Table of content

Jornal of Biotechnology Research Center

مجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية

ISSN: 18151140
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

The Biotechnology Research Center (BRC) in a Al-Nahrain University issued in 2007 the first edition of a tightly seasonal scientific journal named as the journal Biotechnology Research Center (JBRC) which got authorization in 2005 and held an impact number ISSN: 1815-1140.The journal accepts scientific researches in Arabic and English.
JBRC’s main interest is Biotechnology researches in the Medical, Molecular, Agriculture and environmental fields which have an important impact on the public and private sectors in Iraq.
JBRC’s structure consists of editing committee (headed by the manger of the BRC and the editor in chief), consulting committee (contains a well- known iraqi scientists in biotechnology) and editing secretary.
All researches are submitted to the JBRC’s regulations which is mainly is that they must be according to the journal directions and instructions , then the researches will be evaluated by three well-known scientists in the field and after that reviewing occurred by the editing committee to ensure and verify all JBRC’s instructions and regulations are taken into consideration .
A special edition of JBCR is issued to cover all researches that presented to the BRC’s scientific conferences which subjected to all regulations and instructions of publishing in JBCR.

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Contact info

brcn2012@yahoo.comيتم الاتصال عبر البريد الالكتروني لمجلة مركز بحوث التقنيات الاحيائية


0096407707766148او للاتصال تلفونيا
بسكرتارية التحرير
م.م. سعاد محمد مجيدب
محمد منير حسين

Table of content: 2016 volume:10 issue:1

Article
Side Effects of Ribavirin Drug on Mice Embryos and their Skeleton
التأثيرات الجانبية لعقار الريبافارين في هلاكات أجنة الفئران وهياكلها العظمية

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This study focused on the cytogenetic effect of Ribavirin (RBV) drug on teratogenic lab animals (Mice). Several cytogenetic analyses (skeleton abnormal of embryos in mice). Studied the genetic effect of drug (RBV) on mice. That mice were divided into five experiment groups as the following: Negative control group: Animal orally treated with PBS buffer, positive control group was treated with (CP) and three groups treated with (RBV) with concentration 10, 20, 50 mg/kg, in other experiment studied teratogens of drug (RBV) result show significant differences (p<0.05) in body weight of mice embryo of study groups, negative control group recorded rate highly in embryo body weigh was (1.55) gm. While recorded positive control group rate less in weight of orally treated groups with (RBV) with concentration 10, 20, 50 mg/kg were 0.89, 0.71, 0.61 gm. Respectively the result show influences to (RBV) in embryo number at high concentration (50) mg/kg, while show died embryos in positive control group. Also the result shows abnormality in skeleton of embryos at concentration of drug 50 mg/kg.


Article
Detection of Helicobacter pylori IgG and IgM Antibodies in Iraqi Dyspeptic Patients
الكشف عن الأجسام المضادة IgG و IgMللبكتريا البوابية الحلزونية في المرضى العراقيين المصابين بسوء الهضم

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This study is conducted to detect H. pylori IgG and IgM antibodies by different serological techniques (Immunochromatography test for rapid H. pylori IgG antibodies detection and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay test for H. pylori IgM antibodies detection). One hundred and twenty five dyspeptic patients are subjected to esophageal gastroduodenoscopy at the Endoscopy Unit at Baghdad Teaching Hospital from 10/1/2013 to 8/1/2014. Venous blood samples are collected from each patient. This study recorded, (89%) sensitivity for each of IgM Test by ELISA kit and Rapid IgG Test by Immunochromatography kit, but Rapid IgG Test has more specificity (85.64%) than IgM Test (80.8%).The higher prevalence 31.2% of H. pylori IgM antibodies observed among age group (21-40) years, whereas the IgM showed a slight rise 2.4% from the (10-20) years age group as acute H. pylori infection, although statistically there is a non-significant (P ≥0.05) association between H. pylori IgM antibodies and gender, but the females (32%) were more affected than males (27.2%). Also recorded significant (P ≤0.05) association between chronic H. pylori infection and gender (male 45% and female 55%), and highly significant association of blood groups phenotypes and Rh factor with H. pylori infection recorded by rapid IgG test (P ≤0.01), as the seropositivity of H. pylori according to rapid IgG test was (35, 15, 0 and 50) % for (A, B, AB and O) patients respectively, and (85and 15) % for Rh+ and Rh- patients, respectively.


