Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:56 issue:3C

Article
Thermodynamic and kinetic Calculation for the Binding of Nickel (II) with Some Chelating Agents
حسابات ثرموداينميكية وحركية لارتباط ايون النيكل الثنائي مع بعض العوامل الكلابية

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Abstract

Chelating agents were used in a chelation therapy to detoxify heavy metals and toxins and convert them to an inactive form which was excreted out of the body. Nickel is one of these toxic heavy metal when presented in a high values over its allowable limit. This work studies the complexation of some amino acid (Glycine, Histidine, and Arginine) with nickel (II) ion and compare the result with complexation of EDTA (the synthesized amino acid) used in the chelation therapy. Our experiment were performed in a phosphate buffer of PH (7.2) and in a different temperature (283, 288,293, 298, 303)K . The results show a high tendency for these amino acid to nickel ion with an equilibrium constant in arrange of [KNi(II)-EDTA(17.2×108) > KNi(II)-Gly(29×106) >KNi(II)-His(9×106) > KNi(II)-Arg(4.57×106)] mol-1.L . The thermodynamic parameter indicate a spontaneous interaction (negative free energy change ∆G°)) and was positive for each of the enthalpy (∆H0) and entropy (∆S0) values indicate that the nature of the emotion is a strong hydrophobic and electrostatic forces, and a second order interaction kinetics with a rate constant in a range of [(6,8×10-2), (11.9×10-2), (21×10-2), (21.8×10-2)] M-1.min-1each (EDTA, Arginine, Histidine, Glycine) respectively


Article
Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using ceftriaxone sodium as a reducing and stabilizing agent
تحضير دقائق الذهب النانوية باستخدام سفتراياكسون الصوديوم كعامل مختزل وعامل استقرار

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Abstract

The synthesis of gold nanoparticles AuNPs was achievedby the reduction of sodium tetrachloroaurate (III) (NaAuCl4) with ceftriaxone sodium (CR) in aqueous solutionswithout the use of other reducing agent. The effect of reactants concentration, temperature and pH on the sizes and morphology of AuNPs were also studied. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized by UV- visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. Conjugation of antibiotic with the nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectrophotometry.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles using 2-(2-methyl-5-amino -1H-imidazol-1-yl) ethanol
تحضير وتشخيص دقائق الذهب النانوية باستخدام (2-(2-مثيل -5-امينو-1-اميدازول )ايثانول

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Abstract

Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been synthesized via reduction of sodium tetrachloroaurate dihydrate (NaAuCl4.2H2O) with 2-(2-methyl-5-amino -1H-imidazol-1-yl) ethanol (2-MAE) in presence and absence of ascorbic acid as reducing and stabilizing agents. The resulting Au NPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of gold nanoparticles solutions in the uv-visible and near IR regions were studied at different amine concentrations and pH media.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Some Transition Metal Complexes with a New2-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl-1-(2-mercaptophenyl)-5-(2 mercaptophenylimino)-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3,4- diol.
تحضير وتشخيص معقدات بعض العناصر الأنتقالية مع مشتق جديد(6,5-O- داي هيدروكسي اثيل -1- (2-مركبتوفنيل) –O- (2-مركبتو فنيل ايمين)-5,2-داي هيدرو-H1 - بايرول 4,3 – دايول.

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Abstract

2-(1,2-dihydroxy ethyl -1- (2-mercaptophenyl)-5-(2-mercaptophenyl imino)-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-3,4-diol(H2L`)a lactam derivative of L-ascorbic acid was prepared by reaction of 5,6-O-isopropylidene L-ascorbic acid with 2-amino thiophenol in a mole ratio of (1:2) respectinely. A series of new metal complexes of this ligand (H2L`) were prepared by a reaction with the chlorides of Cr(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II). The new ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by C.H.N.,1H and 13C NMR, IR as well as UV-Visible spectra and mass spectra of Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes was also done. Atomic absorption of the metal percentage, electrical conductivity and magnetic measurements at room temperature was carried out. From these analysis showed that the ligand H2L` (C18H18O4N2S2) is coordinated to the metal ions through the nitrogen atom of the azomethine group and the two sulphur atoms of thiol groups as a tridentate ligand or through the two sulphur atoms of thiol groups as a bidentate ligand an octahedral geometries, except the (Hg) complex which shows a tetrahedral. Theoretical calculations of the electronic structure of the new ligand HL and its metal complexes were carried out applying the semi-emiprical computation methods PM3 and PM6 which confirmed the suggested structures of all complexes.


