Table of content

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science

مجلة العلوم الزراعية العراقية

ISSN: ISSN:00750530 / EISSN:24100862
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural science (TIJAS) was established in 1966 in the college of Agriculture – University of Baghdad. It was published with two issues each volume. In 2000, TIJAS started with six issues each volume till now . In this year the volume number of TIJAS is (47). TIJAS covers papers in plant & animal sciences, besides, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Mechanization and basic sciences, such as Chemistry and Physics Related to light, heat, water and winds. Each volume includes around 75 articles, about 20-25 article/ issue depending on a reliable accepted paper for publication.

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tijasub@yahoo.com
tel :
009647804541817
009647512748875
address:
college of Agric. / Univ. of Baghdad
Al Jadreah, Baghdad, Iraq

Table of content: 2015 volume:46 issue:5

Article
GRAIN YIELD, IT'S COMPONENTS AND HETEROSIS AMONG INBRED LINES OF MAIZE
حاصل الحبوب ومكوناته وقوة الهجين بين سلالات من الذرة الصفراء

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The objective of this study development one or more elite single cross hybrids.The experiments were conducted in spring and fall seasons, during 2012 and 2013 Ten inbred line of maize (BK164, BK147, BK129, BK128, BK127, BK121, BK115, BK110, BK110, BK105, BK104) were used to develop single crosses by Griffing first method . The parents , crosses and two cultivars of maize (Buhoth 106 and 5018) were evaluated using RCBD with three replicates at the farmer field at Al-Anbar Province. The results were revealed significant differences in all the studied traits and heterosis.The crosses BK164 X BK104 , BK147 X BK115 , BK128 X BK110 and reciprocal cross BK115 X BK164 produced highest grain yield (229.1, 245.8), (211.9, 229.7), (206.6, 210.7), (217.7, 238.9) gm.plant-1 respectively.While, in spring season the reciprocal cross BK115 X BK129 produced the higher grain yield 207.9, 205.8, 202.9, 200.7 gm.plant-1 respectively. The superior crosses could be use as elite crosses and conduct the agronomic experiments to evaluate, what's need.


Article
PURE LINE SELECTION FROM BREAD WHEAT FOR GRAIN YIELD AND IT'S COMPONENTS UNDER DIFFERENT SEEDING RATES
انتخاب خطوط نقية من حنطة الخبز لصفات حاصل الحبوب و مكوناته تحت كميات بذار مختلفة

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Field experiments were conducted over three growing seasons, during 2009-2012, at the experimental farm of Field Crop Sciences - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad. This study aimed to application pure line selection in fifteen F4 segregating populations of bread wheat produced from half diallel crossing among 6 parents .The selection was applied infirst season by using 10% selection intensity, further screening was conducted and selected 12 plants from each population.The grains of individual selected plants were planted in the following year in plant to row method and the best 15 progeny lines were selected depending on yield performance. Varietal trail was conducted in the third season as RCBD with four replications using a split plot arrangement, where three seed rates (120, 160, and 200 kg.ha-1) randomized in main plots and 21 genotypes at sub-plots. The genotypes included fifteen F6 progeny lines plus six parents: Al-fatah, A3103, M2.0, IPA99, A4.10, and Abu-Ghraib3. The results showed superiority of progeny lines S123, S102, S52, S130, S148 and S83 over the best cultivars, they yielded 6.64, 6.41, 6.34, 6.16, 6.11 and 6.11t.ha-1 respectively.The progeny S123 superior significantly to other best progenies in grain yield. With increasing seed rates, there was a tendency toward increasing number of grains /m2, number of grains /spike and grain weight. While, grain yield quadratic relation.Highly significant differences were found among the genotypes under the three seed rates for all traits, indicating relatively high magnitude of genetic variability in these genotypes.


Article
EFFECT OF SOWING DATES AND CUTTING STAGES ON FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY OF SORGHUM (Var.Abu - Sabeen) 1- GROWTHTRAITSANDGREENFORAGEYIDLD
تأثير بعض منظمات النمو النباتية في الصفات الحقلية وإنتاج مضادات الاكسدة من أوراق نبات الحنطة السوداء

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This experiment was conducted during 2013. The objectives were to study the possibility of buckwheatFagopyrumesculentum M. in the Iraqi environmental conditions, and the production of the effect of active phenolic compounds in the fields of medicine and pharmacy in vivo, through the use of different concentrations of some plant growth regulators. Results indicated that the application of plant growth regulators on buckwheat plants in different concentrations had significant at effect in the study. Application of salicylic acid at 60 mg.L-1 had asignificant effect on plant high and number of leaves per plant. While salicylic acid at 90mg.L-1 had superior effect in reducing days to %50 flowering and supremacy in significant toincrease in root length and dry matter of plant.Brassinolide at 10 mg.L-1 significantly effected the average number of days of plants to %50 Physiology maturity. While 20 mg.L-1 had asignificant effect on weight 1000 seeds (13.067 g)plant yield (3.492 g) biology of yield and harvest index.The application of 10 mg.L-1 of Methyl Jasmonate had asignificant effect on yield of plant. While 20 mg.L-1 of Methyl Jasmonate caused was significant in reducing average the number of days of plant to %50 physiology maturity, plant high and number of leaves per plant. Application of 30 mg.L-1 of Methyl Jasmonate had asignificant reduction in root length.While 10 mg.L-1 of MetylJasmonate caused significant increase of plant yield and harvest index. The application of 20 mg.L-1Brassinolide gave highest product for Caffeic acid, Quercetin and Rutin. While 30 mg.L-1 of Brassinolide increasedChlorogenic acid, Orientin, Vitexin and Isovitexin. The addition of 30 mg.L-1Methyl Jasmonate caused highest value for product of compounds Vanillic acid, Gentisic acid and Coumaric acid.


