Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Science

المجلة العراقية للعلوم

ISSN: 00672904
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Iraqi journal of science is a quarterly specified scientific journal issued by the Faculty of Science at the University of Baghdad. The members of the Editorial Board representing the Departments of Eight Scientific departments, college of science/ Baghdad University and its related units of research, all are professors, scientists with extensive experience and considerable skills in their field of science, as well as an advisory board in support composed of professors and scientists with great reputation in their field of science from other Colleges, universities, or research institutes. The specialty of publication includes the following fields:

1.Pure and Applied Physics.
2.Mathematical Sciences.
3.Computer Science and Information Technology.
4.Science of chemistry.
5.Bio-Science technologies.
6.Earth Sciences, geo-physics, and remote sensing.
7.Astronomy, Space Sciences, and Remote Sensing Unit.
8.Science and Research of tropical area

The visions, goals, and the mechanisms of the Iraqi Journal of Science is to publish scientific research sober in the areas of Applied and Pure Sciences and instructive Iraqi society, scientific research, scientific interest large to contribute to the development of various disciplines, which provides significant support to researchers in all scientific facilities to continue to support the development plans in Iraq.

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Contact info

Baghdad University
College of Science
Baghdad
Iraq
ijs@scbaghdad.edu.iq
07903375590
http://ijs.scbaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:56 issue:4A

Article
Spectrophotometric Kinetic Methods for the Determination of Paracetamol in Pure Form and Pharmaceutical Preparations
طرائق طيفية حركية لتقدير الباراسيتامول بصورته النقية و في المستحضرات الصيدلانية

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Simple and sensitive kinetic methods are developed for the determination of Paracetamol in pure form and in pharmaceutical preparations. The methods are based on direct reaction (oxidative-coupling reaction) of Paracetamol with o-cresol in the presence of sodium periodate in alkaline medium, to form an intense blue-water-soluble dye that is stable at room temperature, and was followed spectrophotometriclly at λmax= 612 nm. The reaction was studied kinetically by Initial rate and fixed time (at 25 minutes) methods, and the optimization of conditions were fixed. The calibration graphs for drug determination were linear in the concentration ranges (1-7 μg.ml-1) for the initial rate and (1-10 μg.ml-1) for the fixed time methods at 25 min. The methods were applied successfully for the determination of Paracetamol in pharmaceutical.


Article
New Pd and Pt Complexes of Guanine –Azo Dye: Structural, Spectroscopic, Dyeing Performance and Antibacterial Activity Studies
معقدات بلاديوم وبلاتين جديدة لصبغة كوانين- أزو: دراسات تركيبية وطيفية واداء الصبغة والفعالية البايولوجية

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Four new complexes of Pd(II), Pt(II) and Pt(IV) with DMSO solution of the ligand 8-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]guanine (L) have been synthesized. Reaction of the ligand with Pd(II) at different pH gave two new complexes, at pH=8, a complex of the formula [Pd(L)2]Cl2.DMSO (1) was formed, while at pH=4.5,the complex[Pd(L)3]Cl2.DMSO (2) was obtained. Meanwhile, the reaction of the ligand with Pt(II) and Pt(IV) revealed new complexes with the formulas[Pt(L)2]Cl2.DMSO (3)and [Pt(L)3]Cl4.DMSO (4) at pH 7.5 and 6 respectively. All the preparations were performed after fixing the optimum pH and concentration. The effect of time on the stability of these complexes was checked. The stoichiometry of the complexes was determined by the mole ratio and Job methods. The complexes were characterized by micro elemental analysis and molar conductivity together with the magnetic susceptibility measurements. Spectrophotometric measurements, UV-Vis, FT-IR and A.A were also performed. 1H NMR spectra for the ligand and [Pd(L)3]Cl2.DMSO complex were also done. A square planar geometry was suggested for complexes (1) and (3), and octahedral structure for complexes (2) and (4).The Dyeing performance and the antibacterial activities for the ligand and its complexes were also tested.


Article
Synthesis, Identification and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Some New Substituted N-benzyl-5-Bromo Isatin
تحضير, تشخيص وتقييم الفعالية المضادة للبكتريا لعدد من المعوضات الجديدة لـN -بنزايل-5-بروموايساتين

