Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552265X 25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:1 issue:214

Article
Hair between wisdom and ignorance of Islam (Poets of the Taif model)
شعر الحِكْمة بين الجاهليّة والإسلام شعراء الطائف أنموذجًا

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Abstract

A piece of wisdom is a contemplative profound look into life and its issues and people and their morals, goals and destinies. It is a call to uncover the truth and present a typical picture of the values of truth, goodness, beauty and lesson-learning. Poets, since the pre-Islamic paganistictimes, have addressed these humane meanings without which they would not be glorified since “Arabs do not consider a poet laureate unless he originates some wisdom in his poetry”. However, wisdom in poetry has not been an independent purpose as was the case for praising, commiseration, satire, flirtation... etc. It was used to be originated casually where the nature of the theme requires it. With the advent of Islam, veteran poets continued decorating their poems with wise implications. Islam had a tangible impact on the meanings and contents addressed by those veteran poets, and on using poetry to fight paganisticideology, and serving Islam. Such wisdom has been maintained eternal as poets of wisdom exceeded the individuality to popularity, so he was honored by the people memorizing his verses and communicating them from generation to another.

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Article
The Culture of Correspondence in The Novel ( The Shadow of the Snake) by Youssif Zaidan
ثقافة الرسائل في رواية ظِلّ الأفعى " ليوسف زيدان "

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Abstract

This study talks about the novel (The Shadow of the Snake) which revolves around the women and their position in the cultures and literature, and the reality of the sacred status of women in the old religions and civilizations after being insulted and abused in the inherited customs and traditions. The novel tackles a two- part text. The first part deals with a stereo type of an Arab husband: arrogant and cruel .The second part is about the wife who is introduced to her mother through a collection of letters. Finding these letters is a major turning point in the novel; it is the climax by which the main character is introduced to the real status of women. The letters contain old songs and religious rhymes inspired by the folklore and through which we (the readers) are introduced to the etymology of different words and concepts. This novel presents a unique type of narration based on the technique of correspondence due to its impact on the reader and its role in deducing the connotative meanings. The novel is open to endless readings and it puts women in their right places ; using a civilized strategy and a right religious prospective.

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Article
Duality of life and death in Hashmyat Kumait display and analysis
ثنائية الحياة والموت في هاشميات الكميت عرض وتحليل

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(Al-Kumait) has been considered unique poet who contemporized agonies and panics of (Hashimyeen) and sustained huge sufferings. Thus, it could be said that he is the poet of matter, as that imposed on him his soul and his thoughts characterized with Shiite impression of A'ly Al-Bayt (the messenger's family). He wanted, under strict conditions, to convey sufferings and agonies of the Messenger's family, that awakened his emotions, sensibility and thoughts; besides that ,the reality of Islamic society since then , was defeated and broken by the killing of Imam "Ali" (peace upon him) and his son (Al-Hussein). The vocabularies in the poetry of (Kumait) indicated to human indulgence into temporary pleasures, in return, the poet describe the Messenger 's family ,that they deserted the worldly life and its decorations ,since they found it as a temporary life . Thus, they wanted to pass it as to get the internal life ,where they did not find anything but to die in the line of Allah.

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Article
The Functionality of Color Terms in Antarah IBN SHADAD's Poetry
1. توظيف اللون في شعر عَنتَرة بن شدّاد العبسيّ

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To start with, a definition of the term 'color' in Arabic language is presented. Then, a study of colors implications in Al-Jahili poetry is proceeded; the poet's creativity in using color terms and incorporating these terms in Jahili poems explicitly or implicitly in forming up the topics of their poetry, then outlined. Color figures and images are dominant in Al-Jahili poetry to its extreme so as to propagate an oasis of environmental emulations, on one hand, and an outlet for personal experience on the other. In his poetry, Antara followed his ancestors' poetic traditions and closely textualized their inspirations and fantasies in his versification. Partly, his poetic diction was personalized; whereas, the semantic contents tackled by ancestors were mediated and de toured astray in some instanses. Antara's poetic quest was a merger of some stored conceptions and of literary legacy utilized in painting his poetic portraits of colorful frescos and precise mosaic of detailed images. However, Antara's poetry was mingled with finalized splashes of reality and personalized affinities initiating a prolonged versification of literary artistry. Hence, his originality in using color terminology and their semantic implications of such are mirrored in Antara's poetry functionally. Reviewing his poetry collection one can infer his typical attitudes of using colors: the black, the white, the red, the green, the blue, and the yellow. Excessive use of these colors can be cited along with multiplicity of presentation in creating a quantum of color implications especially those of the white and the black, he used a decorated mosaic of colors in forming his poetic image; whereas he incorporated a corona of colors in restoring his poeticity. Color contrasts are foregrounded in building up perceptible imagesof his poems. Colorful images, he used, asa loverand as a knight are merged with his passion and bravery; though gloomy in his macabre. The paper concludes that Antara used an excessive influx of colors terminology and semantic sheds in entailing his topics, focusing on the red, black and white. The black was his favorite; whereas the red and the black are used excessively in his expressions. Explicit reference to the red and black was the highest in number in the selected poems. Essentially, some node that the notability of the black was a symptom of suffering and degrading he suffered as a black.

