Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:56 issue:3A

Article
Electrochemical Study for the Effect of Simvastatin and Atorvastatin on Coenzyme Q10 by Differential Pulse Polarography Using Mercury Drop Electrode
دراسة كهروكيميائية لتآثرالسيمفاستاتين والأتورفاستاتين مع مساعد الانزيم Q10 بواسطة البولاروغرافيا النبضية المشتقة بأستخدام قطب الزئبق المتقاطر

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Abstract

Statin drugs act by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase which is responsible for manufacture of cholesterol and the biosynthesis essential energy production Co-factor (Coenzyme Q10). The aim from this research includes study the effect of statin drugs (Simvastatin and Atorvastatin) on the Coenzyme Q10 using differential pulse polarographic technique at a dropping mercury electrode (DME) and in a mixture of [4:1] methanol-phosphate buffer of pH7.0 as supporting an electrolyte. Prior to this, the behaviors of Simvastatin, Atorvastatin and Coenzyme Q10 were studied separately in their solvents. The half-wave potential (E1/2) of Co Q10 were -0.31volt and -1.37Volt, -1.33 Volt for simvastatin and atorvastatin respectively. A mixture of Coenzyme Q10 with Simvastatin and Atorvastatin in the same solvent shows a shift in their peak potential (Ep) toward more negative potentials values by (-0.06volt) for Simvastatin and by (-0.09volt) by Atorvastatin.


Article
Theoretical Study of Bonds length, Energetic and Vibration Frequencies for Construction Units of (6,0) ZigZag SWCNTs
دراسة نظرية لاطوال اواصر وطاقات وترددات اهتزاز وحدات بناء انبوب كاربون نانو منفرد نوع (6,0) ZigZag

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Abstract

Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation of the type (B3LYP) and 6-311G basis set level using Gaussian-03 program were carried out for equilibrium geometry of construction units of (6,0) linear ZigZag SWCNT (mono, Di, Tri and Tetra ring layers), to evaluate the geometrical structure (bond length), symmetries, physical properties and energetic such as standard heat of formation (ΔH0f), total energy (Etot.), dipole moment (μ), Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital Energy (EHOMO), Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital Energy (ELUMO), energy gap (ΔEHOMO-LUMO), the distribution of electron density () and vibration frequencies, all at their equilibrium geometries. Assignment of the vibration frequencies according to the group theory was done applying the Gauss View program. Comparison were done for the distribution of electron density, vibration frequencies with the studying the relationship of all the physical and electronic properties for ZigZag SWCNTs with its construction units.


Article
Study the Effect of Peganum Harmala Seeds Extracts to Protect Iron Alloy from Corrosion in Salt Media
دراسة تأثير المستخلص المائي لبذور الحرمل في حماية سبائك الحديد من التأكل في الاوساط الملحية

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Abstract

This work describes the inhibition effect of different concentration of an aqueous extract of Peganum harmala seed on the corrosion of carbon steel in 3.5 % sodium chloride solution using potentiostatic polarization techniques at the temperature range of 25°C to 55°C. The result show that inhibition efficiency increased with increasing concentration of the inhibitor extracts and temperature. The adsorption of inhibitor on carbon steel surface was fit into Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters governing the corrosion and adsorption process were calculated and discussed.


Article
Correlation between Seminal Parameters and Response to InVitro Sperm Activation According to Age and Type of Infertility
العلاقة بين متغيرات النطف والاستجابة إلى تنشيط النطف البشرية بناء على العمر ونوع العقم

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This study was aimed to investigate the effect of sperm parameters on the response to in vitro sperm activation (ISA) and to compare sperm parameters according to the age and type of infertility. One hundred twenty-eight subjects employed in this study, with age range (18-49) years and duration of infertility (1-28) years. From each subjects semen sample was obtained and seminal fluid analysis (SFA) was done. Simple medium for assisted reproductive techniques; (SMART) was used for in vitro sperm activation by direct swim-up technique and centrifugation Swim-Up technique. Sperm concentration, sperm motility (%), sperm grade activity (%), normal sperm morphology (%) and sperm agglutination (%) were assessed. Crude data were statistically analyzed. From the results of present study, it was appeared that most sperm parameters were significantly (P<0.05) enhanced post-activation in vitro as compared to pre-activation using SMART medium by direct swim-up technique and centrifugation Swim-Up technique. Sperm concentration for post-activation was significantly reduced (P<0.05) compared to pre-activation groups and the percentages of progressive sperm activity with grade A, total progressive sperm motility (grades A and B) and normal sperm morphology were significantly increased (P<0.05). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that sperm motility and concentration were considered most important parameters that have the importance of activation and sperm morphology one of the sperm parameters that have role of the influence on the sperm qualities after activation.


