Table of content

Alustath

الاستاذ

ISSN: 0552 265X /25189263
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Education Ibn Rushd
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

About the magazine
Issued by the Faculty of Education, Ibn Rushd scientific journal entitled (Journal of the professor), was her first release in 1952. In the beginning. It deals with scientific research, literature and the Arab and Islamic civilization, and contributes to the professors of colleges according to their competence to define the educational community in the Arab countries and abroad.
• the name of the magazine: -Alustath( Professor)
• Produced by: - Faculty of Education / Ibn Rushd
• the international number ((ISSN)):-0552-265X/E-2518-9263
• E-mail to the magazine: - alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq
• Year Released: --1952
• Type of release (quarterly, semi-annual): - quarterly.

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Email : alustath.journal@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:2 issue:214

Article
Coping Styles Unmarried Psychological Everyday Stress and Its Relationship to Psychological Toughness
أسلوب مواجهة غير المتزوجة للضغوطات النفسية اليومية وعلاقته بالصلابة النفسية

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Abstract

The current research sought to Know and measurement methods face the daily stress and mental toughness of a sample of Tdriciat Baghdad University unmarried levels. Then you know the correlation between the levels of measurement concepts, according to the sample responses and interpreted statistically. Amounted research sample (150) of the female teaching colleges and centers Baghdad / Jadiriya University, of different ages, according to a researcher from Matoffer prepare them and facilities in the application for the academic year (2013/2014). Find and select the concepts according to the theoretical literature Tnzira analogy as follows: 1. The concept of coping styles life events pressing Abdulsalam Ali (1997): A series of external events faced by working women as a result of their dealings with the surrounding environment requirements, and impose compatibility speed in the face of these events to avoid the psychological and social negative effects, and access to achieve compatibility with the surrounding environment. 2. The concept of mental toughness for itching (2010): an individual's ability and effectiveness in the face of Stressful Life Events, faith, courage and self-confidence and immunity and carry, in order to remain steadfast in the face of difficulties and life hazards and shocks and disappointments and psychological problems daily, a developer so realistic goals and trends cumulative figure to solve problems and interact smoothly and respect, with self and others. And brought us the results that have been obtained to signs that the research sample of Tdriciat Baghdad University-Jadiriya complex unmarried went and were using positive methods to cope with the pressures of everyday life in general through Musbandthen Stressful Life Events to a high degree on the scale. The samples show a high degree of mental toughness, according to how they respond to the mental hardness scale. The correlation between the two concepts are high result, and which are interpreted by the researcher from two aspects: First, Tdriciat Baghdad University unmarried, went and were using positive methods to cope with the pressures of daily life rose Aijaathen in use to the extent of mental toughness, which is Kmkhvv or shield them against these pressures. The second aspect is explained Thalihen the ability of mental toughness that acquired in the public life of religious education and practical and social life which Aashnha difficulty and challenge the marriage with as family responsibility and a certificate of graduate years of fatigue and pressure and wars and work daily painstaking Bsaath and duties without, Vamtlknha in their personality and helped them a lot to cope with the pressures of life daily positive methods and facilitated them to live as normal to keep up with life. She then presented the recommendations and proposals of interest to several private educational institutions and the community in general scientific service for the march.

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Article
A novel modeling domain application
نموذج لتمثيل مجال التطبيق

Authors: Dr. Buthainah F. AL-Dulaimi,
Pages: 1-8
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This paper presents a novel to model application domain. Application domain description precedes requirements engineering, and is the basis for the development of a software or information system that satisfies all expectations of its users. The domain model is used to generate project specific process models. Our aim is to develop a model description for processes which permits to create comprehensive scenarios. Modeling can be divided into a structural, and behavioral. This paper projects that an important future direction in software engineering is domain-specific software engineering. From requirements specification to design, and then implementation, a tighter coupling between the descriptions of a software system with its application domain has the potential to improve both the correctness and reliability of the software system. The greatest challenge in this area is the evolution of the application domain itself. We show how the application domain description can be mapped to requirements and discuss engineering of application domain descriptions. Key words: Software Modeling, Domain Modeling, Domain-specific modeling, Software process models, Design modeling, Process models.

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Article
ALBERT CAMUS' IDEA OF REBELLION IN THE OUTSIDER
فكرة التمرد عند البرت كامو في رواية الغريب

Authors: Aneed Thanwan Rustam
Pages: 9-24
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Albert Camus' political and literary writings reveal his revolutionary opinions about the various issues dominating the fourth and fifth decades of the twentieth century such as fascism, the Spanish civil war, poverty, social injustice, as well as the role of the intellectuals in the political life of his age. In his book, L'Homme Revolte he describes history as a series of horror and portrays Europe as a world lacking all moral and intellectual significance. Camus was considered a distinguished member in the French Resistance during the German occupation and an active journalist whose writings displayed a revolt against the enemies of democracy, the fascists fellow travelers, the feudal supporters of the industrial , banking and agricultural order. Through these writings he formulated his opinions about history, morality and revolution. He was the first among the French intellectuals who treated the case of Algeria seriously and called for equal treatment for the Arabs and the Europeans alike. In his novel The Outsider, Camus depicts the reality of the French colonialism in Algeria. The novel presents Camus' condemnation of Meursault's indifference to the brutality of the colonial society he belongs to. Meursault kills an Arab and he is judged not for this crime but because he doesn't behave according to the codes of his society during his mother's death. This shows that the Europeans treat the 'others' as 'things' ,and for the European judges, the murder of an Arab is not different from breaking a stone or cutting a tree. Meurault is a stranger in a strange world and the revelation he experiences at the moment of facing this world splits him from the values of his society. He retreats into the world of sensations, he trusts only the things he can see and find meaning in, refusing the abstract values of his society which are devoid of meaning. This substantiates Camus's message of art as a rebellion against the rigid system imposed on man and his attempt to transcend the limits of his society and create his own world of ideas in which he feels free to enjoy what he never experiences before, art as a transformation of human existence and an everlasting struggle for giving it meaning.

