Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

Loading...
Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:56 issue:3B

Article
The use of Spectrophotometric Batch and Flow injection Estimation of Clonazepam drug in Pure and Pharmaceutical Preparations
استخدام الطرق الطيفية(الدفعة والحقن الجرياني) لتقدير دواء كلونازيبام في المادة النقية و المستحضرات الصيدلانية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Two simple, sensitive, accurate, and rapid spectrophotometric batch and FIA methods have been developed for the estimation of clonazepam in pure and in a commercial tablet pharmaceutical preparations. They are based on the oxidative coupling reaction of clonazepam (CZP) with Resorcinol in the presence of sodium periodate exhibiting red coloured products obtained with a maximum absorbance at (


Article
Determination of oxonium ion using laser diode fluorimeter : (Blue purple(405 nm)-Green (532nm) using photodiode at 900 as a detector and I- -IO3- -H3O+ system for quenching of fluorescence
تقدير ايون الاوكسونيوم باستخدام محلل الحقن الجرياني فلوروميتر بثنائيات وصلة ليزرية :(ازرق-بنفسجي405نانومتر)-الاخضر( 532نانومتر) باستخدام ثنائي وصلة فوتوني بزاوية 900I- - IO3- -H3O+ كمتحسس لنظام اخماد الفلورسين

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A newly developed sensitive, fast and accurate analytical method characterized by a sensitive, fast and accuracy for the determination of oxonium ion by laser diode fluorimeter-flow injection analysis. The method is based on the libration of free iodine causing to quench the fluorescence light (continuous fluorescence from fluorescien molecule (free acid)) when irradiated by laser source at 405nm. Chemical and physical parameters were studied and optimized. The optimum parameters were 1.3mL/min using fluorescien (free acid) as a carrier stream, 35µL sample volume at valve no.1 and 39µL at valve no.2 and opened valves sequentially. Data treatment shows that linear range 0.002-0.1mMol.L-1,0.01-0.2mMol.L-1,0.002-0.5mMol.L-1,0.002-0.7mMol.L-1 for HCl, H2SO4,HClO4 and tartaric acid respectively, with correlation coefficient r= 0.9562, 0.9976. 0.9755 and 0.9579. The limit of detection (S/N=3) 1.28ng/sample, 17.16ng/sample, 3.52ng/sample and 5.25ng/sample for HCl, H2SO4,HClO4 and tartaric acid respectively from the stepwise dilution for minimum concentration of lowest concentration in linear dynamic range of the calibration gragh. RSD% for the repeatability (n=8) was ˂1% for the determination of HCl, H2SO4,HClO4 and tartaric acid with concentration 0.01mMol.L-1 . The comparison was made between the newly developed method analysis with the classical method (pH-meter) using the standard addition method via the use of paired t-test was studied at two different paths .First path a comparison between two methods of analysis and second path between the two different acids. It was noticed that there was no significant difference between different acids and different methods at 95% confidence interval level.


Article
Detection of Genetic Modified Feed Component
التحري عن وجود تحوير جيني في مكونات الأعلاف

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

There are growing concerns over the possibility of transfer genetically modified sequences from genetically modified feed component (GM feed) to animals and their products, moreover, affect these sequences on animal and human health. This study was implemented to detect P35S in modified feed by using PCR technique by detecting presence P35S promoter, which responsible for the regulation of gene expression for most of the transgenic genes. Thirty eight feed samples were collected from different sources of Baghdad markets, which have been used for feeding livestock, comprise 21 coarse mixes feed, 13 pelleted feed, and 4 expanded feed. Genomic DNA was extracted by using two methods, CTAB method and Wizard kit. In order to verify the presence (P35S) in feed samples, a pair of primer for 35S promoter was used. The results of the present study showed that 58% of tested samples contained promoter P35S this means presence genetically modified feed in the Baghdad market.


