Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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Contact info

tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2015 volume:46 issue:4

Article
ESTIMATION GENERAL AND SPECIFIC COMBINING ABILITY AND GEN ACTION USING DIALLEL CROSSES IN MAIZE
تقدير قابليتي الأئتلاف العامة و الخاصة والفعل الجيني باستعمال التضريب التبادلي في الذرة الصفراء

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The objective of this experiment estimation general, specific combining ability and gene action for maize inbred lines. Field experiments were conducted in spring and fall seasons during 2012 and 2013. Ten inbred lines of maize (BK164, BK147, BK129, BK128, BK127, BK121, BK115, BK110, BK105, BK104) were included in this study. The inbred lines were diallel crossed to produce single croses and reciprocal hybrids, using Griffing method one. Varietal trail was conducted for parents and crosses using RCBD with three replicates in order to parameters. The results were showed in three seasons, significant differences among inbred lines in GCA and crosses among SCA in all characters. The parents BK104, BK129, BK115, BK164 and BK128 showed best combination effect. The average degree of dominance more than one in all the seasons. All the traits under Additive gene action.


Article
PURE LINE SELECTION FROM BREAD WHEAT FOR FLOWERING AND MATURITY UNDER DIFFERENT SEEDING RATES
انتخاب خطوط نقية من حنطة الخبز لصفات التزهير والنضج تحت كميات بذار مختلفة

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Field experiments were conducted over three growing seasons, during 2009-2012, at the experimental farm of Field Crop Sciences - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad. This study aimed to application pure line selection in fifteen F4 segregating populations of bread wheatproduced from half diallel crossing among 6 parents .The selection was applied in the first season by using 10% selection intensity, further screening was conducted and selected 12 plants from each population.Thegrains of individual selected plants were planted in the following year in plant to row method and the best15 progeny lines were selected depending on yield performance. Varietal trail was conducted in the third season as RCBD with four replications using a split plot arrangement, where three seed rates (120, 160, and 200 kg.ha-1) randomized in the main plots and 21 genotypes in the sub-plots. The genotypes included fifteen F6 progeny lines plus six parents: Al-fatah, A3103, M2.0, IPA99, A4.10, and Abu-Ghraib3. The results showed that the progeny lines S123, S102, S52, S130, S148 and S83, were take lowest days to flowering and highest in grain filling duration. Significant differences were found between seeding rates for all the studied traits, this revealed highest genetic variations among selected lines.


Article
EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND CUTTING STAGES ON FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY OF SORGHUM (Var.Abu - Sabeen) 1- GROWTHTRAITSANDGREENFORAGEYIDLD
تأثير مواعيد الزراعة ومراحل القطع في حاصل العلف الأخضر ونوعيتهللذرة البيضاء صنف ابوسبعين 1- صفات النمو وحاصل العلف الأخضر

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The study was conducted at the experimental station of the college of Agriculture in Abu – Ghraib, University of Baghdad during the period form mid. Of March to end of September of 2013. The main objective was to find out the effect of sowing dates and cutting stages on growth traits and green forage yield of Sorghum (Var.Abu - Sabeen). The Layout of the experiment was (R.C.B.D)with three replicates arranged in split- plot .Sowing dates (16, 30 March, 13, and 27 April) were taken as main plots while cutting stages (Vegetative growth, 25%, 50%, and 75% flowering) were taken as sub plots. Results showed, that sowing dates on 30 March gave highest mean of Plant height (209.6, 197.5, 164.7) cm, leaf area (2410.5, 2217.7, 1452.8) cm2, number of leaves per plant (10.78, 10.30, 9.25) and green forage yield (40.3, 35.0, 22.7)t.ha-1 for three cuts respectively. cutting the plants at 75% flowering gave highest Plant height (208.9, 198.9, 172.8)cm, stem diameter (1.9, 1.8, 1.5)cm and green forage yield (40.5, 36, 25.6) t.ha-1for three cuts respectively.There was significant interaction between sowingdates and cutting stages on Plant height, leaf area and forageyield. Sowing Abu – Sabeen.Var. on 30 March and cutting at 75% flowering gave highest total forage yield for three cuts (113.68) t.ha-1compar with local Var. (kafir) which producedonly (39.77) t.ha-1 .