Article
Synthesis of new quinoline -2-one derivatives
تحضير مشتقات جديده للكوينولين-2-اون

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Abstract

Series of new derivatives of quinoline-2-one were synthesized ,m-cresol was chosen as the starting material which was reacted with ethyl acetoacetate in presence of conc.sulphuric acid to give 4,7-dimethyl coumarin (I) which treated with nitric acid in the presence of sulpharic acid afforded 4,7-dimethyl-6-nitrocumarin (II) and 4,7-dimethyl-8-nitrocumarin (III) and then the compound (II) was treated with hydrazine hydrate80% to give a new compound 1-amino-4,7-dimethyl-6-nitroquinoline-2(1H)-one (IV).The latter compound was used to synthesize different compounds via the reaction with aldehydic azo compounds (V-VII) by Schiff base reaction to prouduce compounds(VIII-X), these azo compounds were prepared by reaction of different aromatic amines with salicyladehyde. in the other hand the compound (IV) was converted to diazonium salt compound and coupling it with either salicyladehyde to produce compound (XI) or with ethyl acetoacetate to produce compound (XII).These synthesized compounds were characterized by the available physical and spectral methods UV-Visible, FTIR, 1H-NMR.and 13C-NMR spectra.


Article
Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria from Al-Rystimya Station and Their Effects on Public Health
عزل وتشخيص البكتريا المرضية من محطة الرستمية واثرها على الصحة العامة

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Abstract

Pathogenic bacteria from samples of Al-Rystimya municipal wastewater treatment plant(third expansion)were isolated and identified .Samples were collected from the final disposal point at Dyala River. The duration of this study about five months from august up to December 2010 .The study was Focused upon pathogenic bacteria which have bad influency on health especially acute diarrhea which transferred by water. The bacterial species is isolated were :Escherichia coli , Enterobacter aerogenes , Shigella sp , Salmonella sp , Klebsiella sp, Pseudomonus sp, Aeromonus sp, and Vibrio cholera, Clostridium perifringens. Also some of the chemical and biological characteristics of the wastewater like COD, BOD,TSS, and total values were 660 ,450 ,650 mg/l respectively.

Keywords

Bacteria isolated --- COD --- BOD.


Article
Evaluation of Some Immunological Markers in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
قييم بعض الموشرات المناعية لدى مرضى التهاب المفاصل الرثوي

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Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory polyarthritic disease associated with remissions and exacerbations and characteristic genetic, clinical, pathological, and immunological features. The present study was designed to evaluate some immunological parameters of some Iraqi patients with RA. The study was carried out on 75 Iraqi RA patients who were referred to the consultantand which divided into 59 female and 16 male, treated and non-treated. The diagnosis of those patients has been performed under supervision of a specialist physician in rheumatology. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique has been applied for the detection of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) and (Interleukin-1α (IL-1α). The study revealed that the mean age for RA patients was (46.16±1.24) years with age range (20-67) years. The results of (anti-CCP) antibody showed significant increase in non-treated patients 86.67% (P<0.01) than Methotrexate (MTX) 70.0%, Etanercept(ETN) 53.33% treatment, also in MTX treated patients was significant increased than in ETN treatment while the mean of (IL-1α) was significant increase in non-treated patients 24.57±3.73 pg/ml than in MTX treated patients 13.54±1.16 pg/ml, ETN treated patients 13.06±0.83 pg/ml and healthy control 13.69±1.61 pg/ml. .


Article
Antagonistic activity of Spirogyra micropunctata against some multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacteria
الفعالية المضادة لل Spirogyra micropunctata ضد بعض انواع البكتيريا الممرضه للإنسان والمتعددة المقاومة للادوية

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The aim of present study is to investigate the antagonistic activity of Spirogyra micropunctata against multidrug resistant human pathogens. The test organisms include 3 Gram negative bacteria such as Echerichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and 2 Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The algal cell mass was extracted in 90% Methanol and 90% Ethanol and further concentrations of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 mg/ml were made for each extract. Antagonistic effect was tested by using agar well-diffusion method. Methanolic crude extract showed strong antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, while ethanolic crude extract showed moderate activity. These findings suggest the possibility of using the Spirogyra micropunctata as a novel source of natural antimicrobial agents in pharmaceutical industries.