Article
Serum-Glutamic-Pyruvic-Transaminase (SGPT) and Serum- Glutamic-Oxaloacetic-Transaminase (SGOT) Estimation in Different Groups of Women Infected with Toxoplasmosis
تقدير نشاط بعض أنزيمات الكبد وهما الألانين اسبارتاتيت وألالانين ترانسفيريز في مجاميع مختلفه من ألنساء المصابات بداء المقوسات الكونديه

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the disturbances of some liver enzymes like GPT and GOT level in different groups of women infected with toxoplasmosis. This study was performed on 600 apparently healthy women (pregnant, miscarriage and single) collected from different hospitals in Baghdad, AL-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital and Fatima AL-Zahra Hospital for Obstetric and children and Hay Hiteen clinic during November 2013 till April 2014. The detection of toxoplasmosis was done by a preliminary screening test LAT and the positive percentage was (29.55%), (30.36%) and (40.08%) for pregnant, miscarriage and single women respectively. While, the confirmation of positive results of LAT was done by ELISA-IgG and the results were (40%), (41.81%) and (18.19%) respectively. The disturbances of GPT and GOT liver function enzymes in those women were evaluated and the result showed that only miscarriage women revealed high significant increase of GPT in comparison to all groups while there was no disturbances of GOT happened in any group of women infected with toxoplasmosis.


Article
Evaluation the Efficacy of Ozone and High Temperature to Control Egges and Pupae Stages Laboratory for Hairy Grain Beetle (khapra) Trogoderma granarium Everts Coleoptera : Dermestidae
تقييم كفاءة استعمال غاز الاوزون و درجات الحرارة العالية على طوري البيض والعذارى لخنفساء الحبوب الشعرية(الخابرا) مختبريا.Trogoderma granarium Everts Coleoptera : Dermestidae

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The effect of the treatments were the combination of ozone gaz with high temperatures ( 35، 40 and 45C) and tempreture alone in addition to control treatment treatments were tested on Egges and Pupae stages of hairy grain beetle Trogoderma granarium (Everts). Results showed that( Z+H) and (H) treatments were more lethally effective (100%mortality) than to control treatment on Egges and Pupae stages of insect . The results also showed that first treatment(Z+H) was more effective than the second treatment (H) on two stages , the total killings 100% (LT100) in eggs reached at periods 15.00, 13.00 hours and 18 minutes, respectively with treatment of the ozone gaz with high temperatures ( 35، 40 and 45C),when tempreture alone showed exposure to 0.0, 0.0 and 30 minutes. Result showed also the pupae stage was more resistant than egg stage the time required to achieve 100% kill ratio is 15.00, 13.30 and 1.00 hours, respectively, and in the treatment of tempreture alone showed exposure to 0.0, 0.0 and 1.15 hours, respectively. ,the temperature alone treatment with 35,40C was not effective on Egg and Pupae while the temperature 45C alone and combined with Ozone gaz was more effective on two stages of insect .It was also found that Egg stage was more sensetive to all treatments than Pupae stage at 45 Celsius.


Article
Antimicrobial Effects of Silver Nanoparticles Produced by Laser Ablation
التثبيط البكتيري لجزيئات الفضة النانوية المنتجة بتقنية الليزر

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this article Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized through physical method where the Nd-YAG laser has been used.The antimicrobial activities of these silver nanoparticles were investigated on two types of bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. These bacteria were used as representatives of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Two experiments have been made The first one was to test the effectiveness of silver nanoparticles as an antimicrobial agent on Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, while the other one (susceptibility Test) was to evaluate antimicrobial agents effective against bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics. This study showed that Ag-NPs that synthesized by laser ablation have a great effect on S. aureus and E. coli bacteria and have potent antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus epidarmials (antibiotic-resistant) bacteria cells .

