Table of content

Medical Journal of Babylon

مجلة بابل الطبية

ISSN: 1812156X 23126760
Publisher: Babylon University
Faculty: Medicine
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Medical Journal of Babylon (MJB) is a quarterly medical journal concerned with clinical and basic medical researches. MJB follows the Publication Ethics Statements suggested by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

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العنوان البريدي: العراق-محافظة بابل- الحلة –ص ب 473 جامعة بابل –كلية الطب – مجلة بابل الطبية
عنوان البريد الالكتروني medjbabylon2004@gmail.com

Table of content: 2016 volume:13 issue:1

Article
Controversy of Retention after Dento-Alveolar Expansion (Clinical Study)

Authors: Arkan Muslim Al Azzawi
Pages: 1-6
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Abstract

Maxillary constriction whether unilateral or bilateral still one of the most important problem in orthodontics thus aim of this articleto test hypothesis that Maxillary expansion may be combined with or without retainers for complete treatment due to expansion treatment taken a couple of months while the expander was not removed for several more months to keep teeth from relapse. Twenty patients with an age ranged between 17-22 years old, had posterior bilateral buccal cross bite 5 mm or less based on Angle' classification malocclusion were selected in this study. All of them were white Iraqi Arab in origin and had full permanent dentition regardless the wisdom teeth with minimal crowding (1-2mm). Sample classified in to two groups (A) and (B) of 10 patient and study model was taking preoperatively, after 4 month and after 12 month respectively. Transpalatalbarconstructed and cementedat the same time of hyrax removal, this is procedure prepared for group (B), while for group (A) Hyrax removed and just take impression without TPB and at that time sequence of main arch wire continue and all cases finished with 019*025 mil Nickel Titanium arch wire.Inter-cuspal premolar distance showed significant relapse (1.79 mm) occurred in none retention group (A) between 4 and 12 month this is not present in retention group(B) amount of relapse was none significant (0.05). While there was significant difference in inter-cuspalmolar group A equaled to (1.48mm) and group B equaled to (1.38).Analysis of relapse in group A and group B clarifying that the use of Trans-Palatal arch as retention after hyrax expander didn’t increasedento-alveolar stability.


Article
The Effect of Diode Laser 635nm on Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Apoptosis Induction of CHO47cells line

Authors: Rana Ayad Ghaleb
Pages: 7-16
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Several studies suggest that low power laser irradiation is capable of affecting cellular processes under different conditions.In this study, the effect of low-power laser irradiation on CHO47 cells was investigated.The cells were irradiated with a CW, 635 nm Diode laser at an energy density ranging from 2.94 to 41.16 J/cm2 (power output, 100mW). The cells were grouped into: group1 control (not irradiated); group 2 exposed to 2.94 J/ cm² ; group 3 exposed to 20.58J/ cm²; and group 4 exposed to 41.16J/cm2. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of the irradiated cellsand apoptosis assaywas assessed at 96, 120 and 144 hours.In comparison with the control populations, a significant increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of irradiated cells was observed. In addition, the irradiated cells showed a significant decrease in early, late apoptotic and dead cells in comparison with their respective controls.Based on the conditions of this study, we concluded that the low-level laser inhibit the apoptotic process and increase mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP).


Article
Role of mRNA Binding Protein (HuR) Expression Level in Cancer Cells

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HuR is a mRNA-binding protein. Intracellular localization of HuR is mainly found within nucleus, but it could be translocate between the nucleus and cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm HuR canincrease half-life of certain mRNA target. Since cytoplasmic localization of HuR is essential for its activity, thus, HuR translocation in malignant cells could have prognostic indication. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the significance importance of HuR in the aggressiveness ofcolorectal adenocarcinoma. To achieve this goal, we have investigated itsexpression level in adenocarcinoma sample from Iraqi patients, 7through linking its expression with tumor histopathological variables (stage, grade, grade, and lymph node involvement), by using Immunohistochemical staining method. Study done on 40 colorectal cancer samples and their respective resection margins. Present study demonstrated that, the positive expression rate of integrin HuR in non-tumor colorectal mucosa was significantly lower than that of the colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue (P<0.005). Moreover, when CRC samples breakdown according to histopathological variables, significant differences in expression level of HuR protein when compared with different tumor stage, grade, and LN involvement depending on mean expression ±SE value (P< 0.05, P< 0.05, and p<0.05 respectively). Our results show that high cytoplasmic HuR expression is associated with a poor histologic differentiation, large tumor size, and poor prognosis in colorectal adenocarcinoma.


