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Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences

مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية

ISSN: 20727798 23128186
Publisher: University of Kufa
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Quarterly scientific refereed journal published by Faculty of Agriculture - University of Kufa, date of the first issued was in 2009.

Print ISSN:2072–7798 Online ISSN:2312–8186
DOI Crossref USA: DOI:10.21276/kjas

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agr.journal@uokufa.edu.iq

Table of content: 2014 volume:6 issue:4

Article
Effects of Salicylic acid on Growth of Sour Orange ( Citrus aurantium) Seedling under Saline Water Irrigation
تاثير حامض السالساليك في نمو شتلات النارنج Citrus aurantium L. المروية بمياه مالحة

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Abstract

An experiment was conducted at Hilla Agricultural secondary school in Abo-Gharaq – Babylon Governorate in a woody lath house by using 6 months old of sour orange ( Citrus aurantium L.) seedlings which grown in plastic pots filled with river soil. The aim of this experiment is to study the effects of spraying vegetative canopy with salicylic acid at a concentrations of (0, 100 and 200 mg.L-1 ) for 4 times with month interval using salinity Irrigation water with three different levels of salinity(1, 2 and 4 ds.m-1 ) for four months, to assess the effects of treatments and their interactions on seedlings tolerance to salinity. For this reason plant growth parameters (height of seedling , leaf area , fresh and dry weights of vegetative and roots) were measured .Results showed that increasing the levels of irrigation water salinity to 4 ds.m-1 significantly decreased all vegetative growth characteristics. Meanwhile, spraying with 200 mg.L-1 salicylic acid caused an increase in height of seedling , leaf area , fresh and dry weight of vegetative and roots. From the interaction between the water irrigation salinity and salicylic acid, the results indicated that seedlings spraying with 200 mg.L-1 salicylic acid irrigated with 2 ds.m-1 water salinity significantly increased the height of seedling and vegetative dry weight, while spraying with 200 mg.L-1 salicylic acid irrigated with 1 ds.m-1 water salinity significantly increased leaf area, vegetative fresh and root dry weights seedling compared with seedling spraying with 0 mg.L-1 salicylic acid irrigated with 4 ds.m-1 water salinity.نفذت التجربة في الظلة الخشبية التابعة لإعدادية الحلة المهنية) الزراعية( في محافظة بابل ناحية أبي - غرق واستعملت شتلات نارنج بعمر ستة أشهر مزروعة في أكياس بلاستيكية سعة 5 كغم مملوءة بتربة نهرية ، لدراسة تأثير رش الشتلات بحامض السالسيليك ) تركيز 0 و 000 و 000 ملغم .لتر 0 ( لأربع مرات بين رشة - وأخرى شهر في نمو شتلات النارنج المروية بمياه مالحة بمستويات ملوحة ) 0 و 0 و 4 ديسي سيمنز . م 0( لمدة - اربعة أشهر ومتابعة تحملها للملوحة, اذ درست تأثيرات المعاملات اعلاه وتداخلاتها في صفات النمو الخضري المتمثلة في معدل الزيادة في ارتفاع النبات, المساحة الورقية, الوزن الطري والجاف للمجموعين الخضري والجذري. بينت النتائج إن زيادة مستويات ملوحة مياه الري إلى مستوى 4 ديسيسيمنز م 0 أدت إلى حدوث - انخفاض معنوي في جميع صفات النمو الخضري المدروسة. وان المعاملة بحامض السالسيليك بتركيز 000 ملغم . لتر 0 أدت إلى زيادة قيم صفات النمو الخضري ومنها ارتفاع النبات والمساحة الورقية والوزن الجاف - للمجموع الخضري والجذري بصورة معنوية . وكان للتداخل بين الملوحة وحامض السالسيليك تاثير معنوي بتفوق الشتلات المعاملة بحامض السالسيليك تركيز 000 ملغم .لتر 0 والمروية بمياه 0 ديسيسمنز.م 0 في ارتفاع النبات والوزن الجاف للمجموع - - - الخضري ، في حين اعطت الشتلات المعاملة بحامض السالسيليك تركيز 000 ملغم .لتر 0 والمروية بمياه 0 ديسي سيمنز.م 0 أعلى مساحة ورقية ووزن طري للمجموع الخضري و جاف للمجموع الجذري ، بينما كان - أقل معدل لجميع الصفات في الشتلات المروية بمياه معاملة الري بمياه 4 ديسي سيمنز.م 0 والمعاملة بحامض - - السالسيليك 0 ملغم .لتر