Keywords

Laser --- Nanoparticle --- Silver --- Bacteria


Article
Water Quality Assessment, and Suitability for Irrigation Purposes of Lesser Zab River, Northern Iraq.
تقييم نوعية المياه ومدى صلاحيتها لغرض إرواء الاراضي الزراعية، في نهر الزاب الاسفل، شمال العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This research was conducted to investigate the water quality of the lesser Zab river, to evaluate the water suitability for agricultural usings and report the effect of human activities on this water. Samples were collected along the river stream starting from Dukan area till the convergence with Tigris River. All the tests were conducted at the labs of Environmental sciences and Technology College / University of Mosul and Erbil water project/Erbil city. The results of using Piper diagram showed that the water is alkine, due to the effect of the origional rock's components of that area on the water quality. While the using of Stiff diagram elucidate that the water samples contain ions belong to the area of the lesser Zab crossing which have carbonic formation. The using of Richard diagram showed that the quality of the water in all the samples tested, is good and suitable for irrigation. Also the water of the lesser Zab showed no signs of polluted effects on the Tigris river after converging due to the length of the lesser Zab and the dilution happening to its polluters along its path.


Article
Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolation, Expansion and Identification
الخلايا اللحمية الوسيطة المشتقه من نخاع العظم البشري: عزلها, تنميتها و تشخيصها

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present study aimed to isolate and diagnose mesenchymal stem cells derived from human bone that is the source generating cells that are the best types of treatment for tissue diseases. Cells were isolated from the back bone of the human pelvis, separated using density gradual sedimentation method and then the cells were grown on the culture media RPMI-1640 20% FBS. To detect the purity of cells that have been isolated and have been transplanted immune use the method using CD44 (mesenchymal stem cells marker) CD43, a specific marker for hematopoietic cells Nestin, (the neurons private marker). The present study has shown that mesenchymal cells that have been isolated and expanded in this experiment has reached up 99.7% for the CD44 marker and only 1.1% for the hematopoietic cells marker CD34 and finally was 23.9% for the parameters for the neuronal marker Nestin


Article
Efficacy of Amphotericine B Ddrug Against Promastigote and Axenic Amastigote of Leishmania Dononvani in Vitro
تاثير عقار الامفوترسين ب ضد الطور الامامي السوط وعديم السوط لليشمانيا الاحشائيه خارج جسم الكائن الحي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Leishmania are protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae that cause high morbidity and mortality levels with a wide spectrum of clinical syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the effect of liposomal amphotericine B (AmBisome) drug on promastigote and axenic amastigote stages of Leishmania donovani isolate (MHOM/IQ/2005/MRU15)in comparison with pentostam SbV drug. Different concentrations of AmBisome and SbV drugs were investigated against Leishmania donovani promastigote and axenic amastigote. The IC50 values of SbV and AmBisome drugs on promastigote were10.12 mg/ml and 2.21µg/ml, respectively, while they were 0.77µg/ml for axenic amastigote for both drugs. The present study concluded that axenic amastigote was more sensitive than promastigote against both drugs, and AmBisome drug showed high effectiveness against both stages with low concentrations in comparison with pentostam.


Article
Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Serological Methods (rK39 dipstick, ELISA and IFA) Techniques in the Diagnosis of Visceral leishmaniasis.
تقييم كفاءة طرق مصلية مختلفة (دب ستك, ايلايزا,ايفا) في تشخيص الاصابة باللشمانية الاحشائية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of rK39, ELISA and IFA tests for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis using blood samples. Samples were collected from 146 suspected patients and 30 healthy individual as control. The results showed 52 (35.62%), 58 (39.73%) and 71 (48.64%) positive samples by rK39, ELISA and IFA , respectively. IFA test showed a higher sensitivity (48.63%) than ELISA and rk39 dip stick (39.72%) and (35.61%) respectively. The highest sensitivity of agreement (K: 0.912) was found between rK39 dipstick and ELISA. Therefore, we suggest the application of rK39 dipstick and ELISA methods in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis for early and accurate diagnosis of this disease.