Article
Dissemination of Carbapenem Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa among Burn Patients in Karbala Province Iraq
إنتشار بكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa المقاومة للكارببنيم بين مرضى الحروق في محافظة كربلاء/ العراق

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Abstract

In this study, 158 clinical samples were collected from hospitalized burn patients during the period from December 2012 to June 2013 in Karbala province Iraq. Bacterial isolates were identified using conventional biochemical tests and then identification was confirmed by using Vitek-2 compact system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovery was 60 isolates in this study. These isolates were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion test (DDT) according to Kirby Bauer's method using seven clinically important antipseudomonal agents: carbapenems (Imipenem and Meropenem), pencillins (Piperacillin), cephalosporins (Ceftazidim), monobactam (Aztreonam), quinolones (Ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycosides (Gentamicin). The results of resistance were as following: Imipenem 58.33%, Meropenem 66.67%, Piperacillin 86.67%, Ceftazidim 51.67%, Aztreonam 43.33%, Ciprofloxacin 46.67% and Gentamicin 91.67%. Antibiotic susceptibility test was confirmed by using VITEK-2 compact system. Differences between antibiotic susceptibility levels were calculated by Chi-square for each antibiotic. Results were highly significant for all antibiotic groups, p <0.01. The prevalence of increasing resistance rate to carbapenems, the final drug choice for the treatment of P. aeruginosa, among the immunocompromized burn patients is due to the increasing usage of this group especially Meropenem.


Article
Acute HAV Infected Patient's Distribution According to Age and Sex in Wasit Province/Iraq.
توزيع الاصابة بمرض التهاب الكبد الفايروسي الحاد نوع أ بين المرضى حسب العمر والجنس في محافظة واسط /العراق

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Abstract

Hepatitis A virus infection occurs globally and is causing a public health concern, primarily in developing countries due to its persistent circulation in the environment. A total of 120 individuals were included in this study, anti-HAV IgM antibodies were detected in serum of 100 individuals of them (patients group) who attended the Wasit central public health laboratory from different cities in Wasit Province, Iraq, during the period from November 2013 to March 2014.While another 20 individuals were considered as control group which anti – HAV IgM antibody was negative in their serum. Acute infection is confirmed by detection of IgM anti–hepatitis A virus (HAV), which appears early in the course of infection, anti-HAV IgM antibodies were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hepatitis A patients than control using a solid phase, two-step incubation, antibody capture ELISA kit . Most of the HAV patients were located within the first decade (1-10 years) with a percentage of 91%, whereas 9% of all patients were within second decade (10-20 years). In this study, HAV infection is distributed equally among genders. Therefore, there was no significant difference between females than male with a ratio of (1 female: 0.786 male) and percentage of 56% females than 44% males. The aim of the study is to determine the distribution of acute HAV infection with age and sex of the infected patient in Wasit province/ Iraq.


Article
The Study of Genetic Variations of GCG Gene and it's Relationship to Obese in Iraqi Population
دراسة التغايرات الجينية لجين GCG وعلاقتها بمرض البدانة في المجتمع العراقي

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The present study conducted on 120 obese males and 50 healthy males, their age ranged from 20-50 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Central Obesity (CO), it has noticed that there is a significant relation between both indexes. The DNA was isolated from the blood of patients and applies for PCR by using designed primers for exons 1 and 3 of GCG gene. The results showed that there are mutants in exon 1 at locus 9573 (G/C) for 30 patients and locus 9864 (C/-) for 10 patients with X2 = 12.30, also it has fund mutants in exon 3 at locus 5397 (A/G) for 28 patients and locus 5434 (G/A) for 8 patients with X2 = 11.11. These mutants have a high significant effect P≤ 0.001 to cause pathogenicity


Article
The Use of Aquatic Plants in Sewage Treatment/ Using Lily of the Nile in the City of Mosul
استخدام النباتات المائية في معالجة مياه المجاري /دراسة حالة لاستخدام نبات زنبقة النيل في مدينة الموصل

