutations


Article
Tumors Associated Macrophages (TAM) Phenotype in Colorectal Cancer Patients
علاقة نوع البلاعم الكبيرة المرتبطة سرطانيا (TAM) في مرضى سرطان القولون

المؤلفون: Basim Mohammed Hanon1 Nidhal Abd Al-Mohaimen Mohammad2
الصفحات: 207-223
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الخلاصة

The ability of macrophages to adapt to their environment has led to the identification of two main polarized phenotypes of macrophages. First M1 macrophage (classical) is associated with chronic inflammation, cancer initiation and promotion and the reduction of cancer risk by treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs. Second, M2 macrophage (or alternative), a high density of these tumor-associated macrophages correlates with poor prognosis and show mostly protumoral functions, promoting tumor cell survival, proliferation, and dissemination. The study aimed to detect of the distribution of different subtypes of macrophages clinical specimens of colorectal carcinoma (CRC), and how they are integrated with tumor features. Total of 47 patients with colorectal carcinoma were enrolled in this study, among of these patients 26 (55%) males and 21(45%) females, with a range age from 37 years to 72 years, mean age (54.5 year), with 1:1.2 ratio between female and male. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) as a marker for the M1 macrophage phenotype and the scavenger receptor CD163 as a marker for the M2 macrophage phenotype with CD68 as general marker of detection macrophage in tissue. Results recorded that NOS2 with score 3 appeared high frequency (34.04%) fallowed by 25.53% to score 2. NOS2 showed association with age groups <50 years, gender, right site, poorly differentiated, and mucinous types of cancers. As a markers of TAM1, CD163 recorded, high frequency (44.68%) for score 1 followed by score 2 in 17.02%, and association with gender, in female, left site, poorly differentiation, and mucinous cancers.

الكلمات الدلالية

CRC --- Immunohistochemistry --- NOS2 --- CD163 --- CD68 .


Article
Comparison Between Traditional and PCR Analysis for Identification of Oral Streptococci with Dental Caries in Iraqi Diabetic Patients
مقارنة بين التحليل التقليدي وتقنية PCRلتشخيص بكتيريا المسبحيات الفموية في مرضى السكري العراقيين المصابين بتسوس الاسنان

المؤلفون: Halah Kamal AL-Qazzaz Norrya A. Ali Wia'am Al-Amili
الصفحات: 224-236
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الخلاصة

The relationship between diabetic and non-diabetic patients were determined according to the dental caries occurrence and its causes by Streptococcus spp. (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus oralis(which are isolated from oral cavity, In addition, this study was carried out to study the comparison between the traditional (bacterial culturing) and molecular diagnosis methods. The total number of the studied groups was 95 Iraqi patients ; 45 diabetic dental caries patients (DDCP) and 50 non-diabetic dental caries patients (NDCP) of both genders who their ages ranged from 18-65 years old. The patients, samples including saliva and buccal swabs that randomly collected from DDCP and NDCP who were reviewing Al-Alweyia Centers of Dental Caries and diabetic diseases in Al-Yarmook Hospital in Baghdad city. The results of culturing samples (saliva and buccal swabs) on mitissalivarius bacitracin agar media (MSBA) appeared that out of 95 bacterial cultures, 67 bacterial cultures were grown (32 bacterial cultures for diabetic dental caries patients and 35 bacterial cultures for non diabetic dental caries patients); S. mutans, S. salivarius, and S. oralis species were identified according to the results of microscopic examination, API 20-strep, hemolysis on blood agar, motility test and catalase test. The molecular study focused on the analysis of DNA which extracted directly from saliva, buccal swabs and from the bacterial culture cells of S. mutans, S. salivares and S. oralis from both diabetic dental caries patients and non diabetic dental caries patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results revealed the presence of the product with 433, 544, and 374 bp which were related to gtfD (S. mutans), gtfK (S. salivarius) and gtfR (S. oralis) respectively in all samples (saliva, buccal swabs and bacterial culture). According to the presence of these three genes, there were high significant differences at (p<0.01) between DDCP and NDCP, while there were no significant differences according to the percentage of presence of each gene between the three species of bacteria.