Article
Phytoplankton Diversity and Pollution Index in North Part of Euphrates River, Iraq
تنوع الهائمات النباتية ومعامل التلوث في الجزء الشمالي من نهر الفرات– العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study covered approximately 150 km from the northern part of the Euphrates River in Iraq. Water and phytoplankton samples were monthly collected from six selected stations from April 2013 to March 2014; three stations were distributed within Hadithah Reservoir, while the three others were in the river's inflow. Water physical and chemical parameters and the phytoplankton community structure were analyzed. The most important results of this study were the diagnoses of 355 phytoplankton species belong to eight phylums. Algal class Bacillariophyceae which belong to phylum Ochrophyta was the most qualitative and quantitative dominant in all stations over the study period. The stations within the reservoir were characterized by higher number of genes and species, which led to higher Shannon-Weaver diversity index values in comparison to other stations. Water quality were evaluated by using the mentioned diversity index and Palmer's pollution index, stations 1 which is located in the river before the reservoir were with low levels of pollution; stations 2, 3 and 4, which are located inside the reservoir and station 5 (downstream the reservoir) were likely polluted, while the organic pollution in station 6 was confirmed because it's location close to the sewage discharge. The study concludes that Palmer's pollution index was more accurate than diversity index for the evaluation of water pollution levels.


Article
A Comparative Study between Pathogenicity of Ceftazidime Resistant and Sensitive Escherichia coli in White Mice Kidneys and Bladder
دراسة مقارنة بين امراضية الايشريكية القولونية المقاومة للسيفتازيديم و الحساسة له في كلى ومثانة الفئران البيض

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Twelve albino mice was divided randomly into four groups comprising A through D injected with ceftazidime at sub MIC, Escherichia.. coli 11, Escherichia.. coli 11 with ceftazidime solution, and standard strain, respectively. Histopathological sections did not show any changes in respect to group A. however, group C suffered signs of infection less than those appeared in group B sections. Simultaneously, group D suffered intense histpathological changes more than other groups infected with resistant isolate.


Article
Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Acoholic Extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus (P2) In Vivo
تقييم الفعاليه المضادة للاكسدة للمستخلص الكحولي لفطر Pleurotus ostreatus (P2) في جسم الكائن الحي

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this study found treatment mice exposed to CCl4 with the alcoholic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus (P2) at (25) mg/ml appeared to exert a beneficial effect since the activities of catalase, was significantly (p<0.05) higher in liver treatment with alcoholic extract of P. ostreatus (P2) (37.290+2.638) µmol/mg than in aqueous extract for the same fungus (36.557+2.231) µmol/mg. Super oxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in liver treatment with alcoholic extract of P. ostreatus (P2) at (25) mg/ml (17.863+0.454)U/mg than in aqueous extract (17.863+0.454) U/mg for the same fungus and same concentration. Glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in liver treatment with alcoholic extract of P. ostreatus(P2) at (25) mg/ml (29.260+1.666)µmol/mg than in aqueous extract (24.660+1.130)µmol/mg for the same fungus and same concentration. Alcoholic extract of P .ostreatus (P2) at (25) mg/ml induce a non-apoptotic, apoptosis was (0.0657+0.0047%) ,in aqueous extract was (0.0770+0.0060%). Histopathological study appeared liver cells exposed to CCl4, CCl4 made severe degeneration and necrotic change in liver parenchyma by evidence of apoptosis in some hepatocytes , in sinusoids showed slight congestion with blood vessel and thrombus formation. Liver cells of mouse exposed to CCl4 and treated with alcoholic mushroom extract and appeared the liver cells returned like control. the tissue treatment by aqueous extract of P.ostreatus (P2) at (25) mg/ml appeared mononuclear cells aggregation.


Article
Production, Purification and Characterization of Uricase Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa
انتاج ، تنقية وتوصيف انزيم اليوريكيز المنقى من بكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this study, detection of uricase production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates was done by applying colorimetric method, Uricase was purified from the most potent isolate by precipitation using ammonium sulphate (80% saturation) then purification was achieved using DEAE –Cellulose ion exchange and Sepharose 6B gel filtration chromatography column, 16.4% of total enzyme was recovered with specific activity 2337.5U/mg and 22.21folds of purification. Characterization of uricase involved detection of optimal conditions for uricase activity, the maximal activity was obtained at temperature 45ºC,while uricase appeared to be stable at 40ºC. Uricase showed optimal activity at pH 9 while pH stability was in the range of 7.5-9. Molecular weight of uricase obtained in this study determined by sodium dedosyl sulfate electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique was approximately 35kDa.