Article
EFFECT OF PLANTING DATESAND CALCIUM SPRAYING ON PODS YIELD OF PEANUT
تأثير مواعيد الزراعة ورش الكالسيوم في حاصل قرنات فستق الحقل

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Field experiment was carried out at Al-Mohamadicity beyond to Heat town-Al-Anbar in the right bank of Euphrates River during 2012-2013 season to study effect of planting dates and calcium spraying on the yield of local cv. of peanut(ArachishypogaeaL.) and its components.Factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replication and two factors were used .First factor included six dates for planting (1stand 15thApril,1st and 15thMay and 1st and 15June),the second factor was three levels of calcium (200, 400 and 600 mg Ca.L-1) in addition to control treatment (spray with water only).The results showed superiority of planting date 15th April in pods No.(96.77 and 95.17) pod.plant-1, 100seed weight (81.36 and85.78)gmfor both seasons. The 1st May was superior in seed No. (60.90 and 64.00) seed plant -1. Planting dates on 15th April and 1stMay gave highest pods yield about 132.69 and 139.82 gm.plant-1,for both seasons, respectively.The concentration 600 mg Ca.L-1 was superior in pods No. (87.44 and83.42) pod plant-1,seed No. (89.19 and 94.52) seed plant-1. The highest pods yield was 123.48 and 128.84 gm.plant-1from 600and 400mgCa.L-1for both season respectively.The combination of planting date 1stMay x 600 mgCa.L-1at the first season gave the highest pods yield about 150.33gm.plant-1 while the combination 15th April x 400mgCa.L-1 at the second season gave the highest plant yield about 153.35 gm.plant-1.The conclusion was the early planting during April and May were best in compared to June planting and spraying 400mg Ca.L-1was best for pod yield of peanut.


Article
THE EFFECT OF PLANTING DATES AND POTASSIUM SPRAYING ON SEED YIELD OF PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.)
تأثير مواعيد الزراعة ورش البوتاسيوم في حاصلبذور فستق الحقل ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.

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Field experiment was carried out at Al-Mohamadi city beyond to Heat town-Al-Anbar in the right bank of Enphrates River during 2012-2013 seasons to study the effect of planting dates and potassium spraying on the seed yield of of peanut(ArachishypogaeaL.) Local cv. Factorial experiment in RCBD design with three replications and two factors were used .First factor included six dates for planting (1st and 15th April, 1st and 15th May and 1st and 15 June), the second factor was three levels of potassium (4000, 5000 and 6000 mg Ka.L-1) in addition to control treatment (spray with water only). The result showed than 2ndplanting date (15th April) was superior in seed yield by increasing about 84.13 and 80.06% compared with 6th plantingdate (15th June) due to increasing No. of pods about 74.25 and 72.34% and No. of seed per plant about 64.05 and 44.14% for both seasons, respectively. Spraying potassium at 6000 mg K.L-1gave increasing in seed yield about 36.77 and 36.25% for both seasons respectively. The best combination was planting in 15thApril with spraying 6000 mg K.L-1 to obtain best seed yield of peanut. The conclusion of this study was good response of peanut seed yield to early planting dates in April and high concentration of potassium spraying 6000 mg K.L-1.


Article
1- AGRONOMIC TRATIS IMPROVING POPCOCN BY RECIPROCAL RECURRENT SELECTION ANDEVALUATIONGENERATION
تحسين الذرة الشامية بالانتخاب التكراري المتبادل وتقييم مجتمعات التلقيح الذاتي 1 – الصفات الحقلية

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This research aim to improve popcorn (Zea mays evarta) by reciprocal recurrent selection and S2- progeny. Using local variety AL- SAFS and Argentina variety AGR -5 . The program breeding was applied in four consecutive season on farm of the Dept. of Crops Sci./College of Agric. / Uni.of Baghdad. During spring season 2013 was obtained 100 top crosses and 100 S1 from each variety . in autumn season the top crosses compared using partial lattice design 10x 10 in two replication in addition planted S1 plants and pollinated to produce S2. Six population formed from each variety three represent reciprocal recurrent selection and another three represent S2- progeny. In spring season 2014 mixed 300 seeds from S1 and S2 – progenies .Random hybridization for the best 30 plants , in the end of this season the population harvested. In autumn season 2014 afield trail was conducted to compared 12 new population with there original varieties in factorial experiment in three plant densities using RCBD design with four replication . Studies male and female flowering plant and ear high and number ear per plant. Therese significant differences in all traits . The genotypes 6 &12 from S2 progeny gave lowest male and female flowering days (60.70 &63.20 )&( 63.50 & 66.00 )respectively and lowest plant and ear high cm (175.04&170.70) &(89.20 & 85.98).The genotype 8 revealed high response to reciprocal recurrent selection to reduce male flowering day (63.00). The genotypes 3 &8 revealed highest number ear per plant (1.85 & 1.93). The result exhibit significant intraction between densities and genotype for only male and female traits .All traits exhibit high broad senses heritability coupled with high genetic advance that indicated additive gen action provides scope for improvement this traits through selection.