Article
EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND CUTTING STAGES ON FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY OF SORGHUM (VAR.Abu - Sabeen) 2- DRYMATTERANDFORAGEQUALITY
تأثير مواعيد الزراعة ومراحل القطع في حاصل العلف الأخضر ونوعيته للذرة البيضاء صنف ابوسبعين 2- المادة الجافة ونوعية العلف

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The study was carried out at the experimental station of the College of Agriculture in Abu – Ghraib, University of Baghdad during the period form mid,of March to end of September of 2013 to investigate the effect of sowing dates and cutting stages on dry matter and forage quality of Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench (var.Abu - Sabeen). The Layout of the experiment was (R.C.B.D) with three replicates arranged in split- plot .Sowing dates (16 , 30 March, 13, 27 April) were taken as main plots while cutting stages (Vegetative growth, 25%, 50%, 75% flowering) were taken as sub plots. Results showed, that sowing dates on 30 March gave highest mean of dry matter (12.25 , 9.57 , 5.37) t.ha -1, percentage of protein in leaves (11.09, 10.83, 10.57) and stems (8.40, 8.13, 7.94) for the 1st,2nd, 3th cuts respectively. Delay the sowing date until 27 April resulted in significant increasment in the percentage of crude fiber in the plant (26.97, 26.66) for the1st,2ndcuts respectively. Cutting the plants at 75% flowering gave highest percentage and yield of dry matter, yield of each protein and fiber. While cutting the plants at Vegetative growth gave highest percentage of protein. it is clear that inorder to obtain high dry matter it shoud be to sowing this variety on30 March and cut the plants at 75% flowering stage, while if it is interest to obtain forage with high quality with regardless to quantity of dry matter then it shoud cuts the plants at the end of Vegetative growth stage.


Article
HORMONAL REGULATION OF TILLERING IN SORGUM (Sorghum bicolor(L.) Moench) AND ITS INFLUENCE ON GRAIN YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS 1. GROWTH CHARACTERISTICES
تنظيم التفريع في الذرة البيضاء هورمونيا" وتأثيره في حاصل الحبوب ومكوناته -1 صفات النمو

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A field experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm , Department of Field Crop Sciences , College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad during the spring and fall seasons of 2013. The aim was to investigate the possibility of hormonal regulation of tillering in sorghum and its relationship with grain yield and its components . R.C.B.D design with Split-plot arrangement was used with three replicates where three sorghum cultivars (Inqath, Rabeh and Abu al sabeen) occupied the main plots and seed soaking treatments with Gibberellic acid and Ethephon occupied the sub- plots . Seed soaking treatments were (T2= 300, T3=600 and T4=900 mg. l-1) of gibberellic acid and (T5=500, T6=1000 and T7=500 ppm) of ethephon besides two control treatments : un-soaked seeds (T0) and seeds soaked with only water (T1) .Results indicated that there were Significant differences between varieties in growth characteristics in both seasons . there were significant difference in the field emergence due to the varieties , seed soaking and their interactions . T4 treatment gave the highest values of field emergence (77.78 and 92.00% ) in both seasons , respectively compared with (60.00 and 81.67 %) for (T7) treatment . KH70 gave the highest values of plant height ( 88.7 and 175.00 cm ) in the last two weeks of sampling in spring and fall season , for ankath and rabihno significant differences in both seasons . Concerning seed soaking , T4 tretment gave the two weeks of sampling compared with ( 60.83 and 141.00 cm ) for (T7) treatment. For leaves number no significant differences were found for both varieties and seed soaking However, for flag leaf area , flag leaf dry weight and chlorophyll content of these characters with the increasing of GA3 concentration in both seasons , respectively , while ethephon treatments decreased these characters.


Article
GERMINATION ABILITYAND SEED YIELDOF COWPEAAS AFFECTED BYPLANTING DATES
قابلية الإنبات وحاصل البذور للوبياء بتأثير موعد الزراعة

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A field experiment was conducted during spring and fall seasons 2013 at the experimental field of crop science department, college of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib to study the effect of sowing dates on yield, yield components, seed quality, and field emergence of cowpea. A split plot arrangement in RCBD with 3 replications was used ,the main plots were consisted of 5 sowing dates 1st March 15th March, 30th March, 15th July, and 15th August, and two varieties Blackeye Wonder, and California Blackeye as sub plots. The results indicated that the sowing date in 15th July was significantly superior in plant height, leaf area index 45. 83 cm, 1.71 respectively, pods/plant, seeds/pod, and seed yield 19.56 pod.plant-1, 7.13 seeds.plant-1, 1425 kg.ha-1,germination, radical length, fresh and dry weight of seedling, seed vigor index, and field emergence 72.5%, 8.71 cm, 11.46 gm, 2.57 gm, 1030, and 50.25% respectively. The variety Blackeye wonder was superior in plant height, leaf area index 38.8 cm, 1.404 respectively, pods/plant, seed yield 9.4 pod.plant-1, 638 kg.ha-1 respectively, radical length, seedling fresh and dry weight, seed vigor index, and field emergence 8.71cm, 9.74 gm, 2.25 gm, 825, 42.80 %, respectively.