Article
Purification and Identification of Flavonoids Extracted from Loranthus Eurpaeus Fruits
التنقية والكشف عن الفلافونويدات المستخلصة من ثمار نبات بلوط الهدال

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Loranthus eurpaeusis an important medicinal plant, which contains a lot of bioactive compounds. The dried plant fruits were extracted overnight with 80% methanol by maceration using shaker incubator 25c◦. Chemical detection of crud plant extracts was performed. The total flavonoids was isolated from the extract using reflux, and subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) using different mobile systems. The purified material was augmented by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The aglycon moiety was extracted by ethyl acetate, and then evaporated to dryness. The dried residue then redissolved in 50% ethanol. Purification procedures of flavonoid were fully described in this study. The aims of this study was to detect the active compounds present in L. eurpaeus methanolic extract then quantitative and qualitative estimation of the total flavonoids isolated from the plant fruits.


Article
The Effect of Acyclovir on Human Lymphocyte Cell Division
تاثير المضاد الفيروسي Acyclovir على انقسام الخلايا اللمفية البشرية

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Acyclovir is antibiotics commonly used to treat herpes virus infection, which is one of synthetic nucleosides analogs derived from guanine. This study was aimed to identify the effect of the Acyclovir, as antiviral drug, on the mitosis in human lymphocytes. Concentrations of acyclovir were prepared 40, 80,120,160, 200 and 240 µg/ml and added to phytohemagglutin in treated culture media. Results showed that the average of mitotic index, was dropped sharply and significantly at the 40 µg /ml concentration of Acyclovir to be 14.21 ± 1.48, then the average of mitotic index was increase gradually to reach 60.20 ± 1.00, at the 240 µg/ ml concentration. This study indicated that Acyclovir inhibited human lymphocyte proliferation at low concentrations. Further studies are recommended to study the effect of acyclovir on the mitotic index on human lymphocytes of infected individuals.


Article
Induction of Genetic Variation for Salt Tolerance in Tissue Culture of Capsicum annuumL.
التحفيز الوراثي لصفة تحمل الملوحة في المزارع النسيجية لنبات الفلفل Capsicum annuumL.

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Abstract

Study the effect of BA at concentrations of (0.0,1,2,3and4)mg/L. and IAA at concentrations (0.0,0.5,1,1.5,2)mg/L. in callus induction from pepper plant explants (leaves, stem) as well as the effect of (0.0, 0.05, 0.1,0.15,0.2,0.25) NaCl on callus growth and regeneration salt tolerance plants studied. (PCR-RAPD) technique was used for tested salinity tolerance genes. The best medium for callus induction was MS medium modified with (2 mg/L. IAA+ 4 mg/L.BA). Results showed significantly decreased in fresh and dry weight of callus with increasing salt concentration on MS medium. The results showed increased proline and carbohydrate content in callus with increasing salt concentrations on MS medium. Lower percentage of callus regeneration was recorded with increased salt concentration on MS medium. Agricultural medium consisted of sand and peat moss at 3:1 v/v ratio. The best agricultural medium for plants acclimation 79%. The salt genotype samples have all sequence of primers which code for salinity genes with five primers for loci of salinity tolerance.


Article
Optimization, Production and Antifungal Activity of Chitinase Produced by Trichoderma harezianum
تحديد الظروف المثلى وانتاج ودراسة الفعاليه التثبيطيه لأنزيم الكايتينيزالمنتج من العفن Trichoderma harezianum

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Twelve of Trichoderma spp. Isolates were obtained from 30 soils samples collected from different crops fields in Baghdad city. Among them, isolate designated as TLT4 which produced highest chitinase activity in primary and secondary screenings was identified as Trichoderma harezianum. The high level of chitinase production was observed in chitinase production media (CPM) amended with 0.4% colloidal chitin with pH6, incubation temperature 30°C, incubation period 6 days, peptone as nitrogen source and inoculum size 1× 105 spore/ml using submerged cultures. The antifungal activity of crude T. harezianumchitinase was investigated against four dermatophytes ncluding: Trichophytonment agrophytes, T. rubrum, Microsporumcanis, M. gypsum. The crude chitinase was found to inhibit the growth of all dermatophytes tested with varying degrees. Clotrimazole drug was used to compare.