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This research includes synthesis of new heterocyclic derivatives of N-benzyl-5-bromoisatin. New 1, 2, 4-triazole, oxazoline and thiazoline derivatives of [N-benzyl-5-bromo-3-(Ethyliminoacetate)-indole-2-one] (2) have been synthesized. The preparation process started by the reaction of 5-bromoisatin with sodium hydride in dimethylformamide (DMF) at 0°C, gave suspension of sodium salt of 5-bromoisatin and subsequent reaction with benzylchloride to give N-benzyl-5-bromoisatin (1). Compound (1) reacted with ethylglycinate (Schiff base) obtained the intermediate compound (2) which reacted with different reagents in two ways. The first way, compound (2) reacted with (hydrazine hydrate, semicarbazide, phenylsemicarbazide and thiosemicarbazide), then converted to (hydrazide, semicarbazide, phenylsemicarbazide and thiosemicarbazide) derivatives respectively to give compounds (3-6). After that compounds (4-6) cyclized in presence of alkaline media (4N-NaOH) to form substituted 1, 2, 4-triazole derivatives (7-9). In alkaline media (20%KOH) compound (3) reacted with CS2 to give potassium salt (10) that reacted with excess of hydrazine hydrate to give compound (11). The second way includes reaction of compound (3) with (phenylisocyanate and phenylisothiocyanate) to give compound (5 and 12), which undergo cyclization with p-bromophenacylbromide to obtain oxazoline (13) and thiazoline (14). Newly synthesized compounds were identified via spectral methods; their [FTIR and some of them by 1HNMR, 13C-NMR] and measurements of some of its physical properties and also some specific reactions. Furthermore the effects of the synthesized compounds were studied on some strains of bacteria.


Article
Novel Study of Cyproheptadine Hydrochloride Precipitate Formed by Potassium hexacyanoferrate and Sodium nitroprusside using Atomic Force Microscopy
دراسة نبيلة لراسب السايبروهبتادين هايدروكلورايد المتكون بوساطة سداسي سيانيد الحديد(III) البوتاسيوم و نايترو بروسيد الصوديوم باستخدام مجهر القوة الذرية

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Atomic Force Microscope is an efficient tool to study the topography of precipitate. A study using Continuous Flow Injection via the use of Ayah 6SX1-T-2D Solar cell CFI Analyser . It was found that Cyproheptadine –HCl form precipitates of different quality using a precipitating agent's potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) and sodium nitroprusside. The formed precipitates are collected as they are formed in the usual sequence of forming the precipitate via the continuous flow .The precipitates are collected and dried under normal atmospheric pressure. The precipitates are subjected to atomic force microscope scanning to study the variation and differences of these precipitates relating them to the kind of response to both precipitates give as. The incident light (i.e. super snow white LED) was scanned and it reveals that is , it compose of three components blue ,green and red color . The obtained spectrum were measured as a percentage area ( percentage effect ) also different models were study for the incident light irradiation of the measuring cell followed by the study of the effect on the detector area and responses .Various details and theoretical representation were adopted and were taken in to account ,the nodules (grains) on the surface were assumed to be sphere . The probability of radiation of the nodules of the surface of precipitate as the blue color and green color with the red color were 56.73% of green color , 42.12% of blue color and 1.15% of red color effect on the surface of precipitate .Granulation cumulating distribution data for both precipitates were measured also grains (nodules ) diameter were taken to concentration .


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Trihydro mono and Dihydrobis(indole-3-acetic acid)Borate Ligands and Some of Their Metal Complexes
تحضير وتشخيص ليكاندات بورات ثلاثي هيدرو احادي و ثنائي هيدرو ثنائي( اندول- 3- حامض الخليك) وبعض معقداتها الفلزية

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Two new ligands Na2[ H3B (BDIA)].0.05H2O (L1)(BDIA = 1-Boranyl-2,3-Dihydro-1H-Indol-3-yl)]Acetic Acid and Na3[H2B(BDIA)2].0.3H2O.0.3CH3Ph (L2) were synthesized by reaction of NaBH4 with indole -3- acetic acid (IAA) . The coordination properties of ligands were studied with Co(II) , Ni(II) , Cu(II) and Pt(IV) ions. Characterization and structural aspects of the prepared compounds were elucidated by 1HNMR, FTIR electronic spectra, magnetic susceptibility, elemental and metal analysis, thermal analysis (TG & DTG) and conductivity measurements. The obtained data for metal complexes suggested square planar geometry for copper complexes, octahedral geometry for nickel and platinium complexes and tetrahedral geometry for cobalt complex. The analytical data confirmed that the ligands were coordinated to the metals via oxygen atom of carboxylate groups and by agostic hydrogen of borate (B-H M agostic interaction)


Article
Test the Cytotoxicity of Pleurotin Extracted from an Edible Mushroom Pleurotus osteratus Against Three Human Carcinoma Cell Line
اختبار الفعالية السمية للبليروتين المستخلص من الفطر الغذائي Pleurotus osteratus ضد ثلاث خطوط من الخلايا السرطانية