Article
Factors Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Babylon , Iraq During The Year 2014

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Gestational diabetes has serious consequences on mothers and their children. Gestational diabetes is an increasing public health problem in developing countries including Iraq , the etiology of this health problem is not well understood . The objective of this study is to identify some factors associated with gestational diabetes in Babylon province This was a case control study included 85 diagnosed diabetic pregnant women who were selected randomly from patients attending three hospitals in Babylon in addition to three primary health care centers as cases while 85 healthy women selected randomly from women attending maternal child health units as a control group proved to be non-diabetics, the period of study extended from July, 2014 through January, 2015 . Data was collected using a semi structured questionnaire to assess some risk factors associated with gestational diabetes. Our study showed that the main factors that associated significantly with gestational diabetes (p<0.05 ) were maternal age after 30 years, smoking ,living in urban regions increase weight of baby during delivery (Odds Ratio =3.322), delivery by cesarean section Odds ratio= 2.115). There was also a significant association between family history of diabetes and having gestational diabetes (Odds Ratio =1.64 )but here were no significant association between gestational diabetes and the fallowing variable (p>0.05) ;abortions and family history of obesity. In conclusion the study showed significant associations between gestational diabetes and progressive age of pregnant woman and smoking .Delivery by cesarean section and the delivery of high weight baby were significantly correlated with gestational diabetes.


Article
Pre-Operative Shunt Vs Attack With Safety Burr Hole In Obstructive Hydrocephalus Complicating Medulloblastoma

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A prospective study of 50 patients with obstructive hydrocephalus complicating medulloblastoma in posterior fossa (malignant tumors formed from primitive or poorly developed cells at a very early stage of life) with a histopatho-logically proved medulloblastoma. The patients had different age group and from different geographical regions in Iraq. The aim of this study was to clarify the best method for treating hydrocephalus associated with these tumors. And compare in outcome with patient treated with preoperative shunt and those with direct attack with safety burr hole or direct attack only and our results. In those patients that shunt operation was conducted before tumor resection there is improvement in their clinical condition before tumor resection leading to lax brain during operation.CSF diversion was recommend before tumor resection is recommended for most patients especially for those with midline solid tumors.

Keywords

ICP --- CSF --- CT-scan --- Computerized axial tomography --- MRI --- Burrhole.


Article
Postoperative Electrophysiological Studies in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

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Abstract

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy in the upper extremity.The median nerve is compressed within its course through the carpal Tunnel just distal to the wrist crease. Usually Occur in middle aged patients Ratio of female to male = 4: 1. It is bilateral in over 50 % of cases, but is usually worse in the dominant hand. Early diagnosis and treatment are important and result in complete cure, delay can result in irreversible median nerve damage Every patient with carpal tunnel syndrome should be care¬fully and individually evaluated clinically for proper diagnosis before surgery and thorough search for any associated condition that mimic carpal tunnel syndrome and may be responsible for postoperative complaints.Frequently use postoperative nerve conduction studies for prognostic purposes and to serve as a baseline in determine the postoperative state of median nerve. A patient with any numbness or tingling in the fingers or with any weakness or atrophy of the thenar muscles must be considered as having carpal tunnel syndrome, unless proves otherwise.

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Article
Assessment of Responses and Adverse Effect between Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Imatinib Versus Nilotinib Attending Merjan Teaching Hospital / Hematological Unit

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Abstract

Chronic myeloid leukemia( CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder affecting hemopoietic stem cells and affect predominantly granulocyte progenitor line. Imatinibmesylate is the first molecular targeted therapy for the treatment of CML, the next one is the Nilotinib which is also a selective inhibitor of tyrosine kinase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hematological, cytogenetic and molecular responses in patients with CML receiving Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors attending hematological unit of Merjan hospital and to compare between Imatinib and Nilotinib drugs regarding their responses and adverse effects. Complete hematologic response (CHR) were attained in all patients in this study,cytogenetic response to Imatinib achieved in (86.3%), optimal response in (37.8%) and delayed response more than one year (48.4%) . 78.5% of Nilotinib switched patient achieved complete cytogenetic response,(35.7%) optimal response and (42.8 %) got delayed response, (21.4%) of patients showed failure of cytogenetic response. Molecular response achieved in (72.7%) and (53.5%) to Imatinib and Nilotinib switched patients respectively, others (46.5%) of Nilotinib switched patients showed molecular failure.The vast majority of adverse effects were minor for both drugs, liver function tests and amylase enzyme showed minor elevation in a minority of patients. Frequent cytogenetic and molecular monitoring are necessary to define patients with optimal responses and to switch those with suboptimal one to another drug so to achieve optimal responses.