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Article
Anne Sexton's Poetry: Reflections on Death
شعر آن سكستـــون: تأمـّـلات عن الموت

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Anne Sexton was encouraged by her therapist Dr. Martin Orne to take up poetry about her experiences in her therapist's treatment of her mental illness as this might help others with similar dif¬ficulties to feel less alone, thus, there must be a focus on these thoughts or what is related to it, ie, death. The events of Sexton's life are revealed in her poems such as her therapy. Yet, the poems are not as autobiographical as they seem, that they are poems, not memoirs, in which there are recurrent symbolic themes and poetic techniques that make Sexton's work impressive. Sexton seems obsessed with the idea of death. She wrote about wanting to die, the nature of suicide, and about her suicide attempts before she carried them out. Death to her is horrifying and unpleasant though she viewed death as a state which exists in life; it is "here", ie, in life and all the time ; so, to her , death and life are inseparable— in her heart lies nothing but damage, annihilation, ie, death. Death offers her a refuge as much as her poetry does.

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Article
The level of the basic needs of Specialist Supervisors and Educators in Baghdad from their point of view
مستوى الحاجات الأساسية للمشرفين الاختصاصيين والتربويين في بغداد من وجهة نظرهم

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Abstract

Research objectives The research aims at : A:- To know the level of the basic needs of the supervisors according to their point of view . B:- Showing the impact of the two variables the gender, experience and the scientific qualification to identify the level of the basic needs of the supervisors . 2- The limits of the research The current research is limited with the supervisors (the specialists and the educationalists ) in Baghdad Governorate for the study year 2012- 2013 . 3- The research society The research society includes (1091) male and female supervisors in Baghdad Governorate. 4- The research sample The test of the research sample is done randomly , this sample consists of (165) supervisors .The percentage is (15%) of the original society . 5- The research tool The researcher used the questionnaire as a tool for his research based on the theoretical literature and the previous studies , it was assured and proved according to the techniques of the known scientific research . 6- The statistics media The researcher used Berson correlation coefficient, equation Alvakronach, T.Test, the weighted average, weight percentile, and he depended on the statistic program me (SPSS) to analyze the data .

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Article
“Delusion of Modern Man” A Study of Grotesque Elements in Poe’s The Fall of the House of Usher
"الفكر الإنساني العصري المظلل" دراسة عناصر اللا مألوف للكاتب بوو في انهيار قصر أشر

Authors: Huda Kadhim Alwan
Pages: 37-52
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The age of Enlightenment and the industrial revolution both affected people to doubt many old beliefs and form a new mentality. Man disregarded the spiritual side, imagination, and fantasy; the dominant concepts in society became logic, fact and science. This led to the death of the spiritual side in people. It turned to be a worrying subject to Intellectuals during the nineteenth century. In The Fall of the House of Usher, Poe attacks modern man’s misconception believing that he can find an explanation to every phenomenon in the universe according to science and logic. He manages, through using grotesque elements, such as mystery, distortion, and the supernatural, to make the protagonist disregard his old belief and realize that cosmic, immeasurable, and, infinite powers do exist. This article aim is to analyse the story showing how the writer invested the elements of grotesque to create a broken fearful world which provokes horror inside the reader; to make him feel the possibility of having a similar experience to the one his protagonist has gone through.

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Article
The Sound System of Baghdadi Arabic in the Light of Distinctive Feature Theory
النظام الصوتي ل(اللهجة البغدادية) في ضوء نظرية الصفات المميزة

Authors: Dr. AbdulRahman Abbood Hassan
Pages: 53-66
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This paper is an attempt to look at the sound system of Baghdadi Arabic in view of the Distinctive Feature Theory, in order to see how far such a theory would be applicable to the language variety being dealt with in this paper. The main purpose ,here, is to see how far is it possible to group the sounds of Baghdadi Arabic into classes according to their phonetic (distinctive) properties. Thus, on one hand, the paper is meant to deal with the sounds of Baghdadi Arabic in terms of Trubetzkoy's distinctive oppositions, using the method of contrasting the classes of sounds according to such oppositions.

