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Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences

مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية

ISSN: 20727798 23128186
Publisher: University of Kufa
Faculty: Agriculture
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Quarterly scientific refereed journal published by Faculty of Agriculture - University of Kufa, date of the first issued was in 2009.

Print ISSN:2072–7798 Online ISSN:2312–8186
DOI Crossref USA: DOI:10.21276/kjas

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agr.journal@uokufa.edu.iq

Table of content: 2015 volume:7 issue:3

Article
Effect of Foliar Application of Humus and Boric Acid on Growth and Flowering of Freesia hybrida
تأثير الرش الورقي للـ Humus وحامض البوريك في نمو أزهار الفريزيا hybrida Freesia

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Abstract

An experiment was conducted at the nursery of Faculty Agriculture / Kufa University during growing season 2013-2014 to study the effect of foliar Application of Humus and Boric Acid on Growth and Flowering of Freesia. Experiment was adopted in Randomized Complete Block Design ( R.C.B.D ) with three replicates in two factors First three concentration of Fertilizer Humus (0,1.5 and 3) ml.L-1 Second three concentration of Boric acid (0,10 and 20)mg.L-1 and their interaction between them. The means compared using least significant Difference (L.S.D) at probability level 0.05. The resulted showed that spraying Humus at the concentration 3ml.L-1 or Boric acid at the concentration 20mg.L-1 increased significantly growth parameters ( plant height , number of leaves , shoot dry weight , total content of chlorophyll and soluble carbohydrates ,floral stem length , number of inflorescence , number flower , flower diameter and flower primordia) compared with control treatment which gave the least vales . The resulted also showed that spraying Humus at the concentration 3ml.L-1 and Boric acid at the concentration 20mg.L-1 increased significantly growth and flowering parameters ( plant height , number of leaves , number of inflorescence , number flower ) 49.83 cm ,8.33 leaf.plant-1 6.75 inflorescences. Plant -1, 12.00 flowers.plant -1, 20.33 days compared with control treatment which gave the least vales 33.63 cm, 3.00 leaf.plant-1, 2.05 inflorescences. Plant -1, 6.13 flowers.plant-1, 10.00 days respectively. أجريت تجربة في مشتل كلية الزراعة /جامعة الكوفة خلال الموسم الزراعي 2013- 2014 لدراسة تأثير الرش الورقي لل Humus وحامض البوريك في نمو وأزهار الفريزيا .نفذت التجربة بتصميم القطاعات العشوائية الكاملة (R.C.B.D) بثلاث مكررات بعاملين الاول ثلاثة تراكيز من السماد العضوي Humus هي (0،1.5و3) مل.لتر-1 والثاني ثلاثة تراكيز من حامض البوريك هي (0،10و20) ملغم.لتر-1 والتداخل بينهما قورنت المتوسطات حسب أقل فرق معنوي (L.S.D) وعلى مستوى أحتمال 0.05 أظهرت النتائج ان رش السماد العضوي Humus وبتركيز 3مل.لتر-1 أو حامض البوريك وبتركيز 20 ملغم.لتر-1 زاد معنويا من مؤشرات النمو اذ ازداد (أرتفاع النبات وعدد الاوراق والوزن الجاف للمجموع الخضري ومحتوى الاوراق من الكلوروفيل الكلي والكاربوهدرات الكلية الذائبة وطول الحامل الزهري وعدد النورات الزهرية وعدد الازهار في النوره الزهرية وقطرالزهرة ومدة الازهار ) مقارنة بمعاملة المقارنة والتي أعطت أقل القيم كما أظهرت النتائج أن رش السماد العضوي Humus وبتركيز 3 مل.لتر-1 مع حامض البوريك وبتركيز 20ملغم.لتر-1 زاد من من مؤشرات النمو الخضري والزهري إذ زداد أرتفاع النبات وعدد الاوراق وعدد النورات الزهرية وعدد االزهيرات في النورة اذ بلغ 49.83 سم و8.33 ورقة.نبات-1 و6.75 نورة.نبات -1و12.00زهرة.نبات-1 و20.33يوم مقارنة بمعاملة المقارنة والتي أعطت أقل القيم اذ بلغ 33.63 سم و3.00 ورقة.نبات-1 و2.05 نورة.نبات-1 و6.13 زهرة.نبات-1 و10.00يوم وعلى التوالي .