Article
NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND ITS EFFECT ON GREEN FORAGE YIELD OF TWO ALFALFA CULTIVARS
السماد النتروجيني وتأثيره في حاصل العلف الأخضرلصنفين من الجت

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A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Field Crops Department-College of Agriculture-University of Baghdad/Abu Ghraib, from 2011 to 2013 to study the effect of nitrogen fertilization on green forage and dry weight of two alfalfa cultivars. The experiment was layout with RCBD according to split plots arrangement with four replications. The main plots contained two cultivars (locale and syne) while the sub-plots contained nitrogen levels (0 ,60 and 120) kg N ha-1. The result showed that there was nosignificant differenceseffect between cultivars in all studied traits, but nitrogen fertilizer had significant effect on the first eight cutting only, the level 60 Kg Nha-1 gave thehighest mean for plant height, while the level 120 Kg Nha-1 gave the highest mean for number of tillers, green forage and dry yield. The interaction between two factors significantly gave the highest plant height in1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 8th cutting only, the syne cultivar that was treated with 60 kg Nha-1 gave the highest mean for plant height, while the localevarietythat was treated with 120 kg Nha-1 gave the highest mean for number of tillers in the 3rd, 5th and 6th cutting.


Article
EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION AND POTASSIUMFERTILIZERONWATER CONSUMPTIONANDCROPCOEFFICIENTOF SORGHUM
تأثيرالري الناقص والسماد البوتاسي في الاستهلاك المائي ومعامل المحصول للذرة البيضاء

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Two field experiments were conducted during spring seasons of 2012 and 2013 at fields of State Board of Agric., in Abu- Ghraib, to study the effect of deficit irrigation and levels of potassium fertilizer during different growth stages on water consumption, crop coefficient and water use efficiency of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). A split plot in randomized complete block design was used with three replications. The four irrigation treatments: full irrigation (T1) and three deficit irrigation treatments, holding irrigation on non-consecutive irrigations during different growth stages (T2, T3 and T4) were allocated to the main plot. Whereas, the subplot were received the application of potassium fertilizer (0, 50, 100 and 150) Kg K.ha-1 as potassium sulfate. The equation of the budget water was used to calculate ETc in term of moisture content before and after each irrigation at the depths of (30, 40 and 50) cm, according to the stages of growth. Pan A evaporation basin was used for calculation of ETo. The amount of seasonal water consumptive use for the treatment of full irrigation 573.9 and 576.8 mm for two seasons consecutively, and an increase of 5.30, 10.66 and 18.66% and 11.5, 15.29 and 19.34% for T2,T3 and T4 for two seasons consecutively, and that the average daily consumptive use for the treatment of full irrigation was 7.29 and 7.51 mm.day-1 for two seasons consecutively, and for deficit irrigation ranged between 3.31-7.51 and 3.25-7.51 mm.day-1 for two seasons consecutively. The T2 treat was the highest in water use efficiency 0.782 and 0.733 Kg.m-3 of water, and 150 kg K.ha-1 was the highest in water use efficiency 0.806 and 0.791 Kg.m-3 of water for both seasons, repectively.


Article
EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION AND POTASSIUMFERTILIZERONGRAIN YIELDOF SORGHUM
تأثيرالري الناقص والسماد البوتاسي في حاصل الحبوب للذرة البيضاء

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Two field experiments were conducted during spring seasons of 2012 and 2013 on the fields of State Board of Agric., in Abu- Ghraib, to study the effect of deficit irrigation and levels of potassium fertilizer on yield and their components of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). A split plot in randomized complete block design was used with three replications. The four irrigation treatments: full irrigation (T1) and three deficit irrigation treatments, holding irrigation on non-consecutive irrigations during different growth stages (T2, T3 and T4) were allocated to the main plot. Whereas, the subplot were used the application of potassium fertilizer (0, 50, 100 and 150) Kg K.ha-1 as potassium sulfate. The result showed that full irrigation treatment (T1) was significantly superior in all studied traits: No. of grain per plant (2715.0 and 2656.0), weight of 500 grain (12.55 and 12.34) gm, grain yield (4.540 and 4.366) t.ha-1, biological yield (16.80 and 16.66) t.ha-1, harvest index (27.24 and 26.24)% and protein percentage (13.92 and 13.61)% for two seasons respectively compared with other deficit irrigation treatment. The potassium fertilizer levels had significant effect in all studied traits; the level 150 Kg K.ha-1 gave highest mean for: No. of grain per plant (2695.4 and 2684.0), grain yield (4.301 and 4.249) t.ha-1 and biological yield (16.05 and 16.13) t.ha-1 for two seasons respectively, and protein percentage (13.48%) in the second season only, while the level 50 Kg K.ha-1 gave highest mean for weight of 500 grain (12.31 and 12.01) gm for two seasons respectively, and the level 100 Kg K.ha-1 gave highest mean for harvest index (26.70 and 26.52)% for two seasons respectively, and protein percentage (13.76%) in the first season only. The interaction between two factors was significantly in all studied traits.