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Article
The impact of two methods to reduce the extension workers a sense of cultural alienation Students at the University of Baghdad
أثر اسلوبين ارشاديين لخفض الشعور بالاغتراب الثقافي لدى طلبة جامعة بغداد

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The current study aims at : 1. Finding out the level of university students' cultural estrangement. 2. Constructing two guidance programs to decrease thelevel of Baghdad university students' cultural estrangement in two different styles, namely, the cognitive style, and thinking dismissal. 3. Finding out the effect of the two guidance programsin decreasing the level of Baghdad university students' cultural estrangement. To achieve this aim, The following hypotheses are stated: A-There are no statistical significant differences between the mean score of the ranks of the three involved groups (the two experimental groups and the control group) in the post administration of the cultural estrangement scale. B- There are no statistical significant differences between the mean score of the ranks of the first experimental group and the control group in the post administration of the cultural estrangement scale. C- There are no statistical significant differences between the mean score of the ranks of the second experimental group and the control group in the post administration of the cultural estrangement scale. D- There are no statistical significant differences between the mean score of the ranks of the first experimental group and the second experimental group in the post administration of the cultural estrangement scale. Two programs are constructed in two different guidance styles. The scale of ( Salah, 2008 ) for cultural estrangement is adopted. The psychometric features of the scale are checked by the researchers. The final version of the scale consists of 40 items. It is administered on a sample of 300 male and female students. Forty five students who achieved 86+ scores are selected and distributed into three equal groups to be involved in the experimental groups. The experiment starts on 12/4/2014. Each program involves 15 sessions, two sessions per week for the two experimental groups. The experiment ends on 2/3/2014. It reveals that both cognitive style, and thinking dismissal style have a clear effect in reducing the level of cultural estrangement feeling. Based on the results, a set of recommendations and suggestion are put forward by the researchers.

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Article
Effective ways for the Classroom Management
طرق فعالة لإدارة الفصول الدراسية

Authors: Mohammed Mizel Tahir
Pages: 67-84
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This study was conducted in order to determine the effective techniques of classroom management that can be used to minimize classroom misbehavior and maximize effective learning. Classroom management is probably the most difficult part of teaching .High school teachers in Iraq, like in all countries, face instances of misbehavior in the form of off-task behavior or more serious disruptions. When a teacher is forced to deal with constant disruptions or a teacher cannot control his or her classroom then learning is not taking place. Thus, the objective of this study is to determine what methods of classroom management are available for teachers. This study used different methods to gather information on the best ways of classroom management. There have been many studies that serve to support universal classroom methods of classroom management techniques. Throughout my humble experience as teacher in college of police I found many Iraqi universities professors and high school teachers are still sticking with traditional (outdated) ways and techniques of teaching English regardless of their learner's needs and motivations. Thus the teachers have to think with the central question being “what do these students need and how can I meet those needs.” The significance of this study is that Iraqi and Arab teachers (who use English language as a second language as a means of communication) who are having problems coping with misbehavior in their classroom can use the techniques recommended by this study in order to improve their classroom management. This study found that there are varieties of techniques taken from the classroom management theories that aid in improving classroom management.

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Article
El Teatro absurdo es un espejo de la realidad

Authors: Lika mohamed Bashir
Pages: 85-104
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The Theatre of the Absurd is a trend in which many were written plays of certain US and European playwrights during the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, in general, which arose from the work of those. It is characterized by frames that seem meaningless, repetitive dialogue and lack of dramatic sequence that often create a dreamlike atmosphere. The theater of the absurd has strong existentialist traits and questions the society and the man. Through humor and mythologizing hiding a fussy attitude toward his art. The inconsistency and illogical nonsense are also very representative features of these works.

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Article
The Effect Of Using Understanding Strategy In A Achievement Of Material Of Philosophy At The Fifth Grade Literary And Cognitive Preference
أثر استراتيجية الفهم في تحصيل مادة الفلسفة لدى طالبات الصف الخامس الأدبيّ وتفضيلهن المعرفيّ

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The Research Aims To Identify The Impact Of The effect of using understanding strategy in a achievement of material of philosophy at the fifth grade literary and And cognitive preference. Researcher Used The Experimental Design A Disciple Of Post-test, Chose Researcher Division (A ) To Represent The Experimental Group That Studied According To The understanding strategy, And Represented Division (B) Of The Control Group , Which Is Studying The Traditional with Method. The Number Of Students ( 66 Students) By (33 ) Students In Each Division . Equivalent The Two Groups In Variables : Age Of The Students , Intelligence , The previous achievement. The Researcher Prepared The Achievement Test And Test The cognitive preference Test, Were The Validity And Psychometric Characteristics And Constancy, The Results Showed The Superiority Of The Experimental Group That Studied According To The understanding strategy In Educational And cognitive preference. Researcher Recommended Using The understanding strategy In Teaching.

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Article
Exploring The Phonetic And Phonological Nature of Neutralisation
استكشاف طبيعة المحايدة في علمي تمثيل الاصوات و الاصوات الكلامية

Authors: Dr. Arwa Abdulrasoul Salman
Pages: 105-116
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Neutralisation is a phonological term referring to the conditioned limitation on the distribution of a system's contrastive values. It involves the dynamic reduction and / or the static limitation of contrastive values within lexical form. The notion of neutralisation is important . It's importance concerns the status of the phonemic principle . And once we established the status of phonemic principle, then we have to confront the fact that two (or more) sounds are in parallel distribution and of different phonemes .

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Article
Investigating Self-Assessment of Teaching Profession of Iraqi EFL Teachers
التحقيق SA من مهنة التدريس لمدرسي اللغة الإنجليزية كلغة أجنبية العراقي

Authors: Dhea Mizhir Krebt. Ph.D.
Pages: 117-128
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Self-assessment is a process of formative assessment during which teachers reflect on and evaluate the quality of their work, decide the degree to which they reflect explicitly stated goals or criteria, identify strengths and weaknesses in their work, and revise accordingly. The present study is an attempt to find out the SA of Iraqi English language teachers. The sample consists of 100 teachers in Baghdad. An inventory of many domains distributed to the teachers, they are, routines, expectations, language, time, opportunities, physical environment, and interactions. The results show that the EFL teachers practice four domains of SA they are: routines, physical environment, time, and language.