Article
Inhibitory Effect of Grapefruit Extracts on the Growth and Adhesion Ability of Staphylococcus aureus
الفعل التثبيطي لمستخلصات نبات الجريب فروت (Grapefruit) على نمو وقابلية إلتصاق بكتريا Staphylococcus aureus

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Ten isolates belong to the Staphylococcus bacteria from different clinical swabs were taken from patients in Ibn al-Nafis Hospital and Central Public Health laboratory, according to many morphological and biochemical tests that used to identify bacterial species S. aureus, the results showed that 8 isolates when investigated their ability to produce a slime layer using Congo red agar method the results showed that SA5 isolate was the best compared to other isolates through change the color of colonies to the pink and Congo red agar -colored Black. When examining the inhibitory effect of grapefruit extracts in the growth of isolated bacteria SA5 S.aureus, results showed that the aqueous extract of the seeds at different concentrations did not show any inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth while the juice extract of this plant had an effective antibacterial activity against SA5of S.aureus in different concentrations(50%,75%,100%) were the zones of inhibition reached (8 mm ,10mm,12mm) respectively, while plant seeds extract had more effective antibacterial activity against SA5 S.aureus in different concentrations(25%,50%,75%,100%) were the zones of inhibition reached (7 mm ,9mm,12mm,15mm) respectively; Also this study tested the adhesion ability of SA5 bacterial isolate on the stainless steel material where the results showed that a large number of bacterial cells up to 58 × 105cells / ml adhered to the surface of stainless steel piece as the control, while the number of bacterial cells that adherent to the surface of this material decreased to24 × 104cells/ ml when treated with GSE.


Article
Effect of Chemical Mutagens on Some Morphological Traits of Vicia faba L. Cv. Aqadulce
تاثير المطفرات الكميائية على بعض الصفات المورفولوجية لنبات الباقلاء Aqadulce صنف Vicia faba L.

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To investigate the effect of chemical mutagens: sodium azide (SA), hydrazine hydrate (HZ) and maleic hydrazine (MH) on morphological variations of faba bean traits. Seeds were soaked in distilled water for six hours, then in different concentrations of the above mentioned mutagens (0.01, 0.03, 0.05%) represented by (C1,C2 and C3 respectively) for six hours and planted in the field in winter 2013-2014. Factorial Experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications to each treatment. The results of statistical analysis showed significant differences among studied treatments. All mutagens showed significant reduction in plan height and number of branches per plant compared with control plants which gave the highest plant height and number of branches per plant (117.55cm and 13.73 respectively). SA gave a significant decrement in plant height (103.95cm). HZ gave the longest day for 50% flowering (80.78 days), a significant increase in leaf area index (4.10), chlorophyll content (43.50) have been achieved. MH caused an earliness in flowering of treated plants (79.22days). C3 was superior in the leaf area index (4.07), chlorophyll content (44.79) and earliness in flowering (78.78 days), while C1 gave a longer period of 50% flowering ( 80.89 days). Significant differences also observed in the interaction between mutagens and concentrations. (MHXC3) gave a less period to 50% flowering (77 days) and showed superiority in leaf area index (5.07) and number of branches per plant (14.79). HZ x C1 mean while an increment in number of days to50% flowering (82.66 days) but HZ x C2 gave highest plant height resulted in reached (121.18cm), while (SAxC2) treatment yielded in lowest plant height (96.49) cm and (SAxC3) gave maximum chlorophyll content (47.93).


Article
A Study of the Benthic Invertebrates community in Dalmage Lake - Middle of Iraq-
دراسـة مجتمع لافقريات القاع في بحيـرة الدلمج وسط العراق