Article
Evaluation of Water Quality Index of Tigris River for irrigation purposes in Amara city, Southern Iraq

Authors: Bashar J. J. Al-Sabah
Pages: 16-33
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the suitability of water for irrigation on the basis of the quality indices. The study was performed during the period October to December,2012. The quality of water was assessed by testing parameters such as sodium [Na+], calcium [Ca++], magnesium [Mg++], bicarbonate [HCO3-] and chloride [Cl-]. The quality indices were evaluated and ranged as Electrical Conductivity (EC) [97.0 to 115.0 μS.cm-1], Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) [49.4 to 61.7 mg.l-1], Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) [3.63 to 4.41 meq.l-1], Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) [-6.91 to -8.69 meq.l-1 ], Kelly's Index (KI) [0.78 to 0.96 meq.l-1], Permeability Index (PI) [58.07 to 63.48%] and Magnesium Ratio (MR) [22.39 to 37.44%]. The results were compared to the USEPA standard. All the water quality indices were suitable for irrigation. The calculated indices were well in agreement with USEPA. Waters of Tigris River were found within the permissible limits for irrigation purposes.


Article
Effect of spraying with different concentrations of Gibberellins GA3 and nutrient solution "KomBe" on Some Vedgetative and flowering growth characteristics of mathiolia plants (Mathiolia incana)

Authors: Zainab Hassan thiegl AL-Khuzal
Pages: 18-37
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Abstract

An experiment was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture /University of Kufa in the growing season of 2012/2013 to evaluate the effect of growth regulator GA3 and nutrient solution on some growth and flowering characteristics . Factorial experiment (3x3) was designed with two factors, first three concentrations of Gibberilic acid (0,100,and 200) mg.L-1 second factor included three concentrations of nutrient solution (0,2,and 4) g.L-1 according to Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D). The average of treatments were compared by using least significant difference test on 0.05 probability level. Results showed that spraying with gibbrellic acid and nutrient "KomBe" interaction solution gave significant effect on vegetative, root and flowering and their growth characteristics,. The interaction treatment 200 mg.L-1 of gibberellins and 4 g.L-1 of nutrient solution in creased plant height, number of side branches, number of leaves, dry weight of shoots, leaf content of total chlorophyll, leaf content of the total soluble carbohydrates, length of tallest root, dry weight of root, flower stalk number and flower stalk and carotenoid pigments(32.10 cm, 7.33 branch/plant, 77.87 Leaf/plant, 24.15 mg.100gm Fresh weight, 52.43 mg.gm-1 dry weight, 28.85 gm, 6.41 gm, 17.00 Cluster/plant, 18.90 cm, 3.90 mg) contents compared with control treatment length of key word that gave the lowest values of the same characteristics(19.63 cm, 2.67 branch/plant, 30.23 Leaf/plant, 6.22 gm , 5.50 mg.100gmFresh weight, 25.94 mg.gm dry weight, 8.11 gm, 2.28 gm, 5.33Cluster/plant, 5.47 cm, 1.76 mg).


Article
Study the effect of organic fertilizers, magnetic filed and biological control agent to control wilt disease on tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum and f. sp. Lycopersici

Authors: Shorooq Ali Mohammad --- Sabah Latif Alwan
Pages: 39-58
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Abstract