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The study included selection six species of the fungi related to Pleurotus genus were evaluated for their ability to production of Pleurotin, one of them, Pleurotus ostreatus (P.11) was isolated and identified in the present study. Pleurotin was extracted with screening by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and quantification High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity of Pleurotin extracted from P. ostreatus (P.11) grown in different sugar sources (galactose, mannitol, sucrose, dextrose and lactose) liquid media was test against three selected cancer cell lines, CaSki, MCF-7 and A549 addition to Human Non Cancer Fibroblast Cell Line (MRC-5). Pleurotin of P. ostreatus (P.11) grown in galactose induced the significant highest growth inhibition against all three cancer cell lines MCF-7 CaSki, and A549 at 72 h treatment period with IC50 29.84 ± 2.37, 30.25 ± 2.40 and 37.60 ± 2.65 µg/ml respectively when the P≤0.01, while it showed no adverse effect on the non-cancer human fibroblast cell line MRC-5 with IC50 >200 μg/ml. Cytotoxicity of Pleurotin was compared with cytotoxicity of the positive controls (chemotherapeutic drugs) including Doxorubicin against CaSki and A549 cell lines and Cisplatin against MCF-7 and MRC-5 cell lines, although IC50 of pleurotin was higher (30.25 ± 2.40 and 37.60 ± 2.65 µg/ml) than Doxorubicin (0.18 ± 0.00 and 1.10 ± 0.02 µg/ml) of CaSki and A549 cell lines, respectively, and also IC50 of Pleurotin was higher (29.84 ± 1.73 and >200 µg/ml) than Cisplatin (8.20 ± 0.25 and 8.88 ± 0.13 µg/ml) of MCF-7 and MRC-5 cell lines, respectively, pleurotin was natural product from an edible fungus while Doxorubicin and Cisplatin were chemical drugs.


Article
A Molecular Investigation of Phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma) Infecting Arabic Jasmine (Jasminum sambac) in Iraq
التحري الجزيئي عن الفايتوبلازما Candidatus Phytoplasmaعلى نبات الراسقي Jasminum sambac في العراق

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This study was conducted to investigate phytoplasma causing a virescence disease on Arabic jasmine Jasminum sambac based on microscopy and molecular approaches. Samples were collected from symptomatic Arabic jasmine plants grown in nurseries in Baghdad-Iraq. Specimens from infected plants were prepared and Dienes stained for light microscopy examination. Phytoplasma were detected in infected plants by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using P1/P7 and SecAfor1/SecArev3 Candidatus Phytoplasma specific primer sets. Light microscopy test showed symptomatic Arabic jasmine plants were phytoplasms infected when phloem tissues were stained with a dark blue color. PCR test confirmed the symptomatic plants were phytoplasms infected when SecAfor1/SecArev3 primers could detect phytoplasms in tested samples. This primer set amplified the 830 bp DNA fragments of secA gene within phytoplasma genome from infected Arabic jasmine samples. Whereas, P1/P7 primer sets could not detect phytoplasms in tested samples. This study is the first molecular confirmation of the phytoplasma disease on Arabic jasmine in Baghdad-Iraq.

Keywords

Witches broom --- CTAB --- Arabic jasmine --- Genome


Article
Molecular Identification of Aspergillus fumigatus Using ISSR and RAPD Markers
ألتشخيص ألجزيئي لعزلات A.fumigatus بواسطه مؤشرات ال ISSR و الRAPD

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The aim of this stud to isolate and identified of A. fumigatus from different sources and study the genetic diversity among these isolates by using RAPD and ISSR markers.Collected 20 samples from 7samples were isolated A. fumigatusisolates were characterized depending on its morphological, then extracted DNA from its.RAPD markersrandomly bandingwith sitesof genome more than ISSR markers where the primer OPN-07 achieved discriminative power (19.1) and 43 bands, while ISSR6 achieved discriminative power (17.1) with 32 bands.ISSR were more efficiency in specific binding then RAPD, ISSR primers has great a binding to production unique band, when 9 primers from 10 primers, ISSR9 was produce (5) unique bands, while RAPD markers was low ability to production unique bands, 3primers from 9 primers were produced unique bands.The dendrogram of RAPD was reverted than isolates number 5 and 7 had the great genetic diversity 0.33361 while the isolates number 5 and 6 had the lowest genetic similarity 0.98521 in contrast with ISSR markers was show isolates number1 and 2 greats genetic diversity 0.97826whilethe isolates number 5 and 7 had the lowest genetic similarity 0.10253.