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Benthic invertebrates diversity on the Al-Dalmage the Lake in the middle of Iraq, in addition to the some chemical properties was the aim of the present study, for a period from January to the December 2013. Six stations of the lake were chosen for monthly samples collection. The result revealed that the water temperature ranged from (9-34) ◦C. According to the values of salinity (1.5-14.6) ‰ the lake was classified as Brackish, while the pH values were neutral tends to near alkaline and ranged from (7.2- 9). The study showed that the lake were well oxygenated due to the dissolved oxygen values which ranged from 7-12 mg/l. The lake considered as very hard according to the total hardness values which range from (825-6980) CaCo3 mg/l. A total of 21286 individual of benthic invertebrates were sorted from all study stations, belong to nine taxa, with the dominance of Crustacea, from which 6238 individuals were sorted in a percent of 29% of the total number of benthic invertebrates. It was also noted that there was a Spatially and temporally variation in species distribution، The highest total number of 4360 individuals was recorded in St (2) while the highest total number recorded in April was 2624. Shanon –Weiner index recorded high values for benthic invertebrates diversity ranged from (1.2-3.8) bit/Ind. Jaccard Presence –community of similarity results showed the highest degree of similarity was (96% (, recorded between St.1 and St.2.


Article
Frequency of CMV- Infection among Hemodialysis Patients in Tikrit City
تكرار الخمج بالفيروس المضخم للخلايا((CMV بين مرضى الديلزة الدموية في مدينة تكريت

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Abstract

It has been well documented that hemodialysis patients have impaired immune response, which may result in higher prevalence rates of viral infections, including CMV. Infections in these patients may be due to primary infection or, more commonly, by reactivation of latent virus or re-infection with exogenous virus, which may be introduced by blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of CMV-IgG and IgM antibodies among hemodialysis patients. The current research included 116 hemodialysis patients (69 male and 47 female) who attended to Tikrit Teaching Hospital for the period from beginning of October/2013 to the end of April/2014. CMV-IgG was found in 102 out of 116 (87.9%), while CMV- IgM was detected in 10 out of 116 (8.6%) of hemodialysis patients. CMV-IgG was found in a higher rate in females than that in males (91.5% and 85.5% respectively), while CMV-IgM was detected in a higher rate in males than that in females (10.1% and 6.4% respectively). However, there was non-significant difference (p> 0.05) between sex and seropositivity. Also, non- significant relation was found between age and seropositivity for both CMV-IgG and CMV-IgM antibodies (p> 0.05). Since patients receiving hemodialysis treatment are immunocompromised and can be at risk of primary infection or reactivation of latent infection of CMV, its necessary to identify these patients with anti-CMV IgG and IgM specific serological tests for appropriate management.

Keywords

CMV --- hemodialysis patients --- ELISA.


Article
Estimation of Immune Response in Rabbits Infected with Attenuated Entamoeba histolytica by Gamma Radation
تقييم الاستجابة المناعية في الارانب المصابة بالاميبا الحالة للنسيج المضعفة بواسطة اشعة كاما

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Out of 1279 stool sample only 245 were found to be infected with E.histolytica with total percentage 19% . Diagnostic study for E.histolytica by using techlab Eliza test showed that the non-pathogen E.dispar was significantly higher (78.9%) than E.histolytica (22%).We test the effect of the attenuated E. histolytica by gamma Radiation on the mortality rate in laboratory animals infected with E. histolytica by using increasing doses of radation (5,10,15,20and 25) Rad., the results showed that the percentage of mortality decrease when increase the dose of attenuated E.histolytica cyst in comparison with positive control group (non – attenuated group) it reached (100% ,66.7%, 33.3% 0% and 0%)respectively. Also we found that gamma radiation elevate some immunological parameters in laboratory animal. So the level of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) reached to (3000pg /ml) and level of ( IgE) reached to (550 mg/L) in comparison to control group ( 130.5 and 78.20 mg/L ) respectively . In conclusion ,the high level (IFN-γ) and (IgE) may be used as indicator for induction of immune responses which may have protective effect against amoebiasis infection.


Article
The Effect of Cigarette and Water Pipe Smoking on Some of Blood Parameter
تأثير تدخين السكائر والنركيلة في بعض معايير الدم

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Current study aimed to investigate the effect of cigarette and water pipe smoking on smoker immunity comparing to non smoker. Twenty blood samples were collected from smoker students and twenty blood samples from non smoker students from Baghdad university in 2014.The results showed that there was increase in W.B.Cs total count in smoker group comparing to non smoker in a significant differences P<0.05. The differential W.B.Cs count results shows that there are increase was neutrophiles and Monocytes while there is decrease in lymphocytes in smoker group comparing to non smokers in a significant differences P<0.05 .Also the results revealed that there is an increase in percentage of phagocytosis to Staphyllociccus aureus bacteria by phagocytic cells in smoker group comparing to non smoker group.