Article
تأثير المساحة الغذائية والتسميد النتروجيني والرش بالمحفز الحيوي Bio health في المكونات الكيميائية لزيت أوراق المورنجا Moringa oleifera Lam

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Abstract

2112 في /1/ 2112 لغاية 22 /1/ أجريت تجربة عاملية بتصميم القطاعات العشوائية الكامل للفترة من 11 الظلة الخشبية العائدة لقسم البستنة وهندسة الحدائق كلية الزراعة جامعة البصرة لمعرفة تأثير المساحة - - 51 سم ) 1112 م 2( تحوي على 21 كغم من × الغذائية للنبات الواحد، إذ زرعت الشتلات في أصص بإبعاد 51 21 سم ) 1110 م 2 ( تحوي × 2 وبإبعاد 21 : الوسط الزراعي مكون من البتموس والذاري الزراعي بنسبة 1 11 سم ) 1121 م 2( تحوي على 51 كغم من الوسط نفسه والتسميد × على 21 كغم من الوسط نفسه وبإبعاد 11 النتروجيني، إذ سمدت النباتات بسماد اليوريا وبثلاث مستويات هي 1 أو 111 أو 211 كغم. هكتار 1 بدفعتين - بعد 51 و 01 يوماً من زراعة الشتلات في المكان المستديم و الرش بالمحفز الحيوي Bio health الذي هو بتركيز 211 غم . لتر 1 بعد 21 يوماً من زراعة الشتلات في المكان المستديم أو بدون المعاملة به ) الرش بالماء - المقطر( وتداخلاتهم في المكونات الفعالة للزيت الثابت أوراق المورنجا Moringa oleifera Lam. . أظهر تحليل جهاز كروماتوكرافي الغاز المتصل بمطياف الكتلة نوع Shimadzu GC MS –QP2010 Ultra أهم المكونات الكيميائية للزيت هي أحماض دهنية غير مشبعة تراوحت نسبتها بين 21102 % 61.61– التي شملت الحامضين الذهنيين Methyl 12,15-octadecadienoate و 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, Linolenic acid ( Omega 3 ) وأحماض دهنية مشبعة تراوحت نسبتها بين 13151 و 53115 % شملت Palmitic acid و Myristic acid و Stearic acid و Methyl 18-methylnonadecanoate و Methyl 20-methyl-heneicosanoate و Lignoceric acid و Hexatriacontane التي تأثرت نسبها بتأثير المعاملات.


Article
Antimicrobial activities for dried leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. Against same pathogenic bacteria

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Antibacterial activity of the water and alcoholic (Ethanol and Methanol) extract of Moringa oleifera leaves against three strains of bacteria, two gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aerogenosa and gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus were conducted using agar diffusion in method. The methanolic extract of defatted and not defatted dried leaves showed the highest inhibition rate for all studied bacteria. Whereas the aqueous extract of not defatted dried leaves did not inhibit any strain, while the aqueous extract of defatted dried leaves at highest two concentrations had an effect.


Article
Effect plant spacing and liquid humate spray on growth, seed and oil yield of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.)

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The present study was conducted during the growing seasons of 2011/ 2012 in private orchard at Abu Al- Khaseeb district, Basrah to study the effect of sowing, plant spacing and liquid humate on growth, seed and oil yield of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). This experiment included eight factorial treatments, which were the combinations of two plant spacing (20 and 30 cm) and spraying of liquid humate (0 and 50 ml.l.-1) and their interactions. A complete randomized block design in a factorial experiment was used with three replicates. Treatment means were compared according to Least Significant Difference (L.S.D) at 0.05 level. The most important results may be summarized as follows:- Widest Plant spacing (30 cm) gave a significant increase in plant height, branch number.plant-1, leaves number. plant-. dry matter percentage, Capsule number.plant-1, seed number.Capsule-1, weight 1000 seed, seed yield .plant-1 (7.27 g), fixed oil percent (20.48%) and fixed oil yield.plant-1 (1.52 g) and fixed oil yield .ha-1 (72.2 kg), while the narrow space (20 cm) gave a significant increase in seed yield .ha-1 (366.1 kg).Plants sprayed with liquid humate gave a significant increases in branch number.plant-1, leaves number.plant-1, Capsule number.plant-1, seed number .capsule-1, seed yield .plant-1 (7.23g), seed yield .ha-1 (416.8 kg), fixed oil percent(19.77%), fixed oil yield.plant-1 (1.46 g) and fixed oil yield ha-1 (82.0 kg), whereas liquid humate spray have no significant effect onplant height, dry matter percentage and weight of 1000 seeds The interaction between the two factors gave a significant increase in all studied parameters, widest plant spacing (30 cm) which sprayed with liquid humate gave the highest seed yield .plant-1, seed yield .ha-1, fixed oil percent, fixed oil yield.plant-1 and fixed oil yield .ha-1 (8.48 gm, 408.5 kg. ha-1 , 22.10%, 1.80 gm and 90.0 kg. ha-1 respectively ).


