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Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences

مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية

ISSN: 20727798 23128186
Publisher: University of Kufa
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Bi annual scientific refereed journal published by Faculty of Agriculture - University of Kufa, date of the first issued was in 2009.

Print ISSN:2072–7798 Online ISSN:2312–8186
DOI Crossref USA: DOI:10.36077
Arab Citation & Impact Factor (Arcif 0.125)

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agr.journal@uokufa.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:7 issue:2

Article
Effect of water stress and organic fertilizer (Azomin) on some growth parameters of Adhatoda vasica L. (Nees)
تأثير الإجهاد المائي والمخصـب العضـوي Azomin في بعض مؤشرات نمو نبات حلق السـبع الشـجيري Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted in Faculty of Science-Biology Department-University of Al-Qadisiya from the period of 1/4 to 1/8/2013. The goal of the experiment was to study the effects of water stress and organic fertilizer (Azomin) on some growth parameters of Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees. Experiment included twenty four transplants (age of one month and 8 cm height) that were transplanted in plastic pots with 10 kg. soil (one transplant per pot) in 1/4/2013 . Pots were filled with sandy soil and peatmose 2:1 v/v. Plants Irrigated with two levels 50 and 25% of field capacity. Organic fertilizer was also used with irrigation water at three concentrations (0, 4 and 8) ml.L-1 twice on 1/5/2014 and 15/6/2014. The results showed that increasing the level of water stress caused a significant decrease in the rate of dry weights of shoots and roots, leaf area, total chlorophyll and the percentage of nitrogen, while it caused a significant increase in the concentration of proline in leaves from 0.141 to 0.151 mg.gm-1 and the percentage of vitamin C in leaves from 1.536 to 1.827% and in roots from 4.355 to 5.105% , on the other hand increasing the concentration of organic fertilizer caused the opposite effect to the effect of water stress.أجريت التجربة في كلية العلوم - قسم علوم الحياة - جامعة القادسية للمدة من 1/4 إلى 1/8-2013 . الهدف منها هو دراسة تأثير الإجهاد المائي والمخصب العضوي في بعض مؤشرات نمو نبات حلق السبع الشجيري ، تضمنت التجربة زراعة 24 شتلة (بعمر شهر واحد ومعدل ارتفاع 8 سم) في أصص بلاستيكية سعة 10 كغم تربة وبواقع (شتلة واحدة لكل أصيص) بتاريخ 1/4/2013 ، ملئت السنادين بمزيج من التربة الرملية وسماد البتموس 2:1 حجم:حجم ، ثم تم ري النبات بمستويين هما 50% و 25% من السعة الحقلية ، وكذلك تم إضافة المخصب العضوي Azomin مع مياه الري بتراكيز 0 و 4 و 8 مل.لتر-1 مرتين بتاريخ 1/5 و 15/6/2013 . بينت النتائج أن زيادة مستوى الإجهاد المائي سبب انخفاض معنوي بمعدل الوزن الجاف للمجموعين الخضري والجذري ومساحة الورقة والكلوروفيل الكلي والنسبة المئوية للنتروجين ، بينما سبب زيادة معنوية لتركيز البرولين في الأوراق من 0.141 إلى 0.151 ملغم.غم-1 وزن طري للأوراق وللنسبة المئوية لفيتامينC في الأوراق من 1.536 إلى 1.827% وفي الجذر من 4.355 إلى 5.105% ، بينما زيادة تركيز المخصب العضوي سببت تأثير معاكس لتأثير الإجهاد المائي .


Article
Effect of foliar application of two amino acids "arginine and cysteine" and potassium nitrate on the growth and yield of the tomato plants grown in plastic houses

Authors: Awatif N. Jerry --- Talib M. M. AL-Jarah
Pages: 16-35
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Abstract