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Article
Dellalat Adawat AL.Shart in Sorat AL-AMRAN
دلالة أدوات الشرط غير الجازمة على المعنى في سورة آل عمران

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Abstract

The research aims to highlight the style of the Arabic language methods, a condition, and was allocated to speak with him in Surat Al-Imran, the most important findings of the research : 1. studied the style of the condition within the Intelligence averred present tense, and the first was to study independently as a method of self-contained, and all this shows, the impact factor theory that led to multiple views of the scientists in the world, and thus led to fatigue grammar, missed its target, people and deported him, and all that raised around it was nothing more than an exaggeration led them to consider the surface, and taking statements at face value advances, and confused logic, grammar. .2. an assertion to answer the condition factor, is the tool, they are assertive to do condition and his answer; because the reaction condition and answer one sentence, when intervention tool condition avers entire sentence, does not reveal the act and leave the answer. 3. Display conditional sentence patterns is definitive and the role of the condition Tools is assertive in providing meaning to be in the Qur'an, context - after made conditional sentence definitive patterns in previous searches - as well as their use in other meanings, Kalastvham and exile, Universally grammatical, are grammatical elements have no independent meaning of its own, and the function expression of the internal relations between the parts of the sentence, and all that is attributed to these buildings is such linguistic economy, deliberate language to harness its buildings finite limited number, to meet the demands of the meanings is finite, which represents the stage of upgrading language . 4. The image of entry tool condition Either Almdharaan is the basis inter condition; because they include the meaning of the reception and this is what achieved by the present tense, while the rest of the images is permissible, if Att 5. It is possible that without the requirement of an assertive unanimously by grammarians, while deeds be an answer to what was a thing or forbid, or

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Article
Moral exile in the Holy Quran
النفي المعنويّ في القرآن الكريم

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Abstract

The Arabic Language linguists have various methods in interpreting and orientating the Arab Texts from the grammatical perspective. The research focuses on one of these methods. It is the negative potential meaning interpretation and orientation for the texts that are their apparent meaning seems to be affirmative. I preferred that my study to be connected with the Holy Quran Texts hoping to enrich the field of the Quranic Studies and to be more specific in my study problem. After the profound study for all what is to be in relation to my study problem, I found that it is better for my study to be in an introduction and the term definition, followed by two chapters: Chapter one addresses the negative meaningful in verbs, whereas chapter two addresses the words that carry the negative meaning, although its apparent meaning is different.

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Article
اسهامات علماء الأمة في علوم القرآن خلال العهد البويهيّ

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Abstract

After the completion of this research is marked with (per nation's scientists in the Quran sciences through Covenant Albuehi), concluded that some of the results, namely: Despite the interest built tin science all, especially the Koran Science and encourage a large number of scientists, Vmnhohm freedom of intellectual and ideological and doctrinal wide, but that science did not witness what is distinctive and accomplished through Albuehi Testament as what we compare other religious science, as scientists continued mimicking his scientists who them and focused effort, mostly on the subject of the readings, but their efforts are no longer something extraordinary is striking, strange subject that most interested in the science of the readings were linguists or Nhoyen, as some of them did not is a specialist knowledge of the Koran .. The two sects are working side by side to show studies and achievements in the science of the Quran, and have had good outcomes and attempts are ok, because the bulk of the attention of scientists focused on theology and jurisprudence, the Koran, Hadith They were as much as possible follow the two approach conversations sayings of the Prophet and the companions and followers, they did not follow the mental approach of dealing in them, but this was the practice in other sciences curriculum (whether verbal or fiqh). A search Przna Koran scholars names of the year and the most important realizations taxonomic or Altalevah in the field of science of the Quran, as we found that they have great freedom in scientific achievement despite the doctrine built tin, and this brings us to the built tin Their goal was not to suppress talent, but they work various ways to contribute to the seriousness in the field of cognitive sciences and all the terms of reference .. wanted to perpetuate their existence and their role through the promotion of science and supplement the Islamic civilization, what is new. However these were not the contributions of scientists and other contributions to the level of other religious sciences. As for the scholars of the Qur'an Shiites Vtmtheloa three scientific figures are (Sheikh useful and Sharif al-Murtaza and Sheikh Tusi) were the most important Shiite clerics in that period contributed significantly Brphi Quran sciences field some job classifications that may differentiate them from the scientists who preceded them, but their contributions are limited, as What we compare other their contributions in the field of theology, or jurisprudence, it really remember the start of their studies to science through the Koran or Hadith theology if their goals were not the Qur'an as much as serve other sciences .. In any case, if his scientists (Sunni and Shiite) in the field of science of the Quran is a good healthy phenomenon under the Covenant Albuehi the country has experienced and accompanied by economic and religious political conditions floundering, but can not we prepare the contributions of milestones in the history of the march of science of the Quran through history, but scientists who follow the methodology of them.