Article
PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED SORGHUM GENOTYPES IN A SALINE SODIC SOIL
أداء تراكيب وراثية منتخبة من الذرة البيضاء في تربة ملحية صودية

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To study the effect of selection onsorghum (Sorghum bicolorMoench. cv. Inkath)grown in saline - sodic soil for tolerance, selected plants were grown under two plant densities. Field experiments were carried out at 2010 and 2011 on field of Dept. of Field Crops / College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad, in saline – sodic soil in three methods planting: rows in plot, the top of furrow and furrow bottom.Superior phenotypic plants were selected according to phenotype and higher yield for each planting method at 10% selection pressure. Selected genotypes and there were grown in a comparison experiment under two planting densities (53 and 89 thousand plant/ha). A randomized complete block design with three replications as factorial experiment was used. The results of comparison experiment, showed that the selected genotype of furrow bottom gave higher plant height, dry matter and crop growth rate (92.83cm, 4.84 t/ha and 3.47g/m2/day, respectively). It was concluded that selection in saline – sodic soil under planting methodsespecially of furrow bottom gave better chance to improve selected plants performance under this stress. The higher ratio of genetic variance to environmental variance was with no. of grain/head, head length and grain yield (13.07, 9.11 and 8.00, respectively). It can be conclud that selection on those traits will be effective to improve sorghum performance to saline - sodic soil.


Article
EFFECT OF TIMINOR AND RATES OF POTASSIUM APPLICATION ON SOME GROWTH TRIALS OF BREAD WHEAT
تأثير مواعيد ومستويات أضافة البوتاسيوم في نمو حنطة الخبز

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A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, Dept. of Field Crop, Coll. of Agriculture, Univ. of Baghdad,during 2011-2012 Winter Season, to Study the effect of potas-sium fertilizer levels and appilication stage on some growth characteristies and physiological indexs of wheatTriticumaestivum L. ( Var-Abu-Ghraib-3).Factorial experiment was conducted with RCBD design with three replications involved two levels of Pottasum 120, 180 Kg.ha-1, and control treatment the second factor was three stage of application (tillering , Booting, flowering).The stage, results showed, 120 Kg.K.ha-1 was Superior in (dryweight, crop growth rate, relative groth rate in physiology maturity with an increase of 4.82,4.77, 0.73% as com-pared toapplication level 180 Kg.K.ha-1 , which was superior in flag leaf area, chlorophyll concentration and spike length with an increase of 14.08, 9.74, 13.34% as compared to potas-sium application in 120 Kg.K.ha-1. Application stages was superior in plant hight, Chlorophyll concentration and application potassium attillering gave dry weight high, The highestcrop growth ratand, relative growth rate were 614.59 gm, 13.21gm.m-2.day-1 0.0411 gm.gm-1.day-1.The interaction between two factors was significantly in all characteristicsa studying.


Article
ROLE OF CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS FRUITS EXTRACT AND POLY ETHYLENE GLYCOL IN THE INDUCTION OF GENETIC VARIATIONS AND DROUGHT TOLERANCE OF SUGARCANE IN VITRO
دور مستخلص ثمار الحنظل و الكلايكول متعدد الاثيلين في إستحثاث التغايرات الوراثية وتحمل الجفاف لقصب السكر خارج الجسم الحي

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An experiment was conducted plant tissue culture Labs at the College of Agriculture University of Baghdad, during 2013 – 2014 to stimulate in vitro genetic variations and drought tolerance in two cultivars of Sugarcane (VN413,ROC1).The variables were the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits at concentrations: 0,50,100,150,200 ml.L-1 and Poly Ethylene Glycol at concentrations :0.0,7.5,15.0, 22.5,30.0 g.L-1. Measurements has taken on average of the number of the vegetative branches before and after use the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits treatment and PCR-RAPD test was done results revealed significant differences in average of the number of the vegetative branches after use with the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits at 150 ml.L-1 and 30.0 g.L-1 of PEG, is gave before extract treatment 2.9 branch.plant-1,and after treatment 8.2 branch.plant-1. PCR-RAPD test showed differences in banding Pattern and molecular weights in the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits treatment and control treatment,in light of the results can be concluded that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruits may be have the ability to make a genetic variations and increase bearing shoots to drought stress caused by treatment with PEG in sugar cane, and recommends isolating the substance responsible for causing these variations and diagnosis.