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Article
Life satisfaction and hope his relationship with the university students
الرضا عن الحياة وعلاقته بالأمل لدى طلبة الجامعة

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Targeted current research to know the degree of satisfaction with life, and hope among the students of the Faculty of Arts, University of Qadisiyah, and the relationship between life satisfaction and hope, and to achieve the objectives of the research the researchers to adopt a measure (ElDesoki 0.1998) for the satisfaction of life, while the researchers built a measure of hope depending on theory (Seligman, 1991), may provide a standard search psychometric properties of validity and reliability and the ability to distinguish, where the two instruments were applied on a sample of 200 students for the academic year 2013-2014, were chosen random-style class with equal distribution. After the use of appropriate statistical methods showed the following results: 1. That students enjoy a high degree of satisfaction with life. 2. That students enjoy a high degree of hope. 3. There is a positive correlation between life satisfaction and hope. In light of these results the researchers gave some recommendations also suggested a number of future studies.

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Article
The Ultimate Fox in Lillian Hellman’s The Little Foxes
الثعلب المطلق في مسرحية "الثعالب الصغار" للكاتبة ليليان هيلمان

Authors: Marwa Ghazi Mohammed
Pages: 129-142
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Lillian Hellman was an American playwright whose name was associated with the moral values of the early twentieth century. Her plays were remarkable for the moral themes that dealt with the evil. They were distinguished, as well, for the depiction of characters who are still alive in the American drama for their vivid personalities, effective roles and realistic portrayal. This paper studies Lillian Hellman’s The Little Foxes as a criticism of the American society in the early twentieth-century. Though America was a country built on hopes and dreams of freedom and happiness. During the Great Depression, happiness was certainly not present in many people's lives. The presence of alternate political ideas, decay of love and values increased life's problems, and considered a stress inducing factor were popular themes to be explored during the Great Depression. America, the land of promises, became an empty world revolving around money and material well-being and which turned the people bereft of love, and human values. Hellman’s play presents the real fox, represented by the political and material world, as the one responsible for the raise of new kind of people, the little foxes, and the decline of human value.

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Article
Search for Identity and Self-Realization in Toni Morrison'sBeloved.
البحث عن الهوية وتحقيق الذات في رواية الحبيبة لتوني موريستون

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Abstract: This paper aims at exploring the search for identity and the ways in which Toni Morrison has systematically recast the image and reconstructed the identity of African American women in her novel Beloved. She employs different means such as pure black writing, love and myth by which she re-opens new doors for the African American women to achieve and reconstruct their identities in the community of slavery. Drawing upon womanist and postmodern theories of identity construction, and incommensurability, this paper argues that African American femininity is relationally constructed. In essence, black women's relationships with their children (especially their daughters), their men, and the White community of brutal slavery define who they are, determine how they perceive themselves, and, largely, dictate their capacity for success and survival.Though many scholars contend that Morrison's Beloved situates individual and collective memory as the vehicle by which such self-identification is achieved. It maintains that it is not until African American women and African American men are able to put their stories together and to identify new ways of seeing and relating to the other can they create any real sense of self-worth. Many scholars support this assessment as Morrison offers it through a reconstruction of personal and community histories and ancestral reclamation whereby the entire characters move on a continuum from a repressive slave perspective to an open, accepting, free perspective of self and environment. Therefore, (re)memory alone is not sufficient. There must be collaboration to weave the pieces, the fragments of the past into a tapestry that might provide warmth and security for the future.

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Article
ИНОЯЗЫЧНЫЕ ЭЛЕМЕНТЫ В ТЕКСТАХ СОВРЕМЕННОЙ ЖУРНАЛЬНОЙ РЕКЛАМЫ
Vocabulary of foreign media discourse in the contemporary

Authors: dr. Methaq Mohammed Ismail
Pages: 153-160
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Аннотация ꞉ Как известно, любой язык представляет собой общественное явление и чутко реагирует на любые изменения, которые происходят в обществе. Общепризнанным также является утверждение о том, что развитие языка определяют факторы как внешнего, так и внутреннего порядка. Фердинанд де Соссюр писал, что « язык никогда не существует вне общества, ибо язык - это семиологическое явление. Его социальная природа - одно из его внутренних свойств» [Фердинанд де Соссюр. Курс общей лингвистики, с.59]. Речевые тексты разных уровней, такие как тексты СМИ, тексты рекламного и политического дискурсов, а ряде случаев и разговорная речь, отражают изменения в языке, вызванные факторами социального и политического характера.

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Article
Reasons of middle school students’ violence from the point of view of teachers – A field study at some schools in M’sila
أسباب العنف لدى تلاميذ المرحلة المتوسطة حسب أراء المدرّسين دراسة ميدانية ببعض متوسطات ولاية مسيلة

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This study aimed at identifying the factors affecting the phenomenon of school violence in some schools of M’sila departement .to achieve the aim of this study, a 36 items questionnaire covering four : enviroment family ;mass media ;the peer group and scholastic environment factors. The sample of the study consisted 50 teachers (n=50) during the academic year 2009/2010 and chosen by random method. The following are the most prominent results of this study The study has made several solutions propositions. The most important ones include : - The preventive treatment of the students who suffer from hard family conditions. - The importance of activating the role of the educational guide. - Emphasizing the follow-up practices on the part of the parents. Key words: school violence –teachers.