The study showed that the use of the magnetic field has positive effects on seed germination and plant growth of tomato , it has been shown that the best ratio of vitality and germination of seeds appeared when exposing the seeds for 8 minutes to a magnetic field strongly in 1800 chaos where it was tested several periods of exposure 0 , 2, 4 , 8 and 16 minutes reaching 83 , 100, 90 , 93, 100 , 93 and 83% , respectively, compared with the control treatment , which amounted to (80%) study also demonstrated the best combination of organic fertilizer in terms of quantity and quality , which included two types of compost and are remnants of rice and remnants of wheat where outperformed the treatment of manure waste 1:1 on all transactions where the total length and weight Bared 28.The conditions in the plastic house has achieved treatment F.o.l. + Salicylic acid + P. fluorescens for the dry weight of the root system and vegetative 0.16 g and g 0.5 , and the treatment of P.fluorescens amounted to 0.22 g and 0.3 g , respectively, amounted to treatment comparison 0.5 and 0.20 , respectively, as varied all transactions significantly compared to the treatment of F.o.l. ( plants inoculated with pathogen only) where achieved a 0.5 and 0.15 , respectively. The results of laboratory experiments reinforced the results of the experiments the plastic house and confirmed the effectiveness of different treatments , as it showed the treatment of yeast S.cereveciae highly efficient in encouraging recorded for the dry weight of the root system and vegetative 0.35 and 1.5 g have varied significantly for the treatment of ( F.o.l.) plants inoculated with pathogen only ( reaching 0.5 and 0.15 g . has also led transactions factors resistance vital in improving the rates of some indicators of output ( number of inflorescences per plant and the percentage of the contract and fruit weight and the amount of winning ) , as well as some signs of vegetative growth ( dry weight of shoots and roots and the number of forest / plant).


Article
Effectiveness of some isolate of Aspergillus and Trichoderma hamatum that isolated from Compost plant waste in solubilization of phosphate in solid and broth media

Authors: Azher H. Altaie --- Sabah L. Alwan
Pages: 59-81
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The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of six isolates of fungi which isolated from compost plant waste as soilless culture media and from root and Rhizosphere of cucumber plants into solublilization of phosphorus in both solid and broth media as one of mechanisms supposed to improve plant growth. The results showed that fungal isolate of A. niger (A-D-1) shown a clear halo zone around their colony in all solid media PVK , NBRIP and NBRIY, while the fungal isolate A. fumigatus (A-7) shown a clear halo zone around colony only in NBRIP solid media . Also, the results showed that fungal isolates A-D-1 and A-7 reduced acidity (pH) in all broth media PVK , NBRIP and NBRIY in both shaking (120 r / min) and static incubation conditions, where isolate A-D-1 showed decrease in acidity average 3.94 , 2.47 and 2.59 as well as the fungal isolate A-7, 4.23 , 3.37 and 4.32 , compared with the control treatment which has 6.10 , 6.11 and 6.10 during shaking incubation periods 5, 10 and 15 days respectively. In the static incubation condition, the results recorded that fungal isolate A-J - 1 decrease the acidity to 3.77 , 2.39 and 2.25 , as well as the fungal isolate A-7 to 4.08 , 3.83 and 3.52 , compared with the control treatment to 6.10 , 6.11 and 6.10 during static incubation periods 5, 10 and 15 days , respectively, at 28 C .


Article
Control of associated fungi with wheat and rice grain in silo by using Ultraviolet(UV-C) and magnetic field

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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of UV.C irradiation and magnetic field to inhibition and killing fungi associated with grain in calls jasmine rice in silo . The field survey results for grains showed that many fungi associated with grain from farm to the stores ,some of this fungi increased during the different storage periods and the other decreased and this fungi has effect on the germination ratio and grains quality beside of that the effect of mycotoxins on the Healthy of costumer . The study also showed that using UV-C irradiation of 254nm and 99.52 w/m2 , the magnetic field of 8.5mT together has a great effect on the percentage apearing of fungi associated with grains in type Jasmine rice when exposed to periods 2,4 and 6 minutes where the percentage apearing 6.60,6.60,0.00% respectively as compared with 100% control treatment. The study also shows there is a difference in resistance of fungi for the UV-C irradiation and the magnetic field where the fungi Alternaria alternata the most fungus that resistance for the UV-C irradiation . So when reviewing the results of research shows that it possible to use UV-C irradiation and magnetic field in reduction the fungi associated with grain in rice and that means the control of mycotoxins production if used properly on the tanker lines for grain in Silo