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Abstract

The sewage water is the main sources of pollution for the Tigris river for that reason this study was done,The ability of nature treatment were examined along the path of alkarazi valley which was covered with reed plant also the phytoremidation were examined at the establish unit(surface flow system) which was vegetative with the plant Eichhornia crassipes .The result shows that elements which can be removed by precipitation efficiency removal like turbidity where its removal percentage at the unit of treatment reached 95.2 %where the percentage of removal through the Alkarazi was 50.4%.The removal percentage of E.coli at the unit was 90.2% where the percentage of removal through the Alkarazi was 52%.The biological oxygen demand removal at the unit was 76.5% but at the pathway of alkarazi was 20.4% The removal percentage of the nutrients were too low for both of them because the biological processes became very slow during the cold seasons of the year.


Article
Detection of Cytomegalovirus, Rubella virus, and IL-2 Levels in a Sample of Recurrently Aborted Iraqi Women
الكشف عن الفيروس المضخم للخلايا و فيروس الحميراء ومستويات IL-2 في عينة من نساء الإسقاط المتكرر في العراق

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The present study aimed to investigate CMV and Rubella virus as a causative agent of recurrent abortion, while the IL-2 levels were estimated as immune parameter during pregnancy period. A total of 63 blood samples were collected from recurrently aborted women, control non-pregnant women and control pregnant women. The results recorded 72.09 % CMV positive aborted women and 27.91 % Rubella virus positive aborted women. Levels of IL-2 were (437.03 ± 38.02) pg/ ml in first group, (390.51± 63.56) pg/ ml in second group, (32.98 ±15.12) pg/ ml in control group non pregnant women and (118.63 ± 24.81) pg/ ml in control pregnant women. High IL-2 levels in all studied women indicate presence of a factor affecting the immune system other than viral infection or pregnancy which may be needing more investigations.


Article
Haematological Parameters Alternations Resulted by Exposing Albino Mice to Shisha Smoke
التغيرات الحاصله في خصائص دم الفئران البيض الناتجه من التعرض لدخان الشيشه

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In this study, effects of shisha smoking on some blood components were evaluated in (120) male adult mice. The animals were divided into four groups according to smoke types (cigarette, shisha, cigarette +shisha) in addition to control groups which exposed to fresh air only. A special inhalation chamber designed locally has been used to expose the animals. Exposed to cigarette smoke was done for 5 min/day while exposed to shisha smoke for 15 min /day /7days/weeks for 4,8,12 weeks. Blood samples were collected to evaluate some hematological variables. The results showed that RBC, WBC count, Hb, PCV, differential leukocyte (Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Neutrphils) were significantly high (P≤0.001) in groups which exposed to shisha smoke as compared with those exposed to cigarette smoke. These values were increased with increasing of exposure periods and become clearer in groups exposed for 12 weeks. It was concluded that shisha smoke contains high concentrations of toxicants as compared to cigarette smoke, and cause clear increase in some blood parameters that may led to cardiovascular disease.

Keywords

shisha --- hematology --- mice


Article
Evaluation the Efficacy of Ozone and Temperature to Control Mover Stages for Hairy Grain Beetle (khapra) in Laboratory Trogoderma granariumEverts Coleoptera : Dermestidae.))
تقييم كفاءة استعمال غاز الاوزون و درجات الحرارة في مكافحة الادوار المتحركة لخنفساء الحبوب الشعرية(الخابرا) مختبريا Trogoderma granariumEverts Coleoptera : Dermestidae.))

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Abstract

اختبر تاثير اتحاد غاز الاوزون مع درجات الحرارة 35 ،40 و45 سيلزية (Z+H) ومعاملة الحرارة المنفردة ((H فضلا عن معاملة المقارنة في الدور اليرقي والكاملة لحشرة T. granarium Everts ، فوجد ان المعاملتين كانتا افضل المعاملات في احداث نسب قتل عالية وصلت الى 100%(LT100) وتبين ان رفع درجات الحرارة يؤدي في تقليص فترات تعرضها للقتل الكلي وان المعاملة (Z+H) اشد تاثيرا من المعاملة ((H في دوري الحشرة كما ان درجة الحرارة35 و 40 سيلزية منفردة قد فشلت في التاثير في ادوار اليرقات والبالغات من الذكور والاناث ، وان درجة 45 سيلزية سواء كانت منفردة او متحدة مع غاز الاوزون هي الافضل في التاثير وعند مختلف فترات تعرضها ،كما اظهر ان دور البالغات كان اكثر حساسية للمعاملات اذ كانت المدة اللازمة لبلوغ نسبة القتل 100 % هي 0.40 و1.05 ساعة على التوالي فيما ظهر ان الاطوار المتقدمة في اليرقة هي الاكثر مقاومة من الاطوار المتوسطة والاولية فكانت المدة اللازمة لبلوغ نسبة القتل 100 % هي 0.50 و 1.05 ساعة على التوالي وان ذكور الحشرة كانت الاكثر حساسية من اناثها لتاثير المعاملات اذ بلغت نسبة القتل 100 % عند المددo.18 و0.30 ساعة على التوالي لتاثير المعاملات.