Article
Effect of Applying of cucumber residuals enriched with Chaetomium globosum to the soil contaminated with fusarium oxysporium f.sp. lycopercici on fruits setting percentage and productivity of tomato plants

Authors: Majeed Jasim Chiad --- Majeed M. Dewan
Pages: 49-58
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Abstract

The study aimed to prepare organic fertilizer from cucumber residuals enriched with biocontrol fungus chaetomium globosum and study its effect on the induction of resistance against pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersic (F.o.l) which causes the wilting of tomato and growth and productivity of tomato plants in greenhouses. The best fruits setting for the tomato plants were in the two treatments: C.g. + NPK and F.o.l + C.g + NPK with 2 soil +2 cucmber waste fertilizer that reached 93 , 92.6% respectively , while the treatment NPK + C.g + F.o.l give which significant differences in the productivity of each plant which amounted 8435.3 gm/plant compare with F.o.l treatment which give 2666.7 gm/plant.

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Article
Study the combination between the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis in the controlling fungus Fusarium solani that caused root rot of Tomato

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In This study showed that useing biocontrol agents as a combination was more effective in controlling the Fusarium solani and stimulating the growth of tomato plant. Also, the results of antagonistic ability test for Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis as a combination showed that the inhibited the growth of the F.solani on the PDA medium (100%). However, useing B.thuringiensis and B.subtilis inhibited the growth of the F.solani on the PDA culture medium (58.32%, 45.55%) respectively compared with the control (0%) inhibition rate. In addition, results showed that uses of the B.thuringiensis and B.subtilis as a combination by 10ml and 5ml of concentration 5 × 105 ufc .ml-1 and 6.1 × 107 ufc.ml-1 respectively have significant decreased on the infection intensity of F.solani (5.55% and 8.33%) respectively compared with the treatment of fungus pathogen alone (72.22%) Under the conditions of the green house which led to increase all growth criteria of the tomato plant as presents of fresh and dry weight, length of the vegetative, root groups and number of the flowers in Inflorescences compared with the treatment of fungus pathogen alone . We can conclude that uses of combination between synergistic biocontrol agents with each others can be considered important strategic to control of tomato rot root disease which caused by F. solani.


Article
The effect of different types of bait traps diets in population of the Greater wax worm Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) inside honey-bee hives

Authors: Moslem Ashor Abdel Wahed Aletby
Pages: 77-89
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This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of three different of Diets traps bait of namely Trap A: cup water cup + sugar + ½ cup vinegar + banana peels, trap B: a cup of water + ½ cup vinegar +250 gm palm sugar and trap C: cup honey 50% +100 g pollen cattials+250 gm bees wax on the population of the wax worm Galleria mellonella L. The results showed the superiority trap C on other traps in all locations, amounting to enumerate females caught in the site Kabasa great rate of 5.26 female.trap-1 and the least of which was to trap B reaching 2.00 female.trap-1, while the enumerate male caught rate of 5.70 Male.trap-1 and the least of the trap B reaching 1.59 Male.trap-1. In site almakal and Mhajeran amounted to enumerate females caught for trap C rate of 2.81, 3.44 female / trap, respectively, while it was the least of the trap B was 1.63, 1.15 female.trap-1, respectively, while the number of males caught the two sites mentioned above it in the trap C Mean 3.30 and 2.89 Male.trap-1 respectively, and the least of the trap as B averaged 1.15 and 1.22 Male.trap-1 respectively The results also showed that the insect activity stady during the periods, as observed rate of female and male attraction fisheries peaked in the month of November. Seen from the results that the best use is to bait the trap C and the best time to catch them in November.


