Table of content

al-academy

مجلة الاكاديمي

ISSN: 25232029 18195229
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Fine Arts
Language: Arabic

This journal is Open Access

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jornal of the college of fine Arts University of baghdad

web site : jcofarts.uobaghdad.edu.iq

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email : al.academy@cofarts.uobaghdad.edu.iq
phone number: 009647703467114
web site : jcofarts.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume: issue:72

Article
Intellectual Reflections of the Cubical Arts on the Iraqi Contemporary Pottery Art
الانعكاسات الفكرية للفن التكعيبي على فن الخزف العراقي المعاصر

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Abstract

The current study discusses one of the most important modern schools in art, and it studies its impact on contemporary Iraqi art, particularly in the art of pottery because of its association to the utilitarian function. However, this study demonstrated that pottery is a unique art, which has exceeded the limits of this function. In addition, pottery has a great role in changing the view and understanding of it. Therefore, this art assists in achieving the concepts, philosophies, and values among other fine arts branches. The most prominent issues in this article is dealing with reflections of the cubical arts on the Iraqi contemporary pottery art by through the works of the most prominent contemporary artists such as (Saad Shakir, SHaniar Abdullah and Tariq Ibrahim). They are the finest potters who have been and continue to have a clear imprint in the history of contemporary Iraqi art. Cubism art is not a spur of the moment in Mesopotamia, but it has a long history and deep roots stretch since the time of our ancestors, the Sumerians, where the imprint is clear in this field. The researcher has present a model of the ceramic works of the Sumerians as this civilization replete with artistic and aesthetic achievements that we are proud of as an Iraqis and as a part of this legacy. Accordingly, it is not surprising when contemporary potters repeat the achievements of their ancestors but in contemporary and modern styles. It is continuing message passing from generation to a generation but in different methods. The first chapter discusses the research problem, importance and the aims of the study, boundaries, and determines the terms such as the ‘cubism’. Chapter two consist of two main topics, the first is (Introduction to Cubism), the second is (the cubical trend in the contemporary Iraqi pottery art). Chapter three included the procedures and methodology used and the research, community and the selection of the research sample, and then the sample’s analysis. The fourth chapter represents the most important conclusions such as: The results shows that the artwork produced by the potters (SaadShakir and Haniar Abdullah Tariq Ibrahim) have contemporary and geometric cubical style in its theme. They have done this in deliberately manner to give the regularity and harmony as a specific feature of each of them. The results also show that all the artworks have an existence of a common factors in terms of the external configuration, but they are differ in the idea and the extent of their impact in the delivery to the receiver, where the artwork consists of a social, utilitarian and/or aesthetic functions. In the end, I have listed the recommendations and a list of resources.

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Article
Compound Shapes in the work of the artist Max Ernst and Ali Najjar
الكائنات المركبة في أعمال الفنان (ماكس أرنست) و ( علي النجار)

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Abstract

the Research problem entitled: (compound shapes in the work of the artist Max Ernst and Ali Najjar) the nature of the concept of compound shapes and mechanisms of functioning in contemporary art done. The research consisted of(4) four parts: the first part is dealing with the methodological framework of the Search represented the research problem , which is manifested through this study to reveal the technical features of the composite shapes, that linked achievement both artists (Max Ernst) and (Ali Al Najjar). Which is crystallized into two objectives as follows: 1 - Detection of the technical features of the composite shapes in the work of Max Ernst and Ali Al-Najjar. 2 - Detection of similarities and differences in the recruitment of compound shapes when Max Ernst and Ali Al-Najjar. The second chapter, represented the theoretical framework, it contained three sections Investigation Section I: Introduction of historical composite shapes in the artwork. The second topic: compound shapes in the work of the artist Max Ernst. The third topic: the compound objects in the work of artist Ali al-Najjar. The third chapter has singled out the search procedures, represented by the applications of compound shapes in a sample Alphand Max Ernst and Ali al-Najjar, and then ensure the identification of the research community and appointed by the (4) models, and then search tool and sample analysis. The fourth chapter has included the results of research and the researcher has reached conclusions to a number of results answer the goals of research, including: * Similarities in the recruitment of compound shapes in the work (Max Ernst) and (Ali Al Najjar). 1 – Humanity shapes the vehicle body cubic abstract sample (1) for Ernst and (3) to (Ali Al Najjar). 2 - reduction of the composite shape abstract way the sample (2) to (Ernest) and (2) for Ali Al-Najjar. * Attributes the difference in the recruitment of compound shapes in the work of Max Ernst and the carpenter. 1 charm innocence and its thick permafrost fantasy world enjoyed by the dreamy compound shapes when Ali al-Najjar, the sample (2) we find different when Max Ernst beings the vehicle associated with the meanings and connotations broadcast a sense of aggressiveness, rebellion and cynicism and desire for revenge of the sample (2.1). 4 - stability and calm clear of complex shapes in the sample (2) When Ali al-Najjar. While we find when Max Ernst bold, powerful and unstable sample (1). This researcher reached to a set of conclusions and then the list of sources and references.