Article
Detection of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and its strains on Tomato plants and host rang determine by Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Al- Jubouri A.A. --- Al- Fadhal F. A. --- Samaka H. M.
Pages: 99-117
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This study was conducted to identify , determine the host rang, detection of virus strains and find out the source of initial infection of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) on tomato Solanum lycopersicom L. ,weeds and other economic crops planted closed to tomato fields in the desert region of Najaf province by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Samples of tomato leaves showed curling , rolling, stunting and yellowing symptoms were collected from the hybrids Aula,Aseel ,Shreen and Abu- alkaf . PCR results showed that tomato plants have two strains of TYLCV which were occupied area strain (Palestine ) TYLCV-IS and normal strain TYLCV-mld in Sheen hybrid, by amplifying two DNA bands with sizes of 634bp and 316bp respectively , where the other TYLCV -infected hybrids were given a 634bp DNA band , in addition PCR results showed that the economic plants used in this study Eggplant (Solanum melongen L.) , Melon ( Cucumis melo L.) , Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) , Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and Cowpea (Vigna sinensis L.) and Weeds plants Small flowered mallow (Malva parviflora L.) , Wall goosefoot (Chenopodium murale L.),and Kinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) , gave positive results with TYLCV-IS strain by amplifying a 634bp – DNA band representing the occupied area strain. While Common sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) and Pop saltbush (Atriplex holocarpa F- muell.), gave negative result by PCR test.


Article
Response of 26 – POP line of POP corn ( Zea mays L. everta ) to the depth of planting and gibberellin spraying

Authors: Ahmed Hassan Fadel
Pages: 118-139
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This study was conducted in the spring10/3/2012 and autumn seasons of 15/7/2012 in one of Baghdads private fields to find aut the impact of planting depth and GAᴣ in plant hight , raw number ear , seed no. / raw , seed no. / ear , grain yield g/p , 1000 seed weight , seed growth rate , harvesting index and seed splitting perccntage . of POP- 26 corn using RCBD with three replicates .Ina factorial experiment in RCBD of two factors ; planting depths ( 6 , 12 and 18 cm ) and GAᴣ conc ( 0 , 50 and 150 mg / L) .Results indicated that planting depth ( 6 cm) gave the highest harvesting indux . whereas ( 12 cm) depth of planting resulted in the highest means of no. of raws / ear , seed no/raw , seed no. / ear and grain yield . The depth ( 18 cm) gane higher plants , 1000 seed weight , seed growth rate and splitting percentage . On the other hand ( 150 mg / L) GA3 gave the highest means of the tralts studed .The interaction of the two factors ( 12cm and 150 mg / L ) resulted in higher means of the raw no / ear , no. of seeds / raw , seed no./ear and grain yield . The ( 12 cm x 150 mg / L GAᴣ) interaction resulted in higher harvesting index while ( 6 cm x 150 mg / L GAᴣ) gave the highest harvesting index while ( 18 سي( x 150 ) gave the highest plants and 1000 seed no. and sed growth rate and splitting percentage for both seasons


Article
Physiological study of irrigation with treated magnetic water on some of vegetative characteristics and yield of three wheat cultivars in Najaf

Authors: Fadil K. K. Al-Ebrahemi --- Thamer K. Merza
Pages: 140-169
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An experiment was conducted in a field belonging to the Technical Institute –Kufa/Najaf governorate during the period from 7/12/2012 until 4/20/2013 to determine the effect of irrigation water quality and intensity of magnetically treated water on some of vegetative characteristics and yield of three cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Experiment designed was Randomized Complete Blocks Design (R.C.B.D) arrangement in Split split-plots and three replicates for each treatment. Experiment included three factors : quality of irrigation water (river water and well water)- Main plot second: wheat bread varieties (IPAA–99, Rashid and Tamuze–2)- Sub-plot thrid: magnetic treatment to irrigation water four (0 , 750 , 1500 and 3000) Gauss - Sub-sub-plot. The Revised Least Significant Difference (RLSD) at 0.05 probability was used to compare treatment means, whenever treatments affects were evident. Results showed that plants wheat irrigated with river water superior in all parameters in forms of plant height, leaves number, leaf area, total tillers number, leaves content of total chlorophyll and hectare yield of grains. The majority of vegetative parameters was increased with Rashid plants cultivar compared to the other cultivars. Magnetic treatment to irrigation water by 1500 gauss revealed that noticeable superior in most of plants vegetative, while the yield characteristics had increased with magnetic water treated by 750 gauss. The interaction between irrigation water quality and magnetically treatment gave the higest vegetative growth indicators with plants irrigated with magnetized river water(1500 gauss) while the highest yield with plant irrigated with magnetized river water (750 gauss) . The three ways interaction of experiment factors revealed a significant effect on magnetized river water by 1500 gauss in Rashid and Tamuz-2 plants cultivars giving highest vegetative growth that increased plant yield.