Article
Physiological and Histopathological Effects of Abetacept (Orencia) Drug on Liver of Albino Male Mice
التأثيرات الفسيولوجية والنسجية المرضية لعقار البيتاسبت (اورنشيا) على كبد ذكور الفئران البيض

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Abstract

A study investigated the effects of abetacept (Orencia) drug on the level of liver enzyme and on liver histology in albino male mice. Fourty five adult male mice of 8 weeks age and weighting 25-35g divided into three groups (15 mice each). The second & third groups were treated with abetacept drug while the first group was used as a control. Abetacept was intraperitoneally given twice every week at 125 mg/kg B.W. and 250 mg/kg B.W. to the second and third groups respectively for 6 weeks, whereas the control group was intraperitoneally injected with normal saline. The results showed a significant (p< 0.05) increase in the levels of liver enzymes [serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) & alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] compared to control group. Also there was a significant (p< 0.05) increase in the level of these enzymes in the third group compared to the second group. Some histopathological changes were found in liver of treated mice with this drug represented in ; hyperplasia of bile ducts epithelial lining cells and fibrosis in portal area of bile ducts, infiltration of neutrophile and mononuclear cell in the lumen of dilated sinusoids and central vein, necrotic area of hepatocytes and hyper atrophy of proliferated kupffer cells. The results of this study concluded that the treatment with abetacept caused increased in the level of liver enzymes and damage in its tissues.


Article
Detection the Virulence Factor (Cytotoxic necrosis factor1) Produce from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates
الكشف عن عامل الضراوة (التنخر الخلوي) المنتج من عزلات الاشريشيه القولونية المسببة لالتهابات القناه البولية

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In this study, only four isolates produce CNF1 from 76 isolatesof uropathogenic Escherichia coli.cnf1 gene was detected by using PCR technique, while cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1(CNF1) was determined by Immunoblotting assay.


Article
Molecular Detection of Some β-lactamases Genes in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
التحري الجزيئي عن مورثات البيتالاكتاميز في الممرضة البولية ايشريكيا القولون

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Around fifty Escherichia coli isolates were isolated from sixty midstream urine specimens collected from patients visiting hospitals in Baghdad city. Approximately, 52% of all isolates were identified as extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) producer. Results demonstrated that 92% of these isolates were sensitive to carbapenems. Only four β-lactamase coding genes were detected; blaTEM, blaPER, blaVIM and blaCTX-M-2. As a conclusion, this work revealed that local E. coli isolates harboured ESBL coding genes which may contribute in its pathogenicity.


Article
Altered IL-2 and IL-10 serum levels in schizophrenic patients
في مرضى فصام الشخصية (IL-2 و IL-10)تغير مستوى الحركيات الخلوية

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Schizophrenia (SZ) is severe mental disorder and characterized by fundamental disturbances in thinking, perception and emotions. Immune deregulation has been postulated to be one of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This study hypothesized that interleukins would have a link with schizophrenia patients. The serum IL-2 and IL-10 levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in schizophrenia patients (n=60) and healthy controls (n = 30). The results showed that serum IL-2 and IL-10 levels were significantly different among schizophrenia patients. The observations indicate a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in schizophrenic patients serum levels of IL-2 compared with healthy control. Whereas detection of IL-10 in the schizophrenic patients serum showed significantly increase level (P < 0.05) compared with healthy control. The results supported that immune disturbance is related to the schizophrenia patients and might play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

Keywords

Schizophrenia --- IL-2 --- IL-10 --- ELISA.


