Table of content

KARBALĀʾ HERITAGE Quarterly Authorized Journal Specialized in Karbalāʾ Heritage

مجلة تراث كربلاء

ISSN: 23125489 24103292
Publisher: Shiite Endowment
Faculty:
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Quarterly Authorized Journal Specialized in Karbala heritage , issued by Karbala heritage center - Al- Abbas Holy Shrine

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Consignment Number in the Iraq National Library and Archive 1992 in 2014 A.H.
Republic of Iraq-Holy Karbalāʾ
Tel: +964032310059/Mobile:07700479123,07810528170,07602322972
E.Mail:turath@alkafeel.net/E.Mail:Drehsanalguraifi@gmail.com
Wep:http://karbalaheritage.alkafeel.net
Phone No:310058

Table of content: 2015 volume:2 issue:ع2 -ج1

Article
Poetic Voices from Karbala on Imam Hussein (p. b. u. h.)
أصوات شعرية من كربلاء حول الإمام الحسين ( عليه السلام )

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Abstract

Abstract Karbala city occupies a significant position in influencing the international and humanitarian intellectual scene in general. It is an intellectually influential milieu especially with whoever interacts with its active circles which are enriched with the heritage of AL-Taf Battle and its pioneering role in establishing the Husseini Renaissance as the greatest reformational tide of prophet Mohammed’s Message and being the humanity's loudest scream against the Umayyad and Yazeed’s corruption and arrogance. Thus the Hussein Revolution expands and establishes itself in the dogmatic consciousness of the nation.الملخ


Article
Historical Sights from Karbala Hawza A reading of the biographies of its Characters in the Establishment and pioneering Stages
لمحات تاريخية عن حوزة كربلاء قراءة في سير رجالاتها في مرحلتي التأسيس والريادة

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Abstract

Abstract It is well-Known that Knowledge is the most honorable virtue , the noblest merit and the most valuable characteristic by which a human being is characterized. It is the essence of the civilization and the origin of the nations' glories , the symbol of their sublimity and superiority in life and their guide to the eternal happiness. Scholars are the inheritors of the prophets , Knowledge keepers , right propagators and the religion supporters ; they guide people to believe in Allah , the Most High , and to follow His orders and they lead people to Welfare and honesty. As a consequence , a great number of verses and saying are cited to dignify Knowledge and scholars and to highlight and give credit to their high-ranking positions. Hence this the researchers devoted their attention to study the historical course of the development of the religious movements of different doctrinal sources and their reflection (effects) on the intellectual and political levels , a historical link of great importance as it represented a culture of the whole society which directly had an effect on the people's reactions as to the historical and axial events which , in their turn , constituted a distinguishing feature in the history of Iraq and the neighboring courtiers , the most representative of which was the emergence and the mastery of the religious Hawza in the Imam Husain's (p .b. u. h) city. These papers focused on the basic source of the brilliance of the religious school in the holy city of Karbala and on its great scholars Who borne the burden of leading the nation in the most difficult situations , actively played a historical role in the critical periods and realized the surrounding political and intellectual orbit consequently , they formed a unique pioneering movement, the basis of which are al-ijtihad and relied on mind and the impact of this scool extended into the entire world , and the holy city of Karbala was the first to accept and embrace its great men in this movement . The research chose to talk about the great men of the holy city Karbala beginning with the first steps of the establishment of its Hawza till the middle of the twentieth century.الملخص لا يخفى على احد ان العلم أجلُّ الفضائل، وأشرف المزايا، وأثمن ما يتحلى به الانسان، فهو أساس الحضارة ومصدر أمجاد الأمم وعنوان سموها وتفوقها في الحياة، ورائدها إلى السعادة الأبدية، وإن العلماء هم ورثة الأنبياء، وخزّان العلم، ودعاة الحق، وأنصار الدين، يهدون الناس إلى معرفة الله وطاعته، ويوجهونهم وجهة الخير والصلاح، ومن أجل ذلك تظافرت الآيات والأخبار على تكريم العلم والعلماء، والإشادة بمقامهم الرفيع .ومن هذا المنطلق اهتم الباحثان بدراسة المسار التاريخي لتطور الحركات الدينية المستندة على الاحكام الفقهية المختلفة وانعكاساتها على الصعيدالفكري والسياسي مكونة حلقة تاريخية ذات اهمية ليست بالقليلة كونهاغدت تمثل ثقافة مجتمع بكامله انعكست وبشكل مباشر على ردود افعاله تجاه الاحداث التاريخية المحورية والتي شكلت بدورها علامة بارزة في تاريخ العراق والدول المجاورة، لعل ابرز مصاديقها نشوء وتطور الحوزة الدينية في مدينة الامام الحسين ) . )سلط البحث الضوء على المنابع الاساسية في تبلور المدرسة الدينية في كربلاء المقدسة وابرز رجالاتها الذين آلوا على انفسهم إلا ان يتصدوا لقيادةالامة في اصعب أدوارها التاريخية، متفاعلين مع محيطهم السياسي والفكري...مشكلين بذلك حركة رائدة ذات معالم فريدة قوامها الاجتهاد والركون الى العقل، امتد صداها للعالم اجمع، كان لمدينة كربلاء المقدسة قصب السبق في احتضان رجالاتها الافذاذ، وقد اختار الباحثين الحديث عن رجالات مدينة كربلاء المقدسة منذ البدايات الاولى لتأسيس حوزتها وحتى منتصف القرن العشرين . تألّف البحث من محورين تاريخيين، ب الاول منهما مسار نشوء الحوزة العلمية وادوار تطورها منذ نشأتها وصولاً الى العصر الحديث، و تناول المبحث الثاني ابرز رجالات الحوزة في العصر الحديث مع التعريج على ابرز المحطات التي أثروا من خلالها على المجتمع وتفاعلاته المختلفة، مع خاتمة توضح ابرز ما توصل اليه الباحثان من استنتاجات، مستعينين بعدد من المصادر التي تضمنت ترجمات للرجالات المذكورين والاحداث التاريخية الاخرى ... متمنّين ان يفتح هذا البحث آفاقاً اوسع في بحث جوانب تاريخ المدرسة الفقهية في كربلاء المقدسة ومن الله التوفيق والسداد .