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Article
L’œuvre de Marguerite Duras vue en Irak
تلقي الأعمال الأدبية لمارغريت دوراس في العراق

Authors: Dr. Sidad Anwar Mohammed
Pages: 161-190
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L'écrivaine française Marguerite Duras, née en Indochine en 1914, est considérée comme l'un des écrivains dont les œuvres se distinguent par la nouveauté. Cela lui accorde une grande renommée depuis le début de ses écrits. Il est vrai que Duras n’était pas une théoricienne, mais certains l'a mise avec les romanciers du Nouveau Roman comme Alain Robbe-Grillet, Nathalie Sarraute et Michel Butor. D’autres critiques l’étudient en fonction de la modernité qui caractérise ses œuvres littéraires. Cette recherche étudie la réception des œuvres littéraires de Marguerite Duras en Irak. L'étude comprend une introduction au roman en Irak : ses ressources, son développement, et l'effet du roman étranger sur lui ainsi que le rôle de la traduction dans ce domaine. En effet, le roman est un genre littéraire récent en Irak et dans le monde arabe, par rapport à la poésie, le modèle connu par les arabes depuis longtemps. L'essence de cette étude est d’aborder la réception des œuvres de Marguerite Duras en Irak notamment la majorité de ses romans ont été traduits en arabe. Cela mérite des recherches surtout qu’elle est l'écrivaine le plus réceptif parmi ses contemporains. L'étude explore non seulement ce qui a été écrit à propos de cette écrivaine, mais aussi aborde les facteurs d'attraction dans les œuvres de Duras pour le lecteur arabe. En outre, la recherche porte sur la critique des œuvres de Duras. L'étude montre que l'ensemble de ce qui a été écrit sur Duras dans la langue arabe consiste à montrer les principaux traits de ses écrits et de sa popularité ainsi que son rôle dans le développement du roman moderne. De même, le lecteur arabe capture la modernité introduite par Duras sur l’écriture du roman du XXe siècle, en particulier dans ses œuvres postérieures ainsi que son style d’écriture appuyé sur des effets non verbaux tels que la musique, le cri et le silence. Cependant, les avis sont variés concernant la nature des œuvres de Duras. Les études ont porté sur les sujets qu'elle a traités dans ses écrits comme l'amour, la liberté et la justice. Elle a fait usage de son autobiographie à être une matière de ses écrits. L'autre aspect qui distingue les œuvres de Duras est le style et le langage de son écriture : les critiques étaient d’accord que la simplicité de ses écrits n’était qu’apparente, produite par la brièveté de l’œuvre.

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Article
Scientific Thinking relationship and Phisychal Memory to of the University Students
التفكير العلميّ وعلاقته بالذاكرة الفيزيائية لدى طلبة الجامعة

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in the light of the identified research objectives as follows : 1 –The level of scientific thinking of university students 2- The difference in the middle degrees of scientific thinking according to the variables (Gender , specialization , class). 3- The level of physical memory of university students . 4- The difference in the middle degrees of physical memory according to the variables ( Gender , specialization , class). 5- The relationship between the scientific thinking and physical memory of university students . and on the search results have been indicated to the following : 1-The sign of the difference in the answers to students on scale at the level of scientific thinking (0.05) for the sample average 2-The sign of the difference in the degrees of scientific thinking to the variable of sex differences that are statistically significant at the level of (0.05) the sign of difference refer to proposition average . 3-The sign of the difference on scale physical memory at the level of (0.05) for the sample average . 4- The sign of the difference in the degrees of physical to the variable of sex differences that are statistically significant at the level of (0.05) the sign of difference refer to proposition average . Recommendations : 1- Enrich the curriculum of scientific thinking at the college study One of the main proposals: 1- Doing a survy aims at discovering the other changeable that are not dealt with in present study(the salutation problems--) to the university students .

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Article
Violence in Peter Weiss's Play Marat /Sade
العنف في مسرحية بيتر فايس (مارات ساد)

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Peter Weiss was born in Germany. When Hitler came to power, his family emigrated to Sweden in 1939. Weiss hated war which deprived him of his country, friends and relatives. As a committed writer, he discussed social and political situations. He wrote Marat/ Sade in 1964. The play takes place in a lunatic asylum in 1808. In the play Marquis de Sade hates the corrupt bourgeois society he belongs to. He detects the violence hidden under the slogans of the French Revolution. It is a revolution that is responsible for irrational and sadistic aspects of life. Weiss was frustrated by that kind of cruelty. According to him violence prevailed when art retreated. He believed that the artist must have the freedom of thought to change and improve his society.