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Article
The Role of Forced Expiratory Flow at 25-75 Measurement as A Predictor of Positive Reversibility Test in Asthmatic Patients with Normal Pulmonary Function Test

Authors: Safaa Jawad Kadhem
Pages: 59-65
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In the mild asthmatic attacks, partially treated asthma, early stages of bronchial asthma and in between the asthmatic attacks, sometimes we find patients with a history suggestive of asthma and normal PFT (FEV1 +FEV1/FVC > 80% of the predicted value). This study investigated the value of FEF 25-75 measurement as a predictor of the presence of a reversible airway obstruction (RAO) in adult patients with clinical features of asthma and normal pulmonary function test. 64 patients with clinical features suggestive of asthma and normal pulmonary function test were included in the study. These patients were subdivided into three groups, group 1 were those with normal pulmonary function test and FEF 25-75>70%, group 2 were those with normal pulmonary function test and FEF 25-75< 70%>55% and group 3 are those with normal pulmonary function test and FEF 25-75<55%.each of the study group was compared with 35 sex and age matched healthy volunteers. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC and FEF25 – 75 were measured before and 10-20 minutes after salbutamol administration (by nebulizer). Of the 64 subjects, the percentage of subjects with RAO (FEV1 increase after bronchodilator >12 %) was lower (11%) in the group 1 (27 subjects) and higher (44%) in the subjects of the group 2 (23 subjects) and highest (52%) in the subject of group 3 (14 subjects ). FEF25-75 percent predicted is a good predictor of the presence of reversible airways obstruction in asthmatic patient with normal PFT.


Article
Results of Bone Marrow Examination Over 9 Years Period in Iraqi Patients from Babil Province

Authors: Najlaa Bader Alawadi
Pages: 66-72
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The aim of this study is to assess the results of bone marrow aspiration with or without trephine biopsy in Babil province. In this observational study, 5644 Iraqi patients were included, male: female ratio was 1.3:1 and age range was 1-78 years. The patients attended hospital for bone marrow aspiration with or without biopsy over a period of 9 years from 1st March 2006 till 1st March 2015. Pallor and anemia (55.3 %) were the most common indication. The morphological examination of blood film and bone marrow were performed. The final diagnosis was reached in 93.21% (5261/5644) of patients by morphological examination of bone marrow samples only. However, other 383 (6.78%) of patients needed further advanced tests. The result of BME was normal in 28.72% (1621/5644) of patients which was the most common result. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was the cause of bone lytic lesions in a significant number of cases and it should be kept in mind. This study concluded that bone marrow examination is a worthy test and can reach the diagnosis in majority of cases with morphological examination only, and this ratio can be increased by introduction of other supplementary tests like CD markers and immunohistochemistry. Normal results also helped diagnosis by their exclusive value. Doctors must be encouraged to request BME whenever they found it indicated.


Article
Evaluation of Insulin, Insulin Resistance LH, and FSHin Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Diabetic Mellitus Type 2

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The polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common causes of infertility duo to anovulation in women.In this study there was 105 women, 75 patients of them divided in to three groups, (A) 30 women with diabetic mellitus type 2, (B) 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, (C) 15 women with diabetic mellitus type 2 and poly cystic ovary syndrome and 30 women asa control group.In this entire group were analyzed serum fasting glucose, HbA1c, fastinginsulin,IR,LH, FSH, lipid profile, and total anti-oxidant. The result show significant increase in fasting insulin level, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patient group and DMT2+PCOS group compared to those of control also there was a significant increase in level of LH compared to those of control(p<0.05). Woman with diabetic mellitus type2 and polycystic ovary syndrome have high serum insulin levels and Luteinizing hormone Insulin resistance and compensatoryhyperinsulinemia can inhibit follicular development and ovulation.


Article
The Evaluation of Placental Vascular Generation and Placental Apoptosis in Preterm and Post-date Placentae in Relation to Apgar Score at Birth

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The placenta is a fetal organ with different functional values as a metabolic, excretory, and respiratory in addition to endocrine functions.To evaluate the vasculature and apoptosis of human placenta atdifferent ages (preterm and post-date) in relation to APGAR score of the newborn infants at birth. A total of 50 normal human placentae,delivered by elective cesarean section,were used.These placentae were divided into 3 groups according to the gestational ageinto:(15) Preterm placentae, (20) Term placentae(as control) and (15) Post-date placentae.Regional placental vascular study was achieved by using latexcasting technique, while the detection of the apoptotic cells in the placental tissues was done via the insitu direct DNA fragmentation Assay. The terminal villi of the preterm placentae group showed asignificant reduction in theirnumbersand lengthsP value(0.0035), (0.045), respectively, and no significant difference in their diametersin comparison to the control group. While the terminal villi of the post-date placentae revealeda significant increase in their numbers (P value <0.001) with no significant difference in their lengths and diameters.The terminal villi of preterm and post-dateplacentae revealed a significant reduction in the numbers of the apoptotic cells (P value (0.0053) and (0.0004) respectively.The APGAR score of preterm and postdate placentae reported significant decreasein their values (P value < 0.001 for both). As well as, there were significant changes in the numbers of apoptotic cells among these three groups related to theirApgar scores. Conclusions: it was revealed that the vascular pattern of placenta by latex casting technique and apoptotic cells numbers by tunel test were reflectedfor both the maturity of placenta and physiological status of baby which was assessed by Apgar score.