Keywords

Abstract It is well-Known that Knowledge is the most honorable virtue --- the noblest merit and the most valuable characteristic by which a human being is characterized. It is the essence of the civilization and the origin of the nations' glories --- the symbol of their sublimity and superiority in life and their guide to the eternal happiness. Scholars are the inheritors of the prophets --- Knowledge keepers --- right propagators and the religion supporters ; they guide people to believe in Allah --- the Most High --- and to follow His orders and they lead people to Welfare and honesty. As a consequence --- a great number of verses and saying are cited to dignify Knowledge and scholars and to highlight and give credit to their high-ranking positions. Hence this the researchers devoted their attention to study the historical course of the development of the religious movements of different doctrinal sources and their reflection (effects) on the intellectual and political levels --- a historical link of great importance as it represented a culture of the whole society which directly had an effect on the people's reactions as to the historical and axial events which --- in their turn --- constituted a distinguishing feature in the history of Iraq and the neighboring courtiers --- the most representative of which was the emergence and the mastery of the religious Hawza in the Imam Husain's (p .b. u. h) city. 34 لمحات تاريخية عن حوزة كربلاء قراءة في --- الملخص لا يخفى على احد ان العلم أجلُّ الفضائل، وأشرف المزايا، وأثمن ما يتحلى به الانسان، فهو أساس الحضارة ومصدر أمجاد الأمم وعنوان سموها وتفوقها في الحياة، ورائدها إلى السعادة الأبدية، وإن العلماء هم ورثة الأنبياء، وخزّان العلم، ودعاة الحق، وأنصار الدين، يهدون الناس إلى معرفة الله وطاعته، ويوجهونهم وجهة الخير والصلاح، ومن أجل ذلك تظافرت الآيات والأخبار على تكريم العلم والعلماء، والإشادة بمقامهم الرفيع .ومن هذا المنطلق اهتم الباحثان بدراسة المسار التاريخي لتطور الحركات الدينية المستندة على الاحكام الفقهية المختلفة وانعكاساتها على الصعيدالفكري والسياسي مكونة حلقة تاريخية ذات اهمية ليست بالقليلة كونهاغدت تمثل ثقافة مجتمع بكامله انعكست وبشكل مباشر على ردود افعاله تجاه الاحداث التاريخية المحورية والتي شكلت بدورها علامة بارزة في تاريخ العراق والدول المجاورة، لعل ابرز مصاديقها نشوء وتطور الحوزة الدينية في مدينة الامام الحسين ) . )سلط البحث الضوء على المنابع الاساسية في تبلور المدرسة الدينية في كربلاء المقدسة وابرز رجالاتها الذين آلوا على انفسهم إلا ان يتصدوا لقيادةالامة في اصعب أدوارها التاريخية، متفاعلين مع محيطهم السياسي والفكري...مشكلين بذلك حركة رائدة ذات معالم فريدة قوامها الاجتهاد والركون الى العقل، امتد صداها للعالم اجمع، كان لمدينة كربلاء المقدسة قصب السبق في احتضان رجالاتها الافذاذ، وقد اختار الباحثين الحديث عن رجالات مدينة كربلاء المقدسة منذ البدايات الاولى لتأسيس حوزتها وحتى منتصف القرن العشرين . تألّف البحث من محورين تاريخيين، ب الاول منهما مسار نشوء الحوزة العلمية وادوار تطورها منذ نشأتها وصولاً الى العصر الحديث، و تناول المبحث الثاني ابرز رجالات الحوزة في العصر الحديث مع التعريج على ابرز المحطات التي أثروا من خلالها على المجتمع وتفاعلاته المختلفة، مع خاتمة توضح ابرز ما توصل اليه الباحثان من استنتاجات، مستعينين بعدد من المصادر التي تضمنت ترجمات للرجالات المذكورين والاحداث التاريخية الاخرى ... متمنّين ان يفتح هذا البحث آفاقاً اوسع في بحث جوانب تاريخ المدرسة الفقهية في كربلاء المقدسة ومن الله التوفيق والسداد .