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Analyzing Conversation in Children’s Short Stories
تحليل المحادثة في قصص الاطفال القصيرة

Authors: Instructor Nagham Ali Hassan
Pages: 197-220
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Abstract

Conversation analysis has long been the concern of many linguists who work in the field of discourse analysis. In spite of the fact that there are many researches have been done in the field of short stories but up to the researcher knowledge the investigation of the selected short stories has not been studied yet. Hence, this paper aims at answering the following questions: what are the features of children’s short stories language and the differences between short stories of four years old and those of six years old. Hence, the devices used by the story tellers in reciting the short stories should be observed. Thus, the researcher has consulted the models presented by Johnson and Fillmore (2010) to show tenses and sentence structure, and Smith (2008) for conversation analysis. In the light of the analysis according to Johnson and Fillmore (2010), the researcher has reached to the following results: It is clear that simple sentences and past simple tense are used more than the other devises due to the fact that it is the main features of children’s short stories language. The conversation of children’s short stories has also showed that the language of four years old is somehow similar to those of six years old. According to Smith (2008), it is clear that the language of children is similar to those of short stories then it is similar to those of real life conversation.

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Article
Learning styles and their relationship to the need for Cognition among middle school students
أساليب التعلم وعلاقتها بالحاجة الى المعرفة لدى طلبة المرحلة الاعدادية

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Abstract

The research aim to identify the learning styles and also to identify the level of need to know and what is their relationship with the students, middle school, and for the purpose of verifying that the use of learning methods, prepared by Richard Veldr scale (Richard Felder) and Barbara Solomon (Barbara Solomon) (2000) Based in light Veldr model and Silverman translation (Sinawi 2013) and gauge the need for prepared knowledge by Caziobo and Betty and Kao (1984) Cacioppo, Petty & Kao as the number of vertebrae learning methods measure amounted to (44) paragraph and scale need to know (18) paragraph has been make sure Alsekoumtria characteristics of the two measures were then applied tools to the research sample, which amounted to 300 students from the students middle school were selected random stratified way, and the results showed that the sample members do not have a specific style of learning and they need to be defined as the average grades higher from the middle premise as well, and there is a positive correlation between the need for knowledge and learning styles, and the reason is that students who have a need to have a high knowledge using the methods of learning knowledge and many uses of each learner all the methods at different times, but does not have to all be in the level and use of the same as stated in the which adopted theory.

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Article
RC6 CIPHERING
التشفير باستعمال خوارزمية: (RC6)

Authors: Mohammud A.AL-Jabbar A.AL-Wahab
Pages: 221-228
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Abstract

The focus of this research concentrated on the issue of encryption using clever methods to increase the proportion of the complexity of the algorithm. This is done by achieving more than the implementation phase and more than one key so as to make the issue of breach the code is very difficult to know the content of the letter of information, and there are three main factors that control in this topic a number of encryption sessions, the key length, the length of the encrypted word, it was synthesized according to the algorithm .

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Article
Environment Concepts for Students of College of Education . Ibn Al-Haitham for Pure Sciences/ University of Baghdad
المفاهيم البيئية لدى طلبة كلية التربية ابن الهيثم للعلوم الصرفة/جامعة بغداد

Authors: م.د. ضمياء سالم داود
Pages: 237-262
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Abstract

The scientific concepts consider as the most important outcomes of science, they are elements directed to be as known opinions and scientific knowledge, and learners acquire of these concepts became a prime target for education process , the most important concepts that have attracted the attention of the world the concepts of environmental education.This present study aims to how to gain the students Education Ibn al-Haytham Faculty of environmental concepts, as specified research community for all students Department of Chemistry and biology in the fourth stage in the study morning (2011-2012) and totaling 330 students, selected a random sample of (135)students who formed (5%) of the total community.The researcher has prepared research tools to select concepts of environmental education component of 40 items has been conducted to test all Sekoumtria properties of validity, reliability of the difficult elements, force excellence and ideal alternatives, after correct conclusions, data were processing statistically by using the Statistical bag of Social Sciences SPSS and the results showed: 1- The percentage of acquiring of environment concepts for students of College of Education . Ibn Al-Haitham for pure science above average 2-there is no effect in department in acquiring environmental concepts of Education Ibn al-Haytham Pure Sciences. In light of the results researcher submit a number of recommendations and proposals.

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Article
The Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategy on the Achievement of Grammar for the student of the Department of Kurdish
أثر استراتيجية التعلم التعاونيّ في تحصيل مادة القواعد لدى طلبة قسم اللغة الكردية

Authors: م.د. صباح جليل خليل
Pages: 263-288
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Abstract

This research aims at identifying the effect of cooperative learning Strategy in the achievement of Kurdish language grammar of students at Kurdish Dept. To achieve the research aim , the researcher chose intentionally the fourth - year students in the Dept. of Kurdish College of Education, lbn –Rushed For Human Sciences, University of Baghdad to be the sample of his study, The sample consists of (62) male and female students distributing on two sections .The first section represents the experimental group, while the other one represents the control group. The experimental group includes (31) male and female students who pare taught according to cooperative learning strategy. The control group includes (31) male and female students who are taught according to the traditional way. The researcher has done the equalization in the following variables: the academic level of achievement of the students fathers and mothers and their scores in the Intelligence Test and the final mark in grammar for third stage. The experiment lasted for nine weeks. An achievement test is designed by the researcher and it is composed of (20) item which represents a multiple choice test, The validity and reliability of the test has been ascertained by using (Kuder –Richardson-20 ) Formal and it is (0,76). The results of the research have been treated statistically by using( T-Test) Formulae for two independent variables. lt has been shown that there is a statistically significant difference in favors to the experimental group which is taught according to cooperative learning strategies . In the light of the results achieved the researcher has come up with the following conclusions: 1-The cooperative learning strategy have proved their effectiveness in increasing the achievement of the four - Year in Kurdish Grammar language . 2- Using the cooperative learning strategies gives opportunity for students to discuss argue and express opinions.