Keywords

cigarette --- smoking --- immunity.


Article
The Optimum Conditions for Pleurotin Production by Pleurotus spp. Local Isolates
محلياًPleurotus spp. الظروف المثلى لانتاج البليروتين المنقى من الفطر الغذائي

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The study includ selection of six species of the fungi related to genus Pleurotus were evaluated for their ability to produce of Pleurotin, one of them, Pleurotus ostreatus (P.11) was isolated and identified in the present study. Pleurotin was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The maximum absorption of Pleurotin was 1.6 nm at 250 nm. Pleurotin was purified with two methods using chloroform and ethyl acetate, the results showed the ethyl acetate was more efficient in pleurotin production resulting in 14.6 µg/ml compared to 9.8 µg/ml with chloroform. The local isolate, P. osteratus (P.11) showed significant high Pleurotin production (14.6 µg/ml) when was grown on the modified Czapek-Dox liquid media supplemented with 5% sawdust compared to (0-7.8 µg/ml) the rest fungi in the same medium. By screening various growth conditions, production of Pleurotin by P. ostreatus (P.11) increased to 38.5 µg/ml using modified Czapek-Dox liquid medium supplemented with 10% Rice husks, pH 7, incubation for 5 weeks at 30 °C.


Article
The Biological Effect of Rosmarinus officinelis L. Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Some Fimbrial Genes (fimH-1 and mrkD) of Klebseilla pneumoniae
التأثير الحيوي للزيوت الطيارة لنبات اكليل الجبل Rosmarinus officinelis L. على تكون الغشاء الحيوي وبعض جينات الخمل (fimH-1 and mrkD) لبكتريا Klebsiella pneumoniae

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Klebseilla pneumoniae possesses many virulence factors and survival strategies to persist and overcome host defenses; one of these strategies is biofilm formation. Therefore, the aims of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antibiofilm effect of Rosmarinus officinelis L. essential oil (EO) and its effect on the genes encoding of fimbrial adhesions. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by MIC. The ability to form biofilm as well as inhibition of initial cell attachment and biofilm formation was performed. PCR was carried out to detect fimH-1 and mrkD genes of type 1 and type 3 fimbrial adhesions at different time of incubation. The study revealed that MIC value of EO was 104 µg/ml on 24 (83%) of isolates, 93% of them produced biofilm. Fifty percent reduction in biofilm formation was observed in 10% of isolates at concentration 104 µg/ml and increased to 45% when used 1.5×104 µg/ml of EO. PCR product of fimH-1 was detected at 24 h but absence at 0 and 4 h while mrkD product found in all incubation time. In conclusion, Rosemary EO had antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Moreover, it affected the type 1 fimbriae at gene level probably by mutation during initial attachment of biofilm formation.


Article
Study of Drinking Water Quality for Some Water Purification Plants and Pipes Network in Mosul City
دراسة نوعية مياه الشرب لبعض مشاريع تنقية المياه وشبكات نقل المياه ضمن مدينة الموصل

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This study focusing on river water quality as a source of raw water, efficiencies of water treatment plants, the goodness of transporting water pipes in the water networks and drinking water quality as consumed within certain city residential sectors, in addition to seasonal variation. The following water quality parameters were studied: Electrical Conductivity, Turbidity, Dissolved oxygen, Biochemical oxygen demand, the concentration of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphate, the residual chlorine in addition to total bacterial count and total colon bacteria of raw water, and treated water of four selected water treatment plants in Mosul city. These plants are : the right united scheme, the new left scheme ,the old left scheme and the Ghezlani scheme and follow up analyzing water quality parameters in the lines till the very far ends at the water network covered by every treatment plant. The sampling points were selected at the beginning; the middle andthe end of the water transporting lines .The study extended over nine months period started in September , 2013 and ended at May , 2014. The studied water quality parameters at most exceed the international and the Iraqi national standards limits of water quality. These parameters include turbidity, phosphate and total bacterial count. In addition most of the analyzed water quality parameters of the city residential sectors were totally free of residual chlorine.