Article
Geographical Analysis of the Growth of the Inhabitants of The Governorate of Holy Karbala in (1997-2011)and its Future Perspectives until 2025
تحليل جغرافي لنمو سكان محافظة كربلاء المقدسة للمدة ( 1997- 2011 ) وتوقعاته المستقبلية حتى عام 2025

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Abstract

Abstract The present research tries to shed light on the phenomenon of the population growth in holy Karbala for two reasons: the first is that Karbala province has become a population attractive center for its great and strong position especially after the year 2003. This due the fact that the new circumstances that Iraq witnessed in terms of the change in the political regime , the access of this country to the world and the return of its people to this province after they had freely emigrated , or they had been departed under duress during the eighties and nineties of the last century . This second reason lies in the rates of the population growth which gives a clear vision of the extent of the change in the size of the population during the period of study, in addition to its significance in the planning sides. these papers have showed that the size of the province population is in continues increase and it has had doubled more than ten times so , after number of the people had been nearly 85500 persons in 1890, it became ( 1066567) in 2011. Besides, the center of Karbala province records of highest rate of population growth, the other districts of the province mounted ( 4.9%) for the period ( 1997-2011) . Future expectations showed that the size of the province population would be ( 157229) persons the year 2025 in case that there would be no change in the active ( vital) and demographic effects would take placeالملخ