Article
The Effect of 650 nm Diode Laser on Growth Curve of Gram-negative Bacteria and Their Phagocytic killing Assay by PMN Cells.
تأثير ليزر الدايود ذي الطول الموجي 650 نانو متر على منحني النمو للبكتريا السالبة لملون غرام وفحص القتل بالبلعمه للخلايا العدلة

Authors: Ayat M. Ali آيات مظفر علي
Pages: 2264-2274
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Nowadays laser in medicine is a rapidly growing field in both researches and applications and many studies have been done in bacteriology against different types of lasers. The effect of the laser depends on many factors, one of the laser factors was the wavelength. The red wavelength band has been considered as a stimulated wavelength for prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In this study, three clinical species of Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were exposed to 650 nm band of red region wavelength by a diode laser. The effect of that wavelength appeared on the growth curves for each species along 3 days after laser treatment. The energy density (E.D.) 2.8 J/cm2 gave a positive effect on growth curve for these three species, while the 5.6 J/ cm2 have a stimulation effect on both P. aeruginosa and E. coli. The Phagocytic killing Assay (PKA) by PMN cells was tested against irradiated bacteria, and the 2.8 J/cm2 appeared to have a significant (P<0.05) effect on PKA of all that three types of bacteria, on the other hand the 5.6 J/cm2 affected significantly (P<0.05) on the PKA of P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa. These findings suggested that the E.D. 2.8 J/cm2 was much effective than the 5.6 J/cm2 on the growth curves and PKA values of the three bacteria species.


Article
Effect of aqueous red cabbage extract on uricase activity isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
تـأثير مستخلص اللهانة الحمراء المائي على فعالية انزيم اليوريكيز المعزول من بكترياPseudomonas aeruginosa

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Separation of uricase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was done using (70%) saturation ammonium sulphate, and purification of this enzyme was done by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE- cellulose column and eluted with linear NaCl (0-1M). Partial purified uricase gave an activity of (4.9 u/ml), protein concentration of (0.56 mg/ml), specific activity of (8.75 unit/mg) with purification folds (8.4) and a yield of (48%). The maximum purified uricase activity was detected at 35ºc and pH 8.5 with (0.12 mM.uric acid). The results shown that red cabbage extract (RCE) contain flavonoides which contain phenolic compounds and anthocyanines which glycoslated with mono or dimolecules of saccharides, while test for alkaloids, ster-oids, saponins and tannins were negative. Red cabbage extract (50mg/ml) have an inhibition activity against uricase compared with negative and positive control using allopurinol. So red cabbage considered as a novel inhibition for uricase whiel can used to treat gout disease in future.


Article
Extraction, Purification and Characterization Of Peroxidase From cabbage (Brassica oleracea Var) .
استخلاص وتنقية وتوصيف انزيم البيروكسديز من اللهانة (Brassica oleracea Var)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The activity of peroxidase (POD) in cabbage was evaluated using spectrophotometric method. The enzyme was extracted from the cabbage leaves with 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution pH 7. 0 . POD activity was determined using (O-dianisidine) as a substrate. The effects of the amounts of enzyme extract, substrate concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. The highest activity of POD was recored at 2 mg/ml. The highest activity of POD was optimized with 16 mM O-dianisidine, The optimum pH was 7.0 for POD , The optimum temperature was 30°C for POD. These optimum conditions were used to determined the enzyme activities in cabbage sample. Acetone fractionated peroxidase from crude extract of Brassica oleracea leaves (Cabbage) was purified on DEAE-Cellulose chromatographic columns. The specific activity of purified POD is 103.70 (U/mg) ,which is 5.37 times more than the crude extract with 28.72% recovery. Maximum pH, thermal activity and stability of this purified enzyme are also determined were 40°C .


Article
Characterization of Laser induced cadmium plasma in air
خصائص بلازما الكادميوم المحتثة بالليزر في الهواء

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, the fundamental harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (Q-switched 1064nm wavelength, 1 Hz repetition rate and 9 ns pulse duration) has been used for the ablation of cadmium samples in air at atmospheric pressure and the generation of the cadmium plasma. The experimentally observed lines of cadmium plasma emission have been used to calculate the plasma parameters such as (electron temperature (Te), electron density (ne), Debye length (λD) and plasma frequency (ωp)). Line pair ratio of neutral species have been used for the electron temperature and electron density measurements. Plasma parameters were studied as a functions of laser pulse energy.