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Article
الأحكام المتعلقة بالاستحالة في الشريعة الإسلامية

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Abstract

After my studies for this research showed me the importance of clarifying the meaning of impossibility and its effects on materials that we rely on in our daily lives, whether these substances food or drink, as well as the statement of the jurisdiction of the decomposition of the wine and vinegar whether the analysis to enter the other element or analyze their own, and I thank ALLAH who has facilitated me complete this search and guided me in writing and ask acceptance and payment, and Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, and blessings and peace be upon the Prophet Muhammad and his family and him.

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Article
The term evil when Imam Tirmidhi in Aljama Kaber
مصطلح المنكر عند الإمام الترمذيّ في الجامع الكبير

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The herbal care and medication by rising day after day, because of its benefits on the one hand, and to get rid of the damage of drugs and common drugs of chemotherapy on the other hand, so it became Herbal note and a lesson from the lessons methodologyy for some universities in the world, and became the people in different parts of the world to accept this kind of treatment, especially that traditional medicine has failed to cure some chronic diseases, or treatments that have not achieved the desired results for some diseases. And Sunnah bus this kind of treatment, and herbs that they are received are available in our environment and fit our needs, orientation to better than to go to the imported herbs, and the benefits received texts prophetic, and in this endorsement to her, and to ensure that the potential damage, as that duty rooting this type facial treatments from the Orient to the Prophetic Sunnah shows, and preceded and progress. This research seeks to show what came in the Sunnah of the conversations in the recruitment of medical herbs and health purposes. I called was: (herbal treatment plants and in the Sunnah), which was keen on rooting this type of treatment with a statement of benefits and uses. The survey is not intended to search all the talk, it is not limited nine pages; but I wanted a statement of some aspects of the subject as well as noted for its importance with a view to expanding it. This research has been divided on the brief introduction, which in the hands of the reader and three sections: First topic: the importance of herbal remedies. The second topic: Therapeutics plants and herbs. It showed what came in the Sunnah of the commandments and tips for treatment and herbal plants. The third topic: Nutrition Care. . Find a conclusion and then sealed it showed the most important findings.

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Article
Leadership and human Abbas bin Ali role (peace be upon him) In the eternal battle tuff year 61 AH An analytical study
الدور القياديّ والانسانيّ للعباس بن علي (عليه السلام) في معركة الطف الخالدة عام 61هـ (دراسة تحليلية)

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Abstract

Alawite family Immaculate has suffered early seventh decade AH serious repercussions came as a result of its commitment to the principles of the Islamic religion, as those family felt led grandson of the Prophet Mustafa (peace be upon him and his family and him) Imam Hussein bin Ali bin Abi Talib (peace be upon him) that Islam as a religion and principles and the values of its large importance in the details of the lives of Muslims began Anharomam negative hiring him by the leaders of Tbaa graduate Centers did not give it right, so Hussein's determination to combat these trends, including made available to him and his family from potential despite its simplicity, but it took way until the end, Hussein was a leader of that family, and his brother Imam Abbas ibn Ali (peace be upon him) associate him and holding a banner and committed to its principles and sacrificing Braanh and what has the strength, courage and Osama was the way one results and one murder in the end share everyone's courage details filled with noble principles, witnessed the land of Karbala in ten days reflected the the meanings of the tournament in clearer images, but Abbas, who was a leader and a wonderful human being was his receipts and tours in the fields of the right and the courage and selflessness and fulfillment we left off in the following lines recalling the tournament with great reverence and pride.