An experiment was conducted during the winter growing season of 2013/2014 in unheated plastic house conditions belonging to tomato development project in Khor Al- Zubair / Agriculture Directorate of Basrah. The aim was to study the effect of foliar spraying of the aim was to study the effect of foliar spraying of two amino acids (arginine and cysteine) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) on s growth and yield of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivar" Wogdan". The study included fifteen treatments which were the combinations of five treatments [i.e. Amino acids arginine and cysteine at (75 and 150) mg. l-1 of each of them in addition to the control treatment (used water only)] and KNO3, at three concentrations (0 ,1.0 and 1.5) g. l-1 applied by spraying four times at 15-day intervals started three weeks after transplanting. Results showed that spraying with arginine at both concentrations and cysteine at 75 mg. l-1 significantly increased leaf area per plant as compared with control treatment. Spraying with arginine at 150 mg. l-1 gave the highest values for nitrogen, potassium concentrations, whereas spraying with arginine at 75 mg. l-1 gave the highest value for phosphorus concentration in the leaves. Spraying with arginine at both concentrations and cysteine at 75 mg. l-1 significantly increased total soluble carbohydrate in the leaves spraying with arginine and cysteine at 75 mg .l-1 of each of them increased fruit setting percentage as compared with control treatment. Spraying with arginine and cysteine at 75 mg .l-1 of each of them increased early yield per plant as much as 11.12 and 10.31%, and total yield per plant as much as 13.12 and 11.87 % as compared with the control treatment, respectively. Spraying with KNO3 at 1 and 1.5 g. l-1 significantly increased all parameter studies as compared with control. The most effective treatment was 1.5 g. l-1 KNO3.


Article
Effect of Salicylic acid and the filtrates of Trichoderma harzianum and Alternaria solani and aqueous extract of Ginger on early blight in hydroponics

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Abstract

The research was conducted on tomatoes to evaluate the effect of Salicylic acid (SA) , Trichoderma harzianum (T.h.), Alternaria solani (ASF and ASS isolates), filtrate and aqueous extract of Ginger treatment (Gr) on the disease severity of early blight in inoculated tomato plant by ASF and ASS isolates growing in hydroponics agriculture system. The chlorophyll in leaves was determined in inoculated and non-inoculated leaves (SPAD) , It was found that the SA and T.h. treatments increased the chlorophyll content to 44.86 and 43.68 SPAD respectively compared with 34.92 SPAD in ASS filtrate treatment , While the chlorophyll content decreased to 38.08 SPAD in inoculated plant by ASF compared with 43.17 SPAD in non-inoculated . The SA treatment reduced the disease severity to 2.08 , 4.86 and 9.72% after 7,14 and 28 days respectively , followed by T.h. 3.47,6.25 and 11.11% respectively then Gr treatment 12.50% after 28 days . In addition we found from the results that the disease severity was increased significantly in ASF which was 9.37, 13.54 and 34.36% respectively compared with 7.29, 11.46 and 26.04% respectively in ASS treatment.


Article
The Effect of the Aqueous Extracts of the Common Weeds in Iraq on Growth Rhizoctonia solani , Trichoderma harzianum and the seed germination of some important weeds

Authors: Thair J. Baqr Al Shaam --- Majeed M. Dewan
Pages: 51-71
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Abstract

The study aimed to know the effect of shoot and root extracts of the following wild plants: Prickly alhagi (Alhagi maurorum), Palesting (Cuscuta palaestina),Wild oats (Aveno fatua), Cowbane (Chenopodiummurale), Aster (Aster tripolium), Field bind weed (Convolvulus arvensis), Suwad (Schanginina aegypiace), Cactus (Optunia sp.), Alkali weed (Cretica cressa), Prostrate Pigweed (Amaranthus blitoides), Prickly lettuce (Lactuca secriola), Athel pine (Tamarix spp.), and (Conocarpus lancifolius Engl) on the radial growth of the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani and bio control agent Trichoderma harzianum . The study showed that the hot extract of palesting flament (Cuscuta palaestina) and (Conocarpus lancifolius Engl) were more effectiveness to inhibit the growth of R.solani at 5% concentration. The average of fungal growth was 2.88 and 2.70 cm respectively compared with 3.88 cm in control treatment. The hot extract of palesting flowers at 10% concentration inhibited the radial growth of R.solani to 4.48 cm compared with 6.46 cm in the control treatment. In addition the results showed that the hot extract at concentrations 15,30 and 45% reduced the seed germination of the weed Wild radish to 33.3 ,3.3 and 6.6 respectively as compared with 63.3% , and the field bind weed to 10.0 and 3.3% at 30 and 45% concentrations as compared with 33.3% in the control Whereas the seed germination of weed Common sow thistle were 32.1 and 18.3% in the above two concentrations as compared with 84.7% in the control. In this study manual factory portable filtration equipment was made from simple tools with low cost and high efficiency in filtration of the crude extraction. The new equipment helped to accelerate the filtration 38 times compared with the ordinary method.


