Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط

ISSN: 19974884/E26180707
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 2000 by the College of Engineering of the University of Baghdad. The Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering receives citations in the category of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering and relevant subjects.

Aims
The Iraqi journal of chemical and petroleum engineering is Open Access journal dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed research articles with respect to the subjects in fields of chemical and petroleum Engineering. In particular, petrochemical, biochemical, water treatment, electrochemical, petroleum and natural gas production and technology, and environment are the major interest of the journal. The journal aims to provide a free platform for the researches all over the world to share diverse types of knowledge and discuss the recent developments in the subjects related to the journal interest.

Objective
Objective of the journal is to promote the researches in the engineering subjects covered by journal to dissemination their intellectual products to the global community free of restriction. That achieves by making all of published articles available free of cost for all researcher through adopting Open Access publication model.

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Contact info

Aljadreah, Baghdad
Iraq
P.O Box: 47024
Phone: +964-1-7781506
Email: ijcpe@coeng.uobaghdad.edu.iq
ijcpe@yahoo.com

Table of content: 2015 volume:16 issue:3

Article
Problems of Heavy Oil Transportation in Pipelines And Reduction of High Viscosity

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Abstract

Drag has long been identified as the main reason for the loss of energy in fluid transmission like pipelines and other similar transportation channels. The main contributor to this drag is the viscosity as well as friction against the pipe walls, which will results in more pumping power consumption. The aim in this study was first to understand the role of additives in the viscosity reduction and secondly to evaluate the drag reduction efficiency when blending with different solvents. This research investigated flow increase (%FI) in heavy oil at different flow rates (2 to 10 m3/hr) in two pipes (0.0381 m & 0.0508 m) ID By using different additives (toluene and naphtha) with different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) wt. % at 35ᵒ C. The results of this study showed the following: • Increasing values of Dr% and FI% for all drag reducing agents with heavy oil. Increasing values of Dr% with increasing of Reynolds number, fluid velocity and additive concentration. • With the larger pipe diameter, performances of drag reduction occur is much better than smaller pipe diameter. • The additives (toluene and naphtha) reduce the high viscosity of used heavy oil. • Naphtha is more efficient as viscosity reducer than toluene. Finally, all these results help the understanding of the flow properties of heavy oils and aim to contribute to the improvement of their transport.

Keywords

Heavy oil --- drag reduction


Article
Extraction of Essential Oils from Citrus By-Products Using Microwave Steam Distillation

Authors: Ibtehal K. Shakir --- Sarah J. Salih
Pages: 11-22
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Abstract

The main objectives of this research is to extract essential oil from: orange ( citrus sinensis), lemon( citrus limon) and mandarin( citrus reticulata) peels by two methods: steam distillation (SD) and microwave assisted steam distillation (MASD), study the effect of extraction conditions (weight of the sample, extraction time, and microwave power, citrus peel type) on oil yield and compare the results of the two methods, the resulting essential oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC). Essential oils are highly concentrated substances used for their flavor and therapeutic or odoriferous properties, in a wide selection of products such as foods, medicines and cosmetics. Extraction of essential oil is one of the most time and effort consuming process. Microwave-assisted extraction is a green technique for the extraction of natural products. (MASD) was better than (SD) in terms of rapidity, energy saving and yield. (MASD) gave higher yield than (SD) with shorter extraction time, yield of orange oil extracted by (MASD) was (1.150%) in (35min.) compared to (1.095%) in (45min.) by (SD) process, same results obtained for lemon and mandarin. The optimal microwave power was (135W) gave oil yield: (1.150%, 1.115%, 0.940%) for orange, lemon and mandarin respectively, (MASD) increased extraction temperature in short time and to a higher level compared to (SD). The optimal weight was (398.56gm) gave yield in (SD): (1.095%) and MASD (1.091%) for orange oil, same results obtained for lemon and mandarin. The best citrus peel type which gave the highest yield was orange followed by lemon then mandarin in both processes. Limonene is the most abundant component in citrus essential oil, (GC) analysis showed that (SD) was more convenient to give high amount of limonene because of the graduate temperature rise, while in microwave extraction exposure to low microwave


Article
Enhancement of Uniformity of Solid Particles in Spouted Bed Using Stochastic Optimization

Authors: Ghanim.M. Alwan
Pages: 23-33
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Abstract

Performance of gas-solid spouted bed benefit from solids uniformity structure (UI).Therefore, the focus of this work is to maximize UI across the bed based on process variables. Hence, UI is to be considered as the objective of the optimization process .Three selected process variables are affecting the objective function. These decision variables are: gas velocity, particle density and particle diameter. Steady-state solids concentration measurements were carried out in a narrow 3-inch cylindrical spouted bed made of Plexiglas that used 60° conical shape base. Radial concentration of particles (glass and steel beads) at various bed heights and different flow patterns were measured using sophisticated optical probes. Stochastic Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been found better than deterministic search for study mutation of process variables of the non-linear bed. Spouted bed behaved as hybrid system. Global GA could provide confirmed data and selected best operating conditions. Optimization technique would guide the experimental work and reduce the risk and cost of operation. Optimum results could improve operating of the bed at high-performance and stable conditions. Maximum uniformity has been found at high-density, small size of solid beads and low gas velocity. Density of solids has been effective variable on UI.Velocity of gas and diameter of solid particles has been observed more sensitive decision variables with UI mutations. Uniformity of solid particles would enhance hydrodynamic parameters, heat and mass transfer in the bed because of improving of hold-up and voids distributions of solids. The results of the optimization have been compared with the experimental data using sophisticated optical probe and Computed Tomography technique.


Article
Correlation of Penetration Rate with Drilling Parameters For an Iraqi Field Using Mud Logging Data

Authors: Hassan Abdul Hadi
Pages: 35-44
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Abstract

This paper provides an attempt for modeling rate of penetration (ROP) for an Iraqi oil field with aid of mud logging data. Data of Umm Radhuma formation was selected for this modeling. These data include weight on bit, rotary speed, flow rate and mud density. A statistical approach was applied on these data for improving rate of penetration modeling. As result, an empirical linear ROP model has been developed with good fitness when compared with actual data. Also, a nonlinear regression analysis of different forms was attempted, and the results showed that the power model has good predicting capability with respect to other forms.


Article
Kick tolerance control during well drilling in southern Iraqi deep wells

Authors: Nagham Jasim Al-a'ameri
Pages: 45-52
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Abstract

The importance of kick tolerance in well operations has recently increased due to its implications in well design, in drilling and well control. To study a simple method for the application of kick tolerance concept in an effective way on the basis of field data, this research purpose is to improve knowledge about Kick Tolerance and represents a technical basis for the discussion on revision of standard procedure. The objective of this work is to review and to present a methodology of determination the kick tolerance parameters using the circulation kicks tolerance concepts. The proposed method allows to know, to evaluate and to analyze the kick tolerance problem in order to make the drilling execution safer and more economical by reducing the probability to have an incident. The calculations of presented methodologies were based upon calculated input values such as ppore and pfrac. and not upon measured leak-off test and RFT (less accurate) input values as in traditional methods. The paper also analyses the calculations not with KT parameters only, but it has continued to give the killing operation procedure to such high pressure high temperature (HPHT) wells.

Table of content: volume:16 issue:3