Article
Biodegradation of Aromatic and Alkanes Compounds in Contamination Soils with Gasoline by Klebsiella pneumoniae
التحلل الحيوي للمركبات الأروماتية والألكانات في التربة الملوثة بالكازولين بوساطة بكتريا Klebsiella pneumoniae

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This study investigated the potential of bacterial culture in bioremediation of gasoline pollutant soils. Klebsiella pneumoniae has shown a tremendous ability in bioremediation of gasoline. K.pneumoniae was isolated from three electrical generator pollutant soils with gasoline in different regions from Baghdad (Abu-Graib, Al-Khadra quarter and Al-Seleikh region. Bacteria was isolated and identified according to biochemical tests, with optimum temperature at 35°C and pH=5. FTIR spectrum was tested the ability of the K.pneumoniae to biodegrade the gasoline according to the peak areas, which appeared and referred to degrade amino compounds at wave number 3000 cm-1 (2955.23, 2923.47) which refer to the C-H with amines compounds and decreasing at wave number 1500cm-11458.77 and 1377.26 also appeared more degraded at regions of 3000 cm-1 (2955.31, 2922.97 and 2853.79) which represent alkanes C-H and amine groups.


Article
Cytological Studies of Irregular Meiotic Behavior on Some Medicinal Plants: in Al-Anbar, Iraq.
دراسه خلويه لسلوك الأنقسام الأختزالي غير المنتظم لبعض النباتات الطبية في منطقة الأنبار العراق

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The present study on some wild medical taxa has been carried out from the cytological view-points by using iron-acetocarmine squashtechnique.The chromosome numbers of Diplotaxis harra n=13, Eruca sativa n=11, both Carduus pycnocephallus n=29 and Datura stramonium n=10 were the new reports. Avariety of abnormal Chromosomal behaviours including, early & late disjunction, laggards, bridges, stickiness, and disturbed polarity were observed, albite with low frequency. All sorts of chromosomal abnormalities were counted at I &II meiotic stages. The stickiness frequency was slightly higher than others abnormalities in most stages, The highest stickiness numbers were noted in telophase I/II of D. harra (8.88%), C. pycnocephalis (4.25%), and in metaphase I/II of E. sativa (8.68%), D. strumonium (8.29%). The medical plant wild type used as natural genetic resources.


Article
Optimization of Pectinase Production from Pesudomonas sp. Isolated from Iraqi Soil
تحديد الظروف المثلى لأنتاج البكتنيز من عزلة Pesudomonas sp. المعزولة من الترب العراقية

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The isolates were screened according to their capability for pectinase production, screening process identified the best pectinolytic isolate and it was characterized by cultural and biochemical, as Pesudomonas sp. Pectinolytic enzyme producing bacterium Pesudomonas sp. was isolated from the Iraqi soil on nutrient agar plate. Optimiztion of process parameters were carried out by altering some of environmental conditions of chemo-physical environment for the production medium. The highest pectinase production was observed at 48 hrs of incubation at 35 °C with the initial pH of 6.0. Different nutrients and environmental conditions were investigated in terms of their effect on the production of extracellular pectinase using citrus pectin as substrate. The results exhibited that Yeast extract 0.15% with 0.5% of citrus pectin supported maximum pectinase production in the optimum conditions.


Article
Biological Activity of Some Essential Oils on Fifth Instar Nymphs of Ommatissus lybicus (Homoptera: Tropiduchidae)
الفاعلية الحيوية لبعض الزيوت العطرية في حوريات الطور الخامس لحشرة دوباس النخيل Ommatissus lybicus (homoptera: Tropiduchidae)

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Dubas bug, Ommatissus lybicus (Asche and Wilson) is one of the major sucking pests of date palm. Both nymphs causes severe damage to the leaves by sucking the cell sap . If the damage is severe, it could cause the death of the date palms. The effect of different concentrations of some natural plant essential oils was evaluated on fifth instar nymphs of the insect. The results clearly demonstrated that the tested oils from mint (Mentha piperata), Parsley (Petroselinum sativum), Clove (Syzygium aromaticum), and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globules) to evaluate their effect on fecundity of fertile female resulted from these exposed instars nymphs and hatching of these egg. The corrected mortality and numbers of eggs laid, hatching, were studied. The corrected mortality and reduction of laid eggs and hatching was the highest in Eucalyptus. Then M. piperata followed by Syzygium aromaticum and P. sativum.