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Article
Parental Abuse and Its relationships with Health Psychology of Female Students of Kirkuk Institute for preparatory Female Teachers
عقوق الوالدين وعلاقته بالصحة النفسية لدى طالبات معهد إعداد المعلمات

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Abstract

This study was conducted to solve many substantial problems among female students of kirkuk institute using a reliable scale used evaluate psychological health problems by the publisher in previous studies showed high accuracy and stability .the main purpose of this study can be summarized as follows:-females students of the institute should be supervised by the governmental institutes that took care of teenagers and expecting mothers ,These girls will be of course mothers of great deal of students of kirkuk society and responsible for leading families -the variants discussed in this study will have direct effects on social ,psychological and behavior of girls - this study showed that many family problems could be solved by considering the findings of this study as basic threshold to handle these social problems between parent and daughters by understanding these needs and there submissions for the future relying on family values -this study dealt with two concepts. the parental abuse and psychological health of the girls The Objectives of Study this study concerned with the followed 1-parental abuse by female students of the institute 2-Plot a relationships between parental abuse and psychological health detected among female students of the institute Note: female students of Kirkuk institute for the year 2011-2012 were involved only in this study. Study Sample The randomizing method was employed to select the students included in this study(130) female students. With percentage of (20%)from the original society Study Scale The publisher used a scale (namr 2009)was used by the publisher to find a relationships between parental abuse and and psychological health of the female students The results showed that the application of psychological health scale was significantly worked accurately and the females psychological heath were medium and not high enough and they can not deal with difficult situation under all circumstances and they fee l not always happy and lacl of seriousness in success in life . On the other hand the scale showed parents abuse up to the significant standards under level of significance (0.05). the study showed many recommendations for parent to l look after there daughters during their study in the institute and also daughters should obey their parents by employing family valuable values and stay away the social bad behaviors particularly those that regulate the relation with males in such conservative societ.

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Article
Difficulties in the use of electronic libraries from the perspective of post graduate students in colleges of education: Baghdad University
صعوبات استعمال المكتبات الالكترونية من وجهة نظر طلبة الدراسات العليا في كليات التربية/ جامعة بغداد

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The research aims to identify the difficulties and obstacles faced by graduate students in the use of electronic libraries were selected sample of the research of graduate students in the Colleges of Education / University of Baghdad (College of Education, Ibn Rushed, College of Education, Ibn al-Haytham, Girls College of Education, College of Education Riyadh_ Jadiriya, Faculty of Physical Education for Banat_ Waziriya), descriptive approach adopted was taking a sample of the study population and employed a number of statistical methods to analyze data, including Pearson correlation coefficient, percentage, center-weighted, Centennial weight. The most prominent difficulties faced by graduate students twice the physical capabilities to finance the electronic library projects and the weakness of the communications infrastructure and the difficulty of mastering the use of modern techniques in dealing with electronic libraries of researchers and practitioners. He recommended Find the need to adopt the Ministry of Higher Education programs and action plans towards the development of the capabilities and potential of graduate students in the use of modern information and communication and the creation of special supplies so techniques across urged university libraries and libraries of colleges for the computerization of procedures and services provided to beneficiaries in proportion to the developments rapidly globally and regionally in this area.

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Article
Levels of geometric thinking with the students of the Department of Mathematics in the College of Education/ Ibn AL Haitham by the University of Baghdad
مستويات التفكير الهندسي لدى طلبة قسم الرياضيات في كلية التربية/ابن الهيثم - جامعة بغداد

Authors: م. د حيدر شمسي حسن
Pages: 341-368
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Abstract

The study aimed to identify the levels of geometric thinking among the students of the Department of Mathematics in the College of Education-Ibn AL Haitham at the University of Baghdad , and to achieve the aims of the study was the adoption of a measure of Alharby (2003) prepared the Saudi environment and consists of) 25 (items distributed on five levels (level Visualization , Analysis , Informal Deduction, formal Deduction, Rigor Deduction ) and reached the study sample ( 206 ) male and female students from the Department of Mathematics in the College of Education–Ibn AL Haitham at Baghdad University, was selected in the manner stratified random , was to verified the veracity of the tool by honesty virtual submitting it to the experts and certified construction and stability in a way Alpha Cronbach , and use the researcher to analyze the results of a number of statistical means of which , the test samples t for two independent samples , Pearson correlation coefficient , the study found the results of the most important : Override students sample the first level (Visualization ) by(% 84.5 ) did not exceed the students' levels of the other four , and there are no differences statistically significant levels of geometric thinking attributed to sex , there are no statistically significant differences in the levels of geometric thinking among students and students of the first phase the fourth phase, the study has come out with a number of recommendations and suggestions .