Article
The Role of Ultra Sound in Diagnosis of Intussusceptions in Children in Baghdad 2012_2013

Authors: Hassan Kareem Gata --- Amer Abdulla Ejrish
Pages: 85-94
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Intussusceptions’ is the acquired invagination of one portion of the intestine into the adjacent bowel. It is described by the proximal, inner segment of intestine (intussusceptum) first and the outer distal, receiving portion of intestine (intussuscipience). This study of 50 cases of intussusceptions in the children welfare teaching hospital at medical city in BaghdadSeptember2012-September2013.All patient underwent history, physical examination and investigation(radiological include plain abdominal x-ray and ultrasonagraphy.the patient divided into two age groups(infant younger than 10 months age, infant older than 10 months age).Thirty eight patients(79.17%) were equal or below 10 months and ten patients(20.83%) were above 10 months. Female to male ratio was1.2:1.The diagnostic tool used was the ultrasound for fifty patients, in forty three cases diagnosis was made by characteristic ultrasonic findings of intussusceptions(target sign or pseudo kidney sign),all of them had a classical intussusceptions mass during operative procedure. The remaining 7 patients had negative ultrasonic findings for intussusceptions,2 of them were truly negative ultrasonic findings on laparotomy,while the other 5patients had an intussusceptions mass during laparotomy .the ultra sound sensitivity was 90%. For that reason the ultrasound still the good diagnostic tool for diagnosis of intussusceptions.


Article
Awareness and Attitude of Pregnant Women towards Labor Analgesia in Babil Province

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The aim of this study is to assess the awareness and attitude of pregnant women in Babil province toward painless labour and their willingness to get the service. A questionnaire form designed and given to pregnant women in Babil province attending the antenatal clinics in seven primary health care centers, 820 pregnant women responses to the questionnaire form taken for this study. 10.98% primiparas and 89.02% are multiparas. Mean age of respondents was 26.6±6.4.most of the multipararespondents report their pain in the previous labor as very severe and sever.Most of the respondents have no any information about painless labour and 5.1% have little information, their source of information was 36.2% from friends and relatives,20.3%, from TV. 62.3% have very high and high fear from next labour pain.Most of women will ask for the service of painless labour if it is available. 59.9% think labor can’t be without pain.most of the respondents don’t knew who will be responsible for relief of their labor pain. Conclusion: This study showed poor general knowledge of pregnant women in Babil province about painless labor . It is recommended that information about painless labor should be given by the antenatal physician, obstetrician or a nurses in a collaborative with anesthesiologists to inform pregnant women about benefits, modalities and limitations of painless labor, Education of the labor room staff about the service and Public education by TV programs. The persistently low request of painless labor by pregnant women could thus be ascribed to a combination of poor pregnant women awareness and inadequate provision of resources so to start with is implementing standard infrastructure for labor room that can help provision of the service and it necessary taken into consideration by the ministry of health .

Keywords

Awareness --- Attitude --- pregnant women --- Labor --- analgesia


Article
Influence of Aluminum Oxide Conditioning Before Acid Etching on Tooth Surface: an Experimental Study

Authors: Arkan Muslim Al Azzawi
Pages: 105-109
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Aim of the present study, examination of enamel roughness in palatal aspect of extracted premolars by using aluminum oxide (25%, 27% and 28% µm and phosphoric acid 37%. Twenty of all samples contoured with cylindrical shape forming wax and poured with stone to form cylindrical shape and palatal surface remain fully visible and this surface cleaned and polished with plastic cup and pumice and rinsed with distal water and dried with air. Data divided to 4 group each one is 5 extracted teeth and variable assessed by picture captured before and after adding conditioning material by using camera, light microscope,analyzed by Autocad 3D max and electronic microscope with its three dimensional software. The result of this article clearly there is significant difference between groups with different conditioning materials also the pattern of enamel surface showing highly significant difference. This study approved that the palatal animal conditioned with aluminum oxide particles of 25%, 27%, and 28% µm before conditioned by acid etch result in greater scratched and introduce more regular pattern than that using of phosphoric acid only.