Article
Enhancement of prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens S23 via introducing microbial elicitor cells into culture medium
انتاج المضاد الحيوي برودجيوسين من عزلة محلية لبكترياsp. Serratia ودراسة تأثير استخدام بعض الخلايا الميكروبية كمحفزات للانتاج

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The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of exploiting the interspecies interaction of microbial cells in order to enhance the production of prodigiosin by local isolate S. marcescens S23. Prodigiosin is a promising drug owing to its characteristics of antibacterial, antifungal, immunosuppressive and anticancer activities. S. marcescens S23 was isolated from soil sample and already recognized via morphological, biochemical and molecular identification process. The first step was to detect the optimal conditions for maximum prodigiosin production using chemically defined liquid medium. The results revealed that the optimal conditions for prodigiosin production were sucrose as carbon source; peptone as nitrogen source; 60/40% optimum C/N ratio, 2% inoculum size containing 2×109 cells/ml, which increased the production of prodigiosin from 1.72 to 416 mg/L. Elicitation experiments were carried out by introducing live and dead cells of E. coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, separately, to the S. marcescens culture at zero time. Based on the results obtained in this study, S. marcescens increased its production of prodigiosin as a result of interaction with microbial elicitor cells. The maximum enhancement was achieved in the culture elicited with the heat killed cells of E. coli at an inoculation level of 3% with an increase of approximately 9-fold, whereas the minimum enhancement was upon elicitation with live cells of E. coli and S. cerevisiae. Based on the results obtained in this study, elicitation strategy of exploiting interspecies interactions with microbial cells is successful and useful for enhancing the production of antibiotics.


Article
Effect of immersion in chemical solution on the mechanical & physical properties for composite material reinforced by Nano alumina Particles
تأثير الغمر في المحاليل الكيميائية على الخواص الميكانيكية والفيزيائية لمتراكبات بوليمرية مدعمة بدقائق نانو الومينا

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In this research Epoxy resin was reinforced by nano alumina (AL2O3) particles in grain size(25-30 nm) with two weight ratios (2,4)% then compared with pure Epoxy. Four mechanical tests were performed on these materials include Hardness, flexural, impact & compression strengths before and after immersion in tap water and chemical solutions (CH3COOH) acid, (KOH) base at (0.5N) ,The diffusivity coefficients of all prepared samples were calculate after immersion in water and chemical solutions mentioned above , the results were showed that the Flexural, Impact & Hardness increase after addition the ceramic particles (AL2O3) while the immersion process results showed illustrated different values from sample to other.


Article
Evaluating the phenomenological approach models in predicting the Neutron Induced Deuteron Emission Spectra from Different reactions
تقييم نماذج التقريب الظاهري في تنبأ تحريض النيترون لطيف انبعاث ديتريون ولعدة تفاعلات

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A neutron induced deuteron emission spectra and double differential cross-sections (DDX), in 27Al (n, D) 26Mg, 51V (n, D)50Ti , 54Fe ( n, D)53Mn and 63Cu (n, D) 62Ni reactions, have been investigated using the phenomenological approach model of Kalbach. The pre-equilibrium stage of the compound nucleus formation is considered the main pivot in the discription of cross-section, while the equilibrium (pick up or knock out ) process is analyzed in the framework of the statistical theory of cluster reactions, Feshbach, Kerman, and Koonin (FKK) model. To constrain the applicable parameterization as much as possible and to assess the predictive power of these models, the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data and other theoretical work such as TALYS code (Tendl-2014). The comparisons indicate good agreement between these models with the experimental data.


Article
Improvement of the physical, mechanical and thermal insulation properties to produce gypsum boards by using waste materials

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In this paper, a study of improving the physical properties, mechanical and thermal insulation are conducted to produce gypsum boards with lightweight from waste materials. These boards can be used as an internal packaging wall or partitions tile of non-Bering with a high thermal insulation. Gypsum plaster mixed with waste material like (PET Polyethylene terephthalate, sawdust in size4.75mm and rubber) in different ratio (5%, 7%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%and 30%) of plaster to produce boards and then to find out the effect of these materials on the properties of boards, so that tests of consistency, setting time, flexural strength, density and thermal conductivity were achieved for all samples to find out this effect. The result shows that the best additive ratio to produce gypsum board with best physical, mechanical, and low thermal conductivity is 5,7% of PET.