Keywords

Abstract The present research tries to shed light on the phenomenon of the population growth in holy Karbala for two reasons: the first is that Karbala province has become a population attractive center for its great and strong position especially after the year 2003. This due the fact that the new circumstances that Iraq witnessed in terms of the change in the political regime --- the access of this country to the world and the return of its people to this province after they had freely emigrated --- or they had been departed under duress during the eighties and nineties of the last century . This second reason lies in the rates of the population growth which gives a clear vision of the extent of the change in the size of the population during the period of study --- in addition to its significance in the planning sides. these papers have showed that the size of the province population is in continues increase and it has had doubled more than ten times so --- after number of the people had been nearly 85500 persons in 1890 --- it became ( 1066567) in 2011. Besides --- the center of Karbala province records of highest rate of population growth --- the other districts of the province mounted ( 4.9%) for the period ( 1997-2011) . Future expectations showed that the size of the province population would be ( 157229) persons the year 2025 in case that there would be no change in the active ( vital) and demographic effects would take place --- الملخص يسعى البحث الى تسليط المزيد من الضوء على ظاهرة نمو السكان في محافظة كربلاء لاعتبارين الاول ان محافظة كربلاء اصبحت مركز جذب سكاني لمركزها القوي وبخاصة بعد عام 2003 والظروف الجديدة التي شهدها العراق من حيث تغير النظام السياسي وانفتاح العراق على العالم وعودة الكثير من سكان المحافظة بعد ان هاجروا او هُجّروا منها خلال عقدي الثمانينيات والتسعينيات، اما الثاني فيكمن في معدلات نمو السكان التي تعطي صورة واضحة عن مدى التغير في عدد السكان خلال المدة المدروسة فضلاً عن اهميتها في الجوانب التخطيطية . وقد توصل البحث الى أن عدد سكان المحافظة في تزايد مستمر وقد تضاعف اكثر من عشر مرات فبعد ان قُدّر في عام ) 1890 ( ب) 85500 ( نسمة تقريباً بلغ في عام ) 2011 ( نحو ) 1066567 ( نسمة، كما سجل مركز قضاء كربلاء اعلى معدل نمو سكاني بين الوحدات الادارية اذ بلغ ) 4،9 %( للمدة ) 1997 - 2011 ( . اما التوقعات المستقبلية فأشارت الى أن عدد سكان المحافظة سيبلغ بحلول عام ) 2025 ( نحو ) 1575229 ( نسمة اذا ما بقيت المؤثرات الحيوية والديموغرافية على وتائرها الحالية .


Article
The Karbala citizens Exiled to Hanjam Island in 1919 AD
الكربلائيون المنفيون الى جزيرة هنجام عام 1919م

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Abstract

Abstract British occupation of Iraq in the late 1914 resulted in many positive and negative reactions .Among its people , there were so many who are qualified enough to react suitably against the transgression on the land and dignity. Consequently , the Islamic societies in the holy cities initiated opposing mobilization and counteraction against the British occupation as the existence and availability of the Islamic society in Karbala had the echo and impact in the resistance movement which caused a violent reaction directed by the occupants and it adopted different ways among which was the displacing of its leaders and exceling them so as to leave them without leaders. Hanjam island was one place of exile and the citizens of Karbala were among those exiled to it in view of their honorable attitude against the occupants. Therefore, this is the title of the paper , The Karbala citizens Exiled to Hanjam Island' has been specified in harmony with what has been just said. May Allah , the Most High , bless!الملخص خلف الاحتلال البريطاني للعراق اواخر عام 1914 تداعيات عديدة على مستوى الفعل ورد الفعل، فالعراق يضم بين طيات سكانه اناس اهلٌ لرد الفعل المناسب لمثل تلك التجاوزات على الارض والكرامة، فكانت الجمعيات الاسلامية في المدن المقدسة باكورة العمل التنظيمي لبدء التعبئةالمضادة ومقاومة الاحتلال البريطاني حيث كان وجود الجمعية الاسلامية في كربلاء له صداه في حركة المقاومة التي خلفت رد فعل عنيف من لدن المحتل مجابهاً اياها بشتى الاساليب لعل منها تهجير قادتها ونفيهم لإفراغ المحتوى القيادي للمقاومة، فكانت جزيرة هنجام احدى تلك المنافي وكان اهل كربلاء جزء من اولئك المنفيين نتيجة لوقفتهم المشرفة ضد المستعمر، وعلى هذا الاساس جاء البحث بعنوان الكربلائيون المنفيون الى جزيرة هنجام عام1919 متناغما مع ما سبق ذكره ومن الله التوفيق والسداد.