Article
THE ROLE OF CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZATION OF TOMATO IN EDUCING THE INFESTATION OF TOMATO LEAFMINER Tutaabsoluta (MEYRICK) (LEPIDOPTERA:GELECHIIDAE)*
دور التسميد الكيميائي والعضوي للطماطة في خفض الاصابة بحفار أوراق الطماطةTutaabsoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) *

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The results of the effect of three commercial products (fertilizer equations 30: 10:10 and 20:20:20 and 10:20:30 nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium, respectively) of the foliar compound fertilizer (NPK) Pro.sol in plastic house in the number of tunnels caused by the tomato leafminer, Tutaabsoluta, on tomato leaves of the seedlings of Wijdan variety that there was a decrease in the number of infestation signs (tunnels) started from the forth reading dated 2542013 significantly in comparison with all other fertilizer formulations and control treatment. In terms of the number of larvae / plant observed a significant decrease in plants fertilized with three preparations, reached to 0.04 and 0.05 and 0.053 larvae / plant, respectively, compared to the control treatment (0.113 larvae / plant). Results of theorganic fertilization with cow manurein fieldoftomato cropshowed significant decreaseinthe number of tunnels/ plants in fertilization treatment, which ranged between3.40and4.25Tunnels/ plantat02/06/2013 for eachofslitdown theplantand scattering insiderowsfertilizationrespectively,compared to thecontrol treatment (7.69tunnels/ plant). It can be concludedthat all fertilizerformulation used in this research led to a reduction in the number of tunnels in the leaves of tomato plants and reduce the number of the larvae, We recommend to use a foliar fertilizer compound Pro.sol to reduce the sensitivity of the tomato plant toinfestation with tomato leaves leafminer.


Article
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MILK PRODUCTION AND ITS COMPONENT IN HOLSTEIN COWS
العلاقة بين اللاكتوفيرين وإنتاج الحليب ومكوناته لدى أبقار الهولشتاين

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This study was carried out at Al-Nasr Dairy Cattle Station pertaining to the Limited, United Company for Animal Services in Swairah (50 km south of Baghdad) during the period from 15 / 1 / 2013 to 1 / 4 / 2013 using ten, first parity Holstein cows. The objectives of this study were to determine the colostrum and milk lactoferrin concentrations, milk and colostrum constituents, milk and colostrum mineral concentrations, somatic cells counts, amino acid concentrations and the relationship between lactoferrin concentrations and the above-mentioned characteristics.Thestatistical analysis system (SAS) program was used to calculate the linear equations. General linear model (GLM) The average daily and monthly milk yield (1st month yield) were 16.95 ± 0.84 and 508.50 ± 25.31 kg, respectively, while being 18.50 ± 0.84 and 555 ± 25.39 kg respectively for the 2nd month yield. Higher colostrum lactoferrin concentrations was observed 732.78 ± 28.03 mg /l at the end of the experiment as compared with its milk concentrations 350.30 ± 16.34 mg/ l.Greater percentages of fat, protein and lactose were noticed in colostrum in comparison with their percentages in milk, namely 6.81± 0.25, 11.93 ± 0.43 and 3.71 ± 0.04 % respectively at the beginning of the experiment, whereas being 3.60, 3.05 and 4.77 % respectively at the end of the experiment.The somatic cells count in colostrum was higher than its counterparts in milk, which were 72.30 ± 2.32 and became 65.40 ± 3.01at the end of the experiment. Negative and significant (p<0.05) correlation coefficient was noticed between lactoferrin concentrations and milk yield namely(–0.065).Positive and significant (p<0.05)correlation coefficient was found amonglactoferrin concentrations and milk fat(0.84).Positive and significant with the rest of the components .We can conclude that lactoferrin was effected by climate period milk production,as its concentration the first period of milk was higher than the concentration at the end of the period.


Article
THEEFFECTOF THESPRAYNOZZLEANDOPERATINGPRESSUREON WEEDS CONTROLACCOMPANYING WITHWHEATCROP S. S. ABED Al- KAREEMH. A. HUSSEIN
تأثير فوهة الرش و ضغط التشغيل في مكافحة الادغال المرافقة لمحصول الحنطة