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Article
Vertebrate Fossils in Fatha, Injana and Mukdadiya Formations in Iraq
مواقع متحجرات فقريات في تكاوين الفتحة وانجانة والمقدادية في العراق

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This study showed that the rock bed units of Fatha (M. Miocene) includes mold of fish fossils imprint on marly limestone; Injana (L. Miocene) includes large femur bone of Mastodont and large number of bone remains; and review study of Mukdadiya Formations (Pliocene) showed more than 21 mamalian species such as: Mastodont, Hipparion, Gazzella, Felidae, Bovidae, Antilopini, Caprinae, Crocodilia, and others. Those vertebrate fossils bones were deposited and preserved within rock bed units of fluvial and evaporite marine environments. Paleoenvironment of fluvial ecosystem made up of food chain, which were includes producer, herbivores as a primary consumer as Mastodon, Hipparion and Gazelle, carnivores as a secondary consumer as felidea and crocodilia and omnivores as aves; and restricted marine ecosystem were includes producer, minute foraminifera and primary or secondary consumer as fish.

Keywords

geology --- vertebrate --- fossils --- bones --- ecosystem --- Iraq.


Article
Fracture Analysis for the Triple Junction of Bekhair- Brifca- Zawita, Anticline Northern Iraq
تحليل الكسور في منطقة الارتباط الثلاثي لطية بيخير- بريفكا – زاويته المحدبه شمال العراق

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The aim of the research is to detect the relation between the fracture sets and systems with the stages of folding. The triple junction area of the research comprises the three faced plunges of three anticlines Bekhair, Brifca and Zawita anticline. GEOreint, ver 9.5.0 was used for analyzing and classifying the data collected from the field measurements on 11 stations in proportion to the orthogonal tectonic axes. The age of exposed rocks ranges from Paleocene up to Miocene. The fractures were represented as joints, veins in addition to different types of faults. The Kinematic analysis of the fractures revealed that the stress caused the (ac) and (hko> a) fractures is coincides with the regional compression stress that form the folds where the max. Principle stress (σ1) is oriented NE-SW parallel to the tectonic axis (a) that lead to shorten the layers in perpendicular direction to the fold axis. While the extension stress was determined in the form of (hko> b) where the (σ1) oriented horizontally in NW-SE direction parallel to the tectonic axis (b) and coincides with the regional extension stress. High distribution of (hkl) in different directions during fracturing and faulting indicates the local stresses associated with more than one phase of deformation.


Article
Linking the Timing of Deposition and Organic Matter Richness of the Gulneri Formation of Northern Iraq to the Global Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2): Implications to better constrain the Depositional Models of Iraqi's Oil Source Beds and their Timing of Deposition
ربط زمن الترسيب والأغناء بالمواد العضوية لتكوين الكلنيري بالحدث العالمي المحيطي المستنزف للأوكسجين رقم 2: معطيات لوضع محددات أفضل للنماذج الترسيبية للصخور العراقيه المولده للنفط وأزمنة ترسيبها

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Abstract

Global oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) are events of immense importance for a variety of reasons. For instance, they are not only behind most if not all of the mass extinctions which took place during the Cenozoic era, but they are the harbinger for the world's best oil source beds, which humanity depends on to satisfy its energy need. In spite of this, there was little effort to document their presence in Iraq, to fill in for the void here, and as a first step, this paper will attempt to establish a cause and effect relationship between OAE 2 and the Gulneri Formation timing of deposition and organic matter richness. This was done by showing the prevalent occurrence of the globally known OAE 2 positive ∂13Corg excursion and the unique rock-eval fingerprints all through the Gulneri Formation. The lessons learned are rather many and important. First is the laying down of stringent constraints on the Gulneri Shale age assignment. In view of this study results, this formation age ought to be bracketed between the latest Cenomanian to the earliest Turonian, or in the language number between 93.5 to 93.9 Ma. The second lesson is the gaining of an in-depth expose about the depositional model responsible for making the Gulneri shale to become so rich in organic matter. It is hoped from all of this is to lay down a solid ground for constraining the depositional models of other Iraqi oil source beds.