Keywords

Abstract British occupation of Iraq in the late 1914 resulted in many positive and negative reactions .Among its people --- there were so many who are qualified enough to react suitably against the transgression on the land and dignity. Consequently --- the Islamic societies in the holy cities initiated opposing mobilization and counteraction against the British occupation as the existence and availability of the Islamic society in Karbala had the echo and impact in the resistance movement which caused a violent reaction directed by the occupants and it adopted different ways among which was the displacing of its leaders and exceling them so as to leave them without leaders. Hanjam island was one place of exile and the citizens of Karbala were among those exiled to it in view of their honorable attitude against the occupants. Therefore --- this is the title of the paper --- The Karbala citizens Exiled to Hanjam Island' has been specified in harmony with what has been just said. May Allah --- the Most High --- bless! --- الملخص خلف الاحتلال البريطاني للعراق اواخر عام 1914 تداعيات عديدة على مستوى الفعل ورد الفعل، فالعراق يضم بين طيات سكانه اناس اهلٌ لرد الفعل المناسب لمثل تلك التجاوزات على الارض والكرامة، فكانت الجمعيات الاسلامية في المدن المقدسة باكورة العمل التنظيمي لبدء التعبئة المضادة ومقاومة الاحتلال البريطاني حيث كان وجود الجمعية الاسلامية في كربلاء له صداه في حركة المقاومة التي خلفت رد فعل عنيف من لدن المحتل مجابهاً اياها بشتى الاساليب لعل منها تهجير قادتها ونفيهم لإفراغ المحتوى القيادي للمقاومة، فكانت جزيرة هنجام احدى تلك المنافي وكان اهل كربلاء جزء من اولئك المنفيين نتيجة لوقفتهم المشرفة ضد المستعمر، وعلى هذا الاساس جاء البحث بعنوان الكربلائيون المنفيون الى جزيرة هنجام عام 1919 متناغما مع ما سبق ذكره ومن الله التوفيق والسداد.


Article
Industrial Crafts in the Holy City of Karbala (Classical Centre):A Study in the Industrial Geography
الحرف الصناعية في كربلاء المقدسة ( المركز التقليدي ) (دراسة في الجغرافية الصناعية )

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Abstract

Abstract This study, which dealt with the industrial crafts in the Karbala city came out with a number of results, the most important of which are the following: The study clearly showed the nature of the industrial crafts highlighting the religious and historical status of the region where these crafts are exercised , in addition to showing the spatial factors of the industrial crafts localization and their geographic distribution within the quarters and the streets of the researched area . The study also showed how the industrial crafts had contributed to the development of the economy of the region or the territory and how they took part in the establishment and the emergence of the income which reflected the causes of the social stability of the crafts men in the region of the study. The problem of the Research: 1-What are the factors affecting the structure and setup of the distribution of the industrial crafts in the holy city of Karbala ((classical center ))? 2-What is the nature of the determinants and the limits which caused such distribution and was the region characterized by being specialized in producing craft goods which have some ا ? relation to peopleالملخ

Keywords

Abstract This study --- which dealt with the industrial crafts in the Karbala city came out with a number of results --- the most important of which are the following: The study clearly showed the nature of the industrial crafts highlighting the religious and historical status of the region where these crafts are exercised --- in addition to showing the spatial factors of the industrial crafts localization and their geographic distribution within the quarters and the streets of the researched area . The study also showed how the industrial crafts had contributed to the development of the economy of the region or the territory and how they took part in the establishment and the emergence of the income which reflected the causes of the social stability of the crafts men in the region of the study. The problem of the Research: 1-What are the factors affecting the structure and setup of the distribution of the industrial crafts in the holy city of Karbala ((classical center ))? 2-What is the nature of the determinants and the limits which caused such distribution and was the region characterized by being specialized in producing craft goods which have some ا ? relation to people --- الملخص خلصت هذه الدراسة التي تناولت دراسة الحرف الصناعية في مدينة كربلاء الى العديد من النتائج ابرزها. كشف الدراسة عن واقع الحرف الصناعية وما تميزت به منطقة الدراسة من مكانة دينية وتاريخية، وكذلك معرفة العوامل المكانية لتركز الحرف الصناعية وتوزيعها الجغرافي ضمن احياء منطقة الدراسة وشوارعها كما اتضح من خلال الدراسة مساهمة الحرف الصناعية في تطوير اقتصاديات الاقليم من حيث اسهامها في تكوين الدخل الذي يعكس اسباب الاستقرار الاجتماعي لأصحاب هذه الصناعات في منطقة الدراسة.