الكلمات الدلالية

Diabetic mellitus --- Dental caries --- Oral Streptococci spp. --- PCR technique --- gtf gene.


Article
Methylation Status of p16 gene in Iraqi Colorectal Cancer Patients
مثيلة جين P16 في مرضى اورام القولون والمستقيم العراقيين

المؤلفون: Wafaa Sabri Mahood1 Mohammed Ibraheem Nadir2 Khalid Tobal3
الصفحات: 237-247
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الخلاصة

The CDKN2A gene (encode cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) is considered as a tumour suppressor gene involved in cell-cycle control, and methylation in promoter regions of this gene is a frequent event in CRC patients as it associated with the loss of p16 protein expression in cancer cells leading to gene silence. The methylation status of the p16 gene was examined in 35 samples of Iraqi colorectal cancers (primary carcinomas) and the five samples of Iraqi bowel inflammation patients using Methyl Sensitive High Resolution Melting and the correlation between the methylation status and the clinicopathological findings was evaluated. The results show aberrant methylation of the p16 gene was detected in 17 colorectal tumor samples out of the 35 (48.75% ) primary colorectal carcinomas but there no change in methylation status was found, suggesting that the aberrant methylation of p16 was frequently observed in Iraqi colorectal carcinomas. The clinicopathological data were then correlated with these results. Significant differences were observed with age (p<0.01), tumour location (p<0.01), moderately differentiated (p<0.01) and (T3) lymphatic invasion (p<0.01). This study provides evidence for hypermethylation status p16 gene in CRC patients, which may serve as useful information on CRC cancer progression.

الكلمات الدلالية

Methlation --- P16 --- Colorectal CDKN2A.


Article
Evaluation of Oncogene Protein p190/bcr-abl in some Iraqi chronic myelogenous leukemia patients
تقييم بروتين الجين الورمي p190/bcr-abl لدى بعض مرضى سرطان الدم اللمفاوي الحاد العراقيين

المؤلفون: Wiaam A. Al-Amili Norrya A.Ali Abdul Hussein Al-Faisal
الصفحات: 248-252
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الخلاصة

Philadelphia chromosome is the most common specific cytogenetic chromosomal abnormality in human leukemias that is associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). However, the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is not sufficiently specific to diagnose CML, it is also found in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and occasionally in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The purpose of this study was to use an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Philadelphia chromosome in small samples of cells for ALL patients. Sera from 50 ALL Iraqi patients were used for evaluation of Oncogene Protein p190/bcr-abl. Also, Sera from a total of 38 healthy humans were used as negative controls to determine the referral intervals value for ELISA. While the range of oncogene protein p190 / bcr-abl concentration value for healthy control group was 0.111-0.161 ng/ml, the upper limit considered as a referral interval value of the 99% confidence interval (CI). However, ELISA values with concentrations above the assay referral interval of 0.161 ng/ml revealed Ph+ALL. The sera of 9 out of 50 ALL Iraqi patients showed a significantly higher levels than the referral interval (p>0.01).

الكلمات الدلالية

Oncogene Protein --- p190 / bcr-abl --- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia --- ELISA.


Article
Effect of MDR1 Gene Expression Related with C1236T Polymorphism in Iraqi Acute Myeloid Leukemia patients
تأثير تعبير جين المقاومة المتعددة MDR1 وعلاقته مع تعدد طرز الموقع C1236T في مرضى ابيضاض الدم النخاعي الحاد العراقيون

المؤلفون: Abdul Hussein M. AL-Faisal 1 Kifah Jabbar Alyaqubi 2
الصفحات: 253-265
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الخلاصة