Article
Petrography &Mineralogy of the Dammam Formation in Al-Najaf Governorate
دراسة صخارية ومعدنية تكوين الدمام في محافظة النجف

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Abstract

The Dammam Formation ( Middle-Late Eocene) has a total thickness 150 m , 143 m and 89.7 m at the studied wells (B.H.8, B.H.3 and B.H.1) respectively. They are located in Al- Najaf Governorate, 35 Km southwest of Al-Najaf city. The petrographic components of the Dammam limestone comprises skeletal grainsforaminifera (both benthic and planktonic), echinoderm plates and Mollusca, shell fragments, Bryozoan, Bioclasts are common, non-skeletal grainsare pellets, lithoclast (carbonate and non carbonate), and groundmass (micrite and sparry calcite). In term of mineralogy, the X-Ray analysis shows the presence of non clay minerals is calcite, dolomite as the main minerals and quartz and scattered evaporate, whereas clay minerals as secondary minerals are (palygorskite, montmorillonite, chlorite, kaolinite, illite).


Article
Totally ⊕Generalized *Co finitely Supplemented Modules
المقاسات الكليه المكمله ضد المنتهيه ⊕ المعممه

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Abstract

Let R be an associative ring with identity, and let M be a unital left R-module, M is called totally ⊕generalized *cofinitely supplemented module for short ( T⊕G*CS), if every submodule of M is a ⊕ Generalized *cofinitely supplemented ( ⊕G*CS ). In this paper we prove among the results under certain condition the factor module of T ⊕G*CS is T⊕G*CS and the finite sum of T⊕G*CS is T ⊕G*CS.


Article
Large Campus Network Using hierarchical Model
شبكة موقعية كبيرة تستخدم إنموذج هرمي

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Abstract

This paper presents a hierarchical model of localized company effective when is used in a university campus or site. To highlight the standard criteria for each layer of the model and to prove the positive aspects of this model is the best in use and make the Dell Network as case of study. Through the case of study it has been shown that the expansion of the on-site network does not affect services or bandwidth.


Article
Low Energy Consumption Scheme Based on PEGASIS Protocol in WSNs
طريقة لتقليل استهلاك الطاقة بالاعتماد على PEGASIS بروتوكول في شبكات الاستشعار اللاسلكية

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Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are composed of a collection of rechargeable sensor nodes. Typically, sensor nodes collect and deliver the necessary data in response to a user’s specific request in many application areas such as health, military and domestic purposes. Applying routing protocols for sensor nodes can prolong the lifetime of the network. Power Efficient GAthering in Sensor Information System (PEGASIS) protocol is developed as a chain based protocol that uses a greedy algorithm in selecting one of the nodes as a head node to transmit the data to the base station. The proposed scheme Multi-cluster Power Efficient GAthering in Sensor Information System (MPEGASIS) is developed based on PEGASIS routing protocol in WSN. The aim of the proposed scheme is to introduce a transmission power control system based on the residual energy level and the energy harvesting status of each sensor node to extend the overall lifetime of WSN and to balance the energy usage, this leads to increasing network lifetime and decreasing energy consumption. MPEGASIS outperforms PEGASIS protocol by about 19%, and LEACH protocol by about 34%. For the sake of performance evaluation, MPEGASIS protocol besides PEGASIS and LEACH protocols are simulated and compared using Network Simulator (NS2).


Article
Effect of Total, Northern and Southern Hemisphere Sunspot Number (Ri, Rn and Rs) on F2- Layer Critical Frequencies at Mid- Latitude Rome Station During the Descending Phase of Solar Cycle 23
تأثيرعدد البقع الشمسية الكلي(Ri)، عدد البقع الشمسية الواقعة في النصف الشمالي و الجنوبي من الشمس(Rn and Rs) على الترددات الحرجة لطبقة F2 عند محطة روما خلال الطور المنخفض من الدورة الشمسية 23

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Abstract

The relationship between F2- layer critical frequencies (foF2), total sunspot number (Ri), northern hemisphere sunspot number (Rn) and southern hemisphere sunspot number (Rs) at station located in mid- latitudes on latitude near to latitude of Iraq (Rome station, lat.: 42o N and lon.: 13o E) and for 2003(the descending phase of solar cycle 23) were studied. This research work aims to know the correlation range between them, through correlation coefficients which correlate between them, and hence, the dependence on that index for predicting F2- layer critical frequencies. When the correlation coefficients between foF2, Ri, Rn and Rs were compared for different seasons of 2003, It is found that, correlation coefficient between foF2 and Ri is higher in Winter and Summer than it between foF2, Rn and foF2, Rs in Winter and Summer, too. While, correlation coefficient between foF2 and Rn is higher in Spring and Autumn than it between foF2, Ri and foF2, Rs in Spring and Autumn, too. Also, it is found that, the correlation coefficients between foF2, Ri and foF2, Rn and foF2, Rs were so small that foF2 values are approximately constant as Ri, Rn and Rs values increased, in Autumn.