Article
Tourism Development and the Challenges Facing the Holy City of Karbala
التنمية السياحية والتحديات التي تواجه مدينة كربلاء المقدسة

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Abstract

Abstract Tourism development is one of the new subjects in human sciences which requires Arab legislative institutions to enact laws and to provide possible means for securing tourism development. Anyway tourism affairs could be considered as one of the national priorities, for they affect all types of development activities , the economic , the social and also the touristic ones . To apply such activities , it is necessary to take in to the account the environmental dimension in order to care of the rights of the next generation and to maintain the natural resources. tourism has much to do when dealing with environment due to the fact that the latter is regarded the main factor to attract tourists to visit any touristic areas. Besides the environmental problems, there are main obstacles facing the tourism development ,environment prosperity and maintenance positively affect the touristic dimension as it achieves national enrichment for the country. Because the tourism development has been mere theory, it has not been a system or approach for touristic project makers or governments and it has been publicized without knowledge of its rules and approach. Now days, tourism development has become a curriculum to be followed and not only slogans uttered. It is necessary to say that tourism investors and the governments also should be aware of the advantage of applying the approach of tourism development , and its principles and passing the laws and regulations which order the touristic process related to it. Following such rules and regulations will ensure developing the touristic guidance , which decreases the negative effects of tourism and maintain the natural and archeological resources.الملخص يُعدُّ موضوع التنمية السياحية من الموضوعات المستجدّة في العلوم الإنسانيّة التي تستدعي من مؤسّسات التّشريع العربيّة، سنَّ القوانين وإيجاد الوسائل الملائمة للمحافظة على السياحة وتنميتها . كما تحتلُّ القضاياالسياحية سُلّم الأولويّات الوطنيّة في أيِّ دولة، لكونها تؤثّر على جميع أنشطةالتنمية الاقتصاديّة والاجتماعيّة والسّياحيّة أيضاً. ويؤخذُ في الاعتبار عند ممارسة تلك الأنشطة، البعد البيئي لحفظ حقوق الأجيال القادمة وصيانةالموارد الطبيعيّة. ولا يخلو موضوع البيئة من أهمِّيَّة كبرى فيما يتعلق بالجانب السّياحيّ، كون البيئة تمثّل الواجهة التي تستقطب الوافدين إلى أيّ منطقة من المناطق السّياحيّة، كما أنَّ المشاكل البيئيّة تعدُّ معوّقاً أساسيّاً إزاء الجانب الإنمائيّ السّياحيّ. فازدهار البيئة والاهتمام بها والمحافظة عليها ينعكس إيجاباً على البعد السّياحيّ إذ يحقق إثراءً وطنيّاً للبلد. ونظراً لأنَّ التنمية السياحية كانت مجرد فكرة وليست منهجاً لدى أصحاب المشاريع السّياحيّة أو الحكومات، فقد كان يروّج لها بدون معرفةقواعدها ومنهجها، واليوم غدت التنمية السياحية منهجاً يجب الأخذ به لا شعارات تردّد، ولا بدَّ أنْ يعيَ المستثمرون السّياحيّون والحكومات جدوى تطبيق منهج التنمية السياحية وفهم مرتكزاتها، ووضع القوانين والأنظمةالتي تنظمّ العمليّة السّياحيّة المرتبطة بها. وإذا تمَّ الأخذ بهذه القوانين والأنظمة يمكن تطوير الإرشادات السّياحيّة، التي ستساعد في تقليل الآثار السلبيّة للسّياحة، والمحافظة على الموارد الطبيعيّة والأثريّة.