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Article
Performing processors of view between impressionism & superrealism (A comparative analysis)
المعالجات الأدائية للمشهد بين الانطباعية والسوبريالية (دراسة تحليلية مقارنة)

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Abstract

Addressed the problem of the research is marked: (Performing processors for the time between Impressionism and superrealism) the concept of time and how to submit artwork. The search came in four sections: general framework for research and identified the research problem and the need for him. With an indication of the importance of his presence. Then determine the research objectives of (detection processors performing to the concept of time in works of art in each of Impressionism and superrealism. And a comparison between them to reveal similarities and differences), followed by the establishment of boundaries Find three (objectivity, the temporal and spatial) were then determine the terms related to the title. Then provide the theoretical framework and indicators that resulted from academic theorizing of the subject. The researcher has identified three addresses implied within this framework to ensure reading placed search according to the various frameworks tariff. Were as follows: the concept of Performance. Performance in school Impressionism. Performance in motion superrealism. The third chapter was devoted to the search procedures, through thoughtful society and revealed the selected sample of it (4 boards) and then specify the search tool and determine the methodology, followed by an analysis of the sample. The fourth chapter included the search results, including: 1. Impressionism was supposed high-resolution camera before its existence, this curriculum was adopted in technical work, while actually that superrealism benefited from its existence. 2. Impressionism stop time and assume that appropriate selection flesh artist to documented, while The superrealism has stopped and select by artist to their appropriate moments, via the camera. What a dream by Impressionist artist, achieved artist superrealism, with the help of technology. 3. Impressionist artist predicted the existence of details to Leave the eye, represents an intuitive manner, while the artist Alsobriala sensory seen through technical given that proved its existence. 4. Impressionism is a performance act of imagination woven into the details of the decree scene. And Alsobrialah performance monitoring precise optical tubeless to the mental effort of the Impressionists

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Article
The concept of eliminating and relating in the Paintings of the artist Mahdi Mutashar
الحذف والاضافة في رسوم مهدي مطشر

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Abstract

This research main goal is to identify the concept of relating and eliminating in visual arts and how does work as a philosophic and aesthetic concept of great importance in visual arts, specially in abstract field, for it is related to ornament (geometrical or botanical) for its rising is a sign for the operations of adding and deleting, and studying art products with such trend in their configuration and the boundaries of utilizing this concept. Then taking the art works of the artist Mahdi Mutashar as a research sample for procedural analysis. And outputs that tend in this direction in it's formal being and know the limits of the concept of work -related dialectically interconnected. And then deal procedurally with the works of Iraqi painter Mehdi Mutashar , as the research sample , which we find to be clinging to his attempts of cultural Arab and Muslim origin become a clear sign that describe his artistic style . Therefore , the research tended to define the concept of deletion and addition in general and then its meaning and its applications in the Fine Arts through history , the resort then to dismantle the argument bilateral factors to its prominent leaders of the individual in accordance with what is happening in the works of Artist " Mutashar " and discuss the format reflective of what caused the deletion of the alterations to the second factor , while it becomes deletion sense added formality of the painting completed , and migrates portions deleted to a specimen optical Last become double added another approach for the growth of surface imaging in the light of the new relationship between the deleted additive origin and how to deal with it visually , so that adds quality in surface imaging , and is only artist with adding deleted , or resort to other cosmetic additions sings during the final structure of the proposed deal with the techniques or treatments chromaticity dimensions Avatar function , which is located within the incubator intellectual they handle. In light of this and go into correlation with the philosophical concept , we find that the artist " Mehdi Mutashar " strongly aware of the nature of visual Closed and clear understanding of the functioning of the concept of deletion and addition and how to employ in his visual.