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An Experiment was conducted to study the effect of the spray nozzle and operating pressure on weeds control accompanying with wheat crop, at the experimental field of the College of Agriculture /University of Baghdad, about 20 km west of the Baghdad city during the winter season of 2013-2014 . pallas45 herbicide, three levels of operating pressure included 2.3 and 4 bar represented main plot, and three types of spray nozzles included Hollow Cone Nozzle, Flat fan 11004 Nozzle and Turbo TT11005 Nozzle which represented sub plot were used in this studyThe indicators that were studied in this experiment included: droplet size in terms of volumetric median diameter (VMD) (micron), coverage (drop / cm 2), the percentage of weed control after 4 weeks of application (%), and wheat yield (t / ha). The experiment was designed according to split plot design under randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The least significant differences (L.S.D) at 0.05 levels to compare the means of treatments were used in this study. The results can be summarized as followTurbo TT11005 nozzle was superior on Flat fan 11004 nozzle and Hollow cone nozzles sequentially characteristics: volume median diameter (VMD) 353.72 micron, the percentage of the weed control 82.95%, wheat crop 4.26 t / ha either coverage, hollow cone nozzle where superior on the Flat fan 11004 nozzle and Turbo TT11005 nozzle sequentially, 167.28 drop / cm 2 . Increasing the operating pressure from 2 bar - 3 bar - 4 bar caused decreasing in the volume median diameter (VMD) 166.33 micron, and to increasing in the coverage 169.89 drop / cm 2, the percentage of weeds control, 76.29%, wheat crop 4.21 t / ha. Overlap between the nozzle type and pressure was significant effect. the overlap between Turbo TT11005 nozzle and (4 bar) pressure was superior in the percentage of weed control 96.25%, wheat crop 4.35 t / ha. while the overlap between Turbo TT11005 nozzle and (2 bar) pressure was superior in volume median diameter, 412.50 micron. The overlap between Hollow Cone Nozzle with (4 bar) pressure was superior in the coverage217.66 drop / cm 2 .


Article
AN ESTIMATION OF COST FUNCTION OF MAIZE IN IRAQ –BABIL PROVINCE( AS CASE STUDY) SEASON 2013
تقدير دالة تكاليف محصول الذرة الصفراء في العراق – محافظة بابل (حالة الدراسية) للموسم الزراعي 2013

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The aim of this study is to examine indentify the significant differences between the two types of seeds local and hybrid by using T-test for independent samples. And estimating the cost of two function local and hybrid seeds and derive the supply function for two local and hybrid seeds optimum size of production which minimizes cost was 47.77, 39.24 tons and the size of production maximizing profit was 73.29, 67.22 tons. The minimum price that producer accept was 90.81, 170.2 thousand dinars tons of local seed varieties and hybrid respectively . there was appositive relationship between quantity supplied and price when the price is more than 90.81, 170.2 thousand dinars / tons for local and hybrid seeds respectively which is the minimum level of average cost.


Article
STUDYOF TECHNICALANDECONOMICEFFICIENCYOFCERTIFIEDWHEATCULTIVARSINTHEIRRIGATEDAREASOF IRAQDURINGTHESEASON 2012-2013
دراسة لقياسالكفاءة الفنية والاقتصادية لأصناف معتمدة لمحصول القمح في المناطق المروية في العراق للموسم2012-2013

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The diversity of planted classes is considered as one of the important factors affecting the increasing of the production of wheat per the unit area. This research title is “A comparative study of technical and economic efficiency of certified wheat cultivars in the irrigated areas of Iraq during the season 2012-2013” Was to be in line with this concept. The approach was based on the field study data of a random sample were taken from the farms of seed wheat in 132 farms.The technical efficiency and the resources required were measured based on Data Envelopment Analysis Method- (output – Orientated Measures), assuming changing the scale return.The result showed that the technical efficiency has an average of (0.77, 0.91, 0.763, 0.67) for the wheat classes (IPa 99, Rasheed&Tamoz 2 and Abo Graib) respectively. In addition, the approach showed a wasting in the all used resources.The study went through estimating the Economical Efficiency and the resources required based on Data Envelopment Analysis Method- (input – Orientated Measures), assuming changing the scale return. The results showed an average of (0.63, 0.72, 0.60, 0.55) for the wheat classes (IPa 99, Rasheed&Tamoz 2 and Abo Graib) respectively. The result showed also there was a wasting in the resources required expects the seeds of Rasheed class. As of that result, the researcher recommends expanding the production of seeds of Rasheed class for the positive impact on the farms and therefore, on the food security and economic situation of the country.