Article
Evaluation the efficiency of Pseudomonas fluorescens and aqueous extract Cocklebur leaves in the biological Fusarium oxysporum in laboratory

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Abstract

This study was aimed to evaluate the role of the Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aqueous extract of Cocklebur leaves in the control of the laboratory Fusarium oxysporum have been. Two isolates of P.fluorescens were isolated from Root of Cucumber Seedlings. The first one named Pseudomonas fluorescens (SH1) and the second named Pseudomonas fluorescens (SH2). The Results showed that the higher Inhibition among isolates of P. fluorescens for F. oxysporum was (100%) compared with the control treatment (0%). Also the of the experiment showed that the aqueous extract of the Cocklebur leaves has an inhibition effect on the growth of mycelium pathogen F. oxysporum on the PDA media according to the concentrations used, where the percentage of inhibition reached to 56, 66.67, 69.50 and 100%, with the concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40% respectively, compared to the control treatment which has 0% inhibition. In addition results showed that the aqueous extract of the Cocklebur leaves does not have inhibition of on the P.fluorescens (SH1) and P.fluorescens (SH2) by discs method where does not show any inhibition zone around the discs also in tablets soaked in sterile distilled water only.


Article
Evaluating the Efficiency of Some Biological and Physical Factors and the Extract of Aloe vera plant in Resisting Rhizoctonia Solani Fungus in causing rot and damping off of wheat seedling inloamand silty soil

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The study aims to evaluate the effect of some of the factors of the biological and physical control and the extract of Aloe vera plant in controlling Rhizoctonia solani fungus which causes root rot and damping – off seedling in the sedimertary and desert soil. Results clarified that the best treatment in percentage of plantation was the fertilizer with the biological Control Agents, Trichoderma harzianum and Cheatomium elatum where it reached 86.68% in comparison with the control treatment which gave 75.94%. whereas for chlorophyll, the best treatment was fertilizer with the fungicide Rizolex and the biological control agents where it reached to 2.24 mg 100gm-1 in comparison with control treatment and fertilizer treatment with extract of Aloe vera plant and fertilizer treatment only, which reached 1.26, 2.1, 2.11mg 100gm-1 respectively. As for the number of ears, the weight of 100 grains and the weight of the biological product, the fertilizer treatment with the extract and the biological control agents was exceeded and reached 16.71ear/plant, 3.29gm and 13.59gm respectively in compared with control treatment which amounted 5.05ear/plant, 1.33gm, 1.4gm and 6.98gm respectively.


Article
The effect of UV-C on growth of Aspergillus flavus isolated from the Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and the production of Aflatoxins

Authors: Roaa K. Mahmod --- Sabah L. Alwan --- Saidi M. Hilal
Pages: 113-128
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The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency of UV-C on the growth of the fungi Aspergillus flavus which was isolated from different instars of Tribolium castaneum in addition to its effect on the production of aflatoxin by the fungi the results showed the following When A.flavus exposed to different periods (2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 32 min) of times to UV-C 254 nanometer wave length the radial growth of the fungi was reduced significantly as time of exposure was increased from 2 to 32 min being the lowest radial growth of the fungi was 1.12 cm after six day from time of exposure to UVC for 32 min as compared with 8.42 cm in the control one (p>0.05). When HPLC technique used to detect the presence of aflatoxine produced by the fungi it was found that the rate of producing this kind of toxin was reduced significantly when A.flavus exposed to different periods of UV-C the lowest rate was zero (under detection limit) when A.flavus exposed to UV-C for 32 min in comparison to 2.6 ppm in the control one.

Keywords

Aflatoxin --- Aspergillus flavus --- UV-C


Article
Effect of Laser on Some Biological Performance of Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Coleoptera: Silvanidae)

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Abstract

The present study was carried out in the laboratories of the College of Agriculture/University of Kufa, to reveal the efficiency of laser on some biological aspects of saw toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilitis suriuamensis. The results also showed that there was a positive relationship between the increasing exposing period and the percentage of different stages of the insects being .The highest percentage at 40 second exposing period reached 90.00, 71.56, 66.15, 52.78 and 90.00% for egg, second larval instar, fourth larval instar, pupa and adult insect, respectively as compared with 23.85, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 and 0.00% in the control treatments respectively.


Article
Effect of catechins extract of green tea (Camellia sinensis ) in growth of some bacteria and an attempt to useit in meat preservation

Authors: Kithar R. Majeed --- Nareman A . Shnaa
Pages: 145-161
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This study was carried out to detect the effect of aqueous and catechins extract of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in the growth of some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, and attempting to use themin preservative of meat. Results showed high significant differences p<0.05 between aqueous and catechin extract .Catechins effect showed high significant p<0.05 toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa in compare with the aqueous extract. However no significant differences were detected between the extracts towards Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Aqueous and catechins extract were added in concentrations of (100, 300 and 900) ppm to the minced meat and stored at a temperature 4C° for 15 days. Results showed that low increasing in the peroxide value was reported when concentrations of 300 and 900 ppm were used, while a concentration of 100ppm was not enough to reduce the peroxide value. However, control samples showed an increase in the peroxide values with extending the period of storage. When the volatile nitrogen was evaluated, results showed that using a concentration of 900ppm gave the greatest affect, while no significant influence of green tea ( aqueous, catechins ) extracts with a concentration of 100ppm was shown . Total bacterial counts of minced meat was also determined .Results showed that Green tea extracts had the greatest effectiveness in preventing the development and growth of microorganisms when a high concentration of (900ppm)was added. The results also showed that green tea extracts had the highest effectiveness in preventing development of chemicals changing and growth of microorganisms when high concentration (900ppm) was added and less effect at a concentration of (100ppm). It can be concluded that the catechins of green tea could be used in preservation and extending the shelf life of meats.


Article
The Changes of Some Commercial Oils and Fats during Frying of Falafel

Authors: Ali A. Sahi --- Munir A. Jasim --- Hani S. Sdfanna
Pages: 162-177
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Due to the misuse of fats and oils during deep fat frying for preparing many types of food like (Falafel) and its effect on the health and economic aspects and to optimize the use of fats and oils . This work includes the chemical and physical changes of local common oil (Al – Bint) and imported oil and fat (CEZER, Two Golden Spoons) before and during deep frying operating at 5±180°C, it also includes sensory evaluation of Falafel during frying operation. The results of this research were summarized as follows:- 1- Significant decrease of Iodine Number for the three fats with increasing frying times. The decrease was from (138.8, 137.9, 54.5) before process of frying to (131.5, 133.9, 49.2) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint, CEZER oils and Two Golden Spoons fat respectively. Consequently the decrease of Iodine Number were (4.3, 4.0, and 5.3) for the three fats respectively. 2- Significant decrease of Smoke Point for the three fats with increasing number of frying times. The decrease of Smoke Point was from (213°C, 200°C, 214°C) before frying process to (205°C, 190°C, 206°C) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint, CEZER oil and Two Golden Spoons fat respectively. Consequently the resistance to decrease of Smoke Point of Two Golden Spoons fat more than Al – Bint oil then CEZER oil. 3- Significant increase in Refractive Index at (40°C) with increasing number of frying times for the three fats. The increase was from (1.4473, 1.4474, and 1.4470) before frying process to (1.4710, 1.4740, and 1.4640) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint, CEZER oils and Two Golden Spoons fat respectively. Consequently the stability for oxidation for Two Golden Spoons fat more than Al – Bint oil then CEZER oil. 1- Sensory evaluation of Falafel during deep frying for several times appeared that the appearance, texture, color, flavor and overall acceptance were acceptable. Falafel fried in Al – Bint oil was the best, then that with CEZER oil and then with Two Golden Spoons fat. Also there were no significant effect of number of frying times on texture, flavor, color and overall acceptance of Falafel.


Article
The effect of incorporating concentrated rice straw, Ammonia and protein with different tillage Systems on soil properties and crop yield

Authors: Abdel Nasser Ahmed El syied Ali
Pages: 178-201
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This experiment was carried out at Kufa technical institute, Al-Najaf governorate on a clay soil to study the effect of incorporating concentrated rice straw with (Ammonia and Protein) using different tillage systems on seed-bed penetration resistance, straw distribution, seedling rate and crop yield under field conditions. The obtained results indicated that conventional and conservation tillage treatments (Conv. S. + Straw, Cons. S. + Straw) were more effective for incorporating the added rice straw stalks into the tested soil. It was found that 43 % and 35 % of the added rice straw were incorporated at depth of 10 – 20 cm when the conventional and conservation tillage were used respectively whereas the remaining rice straw was incorporated randomly at depth 0 – 10 cm in the both tillage systems. The data is also indicated that the conservation tillage treatment with straw (Cons. S. + Straw) gave lower soil penetration than other treatments and the results was closed to minimum tillage. On the other hand it gave from where germination and seedling emergence index has higher total y i e l d c o m p a r e d w i t h o t h e r t i l l a g e t r e a t m e n t s .


Article
Role of salicylic acid and Sucrose in the elongation vase life of Dianthus caryophyllus L.

Authors: Hyder Erees Abul-Raouf Al-Dulymy
Pages: 202-210
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An experiment was carried out in Horticulture and landscape gardening department in Faculty of Agriculture in Kufa university at season 2014, The flowers were collected at 15th of April 2014 to test the addition of salicylic acid(SA) in different concentrations ( 25,50,100and150 mg.L-1) with sucrose at concentration7% or the using sucrose alone at a concentration of 7% compared with control treatment (distilled water).Results showed that the best treatment using 100mg.L-1of SA with 7% sucrose which gave the highest fresh weight(g) and the highest quantity of absorbed water 26.00 g and 11.79 cm3 respectively, compared with control treatment (distilled water) 22.75 g and 5.53 cm3 respectively ,while the treatment of 150 mg of SA with 7% sucrose gave the highest percent of sugars content 7.97 g in contrast with control treatment(4.72 g).The highest respiration rate 110.50 mg.Co2.kg-1.hr-1 when sucrose solution used alone in comparison with 50.10 mg.Co2.kg-1.hr-1 when 150g of SA and 7% sucrose was used. This treatment increased the vase life of cut flowers to (8.95 days) compared with control (distilled water) (4.00 days)


Article
Response of Carnation Dianthus caryophullus L. to spraying extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca L. and numbers of sprays in some vegetative and flowering growth parameters

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An experiment was conducted at the nursery of Agriculture Faculty/ Kufa University during growing season 2012 – 2013 to study the effect of spraying extract of Schanginia aegyptiaca L. and the numbers of spraying in growth parameters of Carination. Experiment was adopted in Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with three replicates in two factors First three concentration of Schnginia Extract i.e.( 0 , 5% and 10% ) and the second numbers of spraying (one, two and three) and their interaction . Means were compared by using Least Significant Difference Test (L.S.D) at propriety 0.05. Results showed that spraying of Schnginia Extract at concentration of 10% or two sprays increased significantly growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves, shoot dry weight, total content of chlorophyll and soluble carbohydrates, number of flowers and petals, diameter of flower, flower dry weight, vasa life of flower and flowering date compared with plant of control treatment which gave the least vales from the above characteristics. Results revealed that spraying of Schnginia Extract at the concentration of 10% and two spraying increased significantly growth parameters of (plant height, number of leaves, shoot dry weight, total content of chlorophyll and soluble carbohydrates) and flowering parameters (numbers of flowers and petals, diameter of flower, flower dry weight and vasa life of flower) that reached 8.67 flower.Plant-1, 36.33 petals.Flower-1 and 7 days) compared with that plant of control treatment which gave the least values (4 flowers.plant-1 , 21.67 petals. Flower-1 and 4 days), respectively.

Table of content: volume:7 issue:2