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Article
Outstanding aesthetic decoration in the doors of the holy shrines (shrine of Imam Hussein, model)
جمالية الزخارف البارزة في أبواب المراقد المقدسة (مرقد الإمام الحسين "ع" إنموذجا)

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Abstract

The problem of the search (how to employ own aesthetic values sculpture prominent decorations doors in the holy shrines) as research aims to detect these formulas employed in relief sculpture in accordance with the aesthetic values of the decorations that add structure in the form of doors shrines dimensions of functional and aesthetic and expressive By selecting the general system configurations spaces for doors and select the components of the structural configurations decorative prominent types (geometric and floral and linear and composite) as well as identify the techniques adopted in the executive configurations doors at the level of raw materials and processors show. Find and define the beauty of decorative formations prominent of all types and formations embodied in the interior and exterior doors and entrances that are at the doors of the holy shrines in Iraq, and the shrine of al-Husseini al-Sharif, in its present Year 1435 A.H. - 2014 A.B. Comprised the theoretical framework Display the following topics: The purpose decorative doors holy shrines and public space for the doors, and regulations in configurations doors, divisions basic space doors, and regulations of formal configurations decorative figures, and variations decorative for those configurations in terms of the fundamentals of building approved where as well as aesthetic formations decorative prominent at the level of raw materials and technology implementation. Depend Search procedures descriptive analytical method, through the research community the original's (21) the doors chosen are elected and deliberate represented by (3) the doors embody the research sample, represented by (the door of Qathi Ilhajaat of woodgrain door, Mr. Ibrahim Al-Mujab of the severity of silver, and the door of Al-Ra’as Al-Sharif of the severity of gold and enamel), which resulted in the analysis process to devising a set of results, including: (1) Stretch the foundations for expanding the vertical extent of the potential space for the doors wide for spatial divisions, had the sculptor and ornate depending on the geometric shape of the door rectangle partition. (2) Dependent structural basis for the formation of the total cross-section of the plurality of organizations use decorative carved and compatibility with the diversification of the formal carved decorations. (3) Light plays an significant role in highlighting the carving technique in aesthetic dimension impart values expressionistic decorative active within the unit. (4) In raw texture within a single winning by technical significant impact on the activation of light as an aesthetic model for the decorative unit.

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Article
Artistic trends to the formation of postmodern
الاتجاهات الفنية في تشكيل ما بعد الحداثة

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Abstract

This research includes interested in studying art contemporary, by studying the experiences of sculpture for the formation of post-modernism, assuming the existence of trends in public art can be classified, in spite of the multiplicity of styles and methods of work since the second half of the twentieth century to the present day, and this shenanigans knowledge on how to the Technical that is the art is not restricted, It is art refuses laws and fixed values and traditional styles, and always aspires to diversity and innovation. Search contains three chapters and an introduction containing information about the research problem and the importance of research and the goal of the research, the goal of research is: Detection of artistic trends in the formation of post-modernism, as well as the limits of search time between 1950 2010 AD, and the limits of search spatial are in Europe and the United States, due to the fact that Search one of the research-based analytical cash to draw conclusions from the study of the experiences of general, the survey method was used in the study of descriptive research sample, according to the models included in the chapters : first and second. The first chapter provided information on techniques to show the formation of post-modernism, in order to identify the modes of these techniques and methods of formation. While the second chapter included the modalities of supply in the formation of post-modernism, which is an important aspect of this trend for the disclosure of those methods and exit information and data derived it .The third chapter is devoted to the search results, by showing that there are five key trends for the formation of post-modernism: 1) body art , includes the arts which focused on the representation of the human body, such as: the realistic Art Pop art and performance art 2) environmental art , includes arts which focused on taking the natural environment the subject of works of art , with or without human intervention . 3) Kinetic Art : Includes Arts which focused on the element of movement in the sculptural works . 4) materials of non-traditional art : the arts that includes premium materials used in artwork: light, sound, water, and chemical industrial materials, electronic screen. 5 ) Constructivist art: Includes arts, which focused on the establishment of artwork through traditional materials: Diversified Metals and stone and wood, appeared in abstract art and assembly art , or through the ready-made materials through installed or displayed

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Article
Symbol Significances in Fakhir Mohammad Paintings 1980 - 2010
دلالات الرمز في رسوم فاخر محمد 1980 –2010