Article
Revealed of A novel Allele in Wasit – Iraqi Population
الكشف عن اليلات جديدة في المجتمع العراقي / محافظة واسط

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The developments in forensic DNA technology have led us to perform this study in Iraqi population as reference database of autosomal Short Tandem Repeat (aSTR) DNA markers . A total of 120 unrelated individuals from Wasit province were analyzed at 15 STR DNA markers. Allele frequencies of DNA typing loci included in the AmpFlSTR1 IdentifilerTM PCR Amplification Kit panel from Applied Biosystems (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, TH01, TPOX, CSF1PO, D19S433, D2S1338, D16S539) and several forensic efficiency statistical parameters were estimated from all the sample. the combined Matching Probability (CMP) using the 15 STR genetic loci in Iraqi population was estimated at 1 in 2.08286E-18 and the Combined Discrimination Power (CDP) was greater than 0.9999999 ,Combined Exclusion Probability (CEP) was 0.98350917 which should be sufficient for the identification of any individual.


Article
Effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Terpens, Alkaloids and Phenols Agnaist Fusarium oxysporum
تاثير المستخلص التربيني والفينولي والقلويدي لنبات Eucalyptus camaldulensis على فطر Fusarium oxysporum

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This study includes isolation, purification, and identification of Fusarium oxysporum from chili pepper infected plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis were collected and air dried at room temperature, then ground to semi powdered state. Phenols, alkaloids and terpens were extracted from Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The antifungal activity, type of extracts was evaluated at different concentrations 5 and 10 mg / ml of these compounds were prepared and their antagonistic activity was studied. The Percentage of radial growth inhibition of fungi by plant extracts was measured after 7 day incubation. Results showed that terpens extract was the most active against fungi and alkaloids extract had less antifungal activity and the percentage of mycelia radial growth were 99.55 % – 72.44 % respectively.


Article
Miltefosine Efficacy on Leishmania Donovani Promastigote
فاعلية الملتيفوسين على الطور امامي السوط للشمانيا الاحشائيه

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In the current study, different concentrations of miltefosine drug, which is the first effective and safe oral treatment for visceral leishmaniasis, was evaluated against L. donovani promastigotes in comparison with pentosam drug. Direct counting microscopic assay was used to find 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of miltefosine and pentostam against L. donovani promastigotes. The IC50 of miltefosine drug was 45.42μg/ml, 46.76μg/ml and 36.68μg/ml after 24 hr, 48hr and 72hr respectively, In comparison with IC 50 of pentostam drug was 75.39 μg/ml after 72hr. There were significant differences (P˂0.05) between IC50 values of miltefosine and pentostam drugs from first day to third day.


Article
The Adsorption of Some Trace Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution Using Non Living Biomass of Sub Merged Aquatic Plant Ceratophyllum demersum
امتزاز بعض العناصر الثقيلة من المحاليل المائية بأستخدام الكتلة غير الحية لنبات الشمبلان المائي

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Heavy metals contamination in aquatic ecosystems is considered one of the most important threats of aquatic life. Submerge aquatic plants Ceratophyllum demersum in its non living form used for the removal of trace elements. This article studied the ability of the fine powder of C.demersum for the removal of some heavy metals (HM) like copper, cadmium, lead and chrome from aqueous solution with in variable experimental factors. The study occupy two treatments the first included different hydrogen ions pH within a range of 4, 5,6and 8 with a constant HM concentration (1000 ppm).While the second treatment represented by using variable HM concentrations within a range of (250,500,750and 1000 ppm) with a constant pH=7.In both treatments the amount of dried plant was 1g.According to analysis of variance the data obtained from this study revealed that removal efficiency of lead Pb reached to 99.9% where as the lower removal percentage % was for chrome Cr about 80%. Also the results indicated that C.demersum had high capabilities to remove trace elements, therefore it can be used for refining the waste water.


Article
Isolation and Identification the Cyanobacterium: Scytonema hofmanni var. calcicolum as New Record in Iraqi Drinking Water.
عزل وتشخيص الطحلب الخيطي Scytonema hofmanni var. calcicolum كنوع جديد في مياه الشرب العراقية

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The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the cyanobacterium Scytonema hofmanni Var. calcicolum from the domestic drinking tanks as a new record in Iraqi drinking water. Scytonema hofmanni var. calcicolum, a filamentous freshwater cyanobacterium (blue-green alga). This alga was isolated from the walls of the domestic plastic water tanks in Al- karkh/ Baghdad city on July 2014. The sampling was performed by collecting three samples from this tanks, the three examined samples microscopically revealed the dominance of this cyanobacterium as unialgal in the studied samples. The results showed this alga has the ability to tolerate high temperature up to 42 Cº and very low light intensity inside the tanks which up to 10 µE/m²/s.


Article
The Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Copper on The Behavioral Responses and Hematological Parameters of Freshwater Fish, Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
السمية الحادة والمزمنة لمعدن النحاس على الاستجابة السلوكية والمحددات الدموية لأسماك المياه العذبة، الكارب الاعتيادي Cyprinus carpio L.