Article
A COMPARATIVE STUDYFOR TECHNICALANDECONOMIC EFFICIENCYOF DOMESTICANDHYBRID MAIZEINBABYLONPROVINCEFOR THE SEASON 2013.
دراسة مقارنة للكفاءة الفنية والاقتصادية لمزارع انتاج الذرة الصفراء للصنفين المحلي والهجين في محافظة بابل للموسم الزراعي 2013

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Maize constitutes a high percentage of concentrated feed which caused increasing of its demand. To fulfill these increasing demand farmers used new technique of production most important of which was the usage of hybrid cultivars with high productivity the problem of research is concentrated in the low productivity of maize in spite of government support for maize farmers. The objective of research is to measure the economic and technical efficiency of cultivated maize whether it is domestic cultivar or hybrid and to choose the most suitable one. The results showed that there was no difference in technical efficiency which was derived. These two efficiencies were derived by using the variables of production function which were 0.55,058 for domestic and hybrid cultivar respectively and the hybrid cultivar was more efficient in comparison with domestic cultivar. The allocative efficiency was 0.67 and 71 for domestic and hybrid cultivars respectively which showed that the hybrid was more efficient than domestic cultivar the economic efficiency was 0.37 and 0.46 for domestic and hybrid cultivar respectively. Thus the hybrid cultivar was more efficient economically than domestic one due to its high productivity. This showed that hybrid cultivar farms were more efficient in resource allocation and in achieving high profits. According to these results it is recommended to expand the cultivation of hybrid cultivar.


Article
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COST AND PROFIT EFFECIENCY AND TECHNICAL EFFECIENCYOF TOMATO CROPIN DIYALA GOVERNORATE
تحليل اقتصادي لكفاءة الكلفة والربح والكفاءة الفنية لمحصول الطماطة في محافظة ديالى

Authors: A. S. Shukur علي صلاح شكر
Pages: 595-601
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The Production cost consider one of the most important economical indicators, because through it we can reaialized range of economical efficiency that achevied by production units. This study aimed to estimate cost function of tomato crop production and using it to estimate efficiency of cost and profit and deriving supply function. The study depend on cross section data from sample contain from (54) farmers from Diyala governorate, and the qubic formula was the most suitable with economical, statistical and econometrical logic, and from it we shoured that the optimal size of production and size that maximize profit are (17.3) and (14.3) ton consequently, and efficiency of cost and and profit are (%45) and (%90) consequently, while the price in minimum point of cost average was (146.9) dinar, and the elasticity at this price was (0.22), the farm income net that achived over all the sample less about (2986.5) thousand dinar than that achived at optimal size, when we estimate optimal area we founded it was (5.3) dounim, and (%39) only of farmers produce within optimal area.The study conclude that there is no positive relation between cost efficiency and profit efficiency ,and there is the weak respouned of producers towards the prices. The study recomoned to nessecssity of direct agricultural policy to determine law level price,and absorb the surplus to grante best income of farmers.


Article
ESTIMATINGTHE ECONOMICEFFICIENCY OF EGGPLANTFARMS– DIYALAPROVINCE AS CASESTUDY
تقدير الكفاءة الاقتصادية لمزارع الباذنجان– محافظة ديالى حالة دراسية

Authors: E. H. Ali اسكندر حسين علي
Pages: 602-610
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The effective use of resources can increase production and lower productivity resulting from inefficient use of resources. Therefore, the goal of research to estimate the efficiency of using the available economic resources for the eggplant production and a comparison between the optimal quantities and actual quantities of resources used, data were collected randomly from 23 farmers of the crop in the province of Diyala -- Jalawla accounted for 5% of the study population, the search adopt in estimating the economic efficiency and the separation of its components to the technology and economic efficiency on data envelope analysis. The average capacity efficiency and it is inversely associated with family size and proportional with the level of education and years of experience in the cultivation of the crop, technical efficiency averaging 0.82 In other words, the sample farms can achieve the same level of output using 82% of the actual combination of the resources used. While the allocative efficiency, reaching an average of 0.61that mean any re-allocation of resources will provide 39% of the cost of production while maintaining the current production level and cost efficiency, which averaged 0.52 it inversely associated with the size of the family and educational level, and positively with the years of experience in the cultivation of the crop. When comparing the actual quantities of resources with their counterparts achieve economic efficiency show that most of the sample farms surplus in the use of resources and production costs increase at the lowest point of the average costs by 63%. The search find the crop did not obtain adequate attention consequent increase in cost. Therefore, search recommends a susing the optimal production quantities of the elements because of its importance in achieving economic efficiency.


Article
SUGGESTED MODEL FOR TRAINING RURAL YOUTH IN THE AREA OF FARM MANAGEMENT
أنموذج مقترح لتدريب النشء الريفي في مجال إدارة المزارع

Authors: R.H.Hasun رسول هادي حسون
Pages: 611-620
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Abstract

Research aimed to build a model for training of Rural youth in the area of farm management. previous studies and Research theoretical approach that related to training, building models and farm management were used in this study and other studies regarding agricultural extension area. Research results showed that training model was build form three Fields are: intellectual basis, training system ,and review of the model .the intellectual basis has three basic paragraphs are: training of rural youth assumptions, principles ,and the concepts of training with 13 paragraphs .The training system has also three basic paragraphs are: Training of rural youth management ,content, and results of training .In addition ,the training system has137 paragraphs. Finally. Reviewing the model would aim to know the application viability of it after a while because of the technical change .The researcher recommended that 1-It is important to take care the rural youth community because they have significant effect role in present and future time for improving and developing the agriculture sector .They are also quickly adopt of modern agriculture technical and their ability to understand the agriculture problems in their society.2-It is important to adopt and use this model to improve the knowledge of this community and also improve the agriculture management reality in the country.