Article
Elastic Electron Scattering Form Factors and Charge Densities for Some Nuclei in 2s-1d Shell Using the Effect of Occupation Numbers
عوامل التشكل للاستطارة الالكترونية المرنة وتوزيعات كثافة الشحنة لبعض النوى الواقعة في الغلاف 2s- 1d باستخدام تاثير اعداد الاشغال

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Elastic electron scattering form factors, charge density distributions and charge, neutron and matter root mean square (rms) radii for 24Mg, 28Si and 32S nuclei are studied using the effect of occupation numbers. Single-particle radial wave functions of harmonic-oscillators (HO) potential are used. In general, the results of elastic charge form factors showed good agreement with experimental data. The occupation numbers are taken to reproduce the quantities mentioned above. The inclusion of occupation numbers enhances the form factors to become closer to the data. For the calculated charge density distributions, the results show good agreement with experimental data except the fail to produce the hump in the central region for 28Si nucleus. Finally, the calculated charge rms radii for the nuclei under study show good agreement with experimental data. PACS number(s): 21.60.Cs, 21.60.De, 25.30.Bf, 27.10.+h, 27.20.+n


Article
Facies Architecture and Diagenetic Features Development of Albian-Early Turonian Succession in Luhais Oil field, Southern Iraq
البنية السحنية وتطور المظاهر التحويرية لتتابع الابين- التوروني المتقدم في حقل اللحيس النفطي جنوب العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Clastic-carbonate succession which including the Nahr Umr and Mauddud Formations are represented a part of Albian-Early Turonian Sequence (Wasi`a Group). The present study includes Petrography, microfacies analysis, depositional environment, digenetic development, and reservoir characterization for seven boreholes (Lu-2, Lu-4, Lu-5, Lu-8, Lu-13, Lu-14 and Lu-39) within Luhais Oil field South Iraq. There are six type of carbonate microfacies were recognized in the Mauddud Formation:- Orbitolina - Milliolids wackestone to packstone Orbitolina wackestone to packstone, miliolids wackestone, Peloidal wackestone to packstone, Ooides to Peloids grainstone and bioclastic Wackestone - Packstone. These microfacies are represented three depositional environments: restricted shallow marine environment, semi-restricted shallow marine environment and Shoal environments. While the Nahr Umr Formation characterized by six lithofacies; Lithofacies I (Mudstone), Lithofacies II (Siltstone - Claystone), Lithofacies III (Lenticular Bedded Sandstone-Mudstone), Lithofacies IV (Falser Bedded Mudstone - Sandstone), Lithofacies V (Parallel Lamination Sandstone - Siltstone) and Lithofacies VI (Well sorted sandstone). These lithofacies are suggested four depositional environment of Nahr Umr Formation: Active channel environment, channel fill environment, delta plain environment and delta front and shore face environment. The most common diagenetic features observed and distribution in the studied sections includes Micritization, Cementation, Leaching (dissolution), dolomitization and Compaction fabrics. The most effective diagenetic processes were cementation, dissolution and dolomitization processes which have direct affect upon the study sections. The Nahr Umr and Mauddud sequence can be divided by the gamma ray and shale value into three zones (A, B and C); therefore we have interpretation of the logs porosity and porosity evaluation according to these divisions.