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The present study was conducted to examine toxicological effects of copper sulfate (Cu) in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.). The LC50 (median lethal concentrations) of copper on Cyprinus carpio were 3.64, 3.36, 3.04, 2.65 mg/L respectively. In general, behavioral responses of the fishes exposed to copper included uncontrolled swimming, erratic movements, loss of balance, swam near the water surface with sudden jerky movements. Haematological parameters such, red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb), Packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV) mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied. The obtained results indicated that the (RBC) and (WBC) have increased with increasing metal concentrations and exposure period. While, haemoglobin (Hb) had slightly increased compared with control fish. Other parameters like Packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV) mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) appeared likely being enhanced with increased exposure to studying heavy metals, and did not show any significant increase with different concentrations used in chronic exposure experiments.


Article
Evaluation the Biosorption Capacity of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Root for Some Heavy Metals
تقييم قابلية جذور زهرة النيل على الامتزاز الحيوي لبعض العناصر الثقيلة

Authors: Ali M. Najem علي مؤيد نجم
Pages: 2846-2852
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Abstract

Heavy metals especially lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) are noxious pollutants with immense health hazards on living organisms, these pollutants enter aquatic environment in Iraq mainly Tigris and Euphrates rivers via waste water came from different anthropological activities, This study investigated capacity of dried and ground root of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in removing the heavy metals from their aqueous solutions. Effects of initial concentrations of the heavy metals and pH of their aqueous solutions were studied. Results of this study revealed excellent biosorption capacity of water hyacinth root in general, removal of Pb was the highest and Cr was lowest. The results showed that the Pb, Cu and Cr removal increased as their initial concentrations increased, with maximum removal of Pb and Cu was in 1000 ppm 99.66% and 96.63% respectively and 85% was the maximum removal of Cr in 750 ppm, in contrast Cd maximum removal was in 250 ppm and the adsorption decreased as initial concentrations increased. Removal of Pb, Cu and Cr was maximum with pH 4 and 5, while Cd removal was maximum with pH 8. This study paves the way to use water hyacinth in many applications to remove the heavy metals especially in waste water treatment plants.


Article
Detection of blaKPC Gene in Some Clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Baghdad
الكشف عن مورث blaKPC في بعض العزلات السريرية للكليبسيلا الرئوية المعزولة من بغداد

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For the period from February 2014 till May 2014, one hundred and nine lactose fermenter clinical isolates from different samples (urine, stool, wound swab, blood, and sputum) were collected from Alyarmok, Alkadimiya, and Baghdad teaching hospitals at Baghdad governorate. Identification of all Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were carried out depending on macroscopic, microscopic characterizations, conventional biochemical tests, and Api 20E system. Fifty-three (48.62%) isolates represented K. pneumoniae; however, 51.73% represented other bacteria. Susceptibility test was achieved to all fifty-three K. pneumoniae isolates using five antibiotic disks (Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone, Cefotaxime, Imipenem, and Meropenem). Most of tested isolates (90.5% and 77.3%) were susceptible to Meropenem and Imipenem, respectively and less susceptible to third generation Cephalosporin. Carbapenemase production was detected by the modified Hodge test, five carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae isolates (K2, K3, K4, K34, and K35) gave positive results. In the other part in this study, detection of blaKPC gene by pcr techinique was carried out on all fifty-three K. pneumonie isolates. Even though five isolates gave positive modified Hodge test, only one isolate (K2) gave specific identification for blaKPC gene.


Article
Rapid Direct Detection and Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Sputum by Real-Time PCR
الكشف والتمييز المباشر السريع لعصيات السل المركبة في القشع بأستخدام تفاعل البوليميراز المتسلسل اللحظي

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Tuberculosis status as the second leading causes of significant morbidity and mortality from an infectious disease worldwide, after human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sample collection was conducted at the Institute of Chest and Respiratory Diseases/Baghdad Medical City in Baghdad. The collection interval was from August to October 2014, 629 suspected TB patients were examined during this period. The results revealed among total 629 specimens, 56 (8.9%) of the specimens were positive by direct examination and 573 (91.1%) negative specimens by smear microscopy. Fifty six DNA samples were extracted from positive ZN smears of sputum specimens and 40 samples from healthy persons (as control) were subjected to molecular diagnosis by real time PCR to detect and differentiate of M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and M. bovis BCG. The results were clarified that the 48 samples (85.72%) were M. tuberculosis, 2 samples (3.57%) were mixed of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, no M. bovis BCG was detected, and 6 (10.71%) were negative. These findings propose that M. bovis plays a minor role compared to M. tuberculosis in the etiology of pulmonary tuberculosis in Baghdad.