Article
Phonotype and Genotype variation and correlation , Path analysis to yield and yield components to varieties of wheat Triticum aestivum L.

Authors: Helmee Hamed Khuder
Pages: 170-184
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An Experiments was conducted Latifyia station research through 2003 – 2004 . Twelve verity of wheat was uses to study the variation in growth and yield , yield component and percentage of heredity , Relationship between correlation and same characteristic study and path analysis coefficient between yield and components . Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) was used . The data showed the variety of wheat difference significantly to height plan , number of spead / m2 , number of seed in panicle , tall of speake and weight of 1000 seed and yield of grain , percentage of Heridity was ( 198.31 – 78.6 ) % . These is simple correlation between yield and grain yield , harvest index and number of pankle / ml . pathc analysis coefficient use to study effects of correlation . The harvest index it use to indicter to select to improve the wheat varieties


Article
Effect of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.cv. Al-Yasamin)

Authors: Karim M. Bhiah --- Hussain K. Musa
Pages: 185-201
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A field experiment conducted at Al-Ahamer district, Al-Najaf during summer season of 2013on clay loam soil. The aim was to investigate the effect of the addition of suggested organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.),cv.Yasamin. Experiment was done as Completely Randomized Block Design with three replicates. Results showed that the addition of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers (Perl humus +NPK, Open green+ Diammonium phosphate (DAP) +Foliar application, K2SO4), significantly increased plant height (26%), panicle number per square meter (97%), biological yield (44%), grain yield (26%), panicle length (14%), grain number per panicle (06%), 1000 grain weight (52%) and harvest index (55%), in comparison with the Conventional farming using chemical fertilizers (Diammonium phosphate, DAP+ Urea+ nitrogen–phosphorus (NP)).


Article
Extraction, Purification, Characterization and Immobilization of Sheep Pepsin

Authors: Munir A. Jasim --- Zena K. Al -Essa
Pages: 202-223
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The present study aimed to isolate pepsin enzyme Ec : 3.423.1 from sheep stomach and purified it , it's characteristics were studied as free and immobilize under various conditions. The enzyme was extracted from the stomach using five extraction solutions in order to find out the extraction solution , the study revealed that sodium chloride (6%) with Boric acid (2%) solution was the best extraction solution which gave the highest specific activity 14.3 unit / mg .Protein content for the crude enzyme extracts were concentrated using saturated ammonium sulfate in arrange of 30-70%, Dialysis was done using distilled water. Ion exchange chromatography DEAE–Sephadex A-50 was used to complete purification of Sheep pepsin followed by gel filtration using Sephadex G-100, Purification Folds 27.64 time and the yield was 18.4%. Electrophoresis process using poly acrylamide gel in the absence of SDS observe the presence of one protein band which indicates the complete purification of Sheep pepsin. Sheep pepsin molecular weight was 33700 Dalton when it was evaluated using poly acrylamide electrophoresis in the presence of SDS. The sheep pepsin was immobilized with agar in 3% concentration. The remainder enzyme activity for agar Immobilized Sheep pepsin were 25% after 7 times using and the remainder enzyme activity for agar Immobilize Sheep pepsin were 22% which stored for 60 days in 4°C. The optimal pH for proteolytic activity for free and Immobilize Sheep pepsin was 2,On other hand the pH value 5.8 was the highest clotting activity for free and Immobilize Sheep pepsin. The clotting activity decreased with the increase of pH for 5.8-7.The optimal pH for the stability of free and Immobilize Sheep pepsin are 2.The free and Immobilize enzymes lost their activities at alkaline pH values 8 and 9. The optimal temperatures of proteolytic activity for free Sheep pepsin was 35 °C and 45°C for its Immobilized form. The optimal temperature for clotting activity for free and Immobilize Sheep pepsin was 3°C .The optimal temperature for free and Immobilize sheep pepsin stability ranged from 15 to 3°C. Both free and Immobilize Sheep pepsin lost their activities completely at 75°C, 85°C respectively. The activation energy for free and immobilize pure Sheep pepsin was 8.13 kcal. Mol-1 and 10.79 kcal. Mol-1 respectively.

Table of content: volume:6 issue:4