Article
A Descriptive Study on Dysphonia in Iraq

Authors: Mazin Rajeh Jaber --- Ali Abd Al-Amer Jwad
Pages: 110-116
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A disordered voice can be defined as one that has one or more of the following characteristics: it is not audible, it is not appropriate for the gender and age of the speaker; it is not capable of fulfilling its linguistic and paralinguistic functions;it fatigues easily; it is associated with discomfort and pain on phonation.Avoice disorders can be divided into organic, neurologic, and functional categories. to evaluate the distribution and causes of voice disorders.This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study, consisted of 100 patients. They were 46 males and 54 females. they had been assessed at the otolaryngology department in Al-Diwania teaching hospital, AlDiwania city, Iraq, during the period between May 2013 to September 2015, the age range from 10-80 years .inclusion criteria was voice disorder for 3weeks or more . Patients were first examined by an otolaryngology specialist ,this is followed by the clinical examination of the throat.Indirect laryngoscopy was done, followed by fibreoptic laryngeal video endoscopy. Imaging study was done for patients with tumoral lesions . For patients with suspected neurological problems magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and neurological consultation was done . The diagnosis then confirmed and the patients receive treatment accordingly. most of patients with voice disorders are less than 50 years old. The prevalence of voice disorders was higher in women than in men. The commonest causes of dysphonia are organic (70%) followed by functional(24%) and neurologic dysphonia(6%).In patients with organic dysphonia the commonest cause was the Chronic nonspecific laryngitis (20%), followed by vocal cord nodules (18%) vocal cord polyp(13%) while the granuloma was the least(1%). dysphonia is important symptom of laryngeal disorders.The highest prevalence of voice disorders was observed during the years of active life,and the majority are due to benign organic diseases.

Keywords

Dysphonia --- hoarsness --- Iraq.


Article
Descriptive Study for Neonatal Death in Neonatal care Unit in of Maternity and Children Teaching Hospital in Al-Diwaniya

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Approximately more than ten million die in the first month of life over all the world (with more than one hundred million born annually) , also approximately 75 % of death in neonate occur in the first seven days of life and more than 25% of them occur in the first day of life. the death during neonatal life represent approximately more than 35% of death that occur below five years in the world .This study was analytical prospective study , included all the infants hospitalized in NICU of maternity and children teaching hospital in Al-diwaniah governorate from first of September 2013 to the end of august 2014.About 1466neonate patients was admitted to the neonatal care unit directly either from the labor room or from the operation room and the neonate only in contact with health personnel ; from those we study all 193 hospitalized neonates that died due to different causes. In this study, of 1466 neonates , were hospitalized in NICU (neonatal intensive care unit) in maternity and children teaching hospital from first of September 2013 through august 2014 ; from which 193 (13.1% )cases were died . Those infants died in the hospital with male to female ratio approximately 2:1[ male 64.25% and female 35.75% respectively] ; 36.8% of them were full term and 63.2 % were premature . the most common cause of the neonatal death were the RDS (respiratory distress syndrome) 93 (48.1%) and the second most common cause were the complication of prematurity other than the RDS which form 55 (28.4% ) like apnea , extreme immaturity with low birth weight , hypoglycemia and hypothermia and necrotizing enterocolitis. Theothercauses were birth asphyxia 7.7 %, congenital anomalies 4.1% and sepsis 5.6% r, the meconium aspiration syndrome infant represent about 9 (4.6 %)and miscellaneous causes( least or rare causes) like hydropsfetalis and intraventricular hemorrhageand congenital heart diseasewas 3 (1.5 %). The final conclusion shows the common cause of neonatal death was sever immaturity with its complications and mainly the respiratory distress syndrome .almost the death occur in sever low birth weight associated with prematurity. The study proves the relations between certain maternal and neonatal factors and neonatal mortality. Good antenatal care especially in third trimester to avoid prematurity should be provided to any pregnant woman.


Article
Human Hydatidosis in Duhok – Kurdistan Region – North of Iraq

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Forty eight sera were collected from patients with suspected Hydatid cyst (HC) admitted to Duhok public and private hospitals and from apparently hydatid cyst free people during the period from 1/ October 2010 to 30 / April 2011. All sera were examined for the presence of specific antihydatid antibodies by ELISA IgG (DRG kit - Germany) and Indirect Hemagglutination test (IHA). The liver was the most common site of HC in 26 (54.2%) of cases followed by the lung HC in 12 (25.0%) of cases. Regarding the residency of examined patients, most of the HC cases were found to be from rural or semi-rural areas such as Sinjar 17 (35.4%), Sumel 11 (22.9%), Talfer 6 (12.5%), Telkif 5 (10.4%) and Shekhan 2 (4.2%) of cases. The HC cases reported from patients of Duhok and Zakho were 4 (8.3%) and 3 (6.2%) respectively. The highest rate of infection was among housewives 25 (52.1%) followed by free workers 12 (25.9%) and the lowest rates were recorded from the government employed, children and students groups. The highest rate was found in age groups 11-20 and 21-30 years at a rate of 11(22.9%) for each from the total number of cases followed by the age the group 31-40 years at a rate of 10(20.8%) of the cases. The highest percentage was among females 31(64.4%) of the cases. Out of 48 patients, it was found that 34 (70.8%) had a history of contact with dogs and animals, and 14 (29.1%) did not have any contact with dogs and animals.