Article
PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED SUNFLOWER IN A SALINE SODIC SOIL
أداء منتخبات من زهرة الشمس تحت كثافتين نباتيةلتحمل تربة ملحية صودية

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To study the effect of selection on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown with three planting methods stress in saline - sodic soils for tolerance, field experiments were carried out at 2010 and 2011.The cultivar Shumoos from sunflower was grown on the field of Dept. of Field Crops / College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad, in a saline – sodic soil in three planting methods: rows in plot, top of furrow and furrow bottom.Superior phenotypic plants were selected according tophenotype and higher yield for each planting method under 10% selection pressure. Selected genotypes and the progenitor were grown in comparison experiment under two plant densities (53 and 89 thousand plant/ha). A randomized complete block design with three replications in factorial arrangement was used. The results of comparison experiment, showed that the selected genotype of rows gave higher seed yield, harvest index and no. of seed /head (5.47 ton/ha, 45.57% and 2763.0 seed, respectively). The higher density gave higher seed yield and dry matter (6.08 and 13.97 t/ha, respectively). It was concluded that selection in a saline – sodic soil under planting methods especially those selected from rows improved genotype performance when grown in a saline – sodic soil.The higher ratio of genetic variance to environmental variance under planting densities was for no. of seed/head and seed weight(41.11, 28.75, 12.53 and 11.89, respectively).There were four traits, especially seeds/head and seed weight could be used successfully for any breeding program to improve or screen sunflowers tolerant to saline – sodic soil.


Article
EFFECT OF RHIZOME, POT SIZE ON FLOWERING AND RHIZOMES YIELD OF CALLA GROWN UNDER PROTECTED CULTIVATION
تأثير حجم الرايزوم والاصيص في ازهار وحاصل رايزومات الكلا النامية تحت الزراعة المحمية

Authors: A. F. Qasim علي فاروق قاسم
Pages: 775-783
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Two separated experiments were conducted to show brightly the rhizome and pots size effectonthe vegetative andfloral growth, rhizomes yield under protected cultivation conditions (Glass House and Lath House). The experiments were used the design as Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), every experiments included two factors, the first wasrhizome size which contains three sizes in depending on the diameter (2.5 - 3 and 3.1 to 3.5 and 3.6 - 4 cm), while the second factor was the pots size which were (11, 12, 14 inch). The results showed the superiority of the big size onrhizome in plant height,leaves number which mentioned highest value of 25.78 cm and 7.32 leaves inside the glass house, and also causedflowering advancing with 122.00, 134.50 days for the two situations. The rhizome size investigate high height, diameter,wet weight of inflorescenceand floweringperiod reached to 41.25, 44.48 cm and 12.13 , 12.51 mm and 15.24, 22.12 g and 14.00 , 14.30 day for the two places successively.The pot size appeared superiorly of small one in vegetative growth,budnumbers and leaves numbers 24.05 cm and 2.10 bud.rhizome-1 and 7:44 leaf for plant grew in a glass house, while the grand pot effect on flowering advancing needed 119.16, 132.27 days for two places successively, as well as thatflowering period, high height and diameter of inflorescences 16.33, 12.33 daysand 43.65, 42.08 cm and 13.58, 11.33 mm for two places successively. The results showed also superiority in plant properties planted in the lath house compared with plants planted in glass house so investigated highestgrowth vegetative, bud numbers and leaves numbers reached to 44.80 cm and 2.32 bud.rhizome-1 and 9.99 leaf, but the plants need longest period till flowering reached to 149.91 days, as well as flowering plant increased to 48.88% with flowers wet weight reached to 19.16g.


Article
THE EFFECT OF LIQUID ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND SPRAY BY GIBBERELLIC ACID AND ANTI TRANSPIRATION (STRESS RELIEF) IN SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH CHARACTERISTIC OF APPLE SEEDLING C.V ANNA
تاثير السماد العضوي السائل والرش بحامض الجبرليك ومضاد النتح (سترس رليف) في بعض صفات النمو الخضريلشتلات التفاح صنف Anna

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The research was Carried out in the apple orchard belong to the Department of Horticulture Science and Landscap Design - college of Agriculture - Baghdad University during the seasons of 2013 and 2014, A factorial experiment carried out by three factors according to the randomized complete block design RCBD to study the effect of three levels of organic fertilizer Com Sol (0, 5, 10 ml.L-1) , and three levels of Gibberellic acid (0, 50.100 mg.L-1), and three levels of anti-transpiration Stress relief (0, 1.5 0.3 ml.L-1), in some growth characterestic of Apple seedlings c.v Anna. Treatments was replicated four times , the means separation were preformed via least significant difference procedures at p ≤ 0.05 . The result indecat that Com Sol , Gibberellic acid and Stress relief significantly increased shoot leangh , leaves area , leaves number and shoot number, thebinary interaction between the factors (C2G2 , C2S2 , G2S2) significantly increasedgrowth characteristic, triple interaction between the factors (C2G2S2) significantly increased growth characteristic and gave the highest results .