Article
The Effect of Short Range Correlation on The Nuclear Charge Density Distribution, Elastic and Inelastic Electron Scattering Coulomb Form Factors of 18O Nucleus
تاثير دالة ارتباط المدى القصير على توزيع كثافة الشحنة النووية وعوامل التشكل الكولومية للاستطارة المرنة والغير مرنة لنواة الاوكسجين -18

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The effect of short range correlations on the inelastic longitudinal Coulomb form factors for the lowest four excited 2+ states in 18O is analyzed. This effect (which depends on the correlation parameter β) is inserted into the ground state charge density distribution through the Jastrow type correlation function. The single particle harmonic oscillator wave function is used with an oscillator size parameter b. The parameters β and b are, considered as free parameters, adjusted for each excited state separately so as to reproduce the experimental root mean square charge radius of 18O. The model space of 18O does not contribute to the transition charge density. As a result, the inelastic Coulomb form factor of 18O comes absolutely from the core polarization transition charge density. According to the collective modes of nuclei, the core polarization transition charge density is assumed to have the form of Tassie shape. It is found that the introduction of the effect of short range correlations is necessary for obtaining a remarkable modification in the calculated inelastic longitudinal Coulomb form factors and considered as an essential for explanation the data amazingly throughout the whole range of considered momentum transfer. PACS: 25.30.Dh; 21.60.Cs; 27.20.+n


Article
Paleoenvironments and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Turonian-Lower Campanian Succession at Majnoon Oil Field, Southern Iraq
البيئات القديمة والتتابع الطباقي لدورة التورينيان- الكامبانيان المتأخر في حقل مجنون النفطي جنوب العراق

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The Turonian-Lower Companian succession at Majnoon Oil Field is represented by the Khasib, Tanuma, and Saadi formations. Four major paleoenvironments were recognized within the studied succession, there are: Shallow open marine environment, shoal environment, deep marine environment, and basinal environment. They reflect deposition on a carbonate platform of homoclinal ramp setting. The studied succession represents two second order supersequences (A) and (B). Supersequence (A) includes both the Khasib and Tanuma formations. The Saadi Formation represents cycle (B). These second order cycles can be divided each into two third order cycles, This subdivision may reflect the effect of eustacy being the major controlling factor of cycles development in the area of very gentle slope and low rate of subsidence. Further subdivision into fourth order cycles may reflect the minor relative sea level fluctuations due to the change in gradient in the vicinity of the shoalbodies where the water depth is lower and sensitive to any subtle changes in relative sea level.


Article
Facies Analyses and Diagenetic features development of Albian - Aptian Succession in the Wset Qurna oil field, Southern Iraq
التحليل السحني وتطور الخصائص التحويرية لتتابع البين _ ابتين في حقل غرب القرنة النفطي جنوب العراق

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The Carbonate-clastic succession in this study is represented by the Shuaiba and Nahr Umr Formations deposited during the Albian - Aptian Sequence. The present study includes petrography, microfacies analyses, and studying reservoir characterizations for 5 boreholes within West Qurna oil field in the study area. According to the type of study succession (clastic – Carbonate) there are two types of facies analyses:-Carbonate facies analysis, which showed five major microfacies were recognized in the succession of the Shuaiba Formation, bioclastic mudstones to wackstone, Orbitolina wackestone to packstone, Miliolids wackestone, Peloidal wackestone to packstone and mudstone to wackestone identified as an open shelf toward the deep basin. Clastic facies analyses which shown five major facies were recognized in the succession of the Nahr Umr Formation according to petrographic observation with gamma ray and spontaneous potential well logs. These facies identified four depositional environments within the Nahr Umr Formation; bay fill, delta plain, delta front, and braided river. The studied sequence was affected by five major diagenetic processes, these are: micritization, cementation, dissolution, dolomitization and compaction. The disparity in the distribution of the effect of diagenetic processes in different studied sections indicates that the sea more quickly and completely receded from the northern region of area study. And the central region remained under the influence of fluctuations in sea level, while the southern region least affected by this fluctuation.


Article
Determination of Destruction Levels Caused by Earthquakes Using Grip RADIUS 99 Program
تحديد مستويات الدمار الناتج عن الزلازل باستخدام برنامج Grip RADIUS 99

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The most universal and basic damages caused by an earthquakes are buildings damage and human casualties. A simplified method, the RADIUS 99 Tool is used to calculate seismic intensity (shaking) distribution, buildings damage, number of casualties and lifelines damage, due to assumed earthquake scenario. In this study, Al - Kadhmiya sector in Baghdad city was chosen for assessing seismic risk, for this purpose, this area was divided into mesh of 1*1 km¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬2 cell size, and a scenario of (Manjil) earthquake (that struck Iran in 1990) was utilized with following earthquake magnitudes (5 and 7), with epicenter distance (3, 10 and 100 km), and depths (2 and 5 km). It was found that, the best soil types for constructions are those with medium and hard soils, where they can resist the earthquake. The areas with soft soils should be avoided when we want to choose the sites to build the life saving establishments and general public buildings like schools and hospitals, in addition, the seismic building code should be followed for structures to be built on soft soils areas.