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Address the current research study " Symbol Significances in Fakhir Mohammad Paintings " in an attempt to detect signs of the icon in the artist's fee . The research contains four chapters The first chapter of which the methodological framework for the search starting with the problem of the specific research and asking the following: Maaltold semantic code in fees Luxury Muhammad? As well as displaying the importance of research and the need for it and in order to search through ( you know the implications of the code in the fee Luxury Muhammad) and for the period of ( 1980-2010 ) in his works of art as well as identifying the search terms . In the second chapter , such as the theoretical framework , and contained three sections focus of attention in the first section on the concept of the significance and the second section included a review of the code in all of Iraq's ancient art and Islamic art and philosophically and with psychologists ( school of psychoanalysis ) . The third section has focused his attention on the icon in the modern European art and symbol in contemporary Iraqi art and finally symbol in fees Luxury Mohammed . While singled out the third quarter , the research procedures in terms of the research community and inventory tool , which included the collection of information Vtm adoption of a random sample of it and it was the number (3) works of art covered the limits of search adoption descriptive analytical method . Finally, the fourth quarter included the results , discussion and conclusions , as well as recommendations and suggestions Among the findings by the researcher are: 1- is a symbol and a means of expression is not directly appropriate meanings or ideas with abstract character 2- Code related psychology of the artist and his inclinations and his vision of self , artist necessarily carries the character of his time. 3- the symbol of a dynamic moving with the content of a variable takes new meaning with all the work depending on the Zmkane

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Article
System formations in contemporary discourse theatrical
تشكلات النظام في الخطاب المسرحي المعاصرـــ مقاربة ثقافية ـــ

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System is one of the concepts that fused stages of human thought his contemplations , and the evolution of his ideas and know the universe and existence , was formed several systems and numerous multi- humanitarian field , for example : the political system , the economic system , the system of philosophical , scientific system ... etc. . The current research around trying to find the identity of the system aesthetic in general and theater in particular , the detection of compositions and how Cklath within shifts functional and conceptual , which confirms the importance of Altgria creative as characterized by the following heading towards experimentation and update ongoing , and in particular what we find in the discourse of postmodernism , The research has included in its chapters and its subjects included several axes, the first chapter : the methodological framework and ensure that : the research problem , the importance of research and it's needed, the goals of the research, the limits of the search, and then determine the terms. Chapter II of the theoretical framework : included two sections : • The first topic: the concept of the system : between theory and procedure : The researcher tried to establish the concept of the system and then look at how to apply it and Cklath . • The second topic: formations system between monetary and theatrical speeches : The researcher went about analyzing the dimensions of morphology in the system and the most prominent theater systems in contemporary theater , such as the political system : Bertolt Brecht , philosophical system : Antonan Arto , anthropological system , the system Suri . It is then extracted researcher leading indicators theoretical framework , and the third chapter , which contained several axes including: research methodology , research sample and the method selected , the search tool , the foundations of the analysis of the research sample , sample analysis , it chose researcher intentional sample consisted regime Suri when Iraqi director ( Salah reeds ) in a play Macbeth who presented in Baghdad in 1998 , while the fourth chapter : the annexation of the conclusions and findings and research resources.

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Article
Functionalizing Location's Indications and Aesthetic Elements in Novel Film"(Pianist Film as an example)
الاشتغال الدلالي والجمالي للمكان في الفلم الروائي (فلم عازف البيانو نموذجا)

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Cinema artist work has not been achieved without location indications ; places are of cultured indications and its effect on behaviors and trends. Location is an important element as to convey meanings via its interaction with the personality about which it has been written may studies. Despite location occupies huge spaces within social and philosophical Drama branches , but it has a strong connection with the art world since it reflects reality of global theories in different fields. Audio and visual speech in Cinema have connected with the environmental effectiveness resulted from location which the sensual understanding interacts with in a way that suits Movie. Location consists of mixing elements of Movie and it in return interacts with location as to have a grand effect on viewers and to send aesthetic and convincing meanings to viewers. The location is part of vital elements that being used in cinema so as to produce a subject. For psychological , objective and dramatic reasons , selected locations have not come randomly, but rather come in an organized studied way as to serve developing drama. The art re-organizes location and its composition; the genius lies in giving aesthetic dimension and symbols. It is the ability of Film maker to produce a picture in which location becomes effective and active as to move the activity of location as an effective and aesthetic element depending on location 's interaction and its relation with outstanding elements . Hence, for this importance , I resort to study the effect of location in novel Drama passing through theoretical opinions of researchers and specialists. This study results in getting out group of indications that help us make analysis for outstanding filmic sample for the film of piano tuner. The research indicates to important results that form an problem needs to be explained and this problem lies in "How to functionalize Location's Indications and Aesthetic Elements in Novel Film"