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Article
Narratives Mohammed bin Jubair in the correct Study and analysi
مرويات محمد بن جبير في الصحيحين دراسة وتحليل

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Addressed in this research Narratives Mohammed bin Jubair in the correct study and analysis. The research was divided into two sections, the first section dealt with the life of Muhammad bin Jubair and divided into three demands, addressed the requirement in the first name and lineage and Ge and his nickname and his death in his family and in the second requirement Demand third elders and his students. The second topic his Narratives in the correct and divided into three demands dealt with in the first requirement his Narratives in prayer and pilgrimage in the second requirement his Narratives in jihad and walk in demand in the third Narratives virtues.

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Article
Lessons learned from the Battle of Haneen
الدروس والعبـر المستخلصة مـن غـزوة حنيـن

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We have proved in the Battle of nostalgia negative effects that may cause the defeat, as it was in the ranks of the Islamic Army some weak faith, such as some of those who converted to Islam after the conquest of Mecca for fear of connote The cause of their faith Laggard to defeat at the start of the battle, some of them came out in search of booty do not desire to victory nor a request for a certificate The Battle of nostalgia and events revealed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions how to be a defeat, after being informed of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) that a thing of wonder leak into the hearts of the fighters was too difficult for them Alajtlad in the battle, also saw the Messenger of Allah ( God's peace be upon him) how the enemy has prepared himself for the fight and wrote the ranks of archers in the fjords and shred in making ambushes while out a lot of young people in the ranks of the Muslim army without a weapon, and alert the Prophet (peace be upon him) factors victory and resolve the fighting, and which manifested itself in the persistence and courage, and a few were around the first two of his companions and supporters

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Article
French policy toward Tunisia 1881-1914
السياسة الفرنسية حيال تونس ( 1881-1914)

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French ambitions in Tunisia back to distant era, extending the year 1270, when King Louis IX of France led a Faild military campaign to take control of Tunisia, and then managed to France in 1685 to impose a treaty on Tunisia eligibility privilege conferred on the rest of the other countries. After the French occupation of Algeria in 1830, France has shown special in to Tunisia, which considered an extension of Algeria to the east, and took fabricating justifications for its occupation. In light of this came this research in order to Highlight light on French policy toward Tunisia 1881-1914. has been divided into four main topics dealt with first, including the political situation of Tunisia until 1881, and explin the summary of the nature of international relations, which gave France the arguments in the occupation of Tunisia and forced to sign Bardo Treaty of 1881. while the second axis rurning to the political situation of Tunisia for the period 1881 to 1914, and discussed the nature of the politics of the administrative side and the Immigration and Naturalization policy and their impact on all aspects of Tunisia. While he studied the third axis, economic conditions and the extent of affected policy of colonial France, especially after its dominance of the most important economic sectors (agricultural, commercial and industrial), and the last theme was the extent of the decline of social conditions treated by grabbing endowments, and the deterioration of the education and health system. The conclusion touched on the most important resuts reached by the researcher which revealed the French colonial policy for obsessive nature, and the injustice and oppression, which took place on the Tunisian people during the occupation who Stripping the people of the Islamic Arab identity . Which Took place on the Tunisian people during the Occupation who tried Stripping the people of the Tslamic Arab identity.

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Article
محاولات بريطانيا استئناف تبادلها التجاريّ مع المملكة العربية السعودية في عام 1962 بحسب وثائق بريطانية

Authors: م.د. خليل حمود عثمان
Pages: 277-292
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Abstract

The relations between Britain and the Saudia Arabia relates to along time which reflected Poselively on the Commertial relations between them especially, and was a helpful factor in strenthining the diplomatic relations between them. The events of 1956. introduced cut in the Britain – Saudia Arabia kingdom relations; but the British departments felt the necessity of knowing what was happening inside the kingdom, So Britain was eager to return the relationships with the kingdm where several enactments were affirmed to recontinue the Commertial representation on a level of Commertial Secritary. It is suggested that " British Commertial Council " May under take this mission; but the disagreement on the cost of appointing a representative, delayed Contemporarily returning the commertial relations, in the same time there were business men from Britain working in the Saudia Arabia kingdom, which it permitted its merchants to import from Britain. The British exports reached abig amount of money, So that Britain accounted appointing a representator to it kingdom of agreat benifet; Although it revealed caution specially that the Buraimi problem still confusing the Saudi officials, but the British officials agreed on appointing a commertial representator in Saudia, indeed after increasing the commertial economical activity in it. So, Britain Payed efforts to be acquainted with kingdom needs of especially the trans- miters of the board casting, after knowing the intention of the U.S.A. Swpplying the kingdom with the trans – metter, that situation permited acquitting the agreements from the British civilian and military departments on suppling the kingdom with those equipments and exporting them.