Article
Extraction Drainage Network for Lesser Zab River Basin from DEM using Model Builder in GIS
استخلاص الشبكة النهرية لحوض نهر الزاب الاسفل باستخدام موديل الأرتفاعات الرقمية ضمن نظم المعلومات الجغرافية

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Abstract

ArcHydro is a model developed for building hydrologic information systems to synthesize geospatial and temporal water resources data that support hydrologic modeling and analysis. Raster-based digital elevation models (DEMs) play an important role in distributed hydrologic modeling supported by geographic information systems (GIS). Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data have been used to derive hydrological features, which serve as inputs to various models. Currently, elevation data are available from several major sources and at different spatial resolutions. Detailed delineation of drainage networks is the first step for many natural resource management studies. Compared with interpretation from aerial photographs or topographic maps, automation of drainage network extraction from DEMs is an efficient way and has received considerable attention. This study aims to extract drainage networks from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Lesser Zab River Basin. Composition parameters of the drainage network including the numbers of streams and the stream lengths are derived from the DEM beside the delineation of catchment areas in the basin. The results from this application can be used to create input files for many hydrologic models.

Keywords

DEM --- GIS --- Streams --- Catchment --- Model Builder


Article
Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Soils at North Baiji City, Iraq.
تقييم المخاطر الصحية للهيدروكاربونات الارومايتية متعددة الحلقات في الترب السطحية شمال مدينة بيجي, العراق.

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Abstract

Four major factories (Petroleum Refineries Company, Detergents Plant, Thermal Power Plant, and Gaseous Power Plant) are located to the north of Baiji City. They release pollutants in form of gases, liquids and solids; they find their way to the surrounding environment. To assess the environmental pollution of the area, 18 samples of surface soil distributed around the industrial establishments were collected and analyzed to determine the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) components which are often targets in the environmental checking. Identification and quantification of the 16 PAHs components was accomplished using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) had a model Shimadzu LC-10 AVP. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs were ranged from (94.9) to (416.3) µg/kg with an average value of (217.5) µg/kg. The most abundant PAHs was Fluorene followed by Acenaphthylene, Naphthalene, Chrysene, Phenanthrene, Benzo(b)fluora-nthene, Fluoranthene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(g,h,i)perylene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, Indeno(1,2,3-cd) pyrene, Pyrene, Acenaphthene, Anthracene, and Benzo(k)fluoranthene. Seven possible carcinogenic PAHs (∑7c-PAHs) accounted 38.9 % to the total PAHs. The petroleum combustion and biomass combustion were the main sources of PAHs in the surface soil. The mean values of cancer risk levels for children via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation were (6.02*10-7), (7.51*10-7) and (5.91*10-12) respectively, suggesting no potential health hazards, while these for adults were (1.78*10-6), (3.16*10-6) and (1.40*10-10) respectively, implying potential health risks via ingestion and dermal contact, but not via inhalation exposure. The total value of ILCRing+drm+inh for children and adults via three exposure pathways were (2.43*10-5) and (8.90*10-5) respectively, indicating potential health risks.


Article
Facies, Depositional Environment and Cyclicity of the Fatha Formation in East Baghdad Oil Field, Iraq.
السحنات والبيئات الترسيبية والدورات الرسوبية لتكوين الفتحة في حقل شرق بغداد , العراق.

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Abstract

Formation through facies analysis. It also deals with dividing the formation into units based on the rhythmic nature. Data from selected shallow wells near Hit area and deep wells at East Baghdad Oil field are used. Five major lithofacies are recognized in this study, namely, greenish grey marl, limestone, gypsum (and/or anhydrite), halite and reddish brown mudstone (with occasional sandstone).The limestone lithofacies is divided into three microfacies: Gastropods bioclastic wackestone microfacies, Gastropods peloidal bioclastic packstone, and Foraminiferal packstone microfacies.The lithofacies of the Fatha are nested in a rhythmic pattern or what is known as shallowing-upwards cycle. Each rhythm begins with shallow marine subtidal environment followed by hypersaline lagoonal environment then supersaline lakes and Salinas, and may finally terminate with continental deposits. Each regressive rhythm is followed by a transgressive phase. According the repitions of the lithofacies, the Fatha Formation can be divided stratigraphically into three units namely Unit 1, Unit 2 and Unit 3 (in ascending order). Different kinds of nesting of lithofacies are recognized in each unit. Only Unit 2 shows complete rhythms.