Article
MOLECULAR AND MORPHOLOGIGAL CHARACTERIZATION FOR SOME CARNATIONSPECIES(Dianthusspp.).
التوصيف الجزيئي والمظهري لبعض انواع القرنفل

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The study includedtwo phases, the first one was carried out at one of Baghdad nurseries on 15/9/2013 sowing the seeds of 12 species ofDianthusspp.( D.caryophyllus, D. chinensis, D. gratianopolitanus, D. barbatus, D. balbisii, D. repens, D. alpinus, D. monspessulanus, D. pavonius, D. deltoids, D. japonicas and D. seguieri)to study some of the qualities phenotypic, and the second phase was carried out atbiotechnology and tissue culture laboratories /College of Agriculture/University ofRazi/Kermanshah/Iran . TheAmplified Fragment Length Polymorphism(AFLP) based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with seven primers was implemented. The results of the phenotypic characteristics of the species studied, and there are considerable differences between them where the variation coefficient (C.V.)was very high in all the traits and reached the top rated 85.09 for a number of branches /plant , 57.66 for the number of flowers / plant, 45.08 flower diameter, 32.51 for plant height and 28.66 dry weight of vegetative part . DNA analysis showed that the primers gave a 397 bands including 324 polymorphic bandsand 81.59% polymorphic bands, this confirms the existence of Genetic Distance between the species of Dianthus studied . High Genetic Distance 0.28% D. barbatu and D. caryophyllusand lowest Genetic Distance0.08% betweenD. chinensis and D. japonicas.


Article
TESTING AND DIAGNOSIS OF GENETIC VARIABILITY IN TOMATO AFFECTED BY ELECTRIC SHOCK AND SODIUM AZIDE UNDER SALT STRESS CONDITIONS 1-Vegetative and yield characteristics
اختبار وتشخيص متغايرات وراثية في الطماطة بتأثير الصعق الكهربائي والصوديوم ازايد تحت ظروف الأجهاد الملحي- 1مؤشرات النمو الخضري والحاصل

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A experiment was conducted at the Department of Horticulture – Agriculture College –Baghdad University . during two seasons of 2013 – 2014 to Diagnosis and testing of genetic and physiologic variable in tomato Lycopersiconesculantum .Mill under salt stress conditions . It have been used tomato seeds for Red ston seeds for sprouted were soaked in distilled water for 8 hours then conducted the following treatment in Sodium azide (NaN3): seeds sprouted soaked in sodium azide solution and Electric Shock treatment Sodium azid interaction with electric shock treatment in first season planting in three levels of water salinity 1.9, 4, 8 dsm. in second season individual plant selection planting in two levels of water salinity 2, 8 dsm ˉ¹. Nested Design was used with three replicated .first season The results showed that4SA+6A treatment significantly increased plant length (77.11)cm . 6A and 3A increased number of plant main shoots . 4SA+3A treatment significantly increased leaf area at( 630.71) dsm² .chlorophyll content increased in 2SA+3A at 365.29mg.100 fresh weight . 12A treatment significantly increased number of fruits(15.06) fruit .plant ˉ¹ and plant yield (1.49 )kg .plantˉ¹ .while fruit weight increased significantly in 3A treatment, (105.80)grams The results showed plant length increased in C3 level of saline water stress in first season . number of main shoots and leaf area increased in C1 level in two seasons. number of fruits increased in C3 level of saline water stress (12.08) fruit .plant ˉ¹ in first season while in second season increased in C1 level , fruit weight and plant yield increased in C1level of saline water stress in two seasons.


Article
INFLUENCE OF CHELATED CALICUM AND GROWING MEDIA ON THE GROWTH AND FLOWERING OF ANTIRRHINUM MAJUS
تأثير رش الكالسيوم المخلبي وأوساط الزراعة في نمو وإزهار نبات حلق السبع Antirrhinum majus

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A study on the effect of foliar spray of chelated calicum on Antirrinum majus plants and planting in different growing media on vegetative growth and flowering wrer carried out on fall season / 2014 at the lathhouse of to Hort. Dept./College of Agric./ University of Baghdad. Plants were sprayed twice with 0, 1.0, 2.0 g/l of calicum. The growing media tested were five composed of soil :spent mushroom (Agricus bisporus) substrates (SMS). Results can be summarized as follow: Plants treated with 1.0 g/l of calcium responded positively. The treatment improved most of vegetative and flowering characters, Significant incrense was acheived in plant height (21 cm), number of leaves / plant (69.8), number of branches / plant (58), chlorophyll content (170.1 mg/l) and wet and dry weight (25.8, 1.12g) respectively. The treatment significantly incrensed number of influrescences / plant (23) and wet and dry weight (3.04 , 1.19 g.) as well. The best results on vegetative growth improvement were recorded when plants were cultured in 50% Soil + 50% Soil: SMC medium plant height reached 19 cm. number of leaves/plant 67.9, Leave area 3.04 cm2, number of branches / plant 44, chlorophyll content 165.7 mg/l and wet and dry weight 19.3, 0.9 g. respectively. While flowering characters were responded when plants were cultured in 25% Soil + 75%. Soil: SMS medium (M4), the highest value of number of inflorescences / plant (22) , flowering was earlier (71 days), prolonged flowering period was to 24 days and wet and dry weight were 3.31, 2.01g. All interactions between the two factors were positively affected on improving characters tested.