Article
Pathological Effects of Leishmania Donovani Promastigotes on Liver and Spleen of Experimentally Infected BALB/C Mice

Authors: Hind Mahdi Jarallah
Pages: 134-140
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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) disease is recognized as an important public health problem in countryside (Iraq). The Leishmania donovani complex parasites can parasitize the reticuloendothelial cells, The parasite invades internal organs (spleen, liver, bone marrow). The effect of visceral disease of Leishmania parasites was studied on liver and spleen in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani promastigotes. Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IQ/1982/BCR1/AA3), were obtained from the Leishmania unit at medical research center of Al-Nahrian University. Cultures were carried out using Nicolle-Novy-McNeal (NNN) medium. A solid and liquid phase. The pathological effect was observed on two organs. The progressive of visceral infection was monitoring every two weeks for evaluation the development of weight and length of liver and spleen respectively. The results of this study have demonstrated that the infected mice shown the hepatosplenomegaly sign of pathological efficacy of L. donovani promastigote of mice inoculation. The weight of liver was increased with increasing days of infection until reached to (2.30) gm compared with control (1.60) gm of inoculated mice on 12 weeks after parasitic inoculation, also the length of spleen increased with increasing days of infection until reached to (40) mm compared with control (19) mm. Statistical analysis data of weight and length was highly significant differences (p < 0.05) between infected and control groups. It was concluded that the pathological changes in visceral organs liver and spleen in experimentally infected mice may be used as indicators for progression of the infection with its severity.


Article
Abdomnial Vascular Injuries

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This study a review of 64-patients with abdominal vascular injuries from January 2007 to December 2013.Where treated in the emergency department of the cardiothoracic and vascular surgery. Most of them young age 18-50years,average age(32years).Male 46-patients,female 18-patients.Penetrating injuries (45-cases 70.2%),blunt injury (3-cases 4.8%), accidental (16-cases 25%).Penetrating injuries(blast/shell injury 30-cases,gunshot 12-cases, stab wound 3-cases).Zone I (44-cases),zone II(4-cases), zone III (16-cases).According to organ injury scale Grade IV most common(38-patients 59.37%). Aortic artery injury 28-cases. Inferior vena cava(8-cases) combined injury with aorta (20-cases),renal artery(4),splenic artery(2),celiac trunk (6),left common iliac artery (3),external and internal iliac arteries (13). Small bowel injuries (12-cases),large bowel(6),spleen(2),renal(4),liver(8),ureter, bladder (7). Ligation(19-cases 29.68%),direct repair or by graft (49-cases 76.56%).Complication ongoing bleeding 7.81%, respiratory distress 15..62%, wound dehiscence 9.37%. Mortality rate (12) 18.75%, survival rate(52) 81.25%.Coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis, hypothermia,combined vascular injuries ,and associated abdominal organs injuries increase the morbidity and mortality rates. Trauma surgeon should had a back-ground of the abdominal vascular anatomy ,and the methods of the vascular anastomosis. Primary goal control of the bleeding rather than maintenance of the blood flow to the organs.


Article
A Cross-Sectional Study To Evaluate The Prevalence Of Thyroid Disorders Between Diabetic Patients In Hilla City

Authors: Manar Mohammed Hassan Al-Murshidi
Pages: 154 -159
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of thyroid dysfunctions between diabetic patients. 150,36 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects,respectively were included in the study. they underwent a laboratory diagnosis for T3,T4,TSH and blood sugar tests.and a demographic data (weight ,height ,age, duration of diabetes ,hypertension, kidney and liver dysfunction) were obtained from them. Results revealed that there was a disturbance in thyroid hormone concentrations among diabetic patients ,The most frequently thyroid dysfunction was subclinical hypothyroidismas there was a decrease in thyroid hormone (T4)concentration.the study concluded that there was a prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among diabetic patient especially among type 2 DM patients as it was high with subclinicalhy pothyroidism.