Keywords

Abstract Tourism development is one of the new subjects in human sciences which requires Arab legislative institutions to enact laws and to provide possible means for securing tourism development. Anyway tourism affairs could be considered as one of the national priorities --- for they affect all types of development activities --- the economic --- the social and also the touristic ones . To apply such activities --- it is necessary to take in to the account the environmental dimension in order to care of the rights of the next generation and to maintain the natural resources. tourism has much to do when dealing with environment due to the fact that the latter is regarded the main factor to attract tourists to visit any touristic areas. Besides the environmental problems --- there are main obstacles facing the tourism development --- environment prosperity and maintenance positively affect the touristic dimension as it achieves national enrichment for the country. Because the tourism development has been mere theory --- it has not been a system or approach for touristic project makers or governments and it has been publicized without knowledge of its rules and approach. Now days --- tourism development has become a curriculum to be followed and not only slogans uttered. It is necessary to say that tourism investors and the governments also should be aware of the advantage of applying the approach of tourism development --- and its principles and passing the laws and regulations which order the touristic process related to it. Following such rules and regulations will ensure developing the touristic guidance --- which decreases the negative effects of tourism and maintain the natural and archeological resources. --- الملخص يُعدُّ موضوع التنمية السياحية من الموضوعات المستجدّة في العلوم الإنسانيّة التي تستدعي من مؤسّسات التّشريع العربيّة، سنَّ القوانين وإيجاد الوسائل الملائمة للمحافظة على السياحة وتنميتها . كما تحتلُّ القضايا السياحية سُلّم الأولويّات الوطنيّة في أيِّ دولة، لكونها تؤثّر على جميع أنشطة التنمية الاقتصاديّة والاجتماعيّة والسّياحيّة أيضاً. ويؤخذُ في الاعتبار عند ممارسة تلك الأنشطة، البعد البيئي لحفظ حقوق الأجيال القادمة وصيانة الموارد الطبيعيّة. ولا يخلو موضوع البيئة من أهمِّيَّة كبرى فيما يتعلق بالجانب السّياحيّ، كون البيئة تمثّل الواجهة التي تستقطب الوافدين إلى أيّ منطقة من المناطق السّياحيّة، كما أنَّ المشاكل البيئيّة تعدُّ معوّقاً أساسيّاً إزاء الجانب الإنمائيّ السّياحيّ. فازدهار البيئة والاهتمام بها والمحافظة عليها ينعكس إيجاباً على البعد السّياحيّ إذ يحقق إثراءً وطنيّاً للبلد. ونظراً لأنَّ التنمية السياحية كانت مجرد فكرة وليست منهجاً لدى أصحاب المشاريع السّياحيّة أو الحكومات، فقد كان يروّج لها بدون معرفة قواعدها ومنهجها، واليوم غدت التنمية السياحية منهجاً يجب الأخذ به لا شعارات تردّد، ولا بدَّ أنْ يعيَ المستثمرون السّياحيّون والحكومات جدوى تطبيق منهج التنمية السياحية وفهم مرتكزاتها، ووضع القوانين والأنظمة التي تنظمّ العمليّة السّياحيّة المرتبطة بها. وإذا تمَّ الأخذ بهذه القوانين والأنظمة يمكن تطوير الإرشادات السّياحيّة، التي ستساعد في تقليل الآثار السلبيّة للسّياحة، والمحافظة على الموارد الطبيعيّة والأثريّة.


Article
Evaluation of TheTransportation plan Sustainability Plan in The Holy City of Karbala
تقييم استدامة خطة النقل في مدينة كربلاء المقدسة

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Abstract

Abstract The research studied the sustainability concept and its activation in the process of the planning of the decision making regarding with the transportation and the basic principles to prepare sustainable transportation plans for cities in order to analyze the complicated problems including the problem of using the classical methods in transportation planning in the cities in general and the sacred cities in particular. These holy cities neglected the inclusion of environmental, economic and social impact in preparing transportation plans together with studying the methods of evaluating the sustainability of transportation plans proposals and their application in the transportation project of the holy city of Karbala in order to evaluate this plan and show its shortages and manipulate them to make the plan become sustainable. The practical frame of the research involves the review of the transportation plan of the sacred city of Karbala, which includes five proposals of transportation planning to the target year 2030, and applying the stages of examining the sustainability of the plan by using the strategic environment assessment method through the application of compatibility matrix analysis and identifying the sustainable and unsustainable aspects in those proposals, and consequently reaching the results of the evaluation which show that the transportation plan of the holy city of Karbala is suffering from many shortcoming in the methodology of the plan preparation according to the sustainable transportation plan preparation stages, and neglect many factors which have important impacts on the sustainability of the plan in the long term and therefore it is closer to be a classical transportation plan in a sacred city than a sustainable transportation plan.الملخ