Article
BROBLEMSFACINGTHE EXTENSIONTRAININGCENTERSAND METHODS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN IRAQFROMTHESTANDPOINTOFITSEMPLOYEES
المشكلات التي تواجه المراكز الارشادية التدريبية وسبل تطويرها في العراق من وجهة نظر العاملين فيها

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Abstract

The Research aimed at identifying the problems facing the training Extension centers training in Iraq from the point of view of its employees as well as to explore the most important suggestions to develope these centers.Arandom stratified proportional sample has been chosen from all provinces in Iraq accept for Kurdistan region of 15province by 60% which became 9 provinces as follows: (AL-Taamem, Salah al-Deen, Diyala, Babylon, Wasit, Najaf, DhiQar,Maysan and Basra).The researchcovered all the personnel in those centers(managers and the other staff) which were about 63 in nine9 extension centers in the provinces concerned.Data were collected during August,2013 by aquestionnaire with interview, the questionnaire consisted of 2-part: the first one dealt with the the problems that faced the Extension centers 27 items distributed on 3axes:organizationalproblems,technicalproblems,financialproblems.the second part included suggestion items 10 to develop Extension centers. The results showed that the financial problems was in the first rank of importance.the third one was the organizational problems. The suggestion of providing financial support came as a first rank.The researchers recommended to solve the problems by the government (ministry of Agriculture) in away of providing financial and technical support as well as increasing their personnel and equipment.


Article
RESPONSE OF GROWTH AND YIELD OF RAPESEED TO SOWING METHOD AND SEEDING RATE
استجابة نمو وحاصل السلجم على مواعيد الزراعة ومعدلات البذار

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Abstract

An experiment was conducted at Krdarasha/College of Agriculture-Erbil to evaluate the effect of sowing method and seeding rates on growth, and seed yield of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)Pactol cv.. Randomized complete block design with in sphtplot, with three replications, were used.Two seeding methods of )drill-row and broadcasting( ranking as the main plots, five seeding rates: )4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 kg ha-1(to subplots. The results showed that drill-row sowing method produced seed and oil yields (1091.9 and 343.62 kg ha-1) more than broadcasting method, particularly, at low seeding rates i.e.4 kg ha -1seeding rate (1344.0 and 398.34). Seeds grown by drill-row produced the highest number of plants m-2, whilcthe highest plants height and took the longest period for flowering and seed setting; and produced a greater number of siliques plant-1 (130.0) and greater weight of seed (0.17 mg) and then, higher seeds and oil yields (1091.9 and 341.46 kg ha-1). Seeds grown at higher seeding rates gave the highst number of plants m-2 and highstsilique surface area, with longest period for seed setting, the highest plants height with higher number of primary branches, higher harvest index and oil percentage. However, seeds grown at low seeding rates, the period from sowing to flowering and flowering period were the longest. At 4 kg ha-1 seeding rate produced higher number of siliques plant-1 (140), greater weight of seed (0.18 mg) and higher seeds and oil yields (1037.3 and 311.09 kg ha-1). It could be concluded that a drill-row sowing method and 4 kg ha-1 seeding rate produced the highest seed and oil yields of rapeseed cv. Pactol in Erbil/Kurdistan Region.


Article
SPECIFY THE BEST COVARIANCE STRUCTURE FOR REPEATED MEASUREMENTS DATA WITH/WITHOUT MISSING OBSERVATIONS USING MIXED MODEL
تحديد أفضل تركيب تغاير للبيانات المتكررة مع / بدون مشاهدات مفقودة باستخدام الأنموذج المختلط

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Abstract

Repeated measures ANOVA is a technique used to test the equality of means. It is performed when all the members of a random sample are tested under a number of many conditions.Repeated measures data needed special methods of statistical analysis asseveral types of covariance structure could be applied.Each of the regression and ANOVA methods could produce invalid results because their assumptions do not consistent with repeated measures data. There are several statistical methods used for analyzing repeated measures data such as separate analysis, univariate, multivariate and mixed model methodology. Recently,the mixed model methodology was used to analyze repeated measures data by many researches becausethe application of this methodology is availablein many computer programs.As thegrowth traits representa good example of repeated measures. This methodology was performed on growth traits of102 Awassi lambs bred on Research station of sheep and goats in Abo –Gharib west of Baghdad to evaluate several covariance structures with /without missing data that describe the body weight (repeated measures) from birth toeight months. Results revealed that the UN covariance structureis the best in complete and missing observations datawith /without covariate according to goodness of fit criterionof -2 Res Log Likelihood, AIC and AICC,whereas the TOEPH covariance structure is the best for all types of data according to BIC. In conclusion: Applying mixed model methodologies confirmed its ability to deal with various covariance structures in the repeated measures data to identify the best covariance structure.