Article
Effect of MS Inorganic Salts Concentration on Shoots Rooting of Apple and Pear Rootstocks in vitro
تأثير تراكيز الأملاح اللاعضوية لوسط MS في تجذير أفرع أصلي التفاح والكمثرى خارج الجسم الحي

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The effect of different concentration of MS for medium strength (MS, 1/2MS, 2MS) on rooting ability of apple Malus domestica Borkh MM106 and pear pyrus communis rootstocks were studied, which incubated under 1000 lux light for 16 hr / day with temperature of 25 ±2˚C for 8 weeks. Results showed that 1/2 MS gave higher rooting percentage reached to 70% than 2MS and MS which reached to 40,20 % respectively, Also, results showed that MM106 apple rootstock was significantly superior in number and length of the roots which reached 2.80 root/shoot, 3.4cm respectively, as compared with pear rootstock. While pear rootstock surpass in length of shoots which reached 5.80cm/shoots.


Article
Relationship Between Polymorphism of IGF-1 Gene in Dams with Body Weight and Dimension in Birth and Weaning in Turkish Awassi Sheep
علاقة تعدد المظاهر لجين شبيه الانسولين (IGF-1) للأمهات مع وزن وإبعاد الجسم للحملان العواسي التركي عند الميلاد والفطام

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The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) gene has been described in several studies as a candidate gene for growth traits in farm animals. The objective of this study was to Identify the polymorphism in the 5’ flanking region of the Turkish Awassi sheep insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene and relationship of this genotype with some growth traits. The DNA of 64 ewes was evaluated. Primers were supplied for amplifying the specific segment. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) accomplished after finding the best condition to do the reaction. The specific segment amplified well. RFLP markers were used for detecting the polymorphisms of the segment. its analysis was performed by incubating of PCR product by HaeII restriction enzyme at 37°C for 1 h. Gels were visualized using 3.5% agarose. The distribution percentage of polymorphism of the 5’ flanking region IGF-1 gene in ewe's sample were 49.09, 41.82 and 9.09 % for AA, AB & BB genotype respectively. The variations among these percentages were highly significant (P≤0.01). The effect of this polymorphism was significant (P≤0.05) on lamb's birth weight, body length heart girth at birth, while it lacked significance on the remaining traits with various IGF-1 polymorphism. At lambs weaning, significant variance of weaning weight, weight gain from birth to weaning and body mass index were noticed with various IGF-1 polymorphism). In conclusion, gene expression of IGF-1 gene revealed possibility of adopted this gene in sheep improvement strategy to increase the economic gain in the breeding schemes.


Article
The E ffect of Aqueous Albizia Flowers Extract Albizia lebbeck on Production of Certain Enzymes from Salmonella typhi
Salmonella typhiعلى انتاج انزيمات معينة من Albizia lebbeck تأثير المستخلص المائي لأزهار

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Salmonella typhi is Gram-negative and pathogenic bacteria, its produces variety of enzymes for growth. The present study aimed to study the effect of aqueous albizia flower extract 10 % on production of three enzymes from Salmonella typhi, and the effect of this extract on their activity. The production of amylase and protease enzymes from Salmonella typhi, were increased after addition of crude plant extract 10% into media with specific activity 141.3 and 72.6 U/mg respectively, while production of cellulase was decreased after addition, with specific activity 31 U/mg, compare with specific activity before addition of crude plant extract. Aqueous Albizia flowers extract 10% increases specific activity of amylase and protease, where they gave 16 and73.8 U/mg respectively after incubation with plant extract for 30 minutes, while specific activity 6.2 U/mg for cellulase was decreased after this incubation, compare with specific activity before incubation with plant extract. The phytochemicals screening of aqueous Albizia flower extract were positive for alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and saponins, while were negative for terpens, resins, coumarines and anthraquinones.


Article
Investigation and Detection Algae Growth of Al-Rashed Water Supply/Baghdad
التحري والكشف عن نمو الطحالب في محطة اسالة الرشيد/ بغداد

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Abstract

Diagnosed algae present in drinking water for the liquefaction plant Rasheed located in the city of Baghdad on the Tigris River next to the Rusafa. The results are significant demonstrated growth of algae in various filtering stages of the river outlet sedimentation basin and the first basin filters ultimate reservoir of drinking water after the sterilization process, existed algae in the final basin for three algal species classified greens algae and vegetables blue and Diatom classes year, summer, spring, winter and autumn, and the number of vital reached 4937 and 3744 and 3743 and 4027 cells / liter, respectively, to varieties of algae mentioned. While rates of algal species reached basin sedimentation first for the summer, spring, winter and fall to 29 561 and 9811 and 6717 and 6534 cells / L, respectively, and the number of races and got to 39, 22, 25 and 28 genus respectively in different rows, and rates of types of algae basin filters for the same chapters to 8390 and 8465 and 3137 and 3143 cells / l, respectively, and the number of races arrived 33, 20, 16 and 20 genus respectively various Elsafov.as the results of chemical tests height of turbidity, which amounted to 57.0 and 19, 16 and 11.5 NTU respectively classes year compared to the specification of the Iraqi drinking water, amounting to 5 NTU. With the increasing electrical conductivity in the summer, this reached 1033 Sµ / cm season. With a high concentration of calcium by 11.6 and 77, 119 and 103 mg / L, respectively, compared to the classroom specification of drinking of 50 mg / L. The current study also observed the presence of toxin-producing algae in drinking water station liquefaction Rasheed represented algalMicrocystis sp and Lyngbya connectens and Nostoc carneum and Oscillatoriasp, belonging to the Division of blue algae vegetable-producing toxins produced by Global Sources types of toxins and Saxitoxins Microcystins and Anatoxin-a.


Article
Effect of Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) Fertilization on Growth of Sage Plant (Salvia officinalis L.) and Concentration of Volatile Oil
تأثير سماد فوسفات ثنائي الأمونيوم (داب) في نمو نبات الميرميةSalvia officinalis L. وتركيز الزيت الطيار

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This work was carried out to study the effect of Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) fertilizer during spring 2014 to produce the volatile oil from sage plant. Four levels of DAP (21%P, 18%N) (0, 100, 200 and 300 Kg/ha) were used on sage plants. The experiment was designed according to complete randomized design (CRD). The measurements of plant heights, Fresh and dry weights, surface area of the aerial leaves and active compound concentration were recorded as control before flowering. Results revealed significant differences (p ≤0.05) in Plants height, fresh and dry weights and surface area between treatments. In the control group measures were (18.00cm, 100.22 g/pot, 18.55 g/pot and 5.22 cm2) respectively. The highest values were reported with 300 kg/ha treatment (26.50 cm, 118.25, 21.86 g/pot and 7.21 cm2) respectively. Volatile concentration was measured using Clevenger with steam distillation apparatus. Diammonium Phosphate addition levels showed different effect on Volatile oil content in aerial part (Shoots). The lowest was (1.68%) for 300 kg/ha, and the highest was (3.07%) in 100 Kg/ha.


Article
Genetic Variants in JAK1 Gene and Susceptibility to Hepatitis C Viral Infection in Iraq
علاقة التباين الوراثي في جين JAK1 والاهبة للأصابة بفايروس التهاب الكبد الفايروسي C في العراق

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Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) imposes a global challenge with over 180 million cases worldwide. Only few patients spontaneously had their virus neutralized, while most patients develop chronic HCV infection. This implies a key role of genetic factors in viral clearance or persistence. The current study aimed at clarifying the effect of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on individual's susceptibility to HCV infection. A total of 60 patients with confirmed HCV infection and 35 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Blood sample was obtained from each participant, from which DNA was extracted. The JAK1gene was amplified with conventional PCR technique using three sets of primers targeting three SNPs in this gene: rs2780895, rs4244165 and rs17127024. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used for genotyping of PCR products. Each of rs2780895 and rs17127024 had two genotypes in both patients and controls, however, only the heterozygous genotype of the SNP rs2780895 (CT) significantly associated with the susceptibility to HCV. The SNP rs4244165 appeared in only with homozygous wild genotype (GG) in both patients and controls. It can be concluded that allele T of the SNP rs2780895 could be considered as a risk factor for infection with HCV.


Article
Effect of Mechanical Scarification, Gibberellic Acid and Chilling on Germination of Local Orange Seeds Citrus sinensis L.
تأثير التخديش الميكانيكي وحامض الجبرلين وفترات التبريد في انبات بذور البرتقال المحلي Citrus sinensis L.

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The study was implemented at private nurseries in the Najaf province during 2014 spring season. The aim of this study was to use various treatments to mechanical scarification, gibberellic acid and chilling on orange seed germination. Results showed that various treatments scarification, GA3 and chilling each alone or combinations were effective on germination improvement if compared with control treatment. The treatment GA3 500+scarification +chilling 48 was unique and signification in seed germination percentage and fast seed germination for five periods 40.50.60.70.and 80 days after culture if compared with other treatment. Most of the three combinations treatments were highly significant on germinate rate index coefficient of velocity of germination, means germination time, length and diameter of seedling, fresh and dry weight, dry matter percentage. The GA3500 + scarification + chilling 48 treatment was high significant in root length reach 24.51mm, while GA3 500 + scarification treatment was high significant in diameter root reach 3.610 mm, as GA3 250 + scarification treatment was high significant on fresh weight of root reach 0.4638mg, while GA3 500 + chilling 36 was superior and unique in dry weight and dry matter percentage of root reach 0.3181mg and 80.2% respectively.


Article
Physiological and Histological Study for the Effect of Escalation Doses of Dostinex (Caprigoline) on Male Mice through Some Biochemical Parameters
دراسة فسيولوجية ونسجية لتأثير عقار الـ Dostinex في ذكور الفئران من خلال بعض المعايير الكيموحيوية

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Although the history of many drugs proved some beneficial effects, yet uncontrolled use may have serious impact on health especially vital organs as liver and kidney and endocrine glands. Dopamine agonists are the treatment of choice for the majority of patients with hyperprolactinemic disorders. Bromocriptine has been used over the past 30 years, whereas cabergoline has become a first-choice agonist in recent years. The present study was aimed to evaluate the physiological and histological effects of escalated doses of the drug (Caprigoline) in male mice. The experiment includes 40 mice divided on 4 groups. Group 1 treated with PBS represents the control. The groups (2, 3, and 4) treated with the doses (0.5, 5, and 10) mg of caprigoline /Kg body weight respectively. Regarding hormonal assay, the results showed significant (P<0.05) differences between the treated groups and the control. There was a significant increase in luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, Triiodothyronine (T3) and Throxine (T4) level accompanies the increase in caprigoline dose. In contrast the Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL) show a decrease in their levels as the dose become higher. Furthermore; there was a significant increase in level of Alanin aminotransaminase (ALT) as an indicator of liver function and a significant increase in level of urea as an indicator of kidney function in the treated groups compared with the control. The histological study reveal an obvious morphological changes compared with the normal state in the animals treated with the high dose. The liver in mice treated with (5 and 10) mg caprigoline showing focal area of necrosis with inflammatory cells. The kidney in mice treated with 10 mg caprigoline shows a degenerative changes and necrosis of epithelial of micro tubules and thyroidization phenomeno.


Article
Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa From Clinical Specimen by Using 16S rDNA Gene.
تشخيص بكتريا Pseudomonas aeruginosa من عينات سريرية باستخدام جين 16S rDNA

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Seventy- Five isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from 100 isolates of clinical cases. 16S rDNA gene was detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and found that all isolates possess this gene, with 956 base pair. The isolates showed different sensitivity against antibiotics, all isolates were resistant to Kanamycin 100% most of isolate shown resistance to Ceftazidime 81.33%, Gentamicin 46.66 %, Tobramycin 38.66% and Piperacillin and Ofloxacin 37.33% each of them, and some isolates showed less resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin 34.66% each of them, and Aztreonam 22.66% and finally to Imipenem 17.33%. Virulence factors analysis showed 75 (100%) isolates were produced β-hemolytic, 61 (81.33%) were Protease activity, and 59 (78.66%) isolates had Pyocyanin and Amylase, and 54 (72%) isolates showed its ability to produce Biofilm.


Article
Serum High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Endogenous Sex Hormones in Diabetic Men.
المستويات المصلية لبروتين C التفاعلي عالي الحساسية والهرمونات الجنسية الداخلية في الرجال المصابين بداء السكري

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The objective of this cross sectional study was to assess the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 in men on endogenous sex hormones: estradiol (E2) and total testosterone (TT); pituitary gland hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as high sensitive C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP) in men. This study comprised a total of (80) subjects out of which (40) were normal and (40) were diabetic males. The results obtained indicated a significant increasing (p≤ 0.05) of serum hs-CRP and E2 in men with DM type 2 comparison to non-diabetics, while a significant reduction (p≤ 0.05) of serum testosterone in men with DM type 2 comparison to non-diabetics, and non-significant reduction of serum LH, FSH in men with DM type 2 comparison to non-diabetics were observed. The data from this study show the role of endogenous sex hormones and hs-CRP in diabetes risk. Testosterone levels are partly influenced by insulin resistance, which may represent an important avenue for intervention.


Article
Determination of Heavy Metals Tolerance and their Damaging Effects on a Local Soil Thermophilic Isolate Bacillus stearothermophilus
تحديد مقاومة عزلة محلية للبكتريا المحبة للحرارة Bacillus stearothermophilus والمعزولة من التربة لبعض العناصر الثقيلة وتأثيراتها الضارة

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This research aimed to detect the tolerance of a local soil thermophilic isolate to some heavy metals (HM) and determine of minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). Also, plasmid profile was studied and its relationship with HM resistant. Deleterious effect of mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr) and Cobalt (Co) were evaluated on bacterial shape, growth and DNA scan between 200-40nm. Mutation effect was also studied. Local thermophilic Bacillus stearothermophilus was resist zinc, molbidium, silver at a concentration reached 80mM; it is sensitive to Hg, Cr and Co with MIC reached 0.004, 0.03 and 0.007 respectively. Plasmid profile revealed the absence of plasmid from B. stearothermophilus. Some of bacterial shapes were changed to short bacilli, coccobacilli and cocci; many bacterial cell fragment were seen after treatment with Hg, Cr and Co. Bacterial growth decreased when treated with Hg and Cr after 18h while, little effect was seen with Co treatment with Hg and Co induced heat sensitive mutation with 200-300 mutated cfu /ml from 104 cfu/ml; no heat sensitive mutation were detected for Cr treatment. DNA UV scan 200-400nm showed no changes with Hg while, curve shape changed for Cr and cobalt.


Article
Role of sex chromatin on performance in the local (black) goats
دور الكروماتين الجنسي على الأداء الأنتاجي للماعز( الأسود) المحلي

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This study was conducted on local black goats belongs to private flock in Erbil plain from period July/ 2014 to April/ 2015. The study included 116 local black goats to study role of sex chromatin on the daily milk production (DMP), total milk production (TMP), lactation period (LP), Fertility rate, Prolificacy, birth weight (BW), fertilize estrous sequences and correlation coefficients between the studied traits and repeatability of (DMP). The ratio of sex chromatin shapes drum stick, sessile nodule, tear drop and small club were%32.05, %52.97, %8.52 and%6.46respectively. The overall means of DMP, TMP, LP, Fertility rate, Prolificacy, BW and fertilize estrous sequences were 577.78g, 49.21kg, 85.70days, %75.74 ,1.35 ,3.01 kg and 1.50respectively. Sex chromatin shapes had significant effect on all of the characterize studied. The results showed that there is significant (P<0.05) in relation to (DMY), the highest rate of (DMY) was shown among the goats. The highest level of (DMP) was in animals which raised drum stick sex chromatin (681.03g), while the lowest level was among sheep which raised sex chromatin small club (514.77g), also, there are significant effect of sex chromatin shapes on fertility rate, prolificacy, BW, and fertilize estrus sequences. Correlation coefficient value between (DMP) correlated positively 0.88, 0.54, 0.33, and 0.31 for drum stick, sessile nodule, tear drop and small club respectively. Repeatability estimates for (DMP) 0.38. The conclusion of this study is the prediction of production (milk production and BW) and reproduction (Fertility rate, Prolificacy and fertilize estrous sequences) performance for local black goats from shapes and percentage of sex chromatin distribution and measurements. The sex chromatin shapes helped in doing early selection to elite goats on the linkage between sex chromatin shapes and performance production.


Article
Effect of Dehulling and Germination Treatments in Reducing a Certain Antinutrients Compounds and Approximate Chemical Composition of Lentils (Lens culinaris) and Mung Bean) Vigna radiate (Seeds
تاثير إزالة القشور والإنبات في اختزال بعض المحددات التغذوية والتركيب الكيميائي التقريبي لبذور العدس والماش

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The aim of this study was to increase the nutritional value of lentils and mung bean by dehulling and germination. Three groups of each Lentils and mung bean were soaked for 24h and germinated for 1, 2 and 3 days at room temperature ~ 25ºC by using wet cloths between and then was dehulled, while the fourth group was depended as dehulling sample, in addition to control treatment. Dehulling reduced tannin significantly) p≤ 0.05) and the values were 55.26% and 61.02% in lentils and mung bean, respectively. Dehulled samples had a higher protein, oil, trypsin inhibitors and phytate compared with control samples. After 3 days, during germination protein was increased gradually and the maximum values were 29.33% in lentils and 26.73% in mung bean of germination, while oil and tannin contents diminished as germination progress. Germination was reduced trypsin inhibitors by 14.3 % , 57.1 % and 64.3 % in lentils and 23.5% , 47.1% and % 52.9 % in mung bean, while phytates decreased by 21.4% , 97.8% and 100%in lentils , and the corresponding values were 54.73%, 71.82% and 67.37 and mung bean for 1, 2 and 3 days, respectively.


Article
Enhancemant of Sesbania rostrata Capability for Cadmium and Lead Tolerance by Tissue Culture
زيادة قدرة نبات السيسبان Sesbania rostrataعلى تحمل الكادميوم والرصاص بالزراعة النسيجية

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Several experiments were carried out to study cadmium and lead tolerance at the tissue culture or whole plant levels of Sesbania rostrata. Callus was induced and maintained on Murashige and Skooge, 1962 medium (MS) supplemented with 0.3 mg/l Kinetin and 2 mg/l 2,4- dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). Using cotyledons as the source for callus induction. Different concentration of cadmium and lead directly or gradually were added to the culture medium as contaminants. Selected tolerant cell lines were subjected to regeneration. Callus showed better tolerance to gradual exposure than direct addition. The concentration of cadmium and lead recorded to 27 and 24 ppm when 1.0 and 2.0 mg/ of cadmium and lead respectively. The study included the effect of cytokinins (benzyl adenine) and auxin (Naphthalene acetic acid) in the regeneration of shoot from callus tolerant to pollutants reached 78 and 76% for Callus tolerant to lead and cadmium respectively, when the combination of 0.7 mg/l benzyl adenine and 0.2 mg /l naphthalene acetic acid was supplemented to the medium. The effect of auxin (indole butyric acid) on rooting of shoots was studied. The concentration 0.7 mg/l gave highest percentage of rooting amounted to 70 and 66% in the medium supplement with lead and cadmium respectively. The study was also included effect of pollutants on plant height and fresh weights shoot fresh weight was superior at the concentration 1.0 and 2.0 ppm of cadmium and lead recording 8.7 and 7.5 g respectively. Maximum cadmium accumulation reached 12.5 ppm in shoot while, 10.5ppm for lead was in roots.


Article
The Kinetin Role and Compound Fertilizer NPKZn in the Effectiveness of some Antioxidants to Sweet Pepper Capsicum annuum L. subjected to Salt Stress
دور الكاينيتين والسماد المركب NPKZn في فعالية بعض مضادات الاكسدة لنبات الفلفل الحلو Capsicum annuum L. المعرض للاجهاد الملحي

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Abstract

The experiment was carried out in the green house of Biology Department, College of Education for Pure Science/ Ibn AL–Haitham, Baghdad University, during the growing season of 2013- 2014, to study the influence of foliar application of four concentrations of kinetine 25,50,75,100 ppm in addition to the control treatment, appling and non appling of 160 Kg.H-1of NPKZn fertilizer, and two concentrations of sodium chloride 50,100mM.L-1 instead of control treatment, and their interactions on Some Antioxidant Enzyme and non-Enzyme of vegetative part of Capscum annum L. The experiment was designed by using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Results indicated that application of sodium chloride caused a significant increase in the average enzyme activities (Superoxide dismutase, Peroxidase, Catalase) (unite mg protein-1), vitamin C concentration, proline aced content (mg.L-1) and Malondialialdehyde content (µM.gm F.W.-1) compared with the control, on the contrary the spray of the kinetine and aplication of the fertilizer both individually or its interventions led to decrease the injury of sodium chloride and a significant reduction in rates of details mentioned above effect of. The surpass of 75ppm of the kinetine which agave the less mean of characteristics studied and superiority of the treatment (level 160 Kg.H-1of NPKZn fertilizer and 75ppm of kinetine in giving the best averages of characteristics above.


Article
The Influence of Foliar Application with Proline Acid on Growth Parameters and Yield Component of Chamomile Plant (Matricaria chamomilla L.) Subjected to Water Stress
تاثير الرش الورقي بحامض البرولين في مؤشرات النمو والحاصل لنبات البابونج Chamomilla L. Matricaria. المعرض للاجهاد المائي

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Abstract

A pots experiment was carried out in the green house of the green/ Botanical garden/ Department of Biology, College of Education for pure Science–Ibn–AL-Haithium/ Baghdad University, for the 2012-2013 growing season, to investigate the influence of foliar application of proline acid of three concentrations (50,100,150mg.L‾ˡ) and control on some growth and physiological parameters of chamomile plants subjected to water stress in three irrigations (3, 6 and 9days). The experiment was conducted as Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and three replications. Results indicated that effect of drought divergence from 3days to 9days reduced significantly the averages of plant growth parameters (plant height, concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, biological yield, No. of flowering branches. pot‾ˡ, wt. of flowers. pot‾ˡ, and No. of flowers. pot‾ˡ). While exogenous application of proline acid had a positive effect on plant growth parameters and counteracted the adverse effect of water stress particularly 100mg.L‾ˡ proline acid concentration and the interval 9days on the growth parameters: plant height, phosphorus concentration, biological yield. Besides, the 150mg.L‾ˡ proline acid concentration counteracted the adverse effect of water stress through the interval 9days on the growth parameters: nitrogen, calcium concentrations No. of flowering branches.pot¯¹, wt. of flowers. pot‾ˡ and No. of flowers. pot‾ˡ.


Article
Phenotypic Expression in Catharanthus roseus Explants Inoculated with Agrobacterium Strains Locally Isolated
التعبير المظهري على الأجزاء النباتية المفصولة من نبات عين البزون Catharanthus roseous الناتج من التلقيح بعزلات من بكتيريا .Agrobacterium sp المعزولة محليا

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Abstract

Agrobacterium species were isolated from local soil in Jadirrya, Baghdad, Iraq, twenty one strains were isolated, most of them were identified as Agrobacterium rhizogen . All the isolated strains show the ability to production catalase, peroxidase and H2S, salt tolerance for NaCl (2%). Most isolated strains were confirmed as biovair 2 because they can grow on New and Kerr medium. The pathogenicity of these bacteria was tested using leaf explants of Catharanthus roseus cultured in B5 medium supplemented with 30 gl sucrose and hormone free. Agrobacterium rhizogens showed the ability to induce and form hairy roots on the explants while the Agrobacterium tumefaciens showed the ability to induce crown gall tumors after inoculation with the bacterial spp.

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