Article
Effect of two species of Aspergillus in the analysis of some chemical pesticides in soils and various organic fertilizers

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This study aimed to measure the analysis of pesticide residues (RIDOMIL GOLD, Esther ASTER ,(Insecticide) CHEVALIER and Palace PAALAS)Herbicides which are used in the controlling some pests of wheat where it was measured the impact of pesticides on the two media (PDA and PDB) for fungi The results showed that pesticide jungles P effects significantly fungi under study (A.o., A.n.), where the percentage of inhibition (100.00,97.15)%, respectively for the solid media , the percentage of inhition on the growth of dry weight of fungi on liquid medium was 77.77 and 41.66 %, respectively, for the liquid medium (dry weight of fungi)


Article
Effect of the magnetic field interaction with bacteria Pseudomonas flourecens with in Degradation of some pesticides in soils and different organic fertilizers and its reflex o some physical soil properties

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This study conducted to measure pesticide residues as the following RIDOMIL GOLD Fengicides , Esther ASTER Insecticide and two CHEVALIER and Palace PAALAS Herbicides, by exposing to intensive magnetic field at different times 24, 48 , 72 , 144 and 720h. The biological analysis was done by bacteria P.f. which showed that chemical pesticides A and R analyze by magetic field .while Either chemical pesticides (P,C) was not analyzed by magetic field . for the liquid medium the exterminator P did not have any affects on preparation of bacteria P.f pesticide A has an effect on the preparation of P.f . (53.46and 0.58) respectively For the pesticides by bacteria and the magetic field on the liquid media, pesticide A gave the highest decomposition of the pesticide However , Either pesticidec gave the lowest decomposition of the pesticide 74.00 and15.66 respectively.


Article
Effect of extracts and powders of plant parts for ( Melilotus indica) on the lengths and fresh weights of wheat plants in infested with Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn

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The study aimed to investigate the effect of extracts and powders of plant parts for the yellow melilot on lengths and fresh weights of wheat which planted in incoulated soil with Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn (R.s.1and R.s.2), it was found that the shoot extract inhibited their plant height, to 15.5, 18, 15.5 and 11.5 cm in the 10, 20, 40 and 80% concentrations, respectively compared with 30.7 cm in control treatment. The root extracts increased the shoot lengths of the plants at 40% concentration, to 35.5 cm compared with 30.7 cm in control treatment, while it reduced to 23.3 cm compared at 80% concentration. Also the shoot extract yellow melilot decreased the weight of wheat plants to 23.6 mg at 80% concentration compared with 150 mg in control treatment. The study showed that the root extracts of yellow melilot promoted the soft weights of wheat plants to 188.3 and 215.6 mg in 10 and 40% concentration, respectively, compared with 150 mg in control treatment. The inoculated soil with R.s.1 and mixed with seed and shoot of yellow melilot caused inhibition of the growth of wheat plants which was reflected on the lengths and soft weights of wheat plants so the less growth of lengths and weights for wheat plants were in (soil + seed powder + sterilized millet seeds) treatment ( 0.617 cm and 5.00 mg) compared with(10.217cm and 54.33mg) in the soil only treatment respectively, while the inoculated soil R.s.2 and mixed with root powder of yellow melilot increased the wheat growth The highest lengths and soft weights appeared in the (soil + root powder + R.s.2 + sterilized millet seeds) which were (20.25 cm and 267.77 mg) compared with(10.58 cm and 92.83 mg) respectively in the soil only treatment.


Article
Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa L.cv. Al-Yasamin)

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A field experiment carried out at Rice Research Station (RRS), Al-Najaf during summer season of July- November 2013 on clay loam soil. The aim was to identify the effect of the addition of organic and inorganic and mixed fertilizers on the yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa L.), C.V Yasamin. Experiment was done as Completely Randomized Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. There were seven treatments in total, T1 (1/2 recommended fertilizer dose of rice + NPK), T2 (1/2 recommended fertilizer dose of rice + Perl humus), T3 (1/2 recommended fertilizer dose of rice + NPK + Perl humus), T4 (NPK), T5 (Perl humus), T6 (NPK + Perl humus) and T7 (Recommended fertilizer dose of rice). Results showed that the addition of T3 (1/2 recommended fertilizer dose of rice + NPK + Perl humus), significantly increased growth parameters (plant height, tiller number per square meter), grain yield and yield components (panicle length, grain number per panicle, and 1000 grain weight). Also T3 recorded maximum biological yield after T2 treatment.