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Article
Political developments in Iran before the Islamic revolution in 1979
التطورات السياسية في إيران قبيل الثورة الإسلامية عام 1979

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This research aims to study and analyze the political developments in Iran before the 1979 Islamic revolution and had a role foundation for the full of the second Pahlavi monarch after that thise system has justified his survival and continuance in power was not able to meet the intifada Iranians who have made sacrifices large in order to establish a new system the intifada.

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Article
Iraq Student Contributions in 1948 Revolte
اسهامات الطلبة العراقيين في وثبة عام 1948

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For decades, Iraqi students played distinct struggle roles through the history of the national movements. These roles varied and took different shapes accorded with the nature of the political struggles happened at each point of time in the Iraqi modern and contemporary political history. The students were highly influenced by the national movements for being part of Iraqi national fabric which played a great part in demonstrating students' national struggles, thus, going beyond their own occupational demands. This is clarified in terms of their participation in mass uprisings, demonstrations, protests and disorders, generally with national character but spontaneous. Students' yard lacked organization which framed their struggle and directed them correctly. As a result the reaction was unorganized. Students of Teacher-Training School and Law Institute and some students from University of Baghdad participated in the uprising, plus other groups of people in Baghdad as a capital; other provinces also took part in. The demonstration took the shape of revolution due to its expansion and strength. Students supported by opposition parties ruined projects belonged to Britain and its allies. They also defeated and destroyed the American and British political projects in the Middle East. 1948 uprising in Iraq had a wide echo in most Arab countries; especially it received a great deal of sympathy and backing from university students all around the Arab countries; particularly Egypt, Syria and Lebanon. In this uprising Iraqi army leadership took the neutral position in the conflict between students and the agents ruling authority, realizing that students are sons and being the kernel of the nation and future pillars who would lead the nation. This was an evident of the national bond between the army and students. Students as a cultured and conscious class participated with people in a legend position in that uprising where national blood rivers were mixed to defended Iraq and its future which forced Britain and its allies postponed most of their projects.

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Article
Graves in the old Iraq
المقابر في العراق القديم

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This paper deals with the importance of symbolic death of the ancient civilization of Iraq Under those creed attention was deceased and keeping the body of the deceased from the internal and external factors of the body was their mission in Dead transfer to the underworld or the land of irreversibility and the starting point of this doctrine was to be a ceremony and burial rites processing and put the body in the grave and put materials and tools for the deceased, according to its position in that period he lived and completed this phase funeral ceremonies and rituals, which represents the cause of death and the effect was signed on neighborhoods, and this scene depicts the basic aspects of the faiths after death to the people of ancient Iraq

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Article
Study in the land of the economic importance of blackness in the era of early Islam
دراسة في أهمية أرض السواد الاقتصادية في حقبة صدر الإسلام

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Land black formed a great importance within the march of events of the history of Arab Islamic state, and this land written by historians and geographers Arab Muslims a history and description, Vark historians of the events that took place there, and I care geographers determine its borders and measuring the area ranged estimates between (200/43 km 2) and (000 / 48 km 2), this was of interest to select the majority of central Iraq wars when Alalt area or to the far south, and this black historians have taken the biggest attention compared to the existing black in the Levant near Balqa. Muslims open vast land (Iraq) after it was for many centuries under the rule of the Persian Sassanids and those before them, and when opened and settled the matter of the Muslims who had been kept on a lot of financial and administrative systems, which was adopted by the local people in the management of the country's affairs, and the Caliph Omar bin Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) had refused to divide the land of black fighters in order to be on benefits for generations to come, however, was retained land owners against the payment of the abscess it in order not to Atrakhy Muslim fighters and Enksoa about the performance of their mission, as well as to keep fighting force. Since the vast majority was an area somewhat, if it must vary its territory and each type characteristics and advantages of which was the land of the black varieties are: Sawafi: They own a caliphate which are the property of the state and called Suaa forward ground. Magistrate land: the land that the benefit of its people Muslims to pay them a single tax and keep the ownership of their land to them. Tax land: General was imposed on the people of the region and then distributed among themselves on individuals.

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Article
Population growth rates and its impact on the Usability lands for in Dhi Qar province growing
معدلات النمو السكانيّ وأثره في الاراضي الصالحة للزراعة في محافظة ذي قار

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The study of the demographic characteristics of any society in terms of growth rates and the composition of the population of the important characteristics to identify the demographic features of that society and represents the study of the demographic characteristics of the province of Dhi Qar. through the identification of population growth and the variables that affect the rates. as well as the study of the distribution of the population and to study the installation of age and gender population and economic. agricultural properties are considered as an integral and important part of the study of demographic characteristics. as cultivation can not do unless there is a population interested in agriculture or consumers of it. then a strong link between the status of the population and agriculture and between the impact and the influential.