Article
Investigating the Accuracy of IRI Model for the Ionospheric TEC parameter during Strong, Severe and Great Geomagnetic Storms from 2000-2013
التحقيق في دقة الانموذج النظري IRI في تنبأ المحتوى الالكتروني TEC خلال العواصف الجيومغناطيسية القوية والشديدة والكبيرة منذ عام 2000

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Abstract

Several efforts have been made to study the behavior of Total Electron Content (TEC) with many types of geomagnetic storm, the purpose of this research is to study the disturbances of the ionosphere through the TEC parameter during strong, severe and great geomagnetic storms and the validity of International Reference Ionosphere IRI model during these kinds of storms. TEC data selected for years 2000-2013 (descending solar cycle 23 to ascending cycle 24), as available from koyota Japan wdc. To find out the type of geomagnetic storms the Disturbance storm time (Dst) index was selected for the years (2000-2013) from the same website. Data from UK WDC have been taken for the solar indices sunspots number (SSN), radio flux (F10.7) and ionosphere index parameter (IG12). The predicted TEC are calculated from IRI model. From data analysis, it is found that there are (132) events happened in the tested years for the strong, severe and great geomagnetic storms, a largest number of solar storms appeared in years 2000 to 2005 at solar maximum from solar cycle 23 and the number of storms increases with increasing the SSN. In general, there is a good proportionality between disturbance storm time index (Dst) and the total electron contents, the values of TEC in daytime greater than nighttime, but there is anomaly when the storm continued for several hours from the day, there is a highly a broad increasing in TEC started from sunrise to sunset. Also two peaks or more appeared when two types of storms occurred remaining for one event or the storm remains for more than one day. Finally there is approximately sharp peak at noon, when the storm started in early morning. Concerning the validity of the IRI model during strong, great, and severe geomagnetic storm shows that there is a weak correlation between the observed and predicted TEC values, so that the model must be corrected during major storms.

Keywords

TEC --- Geomagnetic storm --- IRI model.


Article
Photometric Properties of Isolated Spiral Galaxies NGC 4800 and NGC 2715
الخصائص الفوتومترية للمجرتين الحلزونيتين المنعزلتين NGC 4800 و NGC 2715

Authors: Sinan H. Ali سنان حسن علي
Pages: 2096-2103
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Abstract

We have carried out multi color CCD surface photometry on the spiral galaxies NGC 4800 and NGC 2715 using 1.88 m optical telescope of Kottamia Astronomical Observatory. From these observations, the surface brightness, Ellipticity, position angle and color indices profiles are studied. Stellar populations in different regions of the galaxies are analyzed using color indices diagrams. We found that the galaxy NGC 4800 has a diffuse bright nuclear region and the asymmetry of the bar is due to the nonuniform distribution of dust in the galaxy. The color indices of the western inner spiral arm coincide with the corresponding mean color indices of the bar indicates that the stellar population of the bar is the same as that of the western spiral arm. The brightness of NGC 2715 remains constant at limited distance along the major axis. This may be attributed to the presence of a bar whose position angle is close to that of the galactic disk. This galaxy also showed reddening, and this is due to the presence of a huge amount of dust in the bulge to disk transition zone.


Article
New multispectral images classification method based on MSR and Skewness implementing on various sensor scenes
طريقة جديدة لتصنيف الصور متعددة الاطياف استنادا إلى تطبيق (MSR) والالتواء لمشاهدِ المتحسّسات المُخْتَلِفةِ

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Abstract

A new features extraction approach is presented based on mathematical form the modify soil ratio (MSR) and skewness for numerous environmental studies. This approach is involved the investigate on the separation of features using frequency band combination by ratio to estimate the quantity of these features, and it is exhibited a particular aspect to determine the shape of features according to the position of brightness values in a digital scenes, especially when the utilizing the skewness. In this research, the marginal probability density function G(MSR) derivation for the MSR index is corrected, that mentioned in several sources including the source (Aim et al.). This index can be used on original input features space for three different scenes, and then implemented the marginal probability density function of MSR values to stretch the histograms of MSR images without any processing. Skewness is proposed on MSR images and combined with multispectral bands of original scene for land cover classification. This is a new method for extensively observing the types of features and its changes. The Hyperion data were utilized in this work; because they contain abundant details information for distinguish the different types of features.

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