Article
More on the Minimal Set of Periods
إضافات لأصغر مجموعة دورية

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Abstract

Let M be a n-dimensional manifold. A C1- map f : M  M is called transversal if for all m N the graph of fm intersect transversally the diagonal of MM at each point (x,x) such that x is fixed point of fm. We study the minimal set of periods of f(M per (f)), where M has the same homology of the complex projective space and the real projective space. For maps of degree one we study the more general case of (M per (f)) for the class of continuous self-maps, where M has the same homology of the n-dimensional sphere.


Article
On Solving Singular Multi Point Boundary Value Problems with Nonlocal Condition
حول حل مسائل القيم الحدودية متعددة النقاط الشاذة مع شروط غير محلية

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Abstract

In this paper Hermite interpolation method is used for solving linear and non-linear second order singular multi point boundary value problems with nonlocal condition. The approximate solution is found in the form of a rapidly convergent polynomial. We discuss behavior of the solution in the neighborhood of the singularity point which appears to perform satisfactorily for singular problems. The examples to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the method have been given.


Article
The Spectrum and the Numerical Range of the Product of Finite Numbers of Automorphic Composition Operators on Hardy Space 2
الطيف والمدى العددي للمؤثر التركيبي المكون من حاصل ضرب عدد منتهي من المؤثرات التركيبية الأتومورفكية المعرفة على فضاء هاردي H2

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Abstract

Throughout this paper we study the properties of the composition operator induced by the composition of finite numbers of special automorphisms , and discuss the relation between the product of finite numbers of automorphic composition operators on Hardy space H2 and some classes of operators.


Article
Small Pointwise M-Projective Modules
المقاسات الاسقاطية الصغيرة نقطيا نسبة لمقاس M

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Abstract

Let R be a ring and let M be a left R-module. In this paper introduce a small pointwise M-projective module as generalization of small M- projective module, also introduce the notation of small pointwise projective cover and study their basic properties.


Article
Improved Rijndael Algorithm by Encryption S-Box Using NTRU Algorithm
تطوير خوارزمية ريجنديل عن طريق تشفير صندوق اس باستخدام خوارزمية نترو

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Abstract

With the wide developments of computer applications and networks, the security of information has high attention in our common fields of life. The most important issues is how to control and prevent unauthorized access to secure information, therefore this paper presents a combination of two efficient encryption algorithms to satisfy the purpose of information security by adding a new level of encryption in Rijndael-AES algorithm. This paper presents a proposed Rijndael encryption and decryption process with NTRU algorithm, Rijndael algorithm is widely accepted due to its strong encryption, and complex processing as well as its resistance to brute force attack. The proposed modifications are implemented by encryption and decryption Rijndael S-Box using NTRU algorithm. These modifications enhance the degree of complexity, increase key search space, and make the ciphered message difficult to be cracked by the attacker.

Keywords

Block Ciphers --- Cryptography --- NTRU --- Rijndael --- S-Box


Article
Day to Day variation of Ionosphere Electron and Ion Temperature during Great and Severe Geomagnetic Storms
التغيرات من يوم لاخر في درجات حرارة الالكترونات والايونات للايونوسفير أثناء العواصف الجيومغناطيسية الشديدة والقوية

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Abstract

The ionospheric characteristics exhibit significant variations with the solar cycle, geomagnetic conditions, seasons, latitudes and even local time. Representation of this research focused on global distribution of electron (Te) and ion temperatures (Ti) during great and severe geomagnetic storms (GMS), their daily and seasonally variation for years (2001-2013), variations of electron and ion temperature during GMS with plasma velocity and geographic latitudes. Finally comparison between observed and predicted Te and Ti get from IRI model during the two kinds of storm selected. Data from satellite Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) 850 km altitude are taken for Te, Ti and plasma velocity for different latitudes during great and severe geomagnetic storms from years 2001 to 2013 according to what is available appeared that there is 22 events for severe and great geomagnetic storms happened during years 2001-2005 only from years selected, from maximum solar cycle 23. From data analysis, in general the temperature of the electron is greater than the temperature of the ion, but there are some disturbances happened during the storm time, in the day there is fluctuation in values of Te and Ti with the value of Ti greater than Te. Through the Dst index, Te and Ti do not depend on the strength of the geomagnetic storm. Plasma velocity variation shows the same profile of Te and Ti variation during the storm time and there is a linear relation between (Te) & (Ti) and plasma velocity. The variation of electron and ion temperature with geographic latitude during severe and great storms appears that as the latitude increases the temperature of ions increases reaches its maximum value approximately 80000K at poles. From comparing the predicted Te and Ti values calculating from IRI model during the great and severe storms with observed values, it’s found that the predicted values from IRI model much less than the observed values and the variation was nonlinear along 24 hours, from this we can conclude that the model must be corrected for Te and Ti for these two kinds of storms

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