Article
JESTIMATIONOFEFFICIENTOF RANDOM PRIMERSANDEFFECTOFSALT STRESSON CHLOROPHYLLB CONTENTINSOME BREAD WHEAT CULTIVARS
تقدير كفاءة البادئات العشوائية وتاثير الجهد الملحي على محتوى الكلوروفيلb في بعض انواع الحنطة الخبازية

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Abstract

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was employed to estimate genetic similarity among six bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. genotypes profile changes in DIJLAH, IPPA99,FURAT, INIA66,URUQ and TAMOOZ 2. Out of 12 random, 9 primers detected polymorphism among all the studied genotypes, produced 8 –21 bands with an average of 14.5 bands per primer. Wheat genotypes were grouped in three main groups, Group 1 was formed by 2 cultivars (DIJLAH and FURAT), group II was formed by three cultivars (INIA66, IPPA99 and URUQ), and group III was formed by a single cultivar (TAMOOZ 2) was the most distant genotype. With three salinity levels the cultivars were distributed on main plots and the treatment were distributed on sub plots according to split – plot design. Using three replication. The cultivars (FURAT,URUQ and DIJLAH) in three salinity levels (0,5,10) EC (Elecetrical Conductivity) was able to prevent toxic levels of Na+, Cl- accumulation. The cultivars (IPPA 99 and INIA 66) In 10 EC water salts build up in the intercellular space, leading to cell dehydration and death. The highest chlorophyll content is recorded by Furat, while Ibaa99 is recorded the lowest chlorophyll content. Salt stress led to decrease chlorophyll b content of leaves from (44.52 to 24.31) spad.


Article
ABILITY OF LACTOBACILLUS CASEI AND LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS TO PROTECT AGANIST THE TOXICITY IN BROILERS FED CONTAMINATED DIET AFLATOXIN B1
قابلية بكتريا LACTOBACILLUS CASEIوLACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS على الحماية ضدالتأثير السمي للأفلاتوكسين B1 الملوث لعلائق فروج اللحم

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluat the ability of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus in counteracting the deleterious effects of aflatoxin B1(AFB1) in broiler chickens .One hundred and fifty Ross 308, one-day-old broiler chicks were assigned 10 treatments, 3 replicates with 5 birds cages each for 42 reaed day. The experimental treatments were labeled as follows :-T1. BD no other addition (Control ).T2. BD containing a 3 mg FB1/kg diet .T3. BD + Lactobacillus casei CFU ( 1.5×108 cell /ml live).T4. BD + Lactobacillus acidophilus CFU ( 1.5×108 cell /ml live).T5. BD containing a 3 mg AFB1/kg diet + Lactobacillus casei CFU ( 1.5×108 cell /ml live) .T6. BD containing a 3 mg AFB1/kg diet+ Lactobacillus acidophilus CFU( 1.5×108 cell /ml live).T7. BD + Lactobacillus casei CFU( 1.5×108 cell /ml dead).T8. BD + Lactobacillus acidophilus CFU ( 1.5×108 cell /ml dead).T9. BD containing a 3 mg AFB1/kg diet + Lactobacillus casei CFU ( 1.5×108 cell /ml dead).T10. BD containing a3 mg AFB1/kg diet+ Lactobacillus acidophilus CFU ( 1.5×108 cell /ml dead). Growth performance and serum biochemical parameters was measured from d21 and 42 organs weight were determined on d42of age. Aflatoxin B1 significantly decreased BW-gain ,feed intake and impaired feed conversion rate (p˂0.05) at both periods 21 and 42 days and increased relative organs weight (heart,liver,spleen and gizzared) and decreased fabritia and totha. The supplementation of L. casei or L. acidophilus to aflatoxin B1 treated birds significantly diminished the inhibitory effects of dietary AFB1 (p˂0.05) on the growth performance with no differences compared to the control diet. In conclusion our results showed that addition of L. casei and L. acidophilus may reduce the adverse effects produced by the presence of AFB1 in broiler chickens diet.

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