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Article
The Effect of Using Learning Centers to Development of Creative Thinking Among Fifth Grade
أثر بيئة الأركان التعليمية في تنمية التفكير الإبداعيّ لدى تلاميذ الصف الخامس الابتدائيّ

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Abstract

The Research Aims To Identify The effect of using learning centers to development of creative thinking among fifth graders. Researcher Used The Experimental Design A Disciple of Post-test, Chose Researcher Division (A) To Represent The Experimental Group That Studied According To The learning centers, And Represented Division (B) The Control Group, Which Is Studying the Traditional class. The Number of Students (60 Students) By (30) Students In Each Division. Equivalent the Two Groups In Variables: Age, Intelligence, The previous achievement and creative thinking test. The Researcher adopted Torrence creative thinking test as a tool for consideration, and verify the validity and the stability of the tool, used t-test for two independent samples for data processing, the results showed the superiority of the experimental group in the creative thinking test and sub-skills, the researcher recommended using learning centers in different grades. Key words: learning centers, creative thinking.

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Article
The impact of the Employment of all of Brainstorming and Strategies Constructivist learning in Inferential Thinking and Cognitive Motivation for the Students of the Second grade Average Strategies
أثر توظيف كلٍّ من استراتيجيتي (العصف الذهنيّ والتعلم البنائيّ) في التفكير الاستدلاليّ والدافع المعرفيّ لطلاب الصف الثاني المتوسط

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The research aims to identify the impact of the use of each of the constructivist learning strategy and brainstorming in the teaching of mathematics in the development of deductive thinking and motivation cognitive development among third-graders average. Find community consists of all second grade average students for the academic year (2013 - 2014) of medium-Nasser Boys / Karkh third totaling 188 students. Distributors and random manner (five people), he chose them randomly Hall (c) to represent the first experimental group, which is considering using (constructivist learning strategy) and Hall (b) The second experimental group taught using (brainstorming strategy). The sample of the study amounted to 76 students divided into two divisions, the number of the first experimental group students (38) and experimental group II (38) students. Although the researcher following the random selection method in the two sets of search was careful before you start applying his experience on a parity between them in some of the variables that are believed it may affect the results of the experiment: the chronological age in months. The degree of intelligence. Former achievement in mathematics. Inferential thinking scale. Previous test information. Motivation cognitive scale. The two groups are equivalent in all the variables. The search tools has the researcher built inferential thinking in mathematics scale, commensurate with the content of mathematics for Grade Average semester, the measure of the number of arbitrators with expertise and specialization to express their views on the validity of paragraphs where identified and covered what was prepared for him and the safety of building paragraphs and determine the level determined by the paragraph. Promised paragraph honest if I got the approval of 80% or more of the views of the arbitrators, and therefore the number of paragraphs of the scale (36) paragraph. Total reliability coefficient (0.78) is a good reliability coefficient for the tests is inhalers and at the expense of the difficulty coefficient for each paragraph of the test was found to range between (0.27 - 0.87) and that any clause in the distribution coefficients of difficulty ranging from (0.20 - 0.80) with an average of $ (0.50 ) can be accepted.

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Article
The Effect of Reality therapy Style on Modifying Suggestibility at The institutes Fine –arts
أثر أسلوب العلاج بالواقع في تعديل القابلية للاستهواء لدى طالبات معهد الفنون الجميلة

Authors: م.د. أميرة مزهر حميد
Pages: 427-448
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The current research aims to know the effect of the style Reality therapy in modifying susceptibility to lure the female students in the Fine Arts Institute through the verification of the zero hypothesis, which suggests that there were no statistically significant differences between the Order of the experimental group before and after the program and arranged scores of the control group and the experimental in posttest It was relying on the experimental method to verify the hypotheses zero since formed Eith search of 20 female students from the second row, which have been selected through their access to the highest grades on the susceptibility to lure scale were randomly assigned to the control group and the other pilot has adopted a researcher scale Khazraji for susceptibility to lure the promising 2014 has been introduced scale program to Messrs specialists to make sure the meter expires and the program for the application has confirmed the validity of the measure and the program for the application and resulted in the search results to the presence of statistically significant differences between pretest and posttest for the benefit of post-test experimental group differences between post-test experimental group and the control group and in favor of the group experimental research.

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Article
فاعلية الحاسوب كوسيط تعليميّ في تحصيل طالبات الصف الخامس الأدبيّ في مادة تاريخ أوربا وأمريكا

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The current research aims to find out the effectiveness of the computer as a mediator of education in the collection of students of the fifth grade literary in the material history of Europe and America, modern and contemporary, and to achieve the goal of research researchers chose the experimental method, and the limited research on students fifth grade literary in junior high Oqaila in the city of Baghdad / Rusafa third chose Qsidia two divisions of the people of the fifth grade literary to represent the sample, which is estimated at (72) students spread over two third control and experimental rate (36) student for each of them and studied the experimental group using the computer while I studied the second group in the usual way and the keenness of the researchers on a parity between the variables in the two sets of research and adopted Article scientific assessments during the duration of the experiment and then sketched a behavioral goals, relying on three cognitive levels of classification blames reaching (64) goal was to prepare achievement test consisted of (51) is poor test of multiple choice and continued the experiment for two months and dish achievement test to students groups at one time, and the results were treated statistically. After analyzing the results appeared superiority of the experimental group to control and build on this result recommended researchers beyond the recommendations, including: the need to use a computer as an intermediary instructional assistant in the teaching of history and the establishment of training courses for the teaching of history on the use of computers and the creation of programs required to be shown in schools and discs. As a complement to research the researchers suggested further studies similar to the current study on other materials, seminars and stages and other variables on the non-attainment.

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