Article
Optimum conditions for Invertase production from Saccharomyces cere-visiae using solid state fermentation
تحديد الظروف المثلى لإنتاج انزيم الانفرتيز من خميره الخبز Saccharomyces cerevisia باستخدام تخمرات الحالة الصلبة

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Abstract

Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates from different sources (China, Turkey and Egypt) were screened by culturing on solid state fermentation to select the most efficient isolate for invertase production. S. cerevisiae from China was high specific activity 34.7 U/mg. The optimum conditions for enzyme production from this isolate were determined by using a medium composed of wheat bran moisten with 1:0.5 (v:w) corn steep liquor as nitrogen source at initial pH 5.0 for 5 days at 30OC.


Article
Using Geophysical Well Logs in Studying Reservoir Properties of Zubair Formation in Luhais Oil Field, Southern Iraq
استخدام المجسات الجيوفيزيائية البئرية لدراسة الصفات المكمنية لتكوين الزبير في حقل اللحيس النفطي, جنوب العراق

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Abstract

The characterizations of reservoir require reliable knowledge of certain fundamental reservoir properties. Log measurements can define or at least infer these properties: resistivity, porosity, shale volume, lithology, and water, oil, or gas saturation and permeability. The current study represents evaluation of petrophysical properties in well LU-12 for Zubair Formation in Luhais Oil Field, southern Iraq. The petrophysical evaluation was based on geophysical well logs data to delineate the reservoir characteristics of Zubair Formation. The available geophysical well logs such as (sonic, density, neutron, gamma ray, SP, and resistivity logs) are digitized using the Didger software. The environmental corrections and petrophysical parameters such as porosity, water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation, bulk water volume, etc. were computed and interpreted using Interactive Petrophysics program. Lithological, mineralogical and matrix identification studies were estimated using porosity combination cross plots. Petrophysical properties were determined and plotted as computer processing interpretation (CPI) using Interactive Petrophysics program. Zubair Formation in Luhais oil field is divided into three units according to petrophysical properties: Upper Zubair, Middle Zubair, and Lower Zubair. Middle Zubair is characterized by good porosity but high water saturation. Interpretation of well logs of Zubair Formation founds that Zubair Formation production in well LU-12 is noncommercial but present weak oil shows in some ranges of the formation especially in upper and lower Zubair units but middle Zubair is characterized by free oil shows .Lithological study of Zubair Formation appears that it consists mainly of interbedded sandstone, shale, and shale sandstone whereas mineralogy of Zubair Formation consists mainly of quartz sandstone and Some calcite.


Article
Microfacies Analysis of the Carbonate Rocks in Ora Formation (Late Devonian early Carboniferous) in North Iraq
تحليل السحنات الدقيقة للصخور الجيرية في تكوين اورا (الديفوني االمتأخر الكاربوني المبكر) في شمال العراق

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Abstract

The outcrop sections of Ora Formation (late Devonian-Early Carboniferous) in the Nazdor and Ora localities at the Northern Thrust Zone of Iraq were selected for this study. Lithologically the Ora Formation composed of clastic and carbonate rocks. The lower part in the Nazdor section cosists of crossbedded quartz arenite sandstone interbedded with successive laminated siltstone and shale. The lithology of the upper part in the Nazdor section and the upper part in Ora section, are composed of mixed silicalcastic (shale, siltstone and sandstone) and carbonate interbedded lithology. The petrographic study shows that the carbonate rocks consist of micrite and sparite groundmass. The skeletal grains include shallow water brachiopods, bryozoans , echinoderms , in addition to ostracods , trilobite , pelecepoda , gastropoda and calcispheres , while nonskeletal grains include peloids and lithoclasts of carbonate and noncarbonat. Ten microfacies types were identified. There are silty mudstone, laminated silty peloidal packstone, lithoclast breccia, wackstone, floatstone, bryozoa grainstone, sandy laminated grainstone, grainstone/rudstone and boundstone. Facies analysis of the upper part of the Ora Formation in Nazdor and Ora section indicate that the rocks were deposited mainly in inner margins of homoclinal carbonate ramp with minor units were deposited in middle of outer ramp margins.