Article
Determination concentrations of cesium -137 in soil and aerosol of city of Ramadi and surrounding areas and the radiation doses caused by inhalation
حساب تراكيز السيزيوم-137 في عينات ترب وهباء مدينة الرمادي وما حولها والجرع الاشعاعية الناجمة عن استنشاقه

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Concentrations of 137Cs were measured in 40 samples that have been selected from the surface soil in cities of Ramadi, Fallujah, Heet and surrounding areas. The activity of 137Cs in seven dust storms that hit the area western of city of Ramadi within the period 1/3/2013-1/10/2013 was measured also. The concentration in soil ranges between (below detection level-14.5) Bq.kg-1, while it ranges between (7.5-8.8) Bq/kg in the dust storms. The dose due to exposure to the cesium in surface soil was estimated to be ranged between (0.4-7.7) *10-2 mSv.y-1 while the effective doses due to inhalation of resuspended 137Cs was about 1.61*10-8 and the doses caused by inhalation of 137Cs in dust storms is ranging between (8.13-9.54)*10-7µSv/y. This study gives evidence that dust storms contribute in moving of 137Cs and other pollutants from their origin contaminated areas. The source of 137Cs may be not far away from the study region which depends on the direction of the permanent wind in the region, and the location of the study area relative to the source and direction of the dust storms.

Keywords

Cesium --- soil --- aerosol --- dose --- radiation in Iraq.


Article
Environmental Assessment of Al-Hammar Marsh Sediments, Southern Iraq
التقييم البيئي لرواسب هور الحمّار، جنوب العراق

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Concentrations and distribution of major, minor, and trace elements were studied in thirteen sediment samples from Al-Hammar Marsh. Multivariate statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Agglomerative Hierarchal Cluster Analysis (AHCA) as well as pollution analysis such as Enrichment Factor (EF) were used to process the data and identify the possible sources of elemental constituents in sediment samples.Results of chemical analysis revealed that Major element mean concentrations were in the order of Ca> Si> K> Mg> and minor elements were in the order of Al> Fe>S>Cl> Ti> P>Mn> Sr> N and trace elements were in the order of Cr> Ni> Zr>V>Zn> Cu>Br> Co>Pb >Mo>As>U> Se> Cd. Mainly increasing of Salinity in Marsh water and sediments led to increasing of Mg, S, Ca, Br, Cl concentrations in Al-Hammar Marsh Sediments. Multivariate statistical techniques PCA and AHCA revealed that V, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Pb, Co, Fe, Ni, and Cu were most probably derived from fertilizers and petroleum extraction wastes in and near the study site. U (at St1) and Sr came from fertilizers and for U might be from military weapon. Br, Cd, Cl, Ca, S, P and N indicated anthropogenic source (fertilizers, animal waste, and domestic sewage). While Mg, Cr, Mn were mainly associated with anthropogenic activities (fertilizers and animal wastes). On the other hand Al, Si, Ti, K, and Zr were primarily of natural sourcing from erosion of parent rocks. Enrichment Factor gave compatible results with PCA and AHCA findings and revealed that Al-Hammar Marsh sediments were highly contaminated by S, Mg, Cl, Ca, P, Br, Se, Mo, Ni, Co, Cu, and Sr. and it were minimally contaminated by Zn, V, U, Cr (excluding S3), As, Fe, Mn, and N.


Article
Supplement Extending Modules
مقاسات التوسع المكملة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this note we consider a generalization of the notion of extending modules namely supplement extending modules. And study the relation between extending and supplement extending modules. And some properties of supplement extending. And we proved the direct summand of supplement extending module is supplement extending, and the converse is true when the module is distributive. Also we study when the direct sum of supplement extending modules is supplement extending.


Article
Slip Effect on the Peristaltic Transport of MHD Fluid through a Porous Medium with Variable Viscosity
تأثير الانزلاق على الانتقال التموجي لمائع مغناطيسي هايدروديناميكي خلال وسط مسامي مع لزوجة متغيره

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The present paper concerns with peristaltic analysis of MHD viscous fluid in a two dimensional channel with variable viscosity through a porous medium under the effect of slip condition. Along wave length and low Reynolds number assumption is used in the problem formulation. An analytic solution is presented for the case of hydrodynamic fluid while for magneto hydrodynamic fluid a series solution is obtained in the small power of viscosity parameter. The salient features of pumping and trapping phenomena are discussed in detail through a numerical integration. The features of the flow characteristics are analyzed by plotting graphs and discussed in detail. When .