Article
RESPONSEOFTHREECULTIVAROFDATEPALMOffSHOOTSPROPAGATEDBYTISSUECULTUREANDPLANTEDINGYPSIFRIOUSSOILTOTHECHEMICALFERTILIZER
استجابة فسائل ثلاثة أصناف من نخيل التمر المكثرة بالزراعة النسيجية والمزروعة في الترب الجبسية للتسميد الكيميائي

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The experiment was performed at Fallujah date palm station belonged to the Horticulture office/Ministry of Agriculture during 2013 season to study the effect of soil and foliar application of fertilizerson offshoots growth of three varieties of date palmBerhi, Saeef plant, and Alhilaly. chlorophyll, NPK, and carbohydrates. Sixty three identical offshoots, grown on square system 5*5 m were selected. The First chemical fertilization applied on 22/2/2013, the second on 20/5/2013, and the third on 25/8/2013, characters were collected at 15/1/2014.The study included 7 fertilizer treatments of (91gm N, 9gm P, 40 gm K) , (182gm N, 18gm P, 80 gm K) and of (273gm N, 27gm P, 120 gm K). The leafy fertilizer was high nitrogen 21% N, 0% P, and 0% K, equal amount at 20% P, and 20% K and Potassium high fertilizer 15% N, 10% P, and 30% K at 4000 mg/liter -1, in addition to the comparison treatment. The experiment was designed on the split plot design , the varieties as main plot while other treatments as split plot. with three replicates for each treatment . The differences were compared between averages based on Duncan’s multiple range test at the possibility of 5%.The results showed thatBerhi was superiorover other two varieties (Saeef plant and Al hilaly) in the width of leaflet, leaf length, and leaves number. While variety of Al hilaly dominated also in number of leaflets and leaves contents of chlorophyll and Potassium .Treatment (273gm N, 27gm P, 120 gm K)(T3) which gave high results in leaves numberswere 16.31 leaves, with length of 161.66 cm, leaflet length of 28.53cm and width,while roots number was 34.51, 59.84 cm of length, and root of width. Leaf chlorophyll contents 62.03 SPAD, CHO ,N, P, K .The combination between varieties and chemical treatment resulted in significant increase in the vegetative growth average; the interaction of variety Saeef plant and (273gm N, 27gm P, 120 gm K) treatment (V2T3) gave highest averages of vegetative growth as leaf length, leaflet length and width, root length and widthas well leaves contents of nitrogen, phosphorus,


Article
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HERMETIC STORAGE METHOD IN THE POPULATION GROUPS NUMBERS OF THE RED FLOUR BEETLETriboliumcastaneum AND SOME PROPERTIES OF STORED GRAIN
Triboliumcastaneumوفي بعض خواص الحبوب المخزونة فاعلية طريقة الخزن المحكم في أعداد المجاميع السكانية لخنفساء الطحين الحمراء

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The experiment was conducted in store insect , laboratory of agriculture college /Uni. Of Baghdad to investigate the efficacy of hermetic storage on the red flour beetle Triboliumcastaneum at 30 and 35C and different exposure periods extended from 5 to 90 days. The results showed that the efficiency of this method had a very high impact on population groups numbers of the insect. It was found that the growth and development of larvae to pupae were completely prevented at all exposure periods between 15-90 days and prevented the insect to get any increase in population numbers in comparison to that in control treatment. In control treatment the population numbers increased to 1310.00 and 939.00 individuals / treatment at 30 and 35 C and 90 days storage period, respectively. The results also indicated a slight loss in grain weights due to the feeding of insects at both degrees of temperature in comparison with weight loss in control treatment. The weight loss in control treatment reached more than 50 folds after 90 days from treatment.It was also found there was no any increase or decrease in moisture content of grains at both degrees of temperature and 5-15 days of exposure, but there was a limited increase in other exposure periods at temperature of 30 C reached between 0.033-0.100% while there was a decrease in moisture content at a temperature of 35Cranged from-0.067 to – 0.433%,while in control treatment the moisture content increased several folds higher than that in hermetic storage treatment. An increase of both temperature degrees and storage period lead to an increase in moisture content of grains in control treatment. Although there was significant differences in the rates of seed germination, but it still accepted within the international standards.


Article
DETECTION ON DIACETOXYSCIRPENOL MYCOTOXIN IN IRAQ ON CORN SEED BY THIN LAYER CHROMOTOGRAPHY (TLC)
الكشف عن السمDiacetoxyscirpenolفي حبوب الذرة الصفراء في العراق بتقنيةصفائح الكروماتوكرافي الرقيقة

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This study was conducted to detect Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) mycotoxin produced by Fusariumspp in corn seeds and to detect some fungal isolates that produce it.The detection of mycotoxin was archived by Thin Layer Chromotography. Corn seeds collected from some area and tow isolates of F.graminearum and F.culmorum were got from ministry of science and technology to use them of DAS production . A part of corn sampeles was used directly to extract and detect DAS toxin by TLCwhile the other part were used for isolation of Fusarium spp.Results showed that10 isolates from 15 of Fusariumspp produced DAS toxin , some of species wasF.graminearum and F.culmorum also the result of directed detection of DAS mycotoxin showed that DAS associated with most samples and 90.4% of corn seed samples containedDAS toxin for the first time in Iraq , The quantitative detection on DAS mycotoxin by gas liquid chromatography showed deference of Fusarium spp. isolates in DAS production according to site of isolate where is the college of agriculture isolate was the more active in DAS production with 653.89 ng/g , the second isolate in DAS production was Al-Hilla isolate that produced 388.36ng/g from DAS toxin while AL-Rhadwania isolate was 206.34 ng/g and then AL-Basrah isolate that belong to F.graminearum with 65.23 ng/g.This study is the first of recording of those species to secreting DAS toxin in Iraq .We concluded that DAS founded in a high amounts on corn seed in Iraq .We recommend use of suitable storing environment to prevent growth of fungi that producing toxins.