Article
Limited Versus Complete Axillary Lymphatic Dissection as Part of The Overall Procedure of Modified Radical Mastectomy in The Management of Invasive Breast Cancer Patients

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Complete dissection of axillary lymph nodes (DALN) can be sidestepped in chosen cases of invasive breast cancer patients with confined lymph nodal disease and having conventional breast surgery, nevertheless, for node positive mastectomy patients, complete dissection of axillary lymph nodes remains the model procedure, Avoidance of complete dissection of axillary lymph nodes is reliable in many node-positive patients and can be substituted with limited axillary lymph node dissection which consists of elimination of Sentinel lymph nodes and other grossly palpable lymphatics without further axillary devastation. A prospective study of 55 women patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer underwent mastectomy with conservative dissection of axillary lymph nodes between September 2012 and December 2014 in Al-yarmouk teaching hospital and private hospitals in Baghdad, the recorded information included patient age, menstrual history, drug history, family history, tumour staging, number of axillary lymph nodes excised, postoperative medical therapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, recurrence and local complications including lymphedema, Fifty five patients underwent mastectomy with limited axillary lymph node dissection, all are females, the mean age was 38 years, 43 patient (78.2%) were invasive ductal carcinoma and 12 patients (21.8%) invasive lobular carcinoma, the mean follow-up period was 2 years, a mean number of eight lymph nodes were removed, there were 1 patients (1.8) % with local chest wall recurrence but no single case of axillary recurrence. Lymphedema development occurred in 2 patients (3.6%) and was associated with significant number of the removed lymph nodes (P=0.05) and postoperative radiotherapy (P=0.005).


Article
Assessment of apoB and apoA-I serum levels associated with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in Babylon province

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Abstract

Acute coronary syndromes (ACS), is a term that encompasses both unstable angina and myocardial infarction (MI) with or without ST-segment elevation.It is a life-threatening disorder that remain a source of high morbidity and mortality despite advances in treatment. Risk assessment done by using risk factors and risk markers. In the present study assessment of apolipoprotein B (apoB) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) done to recognize their roles as risk biomarkers.Acase control study enrolled 160 subjects; 80 patients diagnosed as ACS patients by expert physicians and 80 controls (non-ACS) subjects. Serum levels of apoB and apoA-I was measured by using ELISA technique. The results were expressed as qi-square categorical statistics. A P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A concentration of apoB>1.3g/L in female and >1.5g/L in male appeared to be eleven times risky for ACS than lower levels (OR=11.2).ApoA-I showed non-significant variation between patients and controls (p>0.05). Subjects having apoB/A-I ratio between (0.6-o.79) as a female and (0.7-0.89) as a male are two times risky to get ACS than controls (OR=2.3).Concluded that apoB is a strong predictor of ACS, abnormal low apoA-I serun level does not contribute to the risk stratification of ACS in the presence of high apoB serum level, and the apo-ratio is the strongest of all lipid-related variables and is thus the best summarizing risk variable.

Keywords

ACS --- apoB --- apoA-I --- apoB/A-I-ratio --- Biomarker


Article
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Comparative Study Between Traditional Incision and Mini Palmar Incision

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Abstract

CTS is the most common peripheral nerve compression disorders. Surgical treatment of CTS involves many procedures ranging from the traditional incision to variety of minimal invasive techniques. The aim of the study is to compare the results of surgical treatment of CTS using traditional incision and 1.5 cm palmar incision regarding postoperative pain, scar tenderness, returning to daily activity and patient satisfactory score. We studied 200 patients, half of them treated with traditional incision of CTS surgical decompression and other half treated with 1.5cm mini palmar incision of CTS surgical decompression. We followed those patients regarding postoperative pain, scar tenderness, returning to daily activity and patient satisfactory score for 3 months period of follow up. We found in this study that mini palmar incision 1.5cm is safe and effective as traditional open release technique with better results regarding postoperative pain, scar tenderness, time needed to return to daily activity and patient satisfaction with the surgery.


Article
Association Ghrelin Level with Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Obese Patients

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ghrelin concentration with markers of insulin resistance and obesity in type 2 diabetes, Evaluation of the possible association of the obesity in type 2 diabetes and gene polymorphism. The results show that the Levels of ghrelin (mean ± S.E) ghrelin was significantly lower in obese type 2 diabetes compared to control group (p< 0.0001) and Levels of ghrelin did not differ between the 49men and the 59 women. smoking history was significantly. ghrelin showed significant negative correlation with BMI (r= -0.62), Waist/Hip ratio(r = -0.68), SBP (r= -0.53) and DBP(r= -0.43).A significant negative correlation between Ghrelin level and FBG (r= -0.55), HbA1c (r= -0.60), Insulin (r= -0.44) andinsulin resistance index (HOMAIR HOMA-IR(r= -0.46). There was an inverse correlation between Ghrelin level and cholesterol(r= -0.15), triglycerides(r=-0.38) and VLDL(r= -0.38) respectively, while there is no significant correlation with LDL. As well as there weresignificant positive correlation between Ghrelin level and HDL. A significant negative correlation between Ghrelin level and Syctolic bloodpressure and diastolic blood pressure (r= -0.53 andr=-0.43) was observed in the obese type 2 diabetes groups.