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The Changes in Categories Relative Humidity in Iraq
تغيرات فئات الرطوبة النسبية في العراق

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The aim of this reaserch is study the change in relative humidity(R.H)categories,which is divided according to classification scientist Ravinshteen it is humidity high category 100%-80%,humidities 80%-65%humidity medium 65%-50%and humidity low category less than 50%. and applied this classification on the hours data period (1985-2010). It is show the R.H categories 100%-80%,80%-65%and65%-50% recored low frequency in second session comparison first session exception humidity low category which is record high frequency at the expense of other categories.concering frequency value high ten number100%-90%which is lowest frequency too in the second cycle the value 96% record hight diffrence in frequency between two cycle. And there are seasonal changes between two session. To determind the reasons of this changes in( R.H) categories its correlation with average temperature and rainfall and rate of wind speed. It has been found all the study station witness change increase in average temperature in the second session comparison first session and Rutba station record high difference in average reach 2.6C.and average of rainfall is also dropped in second session . the average frequency of wind speed , the low and medium speed is increase in second session comparison speed strong wind which dropped in second cycle .in addition there are another egology facts result to low value of (R.H) Key words Relative Humidity , Categories , Temperature , Rainfall

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Article
Reflections Aguarq Islands on navigation in the Shatt al-Arab
انعكاسات جزر الغوارق على الملاحة في شط العرب

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Saw the Shatt al-Arab emergence of many small islands and semiconductor islands since the nineties of the last century due to the accumulation of large amounts of silt long periods of time over a break freely soaked, took impede traffic in the coast, they contribute to the deterioration of the depths of the navigation channel, and weaken the MSC as a result of collisions with passing ships, also affect the creation of geographical changes in the waterway of the canal navigation, as well as what caused the high pollution levels as a result of leakage of some cargoes of water, and despite numerous attempts by the authorities responsible for the shipping activity in the Shatt al-Arab, to address the problem of the proliferation of sunken ships, and docking with the natural environment, but these islands still exist, so this study recommends that efforts be intensified in order to get rid of these islands and deepen the navigation channel of the port development.

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Wind speed variation and its impact on the amount of evaporation-transpiration potential seasonal in Sulaymaniyah Baghdad, Basra Khanaqin stations adoption equation Penman
سرعة الرياح وأثرها في تباين قيم التبخُّر الفصليّ في محطات: (السليمانية – خانقين – بغداد - البصرة) باعتماد معادلة بنمان

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Wind speed is one of climatic elements affecting the amount of potential evapotranspiration, no less importance in influencing potential evapotranspiration from other items, and in spite of knowledge the role of wind as a factor in the values, but it has not been a study to measure statistically this role in Iraq. Hence the aim of the research: to identify the amount of influence they wind speed variation spatial values potential evapotranspiration and temporal values of the stations studied. The study included stations (Sulaymaniyah, Khanaqin, Baghdad, and Basra) for the period of 1980/2010. And relied on simple linear regression to achieve the aim of the research. The results showed that the winds of an influential role in the occurrence of variations in the values of the potential evapotranspiration of not less important than the temperature and relative humidity. It is found that the increase in wind speed rates in effect raise the evaporation values and strength of this relationship increase in summer, as the effected of values have risen ranged between (94%- 73%) of the stations studied, while the potential evapotranspiration values in the spring less affected by wind speed for all stations the effected values ranged between (0.4%-70%) in stations Basra and Khanaqin, respectively. The spatial variations turned out to be influenced by the strength of the wind speed increases direction from south to north, as Basra, the lowest values of coefficient of determination station in all seasons ranged recorded between (0.4%- 79%), while the highest values recorded in Khanaqin to the selection coefficient ranged between (69%-93%).

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Article
Educational service efficiency elementary, middle and junior stages analysis in the city of Khanaqin in the academic year (2012- 2013)
تحليل كفاءة الخدمة التعليمية للمراحل الابتدائية والمتوسطة والاعدادية في مدينة خانقين للعام الدراسيّ (2012- 2013)

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Abstract

This study examined the efficiency of educational services in the city of Khanaqin stages of basic education, namely, (elementary, middle, and junior high) by standardizing the service using graphic standards set by the state, the educational variables that comply with the numbers of students, teachers and people of the school and the state of the school building and the tobacco industry's own rooms and other educational facilities Activity related to the student within the school, and it can get to know the extent of the city's residents for this service (quantity and quality).