Keywords

Abstract The research studied the sustainability concept and its activation in the process of the planning of the decision making regarding with the transportation and the basic principles to prepare sustainable transportation plans for cities in order to analyze the complicated problems including the problem of using the classical methods in transportation planning in the cities in general and the sacred cities in particular. These holy cities neglected the inclusion of environmental --- economic and social impact in preparing transportation plans together with studying the methods of evaluating the sustainability of transportation plans proposals and their application in the transportation project of the holy city of Karbala in order to evaluate this plan and show its shortages and manipulate them to make the plan become sustainable. The practical frame of the research involves the review of the transportation plan of the sacred city of Karbala --- which includes five proposals of transportation planning to the target year 2030 --- and applying the stages of examining the sustainability of the plan by using the strategic environment assessment method through the application of compatibility matrix analysis and identifying the sustainable and unsustainable aspects in those proposals --- and consequently reaching the results of the evaluation which show that the transportation plan of the holy city of Karbala is suffering from many shortcoming in the methodology of the plan preparation according to the sustainable transportation plan preparation stages --- and neglect many factors which have important impacts on the sustainability of the plan in the long term and therefore it is closer to be a classical transportation plan in a sacred city than a sustainable transportation plan. --- الملخ


Article
Karbala and its Name in the Major Arabic Sources
كربلاء ومسمياتها في امات المصادر العربية

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Abstract

Abstract Al- Haair Al- Husainy is regarded as the spot on which one of the great historical tragedies took place . It has many names as the history tells us . It has been called in number of names without any priority or distinction to any one of them at all .these names are Al- Ghadhiriyya ,Ninevah , Mariya , Ammoriya , Nawawees , Shattul – Arab , Shatiul – Forat , Al- Taff , Tafful- Forat , Al- Haair , Al- Hary , Mashhadul- Husain and Karbala . The last name (Karbala) has been just one of the various names .By the time, the last nomination widely prevailed and speedily became accepted by all . It has become the sole heir of it the province name, and this area is no longer known by the other names but by this name which is used all over the province and Karbala is considered its center . No other place all over the world , as it seems , has got such number of names like Karbala , which had variety of names for one certain area . and this could be attributed to the fact that this way of terming a territory or a city by number of names is familiarly used in the medieval orient and there could be no rejection . these papers contain , a documentation of mentioning Karbala in the linguistic and geographical heritage references as well as in some historical heritage references in brief . The scientific research may require resort to some other Arabic references which mentioned Karbala either , in its present name or in its other names .الملخّ

Keywords

Abstract Al- Haair Al- Husainy is regarded as the spot on which one of the great historical tragedies took place . It has many names as the history tells us . It has been called in number of names without any priority or distinction to any one of them at all .these names are Al- Ghadhiriyya --- Ninevah --- Mariya --- Ammoriya --- Nawawees --- Shattul – Arab --- Shatiul – Forat --- Al- Taff --- Tafful- Forat --- Al- Haair --- Al- Hary --- Mashhadul- Husain and Karbala . The last name (Karbala) has been just one of the various names .By the time --- the last nomination widely prevailed and speedily became accepted by all . It has become the sole heir of it the province name --- and this area is no longer known by the other names but by this name which is used all over the province and Karbala is considered its center . No other place all over the world --- as it seems --- has got such number of names like Karbala --- which had variety of names for one certain area . and this could be attributed to the fact that this way of terming a territory or a city by number of names is familiarly used in the medieval orient and there could be no rejection . these papers contain --- a documentation of mentioning Karbala in the linguistic and geographical heritage references as well as in some historical heritage references in brief . The scientific research may require resort to some other Arabic references which mentioned Karbala either --- in its present name or in its other names . --- الملخّ


Article
Levels of Poetic Discourse in the Poetry of Al- Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi BahruI –`U100 m
مستويات الخطاب الشعري في شعر السيد محمد مهدي بحر العلوم

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Abstract

Abstract These Papers aim to highlighting the levels of poetic discourse in the poetry which written in Karbala from 1000 A.H. to 1300 A.H. Al-Sayyid (Muhammad Mahdi Bahrul- U100m) has been chosen as an example. The topic has tried to considerably study each of these levels. Accordingly, the subject was divided into three sections with a prelude and a conclusion full of the results of the research. The prelude included a biography of Al- Sayyid (Muhammad Mahdi Bahrul-Uloom).Section one studied the discourse through a literary heritable point of view, for instance the discourse as a heritage term and the discourse as a passed down literary poetry. Section two dealt with the religious discourse which included the discourse studied from aholy Quranic point of view and in relation to the holy prophetic hadith also. Section three was devoted to study and handle the discourse in easy and understandable language.الملخ

Table of content: volume:2 issue:ع2 -ج1