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The system and Disorder of shape and content in Interior Design Educational halls in the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (Analytical study)
النظام واللانظام للشكل والمضمون في التصميم الداخلي للقاعات التعليمية في وزارة العمل والشؤون الاجتماعية (دراسة تحليلية )

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Dealing with this study to find a link principle in the construction of the system and disorder to the promise of the principles and concepts of intellectual and philosophical form and content in the act of interior design of the halls education in the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs , which leads to a reaction design objective and functionally and to increase the strength of the effect on users of the coaches and trainers . As it informs the side cognitive and developmental study of the design of the interior spaces . So it was the goal of research in the detection of the nature of the system and disorder with Focus indicators and the type of regulations and privacy and what constitutes the framework of knowledge in order to explain it through the procedures of this search for halls education in the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, with regard to the shape and content in these halls , as well as the importance of research and identify terminology .The second chapter includes theoretical framework , which included two sections the first section focuses on the concept of the system and disorder , and the second section focused on the expressive implications of form and content . Indicators were extract relied upon analysis of axles form . The third chapter was devoted to research procedures where followed a researcher descriptive approach and from the case study (Case - Study) through the analysis of three spaces belonging to the department of vocational training at the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs , namely: ( a hall for English language teaching and workshop for air conditioning and refrigeration workshop art of cutting and sewing ) . Among the most prominent findings by the researcher are: Deficiencies in the recruitment of the foundations of interior design in these spaces led to the loss of tensile property and visual attraction , which is reflected in the decline in the proportion of common sense of the formal organization of the space , which led to disorder in the functional and aesthetic side of those spaces .As one of the most important conclusions reached by the researcher is that the organization , coordination and arrangement, is basically a requirement to coordinate the flow of movement that have impact on the success of the functionSpace.

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Article
Symmetry in designs clothing fabrics
التماثل في تصاميم اقمشة الملابس

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The art of designing clothing fabrics is a multidisciplinary design important and difficult because it is linked to man and his personality and his tastes and habits and behavior being is a form of creative expression here came the problem of the research , which are summarized by asking the following: Is the similar role in the designs of clothing fabrics The second chapter included two themes design fabrics the symmetry in the design of fabrics the third chapter included research procedures adopted descriptive analytical method to reach the goals of the research and consisted of the research community (9) models of the designs fabrics Iraqi either the research sample was selected (5) models of society current search and search tool Vtmthelt set of axes basic theoretical framework was derived from either the most important results that have emerged through research are 1 - afternoon he has not been achieved as a result of symmetry match elements are monotonous , but alternately in all samples design which added a kind of change that ease the monotony . The most important conclusions : 1 - has been associated with symmetry Bassas balance ( symmetric and asymmetric ) designs in fabrics Almbusah in most of the samples examined, and devoid of the adoption of the radiation balance Awahar who lend a distinctive diverse vocabulary in the distribution of replica

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Article
The industrial design aesthetic and its relationship with the recipient
فلسفة الجمال في التصميم الصناعي وارتباطها بالمتلقي

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The research problem lies in determining the beauty ranges between the receiver and the industrial product, The goal of the research, it is the definition of aesthetics in industrial design and its relation to the receiver, and the researcher outcome several conclusions of the, the most important was: 1. The role of accumulated experience, and their interaction with the vision of the artwork in achieving aesthetic perception and levels of artistic and aesthetic values and by the level of growth this taste of the recipient. 2. There are interactive and close relationship be the primary means for the integration of functional and aesthetic meaning the designer meant to get it to the receiver.

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Article
Impediments to the use of the Iraqi musical instruments in the orchestra
معوقات استخدام الآلات الموسيقية العراقية في الأوركسترا

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The diversity of ideas and freedom of expression among the authors, who are looking for what's new serve the goals of musical expression and aesthetic, which calls for the use of traditional instruments with the formation of the great instrumental music and well-known orchestra, is a major challenge from several quarters, the failure of some of those musical instruments or limited potential or method performed by costly sometimes prevents the use of a permanent in this great configuration, had to be the emergence of some of the problems faced by the author and musician on the one hand and the receiver on the other hand, which must be looking for the perfect, some of these musical instrument are used systematically follows the work of the orchestra is the traditional musical instruments of the Iraqi or say that the popular, were those questions is the difficulties or problems faced by the technical staff starting point for this search.