Article
FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF CENTER PIVOT SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS UNDER DESERT CONDITIONS WEST OF IRAQ
د ا رسة حقمية لتقييم أداء منظومات الري بالرش المحوري تحت ظروف المنطقة الصحراوية غرب العراق

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A field experiment was conducted on Saqlawia-Al-Anbar governorate during the duration from 15/11/2013 to 15/05/2014, to evaluate the performance of three center pivot sprinkler irrigation systems under desert conditions of west of Iraq. Speeds of these systems were calibrated with depths of water. Irrigation uniformity and discharges for some nozzles through directly collecting outlet waters were evaluated as well. Results indicated differences among values of uniformity of application coefficient in spite of the similarity among center pivot system used in this trail. An increment of 13% and 23% for the systems 2 and 3 respectively, compared to system 1 obtained. Different in water applied on irrigated area were also observed as a result of their connection to uniformity coefficient, in addition, differences in discharges for pivot irrigation systems were observed in spite of constancy of operating pressure (30 psi) and percentage of systems speed (50%). Besides, the delay in making continuous maintenance resulted in clogging some nozzles which affected uniformity coefficient, depths of water applied and nozzles discharges and affected negatively on distribution uniformity of such systems.


Article
DEXTRAN PRODUCTION FROM LOCALLY ISOLATED BACTERIA (LEUCONOSTOC MESENTEROIDES) AND ITS UTILIZATION IN SOME FOOD APPLICATION 2-STUDING OPTIMUM CONDITIONS FOR DEXTRAN PRODUCTION FROM LEUCONOSTOC MESENTEROIDES
انتاج الدكستران من عزلة محلية (Leuconostoc mesenteroides) واستخدامه في بعض التطبيقات الغذائية 2- دراسة الظروف المثلى لانتاج الدكستران من العزلة المحلية Leuconostoc mesenteroides

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A series of experiments were conducted to identify the optimal conditions for dextran production including carbon sources, nitrogen sources, initial inoculum size, temperature, fermentation time and initial pH. Sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose, refine sugar, date syrup and whey were used as carbon sources ,and trypton, peptone, analyzed heated yeast, ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate were used as nitrogen sources. Different inoculum size were used (103,104,105,106,107,108)cell/ml., also different degrees of temperature, were used (10, 25, 30, 35, 40)C. Fermentation time (24,48,72, 96)hrs. Different pH were used(5, 6, 6.5, 7, 8). It was found that the highest activity was achieved by using a medium containing: 100ml whey, 10g refine sugar, 0.5g heated yeast extract with 24 hr. and initial pH of 6.0. The preferred size of inoculum was 1x106 cell/ml with fermentation temp. of 25C. In conclusion, we can use natural sources and industrial wastes as carbon sources for dextran production to get the target to save the environment from pollution.


Article
THE EFFECT OF EQUIPMENTS TYPE ON NEW HOLLAND TRACTOR (TD - 80) OPERATION COSTS
تأثير نوع المعدة في تكاليف تشغيل الجرار New Holland (TD-80)

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A study was conducted on a farm at the college of Agriculture – university of Baghdad during 2012 in Silty clay loam Soil. New Holland tractor with the following equipment ( Disc plow, stubble – mulch plow, chisel plow, rotary harrow, spring spike tooth Harrow, Disc harrow, disc ridger, ditcher, land plane) was used as a machinery unit. studied treatments were laid out using Split – spilt with a randomized complete block design with three replicates . The experiment consist of three factors, the first was tillage equipment: disc plow, stubble – mulch plow and chisel plow which represented main plots. Second factor was harrowing equipment: rotary harrow, spring spike tooth harrow and disc harrow which represented subplots. third factor was special equipment: disc ridger , ditcher and land plane which represented sub – sub plots. Tractor operation cost (Fixed , variable , Management and total ) was determined in this experiment. Results obtained indicated that lower Tractor operation costs (Fixed, variable , management and total ) was recorded with chisel plow ( 3746.1 , 24742.3 , 2851.2 , 31365.8 ) ID / ha and with the rotary harrow (3764.7 , 24836.3 , 2856.4 , 31461.9) ID / ha and lower costs as well as with the land plane (2244.7, 14765.1, 1702.1, 18730.3) ID / ha Mean while Tractor indicated higher operation costs (Fixed, variable, management and total ) with disc plow (3910.6, 25799.0, 2970.6, 32684.7) ID/ha and with spring spike tooth harrow (3910.7, 25799.7, 2970.6 , 32682.2)ID/ha as well as with ditcher (4852.0, 32012.6, 3685.8, 40552.5) ID/ ha It can be concluded that Tractor recorded lower operation costs per Area with chisel plow, rotary Harrow and Land plane comparing with the other equipment from the same type.


Article
RURAL WOMEN'S KNOWLEDGE FOR RURAL GREENHOUSE AGRICULTURE PROJECTS IMPLEMENTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND TRAINING IN THE PROVINCE OF BABYLON
معرفة المرأة الريفية لمشروع الزراعة في البيوت البلاستيكية الذي تعده دائرة الارشاد والتدريب الزراعي في محافظة بابل

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This study was conducted to diagnose the rural women's knowledge in rural greenhouse agriculture projects including all the following fields such as knowledge in greenhouse constructing, the plastic material Specifications used in covering the greenhouse, soil sterilization, cultivation methods for example irrigation, fertilization, plant directing, pesticides used in greenhouses, and identification of relationship between level of knowledge in all the independent factors such as age, educational level, economic situation and the size of the holding. The study community included 654 rural women and a random sample of 92 (14%) rural women. A measuring scale to measure the women's knowledge of greenhouse cultivation consisting of 8 fields, 28 axes and 76 paragraphs was constructed and one degree was identify for each true paragraph and zero for the false paragraph ranged from 76 for the higher degree and zero for lower degree. The study results concluded that the level of rural women knowledge in greenhouse cultivation was low and there was a significant relationship between rural women knowledge and each of the educational level, economic situation and size of holding and there was a negative correlation with age. The study recommends that an increase in extension activities for rural women is needed to encourage them on participating in such as activities with providing full support to them.