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in multidrug resistance gene1 (MDR1) could alter the gene expression level and may have effect role in responses to drug therapy and diseases susceptibility. The aim of the present study is to investigate allele frequency in Iraqi healthy and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients to detect the susceptibility of C1236T genotype carrier to develop AML. Also the study aimed to correlate the expression level of MDR1 mRNA with MDR1 C1236T polymorphism in newly diagnosed AML patients to predict clinical outcomes at initial diagnosis. The results showed there was a significant difference in genotype and allele frequency with heterozygous CT in AML while appeared significant with CC wild type in healthy control. Both AML and control showed non-significant in allele frequency. In regard with gene expression the healthy control showed significantly high level of MDR1 mRNAs expression in CC genotype at position 1236 compared with CT and TT. Whereas MDR1 heterozygous 1236CT genotype was showed highly significant difference in MDR1 mRNA expression among AML patients. According to the clinical outcome status MDR1 C1236T genotype showed statistically high significant differences with low level of CC genotype compared to CT/TT genotype at initial diagnosis in NR patients, while CR group was showed non-significantly with MDR1 C1236T polymorphism. In conclusion healthy Iraq populations have predominantly CC genotype and appeared a protective genotype, while MDR1 1236CT/TT genotype were indicated affected genotype and associated with poor prognosis in de novo AML patients, while CC appeared good prognosis.

الكلمات الدلالية

C1236T --- MDR1 --- AML --- Genotype --- SNP --- Iraq.


Article
Prevalence of Matrix metalloproteinase-9 in Breast Cancer As a Marker of Prognosis
فحص البروتينيز المعدني الحشوي (MMP-9) 9- كمؤشر حيوي في تشخيص سرطان الثدي

المؤلفون: Wasan A.Bakir1 Zaina F.Ashoor2 Noor H.Ismil1 Ayda M.Majeed1
الصفحات: 266-272
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الخلاصة

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is regarded as important for degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix during cancer invasion and other tissue-remodeling events. the aim of this study is to investigate and compare the expression of MMP-9 in human breast adenocarcinoma with fibroadenoma. In this study we evaluate the prognostic value of MMP-9, by in situ hybridization staining in a series of 30 breast cancer tissues. Both mean percentage of MMP-9 MRNA and scoring of it,s expression in normal and cancer, showing an increased expression of MMP-9 was significantly high in tumor compared with control samples, with extensive score among breast cancer tissues. This study shows that MMP-9 expression in breast cancer is associated with better prognosis.

الكلمات الدلالية

MMP-9 --- Breast cancer --- fibroadenoma --- adenocarcinoma.


Article
Molecular Study of Insulin Resistance and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
دراسة جزيئية للترابط ما بين مقاومة الأنسولين ومتلازمة المبايض متعددة الأكياس في نساء بغداد

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الخلاصة

This study explores on the relationship between the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insulin resistance which caused by variation in the 5-prime flanking region of the insulin gene, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) regulates transcription of the gene. The study includes 50 Iraqi women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 25 healthy women, Blood samples were collected from the the Medical City hospital, Kamal al-Samarrai Hospital and private medical laboratories (in Baghdad), during the period from November, 2011 to May, 2012. The age of infertile and fertile women was ranged from 16 to 45 years. The molecular study was focused on the 42% of PCOS women with insulin resistance. By sequencing for 50 samples, one separate segment (INS-VNTR) containing nucleotide 360 of insulin gene was amplified by using specific primer..The result of sequencing refers to a number of mutations found in women with PCOS (substitution = 69.86% , deletion =10.95% and insertion =19.17% ) . Some of mutations were repeated in a number of patients with the same type and locations. The results showed 9.52% of patients having deletion in adenine in 388 position (TAC/ T_C) , 9.52% of patients having deletion in adenine in 681 position (CCA/ CC_) , 9.52% of patients having insertion adenine in 638 position (GCT/ GACT) , 9.52% of patients having Missense mutation in 447 position (GAG/ AAG) , 9.52% of patients having Missense mutation in 84 position (CAG/ AAG) and 9.52% of patients having silent mutation in 88 position (GGG/ GGT). The results showed 14.28% of patients having Missense mutation in 455 position (GGG/ AGG) , 14.28% of patients having Missense mutation in 434 position (CCA/ TCA) and 14.28% of patients having silent mutation in 639 position (CGG / CGT) . The results showed 19.04% of patients having insertion in thymine in 94 position (CTG/ CTTG). Also compound mutations have been detected among most of PCOS with insulin resistance.

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