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Article
Wagner ideas and architectural scene Bayreuth ideal
الأفكار الفاجنرية ومعمارية مسرح بايرويت المثالي

Authors: Ali Abdullah علي عبد الله
Pages: 229-242
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The (Richard Wagner) of cultural figures rare collected between philosophy and literature and the arts to reach the concept of the artwork destruction (Gesamtkunstwerk), who called for by the movement romantic, he is a thinker, and composer renewed, and playwright, designer and architect of a special kind. Able ( Wagner ) that translates his thoughts technical and design in the field of opera and disclose those ideas models actual dealt joints essential this art heritage, which was developed and laid his modern rules approach by achieving his dream creates theater ideal, which was held in the city ( Bayreuth) in ( Bavaria ), one of the German Federal States . The study reviews the ideas of Wagner and their sources, which have had an important role in the development of his artistic and personal reflections on his production artwork and aspirations of the philosophical, which achieved through which its own concept, which combines the between (the dictatorship of the artist and democracy) to get safely to the treatment of social optimization and ensure results. Address the study is to identify the character (Wagner) in all aspects of cultural, artistic and political, as it is each of them an important tributary of the shares in the establishment of his theory of art opera that corrected the track (from his point of view) and head it towards the interaction with the requirements of life renewed in order to live art with the community and meet cultural needs and aspirations of the modern man. Finally, the study found effects (Wagner) in subsequent generations whether it be the elite avant-garde filmmakers of the modern theater builders, or in writing orchestral and operatic, or in foundations adopted by the opera houses and modern architecture. Keywords: Wagner, theater, opera, Gesamtkunstwerk.

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Article
Aesthetics word word Allah in Kufic script design configurations
جماليات تصميم كلمة لفظ الجلالة في تكوينات الخط الكوفي

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Taken the word the word God itself the task when the Muslim calligraphers because of its holiness and majesty and altitude, so take Calligraphers innovate in their design, which represents the images and forms experiencing them prolific artistic output to highlight the aesthetic value through the use of Kufic script which is one of the most prominent lines his susceptibility diversity decorative Add the possibility of extending the letters in different directions because of the vision calligrapher aesthetic and an investigation is required for the word of the design, so the researcher examined by dividing into four chapters,Was the first research problem and the importance and goals and identify the term, while the second chapter was divided into two sections was the first diversity formal configurations word Allah in Kufic script, this section on two axes, while the second section Fajss to the aesthetics of the word word Majesty design, and touched the researcher to the most important foundations that have been adopted to achieve Nlk aesthetics, the third chapter devoted to research procedures and analysis of the samples according to the principal researcher in the form set out that his research tool, and the fourth quarter was the findings, conclusions and recommendations and proposals.

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The formal variations of the Quran calligraphy at the beginning of Islam
التباينات الشكلية للخطوط المصحفية في صدر الإسلام

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The present research deals with studying the formal variations for the Quranic calligraphy at the beginning of Islam , as being regarded from the original Arabic calligraphies which were developed later till they became as they are now, where the calligraphers in pushing for simulating these original calligraphies and knowing the methods of their writing by the calligraphers at that time. That helped in enriching and developing the aesthetic and designing values For these calligraphies, as being calligraphic achievements represent transmission resulted from the objective, aesthetic and indicative vision in producing the verses according to a certain form. This has a clear impact in tendency to the technical, aesthetic and expressing development in producing designing structures unlimited with certain letters or a general building for the page. Through the surveying study, research and models which where obtained , the researcher was able to give the problems of his research the following question : What are the formal variations for the quranis calligraphy at the beginning of Islam? The importance of the research embodied through the interest with the calligraphies which were about to vanish because of the rarity of using them. The formal variations are being clarified by showing the forms of the letters of these calligraphies and the advantage which is being presented by the study for the researchers and scholars in the domain of knowing these calligraphies. This study aimed at discovering the formal variations for the quranic calligraphy at the beginning of Islam through determining the formal variations for the letters, the general building of the page and the method in which they have been written in limits of calligraphic models which arrived to us, in the calligraphy which is called madani and makain during the first hundreds years from the beginning of Islam. The second chapter deals with the theoretical frame which contained the writing of Quran in the era of messenger (peace to upon him) , and the materials which the Qurans were written on at the beginning of Islam . The third chapter contained the procedure of the research. The fourth chapter deals with analyzing the samples and showing the results, conclusions recommendations and proposals.

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