Article
STUDY PERFORMANCE AND EMMISSION OF DIESELENGINE FUELED WITH DIFFERENT DIESEL FUEL TEMPERATURES
دراسة اداء وانبعاثات محرك الديزل يعمل بوقود ديزل في درجات حرارة مختلفة

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An experimental study was carried out by using a portable apparatus thatwas locally collected, used to control the temperature of diesel fuel.It was connected and tested with the line of fuel supply system for agricultural tractor (Anter-71) diesel engine whichrunning under different speeds. An experiment was conducted during June, 2014 in practical route in theDepartment ofMachines and Equipment,Collage of Agriculture, University of Baghdad.Different inlet fuel temperatures included 40,45and50°C and speeds included 1000, 1500 and 2000rpm were studied in this research. The engine performance parameters which included,Fuel consumption FC, exhaust gas temperature EGT, Un-burnt Hydrocarbons UHC andNitrogen Oxide NOX, were measured under different speeds.Treatment data were analyzed by using SAS 2000 statistical program factorial design under Complete Randomized Design (CRD),with three replications and LSD; 5%were used.Results were showed that,fuel temperatureat40°Cindicated significant superiority up on fuel at temperatures 45, and 50°C inachieving lower fuelconsumption, exhaust gas temperature EGT, Un-burnt Hydrocarbons UHC andNitrogen Oxide NOX, for all speeds, while fuel temperatureat 50°Cachieving higher fuel consumption.Increasing engine speeds from 1000, 1500and to 2000 rpm caused an increasing in FC, exhaust gas temperature EGT, Un-burnt Hydrocarbons UHC andNitrogen Oxide NOX. Speed of1000rpm achieved lower fuel consumption,andlowerEGT,UHCand NOX,while engine speed at 2000rpm recordedsignificantsuperiority up on 1000and 1500rpm in achieving higher fuel consumptionFC,EGT,UHC andNOX.


Article
THE ESTIMATION OF PRODUCTION FUNCTION AND MEASURING THE TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF BROILER PROJECTS IN ANBAR PROVINCE
تقدير دالة الإنتاج وقياس الكفاءة الفنية لمشاريع فروج اللحم في محافظة الانبار

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Since Iraq possesses human and material resources required for agricultural development, if it is properly invested, to achieve self-sufficiency. The Research depended on the analysis of Cobb-Douglas production function for broiler chickens in Anbar province, a functional analysis, Bladavh to assess the technical competence and capacity efficiency by using the model Aledjala for a group of broiler breeders in Anbar province. The estimated coefficient signals here consistent with what is expected, according to the logic of economic theory, and was significant at the level (1%), as well as the function as a whole were significant at the level of (1%). A value of the coefficient of determination (R2) was that (92%) of the variation in the production of broiler chickens is due to variation in the independent variables (labor and capital). Elasticity of production for variable work amounted to (0.2%), a positive value and this means that the increase in the work item by (1 %) leads to increased production by 20% and unit, assuming the stability of other factors. As for the capital it is noted that the value of the elasticity of this resource was (0.88%) unprecedented positive signal which indicates the increase in capital by (1%) leads to an increase in total output by (088%). Total elastic ties which are the sum of productivity elastic ties was (1.08) which means they show Constant returns to scale. The results of the technical efficiency indicators, showed that the average technical efficiency of the study sample was 0.88 for the constant to scale, size, and 0.98 for the variable capacity of size, while the average size efficiency reached 0.90. These results showed the misuse of economic resources by 12%, that is the possibility to reduce the use of resources to achieve the same output current level, on the other hand the capacity result showed that four farms have achieved economic size optimization 7%, while 93% of the broilers farmers work on increasing to scale stage which means there is a possibility to increase production in light of the existing means and without increasing the use of scarce economic resources.


Article
ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE EPICUTICULAR WAXE OF TWO BREED WHEAT CULTIVARS
تحليل وتقييم المادة الشمعية في أوراق صنفين من حنطة الخبز

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The evaluation of the epicuticular waxes and the molecular arrangement within the crystals were studied on biological and non-biological surfaces from wax platelets of leaves blades of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars: Inia- 66 and Uruq where collected from these two cultivars and which extracted from the oil obtained from soxhlet device extraction. The results revealed that the concentration of wax extracted from cv. Uruq leaves have a higher concentration of wax than Inia-66 cultivar, which means that Uruq cultivar has the superiority in protection and water lose by transpiration. The results also revealed that the wheat leaves of cv. Inia-66 wax contain 8 compounds and the cv. Uruq wax was different in quality and quantity content (mixture 11 compounds) and the absence of the alkane and ester compounds group in cv.Inia-66. These differences between two cultivars may appear in biological and physical activity mechanisms in these cultivars.

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