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Article
Study the characteristics of quality of groundwater in the province of Kirkuk and ways to invest
دراسة الخصائص النوعیة للمياه الجوفية في محافظة كركوك وسبل استثمارها

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Abstract

The study is based on the results of analyzes of characteristics qualitative models (57) wells drilled in the study area, the amount of the concentrations of those characteristics and geographical distribution in the province of Kirkuk and the possibility of investing in multiple areas of the statement, showing from which most of the concentrations and high levels located in the district (Hawija, Daquq, and Center). So that the majority of the groundwater wells that districts exceed the concentrations characteristics qualitative limits for most of the different areas on the contrary, we find that the majority of valid wells for various uses located in (Dbass & Lelan), because of the qualitative characteristics that fall within the permitted for those uses border. This is due to the geological formations to those areas containing materials (lime and limestone), such as stone (limestone, dolomite, gypsum). Also played a geological characteristics have an important role in determining the amount of groundwater, covering the study area geological formations consisting of sedimentary rocks consisting mostly of gravel, sand and characterized by permeability rocks allows water access during and formation water tanks inside those rocks.

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Article
Estimatedconvergenceofquantitative methods in estimatingland usetransport An Empirical Studyinthe city of Fallujah
التقارب التقديريّ للأساليب الكمية في تقدير استخدامات الأرض للنقل دراسة تطبيقية في مدينة الفلوجة

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Abstract

Transportis one ofthe infrastructureimportantservicesin the city, which shares its landusesseveraldifferentandsizesandoften have tousetransporta significant impact onthe formation ofthese usesthat save time, effort and be the cause ofaccessibilityAccessibilityto achieveefficiencyin the functionalinterdependenceConnectiontoward the formation ofinstallationcityordinance. With the increase in population numbers in the cities and the emergence of social and economic developments produced a dramatic increase in the number of cars that came require additional network be able to accommodate these changes and organization as required, which gives the city the possibility of urban growth in the right direction processions of the evolution of population sizes and uses of the land. So now it requires techniques and methods have the ability to determine the size of these developments, if correct and revised estimates adopted where possible that the results of the style of the other estimates differ to varying degrees, which requires the adoption of a style results closest to the real application. Perhaps the typical use of linear regression and time series may lead to the first glance that the alleged disparity if adopted these models in urban land uses estimates for the purposes of transport, especially since the first model belongs to the static models Static while the second model belongs to the dynamic models Dynamic. Therefore comes this research in order to detect the extent of convergence estimated these two models when calculating the size of land use for transportation in the city of Fallujah, which was waiting required for the transport network in which expansion in line with population growth and the expansion of residential neighborhoods that spanned the edges over recent years.

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Article
The reality design Logos tourism and its relationship with the local environment Lena emad fathe
واقع تصميم الشعارات السياحية وعلاقتها بالبيئة المحلية

Authors: م.م لينا عماد فتحي
Pages: 517-536
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Abstract

The term " Tourism" has appeared in England during eighteenths century as to express about scientific tour that entailed the English youths to make tours to European states . Then France has used it as to indicate that every individual should do that as to achieve personal enjoyment. The term gets flourished in twentieth century an it is later called as a tourism. It is believed that tourism would be a grand industry in the world. The development in tourism accompanied with the need to tourism circulation as to attract the public and motivate them to practice a tourist activity in these areas. Hence , the informational means where designer plays an essential role by designing all requirements of circulation works , top of which is the design of slogan that represented as an identity for tourism institution. Slogan designed almost depends on excitement of feelings that being considered as an important means in the tourism field , besides, the slogan indicates to the activity of tourism and it is an identity for any project or commercial establishment. The slogan of the location is the first things that attract the visitors and the agent. It gives a glimpse about this establishment. Based on what has aforesaid , the research comes with the title " the reality of tourism slogans designing and its relations with the surrounding environment. The research lies into two chapters , the first chapter alludes at the problem of the research and its importance. The goals of the research lies in: 1- knowing international slogans designing 2- knowing the relationship of local values with slogan design.

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Article
Stages of artistic expression in children and their relationship to technological development
مراحل التعبير الفنيّ لدى الأطفال وعلاقتها بالتطور التكنولوجيّ

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Abstract

The current researchdiscusses the issue of technological development and its impacts on the media and on the taste of the child and his artistic expression in the drawing and the range of their usefulness in the modern child graphics measurement. The research is conductedaccording toLonfeld’s rules. The researcher recommendsthe authorities to adopt this theory to formulate a new scientific curriculum in kindergarten consistent with the mental capacity of children. The researcher proposes a new theory in artistic expression,as well as to conduct complementary studies to the research, namely: 1 -Analysis of children's drawings in Iraq, according to the theory Asaad al-Hashemi. 2 - Stages of artistic expression in children and their relationship to social changes in the light of terrorism.