Article
Enhancing the indication of ancient geologic features by using Seismic Attributes technique extracted along picked horizons of seismic and flattened data
تحسين دلالة تراكيب جيولوجية قديمة باستخدام تقنية الملامح الزلزالية لعواكس ملتقطة عبر بيانات زلزالية ومسطحة

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Abstract

Three Seismic Attributes are used to enhance or delineate geologic feature that cannot be detected within seismic resolution limit. These are Instantaneous Amplitude, Instantaneous Phase and Instantaneous Frequency Attributes. These are applied along two defined picked surface horizons within 3D seismic data for an area in southern Iraq. Two geologic features are deduced, the first represents complex channel system at the top of Saadi Formation and the second represents submarine fan within Mishrif Formation. The semblances of these ancient geological features are dramatically enhanced by using flattening technique.


Article
Characterizing Jordan Higher Centralizers on Triangular Rings through Zero Product
تمييز تطبيقات جوردان المركزية من الرتب العليا على حلقات المصفوفات المثلثية العليا من خلال الضرب الصفري

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Abstract

In this paper , we prove that if T is a 2-torsion free triangular ring and φ=〖(φ_i)〗_(i∈N) be a family of additive mapping 〖 φ〗_i:T→T then φ satisfying Xφ_i (Y)+φ_i (Y)X=0 ∀ i∈N whenever X,Y∈T,XY=YX=0 ifand only if φ is a higher centralizer which is means that φ is Jordan higher centralizer on 2-torsion free triangular ring if and only if φ is a higher centralizer and also we prove that if φ=〖(φ_i)〗_(i∈N) be a family of additive mapping φ_i:T→T satisfying the relation φ_n (XYX)=∑_(i=1)^n▒X φ_i (Y)X ∀ X,Y∈T, Then φ is a higher centralizer.


Article
On the Dynamics of Prey-Predator Model Involving Treatment and Infections Disease in Prey Population
حول ديناميكية نموذج الفريسة – المفترس المتضمن العلاج لمرض معدي في مجتمع الفريسة

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Abstract

In this paper, a mathematical model consisting of the prey- predator model with treatment and disease infection in prey population is proposed and analyzed. The existence, uniqueness and boundedness of the solution are discussed. The stability analyses of all possible equilibrium points are studied. Numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the global dynamical behavior of the system.


Article
On Two Sided α -n-Derivations in Prime near – Rings
ثنائية الجانب على الحلقات المقتربة الأولية α-n الاشتقاقات

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Abstract

In this paper, we investigate prime near – rings with two sided α-n-derivations satisfying certain differential identities. Consequently, some well-known results have been generalized. Moreover, an example proving the necessity of the primness hypothesis is given.


Article
Improve PGP Cryptography Protocol Using Genetic NTRU Technique
تحسين بروتوكول التشفير PGP باستخدام تقنية النترو الجينية

Authors: Sura A. Sarab سرى عبد سراب
Pages: 2682-2693
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Abstract

The strong cryptography employed by PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is one of the best available today. The PGP protocol is a hybrid cryptosystem that combines some of the best features of both conventional and public-key cryptography. This paper aim to improve PGP protocol by combined between the Random Genetic algorithm, NTRU (N-th degree Truncated polynomial Ring Unit) algorithm with PGP protocol stages in order to increase PGP protocol speed, security, and make it more difficult in front of the counterfeiter. This can be achieved by use the Genetic algorithm that only generates the keys according to the Random Genetic equations. The final keys that obtained from Genetic algorithm were observed to be purely random (according to the randomness tests) and it was used instead of the keys that generated from random movements of mouse in the standard PGP protocol. In addition, the new PGP protocol uses the NTRU technique for encryption process instead of RSA algorithm. NTRU algorithm is secure to most attack methods and performs operations much faster than RSA. So, the New-PGP increased secure condition to the PGP protocol and made it more robust and efficient.


Article
Analytical Study for the Annual TEC Parameter Variations for the Solar Cycle 24 over Iraqi Zone
دراسة تحليلية للتغير السنوي لمعامل المحتوى الالكتروني الكلي باستخدام موديل ال IRI فوق منطقة العراق

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Abstract

In this research, the TEC parameter has been determined for the ionosphere layer over the Iraqi zone. The calculations of this parameter have been conducted using the IRI model that considered as one of the recommended international models which used to calculate the ionosphere parameter (TEC). The determinations have been made for several sites or sites that located within the Iraqi territory. The years (2011-2013) of the solar cycle 24 have been adopted to make the determinations for the TEC parameter.The capital Baghdad has been selected to represent the transmitter station and many different communication points which are located in different directions around the transmitter station have been represented as receiving stations.

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