Article
On (m,n) (U,R) – Centralizers
حول التمركزات- (R,U) من النوع (n,m)

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Let m ≥ 1,n ≥ 1 be fixed integers and let R be a prime ring with char (R) ≠2 and (m+n). Let T be a (m,n)(U,R)-Centralizer where U is a Jordan ideal of R and T(R) ⊆ Z(R) where Z(R) is the center of R ,then T is (U,R)- Centralizer.


Article
The Solution of Operator Equations A X B+X^*=C & A X B+ B^* X^* C=D
حل معادلات المؤثر A X B+X^*=C و A X B+ B^* X^* C=D

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, we study the solvability of two operator equations A X B+ X^*=C (1) and A X B+B^* X^* C=D (2) Where A, B, C and D are bounded linear operators. We give the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution of equation (1), and describe the general form of the solution in the solvable case for both equations by using g-inverse of the operator B.


Article
Effective Image Watermarking Method Based on DCT
طريقة فعالة لصورة العلامة المائية اعتمادا" على تحويل الجيب تمام

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Most includeding techniques of digital watermark even now working through the direct inclusion in the pixel without taking into account the level of compression (attack) that can go wrong, which makes digital watermark can be discarded easily. In this research, a method was proposed to overcome this problem, which is based on DCT (after image partitioned into non overlapped blocks with size 8×8 pixel), accompanied by a quantization method. The watermark (digital image) is embedded in DCT frequency domain seeking the blocks have highest standard deviation (the checking is only on the AC coefficients) within a predetermined threshold value, then the covered image will compressed (attacked) varying degrees of compression. The suggested methodology enables user to extract digital watermark even when the digital image compressed to low level bit ratios was showed in tables.


Article
“Examine the Multi-Scattering Effect on the Detected Backscattering Photons By Cometary Molecules”
اختبار تأثير الاستطارة المتعددة على اكتشاف الفوتونات المستطارة خلفيا بواسطة جزيئات المذنبات

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The effect of multiple scattering on the detected γ-photons at the surface of Hyakutake comet, which emitted from the radioisotope 137Cs were studied and compared the results with the single scattering case. Also the multiple scattering results were gathered with the single scattering case and investigate the effect. The calculations were conducted to analyze the variation of counts rate with source detector separation and the source of energy. Monte Carlo (MC) method was used to simulate the scattering and absorption of photons in semi-infinite material by developing the program in FORTRAN language (77 - 90) for this purpose. The distance between the source and the detector takes values of 1, 2,….5 cm, the results showed that single scattering gives a maximum counts generally at distances between 3 and 4 cm, while the multiple scattering case appears increasing as the source detector distance increased.


Article
Study the Impact of the Distance Factor on the Optimal Workable Frequencies for the Long Distance Radio Communications
دراسة تأثير عامل المسافة على قيم الترددات العاملة المثلى للاتصالات الراديوية بعيدة المدى

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this research, the influence of the distance factor on the optimal working frequency (FOT) parameter has been studied theoretically for the ionosphere layer over the Middle East Zone. The datasets of the (FOT) parameter have been generated using the (VOACAP) model which considers as one of the recommended modern international communication models that used to calculate the ionosphere parameters. The calculations have been made for the connection links between the capital Baghdad and many other locations that distributed on different distances and directions over the Middle East region. The years (2011-2013) of the solar cycle 24 have been adopted to study the influence of the distance factor on the FOT parameter. The results of the conducted study showed that the distance factor has a clear influence on the values of the FOT parameter, also the day/night effect is more significant in the long distance HF links (i.e. more than a 500 Km).


Article
Monitoring of environmental variations of marshes in Iraq using Adaptive classification method.
مراقبة التغيرات البيئية لاهوار العراق باستخدام طريقة تصنيف مطورة

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The object of the presented study was to monitor the changes that had happened in the main features (water, vegetation, and soil) of Al-Hammar Marsh region. To fulfill this goal, different satellite images had been used in different times, MSS 1973, TM 1990, ETM+ 2000 and MODIS 2010. K-Means which is unsupervised classification and Neural Net which is supervised classification was used to classify the satellite images and finally by use adaptive classification which is apply supervised classification on the unsupervised classification. ENVI soft where used in this study.

Table of content: volume: issue: