Table of content

iraq journal of market research and consumer protection

المجلة العراقية لبحوث السوق وحماية المستهلك

ISSN: 20713894
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Presidency of the university or centers
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Scientific Referred Journal Published by Center for Market Research and Consumer Protection, University of Baghdad.
Date of First Issue (2009)
No. of Issue Per Year (2)
No. of Issue Published Between 2009-2014 (10)

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Contact info

phone Number: 07700646083
E.mail: jour.mracpc@uobaghdad.edu.iq
website: iraqimarket.net

Table of content: 2015 volume:7 issue:2

Article
Detection of Commercial Cheating for Some Kinds of Local Markets retailed Medicinal Oils.
الكشف عن الغش التجاري لبعض أنواع الزيوت الطبية المتوافرة في الأسواق المحلية

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Abstract

The aims of this study are to explore the commercial artifacts in the following three kinds of vegetables oils, Nigella Sativa, Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn,and Zingiber officinale. These oils have been very popular medicinal plants which are commonly used in traditional medicine .These commercial oils have been compared with the extracts of these plants. The physical properties of extracts and commercial oils of these plants have been stuied. We observed that the refractive index of the plants matches and non-significant, while specific gravity of Nigella Sativa has similar specific gravity in both extracts and commercial oil in contrast with Trigonella foenum Linn,and Zingiber officinale and we found significant difference (P<0.05). And determined the concentrations of compositions of extracts and commercial oils of these plants are determined using HPLC technique, and found a significant difference (P<0.05).


Article
Variations Heavy Metals Concentrations in Tigris River in Baghdad City.
تغاير تراكيز العناصر الثقيلة في مياه نهر دجلة في مدينة بغداد.

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The aim of the research is the detection of heavy metals using (Inductively coupled Plasma ICP) for samples in Tigris river at intakes of water treatment plants Baghdad (Sharq dejla, Al-Wathba, Al-Wahda, and Al-Dora) and samples at Tigris banks near (Al-Adhamya, Al-Shuhda bridge and al-Jadrya). All the recorded results were fitted with Iraqi standers No. 25 in 1967 for all samples with heavy metals (arsenic Ar, Cadmium Cd, Chromium Cr, Zinc Zn, Lead Pb, Copper Cu, Nickel Ni, Manganese Mn, Ferrous Fe) where all concentration were lower than standard values except Cadmium (0.01- 0.014) in plants intakes and (0.027- 0.048) in river samples while the standard value is (0.005). Other tests such as chemical oxygen demand and oil & grease were out of limit due to spoilled oil and illegal discharging to the river by power station and refinery units.


Article
Extraction of Fish Oils and Used in Drugs Systems.
استخلاص زيوت الاسماك واستعمالها في بعض الانظمة الـصيدلانـية

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Abstract

In this study was undertaken frish fish such as Bigeye Ilisha megaloptera, Nematalos nasus, Suboor Hilsha ilisha and Carp Cyprinus carpio. they were purchased from local marketes in Basrah, Oil was extracted by a solvent extraction method on low temperature. And the level of oil obtiened about (6.08; 10.72; 13.52 and 5.61)% for Bigeye, Jaffout, Suboor and Carp. the Crud oils were compared with vegetable oil (olive oil) and animal fat (tial fat mutton). The extracted oil from fresh complete fishs with compared oils intraed on pharmacological system through packed in capsul with and with out garlic`s extract. this system analysis with chemical tests. Results were analyzed statistically by using the SPSS program with using (CRD) Completely Randomized Design for dipilcates. The study factors were tested by using Revised Least Significant Different test R.L.S.D on the level (0.05).the results showed that oils which packing thrugh capsol with garlic extraction keeping good quality.


Article
The Impact of External Environment Factors on the Quality of Educational Services
بعض عوامل البيئة الخارجية واثرها على جودة الخدمات المقدمة في المؤسسات التعليمية (دراسة تحليلية اكاديمية).

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Abstract

This research aims to identify the role of external environment factors on the quality of educational services, from the academic point of view, where the distribution of a questionnaire to a random sample of (100) university professors, and then analyzing a model, and test the validity of this model using structural modeling (SEM) (Structural Equation Modeling). And then test the relationships between variables using the software of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS V.18), the research found a number of conclusions, the most important conclusion is: the external environment factors has significant impact on the quality of educational services.


Article
Preparation Gelatin from Chicken Skin and Study its Functional and sensory Properties.
تحضير الجيلاتين من جلود الدجاج ودراسة صفاته النوعية والحسية

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Abstract

This study was carrid out to produce animal gelatin from chicken skin. Gelatin was prepared by the chemical method using HCl 2% and extraction at the temperature degree 70, 80, 90 c° and at the period of time 4, 6, 8 hours, calculated the yield, functional and sensory characteristics were measured at. The result also demonstrated that the produced gelatin have good functional properties in solubility, viscosity, gelling capacity, water absorpation, lipid binding, emulsification. viscosity was higher in gelatin prepared at 70 c° and period of extraction 8 hours and reached 1.0846 cp. Gelatin prepared were featured by highe gelling capacity at 1% for all extraction time periods. The produced gelatin was characterized by good sensory qualities color and odor, showed that the color of gelatin prepared at 70 c° was graded (transparent yellowish to light yellow) while the color (lighte yellow, yellow, dark yellow and light brown) were extgracted at temperature degree 80 – 90 c°. The gelatin were featured by being odorless at all temperatures, period of extraction.


Article
Studying the Optimal Conditions for Extraction of Local Basil Seeds Gum.
دراسة الظروف المثلى لاستخلاص صمغ بذور الريحان المحلي

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Abstract

This study aimed to determine the optimal conditions for extracting basil seed gum in addition to determine the chemical components of basil seeds. Additionally, the study aimed to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio of gum to ethanol when deposited on the basis of the gum yield which was1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (v/v) respectively. The best mixing ratio was one size of gum to two sizes of ethanol, which recorded the highest yield. Based on the earlier, the optimal conditions for extracting basil seed gum in different levels which included pH, temperature, mixing ratio seeds: water and the soaking duration were studied. The optimal conditions were: pH 8, temperature of 60°C, mixing ratio seeds: water 1:65 (w/v) and soaking duration of 30 minutes. The gum viscosity was determined by Centipoise (cP).


Article
Study of Antioxidation Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharide Extracted From Green Algae Enteromorpha sp.
دراسة الفعالية المضادة للأكسدة للسكر المتعدد المكبرت المستخلص من الطحلب الاخضر Enteromorpha sp.

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Abstract

Samples of the green algae were collected from water of Shatt al-Arab in Garmat Ali in Basra. After purification, the green algae identified on Enteromorpha sp. The samples were dried and milled, then sulfated polysaccharides were extracted with hot water at 90°C precipitated with absolute ethanol, dialysed and lyophilized. The chemical composition was total sugars 56.4%, protein 1.3% and sulfur 19.7%. Antioxidation activity of sulfated polysaccharides was studied by four method and included estimation of ability of scavenging hydroxylated radicals, the results showed an increased in ability with increasing concentrations. Ability of scavenging and was 59.86% at the concentration of 2.5 mg/ ml, but BHT was 81.36%. Ability of scavenging of hydrogen peroxide at was 59.61% at 1000 µg/ ml, but gallic acid was 82.67% at the same concentration. Ability of chelating ferrous ion was 51.19% at 5 mg/ ml, but EDTA was 98.72%.Reductive capacity was also measured, the maximum absorbance was 1.436 nm for 1000 µg/ mL, but ascorbic acid was 1.736 nm.


Article
The Effect of Cooking Utensils in the Food Content of Elements.
تأثير أواني الطبخ في محتوى الاغذية من العناصر المعدنية

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Abstract

the study aimed to identify the impact of the types of cooking utensils in transition metal elements to food and the effect of acid and storage in the concentration of these elements. used five types of cooking utensils including aluminum. tefal, astainls steel, glass. (pyrex), and ceramic prepared in it the food meal. the same meals were repeated add to them acid. the estimate of mineral elements in the meal prepared before storage and after storage in refrigerator temperature degree. the result shows the increase of aluminum concentration in the meals that prepared in aluminum pot reaching 2.913 pmm while reached less concentration in the meal prepared in astainls pot reaching 0.325 pmm. the highest concentration of iron reached 25.2 pmm in meal prepared in astainls steel pot. the results shows the added of acid to food meals lead to increase in aluminum concentration in the meal that prepared in aluminum pot from 2.913 ppm without adding acid and reached to 8.750ppm after addition. while happen very little increase in other meals. and through the storage the meals added to them acid for three days in refrigerator temperature degree the concentration of aluminum increase in the meal prepared in aluminum pot reaching 18.340ppm. and with percentage of increase 210% while the smallest increase in the concentration of aluminum is 1.1% in the meal prepared in pyrex pot.


Article
The effect of different thermal treatments and pH on the stability of a glycyrrhizin which Product from the licorice plant, Glycyrrhiza glabra L
تأثير المعاملات الحرارية المختلفة والرقم الهايدروجيني على ثبات مركب الكليسيريزين المنتج من نبات عرق السوس Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

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Abstract

The plant licorice is considered important plants as nutritionally and medically and economically, as a rich in phytochemical, vitamins and minerals, and being widely available, Research indicated the presence of many nutrients such as (proteins, Carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals) as well as presence of Glycyrrhizin which responsible of sweet taste, that allowing the possibility to use it as natural intensity sweetener with few calories in Sweetening of many food. This research is aimed to study the Stability of Glycyrrhizin toward the various manufacturing conditions such as (thermal treatment, pH of foods and microwaves), so three factorial experiments was implemented to find out the Stability as following: 100C° - 121C° - Microwaves [1150W] for 30-15-5 Min., respectively, under three levels of pH for each treatment 9.5 - 7.0 - 4.5 . It was found the high stability of Glycyrrhizin under 100C° - 121C° treatments under three levels of pH, as well as a significant increase in concentration at pH 9.5 - 4.5 at a temperature of 100C°. While the microwave treatment caused a significant decrease of Glycyrrhizin.


Article
Extraction of Fat From Cows, Sheeps and Chickens Bones and Study of Content From Fatty Acid.
أستخلاص الدهون من عظام الأبقار والأغنام والدجاج ودراسة محتواها من الأحماض الدهنية.

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Abstract

The aim of present investigation was Litilizing cow, sheep and chicken bones that included both hollow and flat to produce fat. The extraction rat was increased propotionally with rising temperature and extraction time for both cow and sheep bones. The lowest extraction rat form hollow and flat bones for cow and sheep was 12.66, 6.55, 6.93 and 7% respectively at 60°C for 3 hours. The highest extraction rat for hollow cow bones was 21.90% at 90°C for 5 houers, values for flat cow bones, hollow and flat sheep bones was 15.04, 16.4 and 12.8% respectively at 100°C for 5 hours. While, hollow and flat chicken bones resulted lowest extraction rate, thus thermal treatment was conducted only at 90 °c and showed propotional increase with increasing extraction time, fat rat was 1.10 and 1.08% respectively after 3 hours, values were 1.17 and 1.12% respectively after 4 hours. using the Gas-liquid chromatography "GLC" device for fat bones it was obtained that the fat content are prevailing fatty acids according to its presence ratios in the fat hollow cows bones Oleic acid, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid, Palmitoleic acid, Linoleic acid, Myristic acid respectively, while the fat from flat cows bones according to its presence ratios as Oleic acid comes, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid, Palmitoleic acid, Myristic acid, Linoleic acid, respectively, and that the sequence of fatty acids by its presence in the fat hollow sheep bones ratios was Oleic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Stearic Acid , Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Myristic Acid respectively, and in the fat flat sheep bones as follows Oleic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Stearic Acid, Myristic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, respectively, while in the fat of hollow chicken bones was as follow Oleic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Stearic Acid, Myristic Acid respectively, while flat bones fat were Oleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Stearic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Alpha Linolenic Acid, Myristic Acid respectively, also the results showed that the flat chicken bones contained uniqueness fatty acid (the α- Linolenic Acid).


Article
The Effect of Using Ginger (Zingiber officinale) to Prevente Salmonella typhi. in Some Food Products.
تاثير استعمال الزنجبيل Zingiber officinale)) في الحد من تواجد بكتريا السالمونيلا في بعض منتجات الاغذية.

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Abstract

This study was conducted in order to statement the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extracts in reducing the presence of the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium in some foods products. Qualitative disclosures effective chemical compounds (alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, terpenes) showed that the extracts of ginger an effective compounds as follows: oil extract and fresh juice> aqueous extract warm> aqueous extract cold. And studied the impact extract of fresh ginger juice, hot water ,cold water and oil rates extracts (1,2,3)% in bacteria test has shown that all s of extracts clear impact inhibition has oily extract of ginger recorded the highest value to inhibition zone reaching 35 mm when the concentration of 3%, followed by hot water and then fresh juice extract and then cold water 26,18,16 mm inhibition diameters respectively in the same concentration. In mince transactions laboratories with oily extract and other transaction with dry ginger rates (1, 2, 3)% for both, oil extracted and then dry powder transactions showed a 3% higher than the rest of the influential concentrations in reducing the number of Salmonella reaching, 0,1 ×102 , 2×102 respectively, in comparison with control 4 ×102. when a sensory evaluation of the transactions minced meat cooked laboratories powder dry ginger rates (1, 2, 3)%, treatment 2% showed a clear advantage on the rest of the transactions that preceded and followed, where the degree of sensory evaluation of the qualities of flavor the tenderness and juiciness and public acceptance of 4.1, 4.3, 4.5, 4.6, respectively.


Article
Study the optimum conditions for production of inulunase from isolate Kluyveromyces marxianus AY2.
دراسة الظروف المثلى لانتاج الانيولينيز من عزلة محلية من الخميرة AY2 Kluyveromyces marxianus

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Abstract

Results showed that the optimum conditions for production of inulunase from isolate Kluyveromyces marxianus AY2 by submerged culture could be achieved by using inulin as carbon source at a concentration of 2% with mixture of yeast extract and ammonium sulphate in a ratio of 1:1 in a concentration of 1% at initial pH 5.5 after incubation for 42 hours at 30ºC.


Article
Investigate the Microbial Load and Types of Preservatives Yogurt Available In Local Market.
التحري عن الحمولة الميكروبية والمواد الحافظة لانواع اللبن الرائب المتوفر في الاسواق المحلية.

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Abstract

The aim of this study to investigate the microbial load and type of preservative for the types of yogurt available in the Iraqi market to ensure the safety of food provided to the consumer and protect through examining the types of yogurt from harmful bacteria as well as to contain ratios acceptable to yeasts and molds is to find out by comparing models curd careless Iraqi standard quality(ISQ) and see how they conform to these specifications have been collecting 12 brands of yoghurt types it was been (Kala, Activia 1, Activia 2, Mazia, Shelan, Aib, Mersin, Morsi, Al-Safi, Zabady, Zakho, Arbil). Bacteriological tests were conducted on samples of yogurt (total bacterial count, coliform count, counting yeasts and molds). The results showed that the total number of bacteria raised in the trademark (Kala) as total 33×510 cfu/g While the lowest number in the trademark (Mercy) as total 23×110 cfu/g .The highest number of coliform 2×310 cfu/g was in brand (Arbil), while the lowest number of these bacteria 6×110 cfu/g was in Mark (Mersin). In contrast there were no growth of this bacteria in the brand (Mercy) and (Al-Safi). The molds and yeast count were the highest 25×410 cfu/g in the brand (Mazia) ,while the lowest number of molds and yeasts in trademark (Mercy) as total 2×310 cfu/g. It was found that there were no preservative in all yogurt's samples by testing the presence of sodium benzoate.


Article
Effect of Sodium sulfite treatment on the trypsin inhibitors activity, protein isolate and protein solubility of complete and dehulling white bean seeds Phaseolus vulgaris.
تأثير كبريتيت الصوديوم في فعالية مثبطات التربسين والبروتين المعزول والذائب لبذور الفاصوليا البيضاء الكاملة والمزالة القشور.

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The study aimed to increase the biological value of white bean. The effect of different concentrations 0.01 ,0.02,0.03,and 0.04 M of sodium sulfite solutions for 1hr at 70 ºC on the trypsin inhibitors activity, protein isolate and protein solubility of complete and dehulling white bean flour were studied.Trypsin inhibitors activity were reduced by 42.97, 58.69, 68.59 and 69.58% in complete white bean flour at 0.01 ,0.02, 0.03, 0.04 M respectively, while the corresponding values were 50.43, 61.00, 75.61 and 85.66% respectively in dehulling white bean flour .Protein isolate value was 13.41% and protein solubility was 2.2% in control sample, Furthermore, the using of chemical treatment showed that protein isolate was reduced gradually and the minimum value was 11.54% at 0.04M, while soluble protein increased to the maximum value of 2.53% in the same concentration.


Article
The role of e-commerce in the insurance industry and its impacts on consumer rights (In the case of the National Insurance Company study)
دور التجارة الالكترونية في صناعة التأمين وانعكاسها على حقوق المستهلك (دراسة حالة في شركة التأمين الوطنية).

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Abstract

The e-commerce is one of the best achievements of the twentieth century, since the conduct commercial transactions via the Internet may be the consumer easy selection process and purchase convenient manner different from traditional methods, and with the beginnings of the new millennium impose the emergence of e-commerce term significant challenges to the insurance industry as an important economic sectors Generally, and insurance companies in particular as a result of scientific development, which has led to a reduction in costs and innovation in the production, which led to intense competition on both levels local or global. The insurance industry is a vital part of the economy and it has a varied impact to the community and individuals, therein lies the problem of lack of research in e-commerce adoption of the insurance market, which impact on a lot of competitive advantages as well as beneficiaries and Consumer Rights Protection Service. And to the importance of this subject and the novelty of this study is to shed light on the e-commerce and the possibility of their application in the insurance industry and development in order to raise the level of performance in all its activities to keep pace with modern developments so as to enhance the protection of consumer rights and gain customer satisfaction.. has been selected the national insurance company being one of the companies ancient and that have the potential physical and human can contribute use of e-commerce.


Article
Determination of some Optimum Conditions for Bioremediation of Some Heavy Metals by Saccharomyces cerevisiae
تعيين بعض الظروف المثلى للمعالجة الحيوية لبعض المعادن الثقيلة بإستعمال خميرة Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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The study aimed to determine of some Optimum conditions for bioremediation and removing of seven mineral elements included hexavalent chromium, nickel, cobalt, cadmium, lead, iron and copper as either alone or in group by living and heat treated cells of baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The dried baker's yeast from Aldnaamaya China Company was used in this study. Biochemical tests was used to ensure yeast belonging to S. cerevisiae and then used to remove the mentioned mineral elementes under different conditions which included incubation period, pH, and temperature. It was found that the best of these conditions was 60 minutes for duration of incubation, 6 for pH, 25 ᵒC for temperature. During the study the behavior of living and heat treated cells in their efficiency of removing the metal elements was also followed and no differences were found.


Article
Effect of feed blocks on improving milk yield and lambs weight of Iraqi Awassi sheep and increasing milk and meat produced for consumers: Extension trial
تاثير استخدام البلوكات العلفية في تحسين انتاج الحليب وأوزان الحملان لدى الاغنام العواسي وزيادة كميات الحليب واللحوم المنتجة للمستهلكين (تجربة ارشادية)

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This study was conducted to enhance the sheep owners (producers) skills related to the influence of feed blocks on milk yield and lambs weight of Iraqi Awassi sheep and increasing their demandsfor consumers. This study was carried out in four Iraqi governorates using thirty two Awassi ewes that equally divided into four governorates (8 ewes/ governorate). Four of these ewes were fed on feed in addition to their routine ration of barley grains and green forage available. The control ewes were fed on routine available ration only. Thirty six Awassi post-weaning lambs were equally divided into four governorattes (9 lambs/ governorate). Five of these lambs were fed on feed blocks in addition to their routine diet of green forage. The control four lambs were fed on routine ration only.The feed blocks were introduced to the ewes and lambs post-partum and post-weaning respectiely, for 75 days. milk yield, increasing percentage of milk yield and lambs weights were increased significantly and progressively in feed blocks group during the whole stages as compared with control group ia all governorates.


Article
Study the replacement of milk fat with vegetarian oil enhanced ghee flavor and used in yogurt manufacturing
دراسة استبدال دهن الحليب بزيت نباتي معزز بنكهة الدهن الحر واستخدامه في تصنيع اليوكرت.

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This study was carried out to manufacturing yogurt from skim milk has the same flavor for yogurt produced from full-fat milk the process done by replaced the whole milk fat with vegetable oil (sunflower oil) enhanced ghee flavor by mixing sunflower oil with different ratios of yogurt starter 5, 10 and 15%. The results of sensory evaluation which done for sun flower oil after treated with yogurt starter refer to that the oil treated with 10% of yogurt starter has the best ghee flavor those it dependent in manufacturing yogurt of treatment 3, This study consisted of three different yogurt treatments the first 1 which yogurt made from full-fat milk considered as control treatment while treatment 2 the yogurt made from milk content 3% fat substituted with sunflower oil and the third treatment 3 the yogurt made from milk with 3% fat substituted by sunflower oil treated with yogurt starter 10% to enhanced ghee flavor. Sensory evaluation and physicochemical properties of the yogurt treatments studied after manufacturing and during storage at 6± 1C for 14 days. The results reveled that there was no significant differences in the sensory evaluation which conducted after processing directly in the characters color, flavor and texture between the control yogurt and yogurt of treatment 3. While in the developed stages of storage yogurt of treatment 3 became more acceptable than control yogurt. the flavor, texture and color score ranged between 8.5- 10 and 8.5- 10 and 8.5– 10 respectively. The percentage of protein in the yogurt ranged from 9.20- 10.35%, while the fat content between 2.81- 3.10% and the percentage of moisture between 84.81- 85.03% and the percentage of total solids 14.99- 15.19% and the proportion of solids non fat 11.89- 12.19% and the percentage of acidity .56- 1.1% and pH value 3.90- 5.9.


Article
Extraction of Pectin from Some Fruits and Vegetables by Product and Studying Their Physical Properties.
تحديد كفاءة طرق استخلاص البكتين من مخلفات وثمار بعض الفواكه والخضروات ودراسة الفصل ألتجزيئي للمواد البكتينية والأشعة تحت الحمراء.

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This study concenered of extract pectin from some fruit and vegetable and its waste such as citrus peel (Orange, lemon, mandarin, bitter orange), peel pomeagranate, pomes turnip, garden or table beet, cauliflower, peel watermelon cucumismelon and head of sunflower, By useing deferent solvents such as ammonium oxalate 1%, citric acid 2 Molar, oxalic acid 2%, hydrochloric acid 0.5 N. and distilled water acidified with hydrochloric acid in 90 C. and 90 min, The results showed that the highest yield were obtained when using ammonium oxalate for all the samples between 8.7-32.8%. citrus peel (Orange, lemon, mandarin, bitter orange) the highest yield (32.8, 30.0, 23.2 and 22.2%) respectively, followed by the head of sunflower 23.5% and peel pomegranate than pomes turnip. Gardenor table beet and cauliflower 18.4, 13.3 and 11.8% respectively, while the less yield was peel watermelon and cucumismelon 9.1, 8.7% respectively. The results of the percentages yield parts materials pectin both by then of raw material and the ability solubility was the highest percentages of part dissolved with water for each of the mixture peel citrus and pomegranate 12.5, 8.15% respectively, and the lowest yield part of dissolved ammonium oxalate for both sample 6.5, 5.05% while appeared sample peel watermelon cucumismlon and pomes turnip and head of sunflower. Highest parts dissolved of ammonium 10.5, 12.7 and 10.5 respectively. The microscopic examination of pectin showed a convergence of forms between them in terms of the size of pectin particle.Samples diagnosed infrared active groups to see the return of the vessel. the sample studied.


Article
Effect of temperature and pH in some biogenic amines in some beef meat.
تأثير درجة الحرارة والرقم الهيدروجيني في بعض الأمينات الحيوية في اللحم البقري

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The current study included the preparation extracts of biogenic amines from beef meat and study the effect of temperature 5co , 20 co , 35 co and pH. Samples preserved for 7 days and followed up measure concentrations of amines during extended storage (1, 4, 7) days using a High- Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and the existence of standard biogenic amines which included Histamine and Cadaverine and Spermine and Spermidine and Puterscine and Tyramine. The results showed that the concentrations of the biogenic amines increased continuously for Storage In all treatments. The results showed that stored meat in varying degrees heat has clearly affected on the concentrations biogenic amines, when the temperature of 5 co ranged concentration of Histamine and Spermine and Spermidine and Puterscine and Tyramine on the first day of (0.0119, 0.7660, 0.7980, 0.2670, 0.0010) mg/ kg, respectively, and after seven days arrived concentrations to (5.8220, 4.4700, 4.4000, 5.2130, 0.0200) mg/ kg, while the concentration of Cadaverine ranged from 0 to 0.0010 mg/ kg while at a temperature of 20 co concentrations of each of Histamine and Spermine and Spermidine and Puterscine and Tyramine on the first day of ( 0.1010, 1.5710, 1.5550, 0.9400, 0.0420) mg/ kg and then became (18.1710, 8.6600, 9.8910, 11.9150, 0.4250) mg/ kg after seventh day. Cadaverine except it did not exist any concentration on the first day when stored at a temperature of 20co, while reached to 0.7990 mg/ kg after seven days later. When the meat stored at a temperature of 35 co Histamine concentration of 4.3920 mg/ kg and reached 35.5960 mg/ kg either Cadaverine ranged concentration of 1.5780 mg/ kg to 8.7810 mg/ kg and Spermine of 3.0770 mg/ kg to 13.8530 mg/ kg and Spermidine of 5.3570 mg/ kg to 012.130 mg/ kg and Puterscine of 5.7900 mg/ kg to 36.5610 mg/ kg and Tyramine of 0.2690 mg/ kg to 1.1310 mg/ kg. The results also showed that low pH led to increased concentrations of biogenic amines with the continuation of a period of storage and ranged concentration of Histamine from 0.1330 mg/ kg to 4.9400 mg/ kg and Cadaverine of 00.001 mg/ kg to 4.9400 mg/ kg and Spermine of 0.3080 mg/ kg to 1.8970 mg/ kg and Spermidine of 0.4560 mg/ kg to 02.703 mg/ kg and Puterscine of 0.0560 mg/ kg to 2.5600 mg/ kg and Tyramine of 0.0030 mg/ kg to 0.0830 mg/ kg and these concentrations were first and seventh days. When examining the impact of this transaction in the biogenic amines formed after the meat stored for 7 days by cooling it was observed that these treatments did not affect the concentrations of biogenic amines Despite a slight increase in concentrations during the period of storage.


Article
Influence of trace metals ions on growth and antifungal activity of Bacillus subtilis MHS15.
تأثير ايونات المعادن النزرة في نمو بكتريا Bacillus subtilis MHS15 وفعاليتها المضادة اتجاه الفطريات.

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The effect of divalent metal ions in cultivation medium was studied to improve the growth and antifungal activity of Bacillus subtilis MHS15. Two metals salts namely FeSO4. 7H2O and MgSO4.7H2O at concentrations of 1 and 2 mM have stimulated the growth when the maximum optical density of 2.137 and 1.993 were achieved compared with 1.929 for control. Optical density has been suppressed using MnSO4.H2O, CuSO4.5H2O and ZnSO4.7H2O. The MIC against Aspergillus niger observed using 1 mM FeSO4.7H2O when the inhibition was 68.2% with an increase of 70.7% comparing with the maximum inhibition 48.2% by the control. Thus, the present study provides valuable information for enhancing growth and inhibitory effect of B. subtilis MHS15.


Article
The effect of acetic acid on the elimination of favism-inducing agents, vicine and convicine from dry faba bean seeds
تأثير أستخدام حامض الخليك في أزالة مسببات مرض تكسر كريات الدم الحمراء، الفايسين والكونفايسين من بذور الباقلاء الجافة.

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Abstract

The present study was used acetic acid with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%) at various temperature degrees (5, 25, 35 and 45o C) and for many periods of time (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48h) to eliminate vicine and convicine from dry broad beans. By using acetic acid 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% at 5o C, the elimination percentages of vicine during the first 6 h of soaking were, 31.03, 51.96, 48.76, 28.22 and 26.69% while the total eliminated of vicine after 48 h soaking, 57.62, 68.89, 65.11, 54.50 and 53.08% respectively. The vicine elimination at 45o C were 66.86, 51.78, 37.65, 33.83 and 63.60% While the total vicine elimination were(80.92, 93.66, 92.89, 71.00 and 68.57% after 48 h of soaking solution). The convicine elimination percentages were 100% after 36 and 48 h at 5o C by using 1.0 and 1.5% acetic acid solution respectively. The convicine elimination was more effective at high temperatures; it was 100% after 30, 24, 24 and 48h at 35o C by using 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% acetic acid, while it was 100% after 24, 30, 42, 42 and 42 h at 45o C respectively. The elimination processes of vicine and convicine were associated with reduction in proteins and carbohydrates contents.


Article
Effect of partial replacement of beef meat with powdered of oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii (King oyster mushroom) on physical and sensory properties of meat burger.
تأثير الاستبدال الجزيئي للحم العجل بمسحوق الفطر (king oyster mushroom) في الصفات الفيزيائية والحسية لأقراص لحم العجل.

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Abstract

The present study examined the effect of partial replacement for beef meat with Mushroom Powder (MP) in beef burger production. Beef meat was partially replaced by MP in ratios of (0, 10, and 15%). physical properties, and sensory evaluation were done at zero time and after 3 and 7 days of storage at 6 ± 1°C. The result showed that 15% of beef meat could be replaced with MP and still providing good quality of burger. also burger formulated with 15% MP significantly (p≤ 0.05) recorded the lowest reduction in diameter, thickness and weight loss during cooking (12.40, 3.57 and 11.11%) as compared with control (17.82, 19.81, 19.68%). The adding of MP has significantly increased the water holding capacity of manufactured burgers it was (33.93, 45.61 and 51.80%) for control, 10% and 15% substitute respectively. In the sensory evaluation, burger incorporated with 10 and 15% MP had the highest scores for all sensory attributes. the juiciness and tenderness of these burgers was improved, So that values of these parameters were increased with increasing of replacement percentage of meat comparing with control treatment. the present study suggested that incorporation of MP up to 15 % to replace beef meat improved flavor, juiciness, tenderness and acceptance.

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