Article
The role of Betaine and Choline as a substitute for Methionine in diet and its effect in biochemistry of broiler chickens blood

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This study was conducted at the poultry farm, department of Animal Resources, College of Agriculture /University of Al-Qasim Green. The field work of study was performed during the period from 20/2/2014 until 2/4/2014 and then followed by the laboratory work. The project of this study was aimed to identify the effect of utilization of betaine and choline and their synergistic mixture to meet the deficiency of methionine which could happen on the diets effect in biochemistry of broiler chickens blood . Three hundred unsexed broiler chickens strain of the commercial Rose (Rose-308) was used in this experiment. The chicks were reared on a letters floor and treated from the age of one day until 42 days. The chicks were randomly housed into 5 treatments and by 4 replicates per treatment, and each replicate was included 15 chicks , the treatment as the following: 1. (T1): positive control, which contain methionine as recommended by Avigan Company. 2. (T2): negative control, which contain half the requirements of methionine as recommended by Avigan Company. 3. (T3): T2 and betaine (800mg/kg feed). 4. (T4): T2 and choline (800mg/kg feed). 5. (T5): T2, betaine (400mg/kg feed), and choline (400mg/kg feed). The most important results of this study could be summarized by the following: 1. Significant elevation (P< 0.05) in glucose concentration was observed for T2 treatment birds compared with T1 and T3 treatments. Whereas no significant differences were observed among T1, T3, T4, and T5 treatments. 2. Significant reduction in the blood cholesterol concentration for T3 and T4 treatments were observed compared with T2 treatment. Whereas no significant differences were observed among T1, T3, T4, and T5 treatments and among T1, T2, and T5 treatments as well. 3. Significant elevation (P< 0.05) in the total protein concentration and a significant reduction (P< 0.05) in uric acid concentration was taken place in both T1 and T3 treatments birds compared with T2 treatment. Whereas there were no significant differences noticed among T2, T4, and T5 treatments.

Keywords

Betaine --- Choline --- Methionine --- diet --- broiler chickens


Article
Using different levels of dried bakery waste in the fattening rations of Awassi lambs

Authors: Mumtaz M.M.Kasha
Pages: 163-171
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In order to reach the best level of addition of dried bakery waste as an alternative to Barley in feeding of Awassi lambs and their impact on performance and growth of Awassi lambs. This experiment was conducted on 18 Awassi lambs (9 Males and 9 Females) with aged between 6-7 months and at (30.72 ± 0.20 Kg for male and 24.44 ± 0.15 Kg for Female) respectively. The lambs was distributed randomly into three groups (3 lambs male × 3 lambs Female group-1). The lambs groups were feeding 90 days on three diets equal in protein and energy, then the dried bakery waste was used as a source of energy instead of Barley with a percentage of ( 5, 7.5 and 15%) in fattening of Awassi lambs for 90 days. Results showed a noticeable improvement in the daily protein consumption, feed and feed conversion for both sexes, as the proportion of dried bakery waste increased in the fattening rations of Awassi lambs. for the economic feasibility of fattening Awassi lambs, results showed a reduction in the total feed cost for fattening male lambs,as the proportion of dried bakery waste increased in the fattening of Awassi lambs. Also results showed a significant (P≤0.05) differences between the 1st and 2nd treatment as compared to 3rd treatment in the final weight, average of daily and total weight gains in the feeding of ewe lambs. While there were no significant differences among the three treatments in the above mentioned traits in the fattening of male lambs. According to some blood parameters, results showed a significant (P≤0.05) differences in the triglycerides concentration and albumine in the treatment groups as compared to control group. In conclusion, results of the study showed that dried bakery waste could be used as an alternative source instead of grains in feeding male and female of Awassi lams at 15% of the fattening ration without any side effect. In addition results of the experiment showed progressive improved in the lambs performance of the 3rd group (15% dried bakery waste) as compared with the 1st and 2nd treatments 0 and 7.5% of dried bakery waste.


Article
The application level of the Yasemin genotype/ Rice growers to the scientific recommendations in the Al-Qadisyah/ Al-Najaf province

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The objectives of the research were to determine the application level of the practices recommended concurring the rice growers at Al-Qadisyah in Al-Najaf province, and to determined the relationship between the application of these recommendation with some socio-economical factors. The population of the research rice farmers include five cooperation society belong to Al-Qadisyah direction in Al-Najaf province adult numbers (813) farmers . The research was conducted on a sample consisted of (65) growers chosen in stratified proportional random way by percentage (8%). The questionnaires was used as a mean to get the data. The result of the research showed that the application level was medium, it also, showed that there were significant and positive relationship among the application level and the educational level and type of holding at level of (0.01). while the relationship between the application level and age was negative at probability (0.01). accordingly, researchers recommended necessity of giving more attention to improving all practices which application level were low, and benefiting from farmers associated with level of application. In addition, dealing with problem facing farmers especially water drought, marketing, fertilizer, and pesticides.


Article
The impact of different combine harvester regulations during the mechanical harvesting of forat rice variety

Authors: Kamal Muhsin Ali Al-Qazzaz
Pages: 186-204
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The research was conducted at the Mishkhab research station to study the impact of different combine harvester regulations on the rice losses inflected by harvester units and the total losses for the Class Dominater harvester .The forat variety which was verified by the ministry of agriculture was used in this experiment .However , the research consist of three factors with three levels for each factor , these are : combine field speed are 1.7, 2.3 and 3.0 km/hr, threshing cylinder speed are 800,1000and 1200 r.p.m , cylinder concave clearance are 1.25, 1.5 and 2 cm , the research performed as a factorial experiment at the RCBD design with three replications. The forat rice crop variety showed a clear response to change combine harvester regulations. These regulations are combining harvester field speed, threshing cylinder concave clearance which were counted as the three main factors of this research. The results observed showed that the losses of the each combine harvester unit and the total losses were changed significantly as the combine harvester field speed changed. The highest total losses ratio of combine harvester was 7.24% at the highest field speed (3.0km/hr). However this ratio decreased at the other two combine harvester field speeds and the reason was the combine reel index which was at its optimal condition. This reel condition coincided the combine field speed with the reel speed and the result was a reduction in the combine platform losses and this result reflected on the combine total losses .This phenomenon was observed particularly with this variety because it is easily shattered. The results also showed that the effect of increasing the threshing cylinder speed or reducing the cylinder concave clearance within the range of this research was identical interim of the results achieved .However, it was observed that no significant effect of changing these factors on the combine platform losses, while a significant in losses was noticed in the threshing and separation units. It was also noticed that no significant effect either the threshing cylinder speed or cylinder concave clearance on the ratio of the total losses. The results of the interactions showed that the lowest percentage of the total losses for harvesting of forat varies was 4.72 % at 1.7 km/hr combine field speed 800 r.p.m threshing cylinder speed and 2.0 cm cylinder concave clearance while the highest total losses was 8.3 % at the highest combine field speed 3 km/hr, 1000 r.p.m threshing cylinder speed and 1.25 cm cylinder concave clearance.


Article
Effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on digestibility and rumen characteristics in Shami goats

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Twelve Shami male goats with average weight 43.3±1.2 kg and 3-4 years old were used to study the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) either pre–treated barley straw or supplemented with concentrate diet at different levels (0, 2,and 4%) on nutrient digestibility and rumen characteristics. All Shami goats were divided randomly into six groups (2 bucks each). All goats individually fed concentrate diets in a 2×3 factorial experiment according to maintenance requirement at 1% live body weight (LBW) while barley straw was offered ad libitium. The results showed that all nutrients digestibilities were not significantly affected by methods of application, levels of EFE and their interaction. There were numerical increases with increasing levels of EEE on dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibilities (%). Ruminal pH, ammonia–N, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentrations, percentage of acetate, propionate and butyrate, were also not affected significantly by methods of application, levels of EFE and their interaction. There were numerical increased in TVFA and numerical decreased in NH3-N concentrations as levels of EFE increased. The results of this study indicated that both methods of application EFE may enhance digestibility and rumen fermentation in Shami goats when used higher enzyme levels.


Article
Influence of three temperature regimes on seed germination of three barley cultivars

Authors: Hussein Mahsen Murtadha Al-Bakka
Pages: 224-232
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Seed germination rate of three barley cultivars (cv.) were studied under three temperature regimes at Laboratories of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, in the year 2013. The three barley cv. were 1- Arefat 2- Syrian local and 3- Iraqi local. The temperature regimes were 20, 25 and 30 C̊. Seven terms were used to study the germination process of barley seeds in order to determine the ideal evaluation of germination rate and sowing rate. The studied terms were: germination percentage GP, germination vigor GV, germination speed GS, germination index GI, speed of germination coefficient SGC, seeds agriculture value SAV and corrected planting rate CPR. One hundred seeds were used in each experimental unit and germinated seeds were scored at 24 hours intervals. The Arefat cv. obtained the highest germination rate in comparison to other cv., but the highest value was under 25 C̊ condition. It was also found that 80% of the seeds were germinated throughout the first, second, and third accounts. The other terms behaved in similar way. The recommendations can be summarized in which the sowing rate for Arefat and Iraqi local barley cv. is 108 kg.h -1 (27 kg. donam -1), and it is 120 kg .h-1 (30 kg. donam- 1) for the cv. local Syrian. Germination conditions should be provided during the first five days in the best way possible.

Table of content: volume:7 issue:3