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Article
Use the foam material as the technique in the treatment of environments Fish stuffed in the hall of the museum exhibits
استعمال مادة الفوم كأسلوب فني في معالجة بيئات الأسماك المحنطة في قاعة معروضات المتحف

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Abstract

Appeared in modern times since the beginning of the twentieth century in the style of the Fine Arts is renewal requires hiring many vocabulary to form a single work of art or the use of one substance with unusual formerly of modern industry or discovered. Of those materials are plastic, which is often produced from crude oil (petroleum), and branching out from this article several materials including foam material (foam (. The spotlight on this article to be a leader in visual work that addresses the fish environment exhibits in the Museum of Natural History of the Iraqi Research Center Hall, and it was suitable for the establishment of these fish from material environments (foam(, In Broader and more particularly what was in the water or mud-rock or coral outcrops bottom or on the edges of the river submerged in water. It could be argued that it showed almost be satisfactory and acceptable to the scientific and technically alike.

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Article
تأثير التحدث الذاتيّ في تنمية التصورات المستقبلية لدى الارامل

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Abstract

Aims current research to identify: the effect of self-talk in future with the widows perceptions development method, and through the validation of hypotheses, the researcher used the experimental design (experimental group design, and the control group with the test before me - and after me), adopted a researcher tool for measuring represented scale (Hussain, 2011) have been confirmed reliability and validity. Has been prepared guidance sessions (self-talk style) and adopted a researcher Theory (Makenbum) The number of program sessions (20) indicative session each session time took 45 minutes and the rate of two a week, The program was applied to the experimental group did not receive the control group any guidance session The researcher used the bag statistical program (SPSS), the researcher reached a set of conclusions and recommendations and proposals.

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Article
Electronic Trade (A legal study)
التجارة الالكترونية) دراسة قانونية)

Authors: م.م. انسام عوني رشيد
Pages: 603-622
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Abstract

A quick growth of the electronic trade on account of all the other common forms of trade used before ,so it is necessary for the legislator to occultate these works with legal occultation making them legislated frankly .Here,the importance of electronic trade comes .Despite the multiple benefits of the electronic trade and because of its wide spread ,it raises anumber of problems thatarouse the reservations of many jurists and legislators to find suitable solutions for it and this is because of the fear from the technical dangers and the nature of consumers and amount of trust of this trade and how to insure the data of from forgery and larceny via internet and how to save the rights of contractors by internet and proving them , so there is necessary to find legal means that insure the safety of dealings and update the great developments that are available with the modern techniques of the electronic trade operations .

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Article
Intertextuality in poetic story (Piramagroon Pays a Visit to Nali’s Room) poet Dilshad Mraiwany
دةقاويَزان لة دةقي ضيرؤكة شيعرى "ثيرةمةطرون سةر لة حوجرةكةي نالى دةدا" "دلَشاد مةريوانى"

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Abstract

This thesis about story in verse “Piramagroon Pays a Visit to Nali’s Room” which is wrote by Kurdish poet “DlshadMeriwani”. There are description and narrating elements in this text. Meriwani used an intertextual knits to Nali’s poem “Oh gentle wing passing, my soul sacrifice to your dusts way”. It consists of: Introduction, Two chapters; the first chapter entitled: “Text and Intertextuality” which deals with: What a text, term and concept of intertextuality, and poetic in text titles. The second chapter entitled: “Intertextuality and its Types”, it deals with: the types of intertextuality as; allusion, characters, etc. Although, the most significant conclusions shows, and the list of references also

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Article
The multi-Functions of morphemes in Northern Kermanji Kurdish
فرة ئةركى مورفيمة بةندة ريَزمانيةكان لة زمانى كورديدا (كرمانجى سةروو) دا

Authors: د. نازنين جلال احمد
Pages: 649-668
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Abstract

Traditional and modern linguistic studies haven’t dealt with the topic of the multi-functions of morphemes directly. Thus this topic has been chosen for research with respect to the concept of multi-functional morphemes and their morph-syntactic features. The most important finding of this study is that the morph-syntactic phenomenon is realized at the morphological and syntactic lead to by inflectional and derivational morphemes which fulfill many functions in addition their basic functions, This support Selkirk's view that there inflectional and derivational morpheme may have a common origin .

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