Article
Randomized Comparative Study of Four Lines of Treatment of Sacroccocygeal Pilonidal Sinus

Authors: Mohend Abbas Noori Al-Shalah
Pages: 196 -205
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ghrelin concentration with markers of insulin resistance and obesity in type 2 diabetes, Evaluation of the possible association of the obesity in type 2 diabetes and gene polymorphism. The results show that the Levels of ghrelin (mean ± S.E) ghrelin was significantly lower in obese type 2 diabetes compared to control group (p< 0.0001) and Levels of ghrelin did not differ between the 49men and the 59 women. smoking history was significantly. ghrelin showed significant negative correlation with BMI (r= -0.62), Waist/Hip ratio(r = -0.68), SBP (r= -0.53) and DBP(r= -0.43).A significant negative correlation between Ghrelin level and FBG (r= -0.55), HbA1c (r= -0.60), Insulin (r= -0.44) andinsulin resistance index (HOMAIR HOMA-IR(r= -0.46). There was an inverse correlation between Ghrelin level and cholesterol(r= -0.15), triglycerides(r=-0.38) and VLDL(r= -0.38) respectively, while there is no significant correlation with LDL. As well as there weresignificant positive correlation between Ghrelin level and HDL. A significant negative correlation between Ghrelin level and Syctolic bloodpressure and diastolic blood pressure (r= -0.53 andr=-0.43) was observed in the obese type 2 diabetes groups.


Article
The Relationship between Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

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Abstract

PCOS is one of the commonest endocrine disorders among the women during their reproductive age .The world-wide prevalence of the disease ranges between (5- 10 %). Those patients were classified in this study into three classes according to Rotterdam criteria which states that PCOS is defined as at least two of three of the following criteria:Obigomenorhea or anovulation, Biochemical signs of increased androgen levels (such as hirsuitism), and Detection of polycystic ovary (Ten or more cysts of 2-10 mm in diameter and in the absence of other endocrine disturbances). This study included 90 women with PCOS divided into three groups , infertile , hirsute , and combined (both infertile and hirsute) thirty patients of each group, with forty women apparently healthy as a control group. The measurement of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) has been done by using cobas e 411 analyzer. The oxidative stress has been determined depending on Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker by spectrophotometric method, the concentrations of total testosterone and sex hormones (LH, FSH) were measured by using ELFA technique. Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD1), Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations have been measured by using ELISA technique. The results of BMI showed that highly significant differences between all patient groups compared with control group. The results revealed a significant differences in levels of (PSA, MDA, TAC, SOD1, Testosterone and LH/FSH Ratio) (P<0.05, P< 0.01) in all patient groups in comparison with control. The results demonstrated negative correlation between PSA and MDA in all patient groups, as well as positive correlation between PSA and both of testosterone and LH/FSH Ratio. From the above results and their correlations we can conclude that PSA considered to be a valuable biomarker for Androgens activity in PCOS patients. The results also showed that no significant changes in DHEA level this indicates that no contribution of the pituitary-adrenal axis in these changes.

Keywords

PCOS --- PSA --- ELISA --- Iraqi Women.


Article
Obesity and Overweight in a Sample of Women at Child Bearing Age in Baghdad City

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Abstract

Obesity is a chronic disease defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a condition of abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, to the extent that health may be impaired . This excess fat mass is thought to lead to increased risk of ill such as metabolic and cardiovascular disease, , decreased physical function, and some cancers . The aims of this study are To determine rate of overweight among sample of women at the childbearing age, and To find the relationship between the body mass index and some variables. A cross-sectional study conducted in Al- washash & Bab-almoadham primary health centers, sampling was (convenient ) & the sample size was 506. Data was collected by questionnaire to obtain socio- demographic information & weight and height of each women was measured by the researcher. About 66.2% of the studied sample of women was in the age (20-29) years. And the 58.5% were housewife , about 54% of women in the sample were overweight while obesity rate was 1.4% only. About 63.3% of the sample with normal weight were mainly non contraceptive users. Analysis of results by chi-square test show that ( types of contraceptive, family history of obesity, socio economic status, parity, birth space interval, types of food) was significant factors associated with body mass index.

Keywords

Body mass index --- Factors --- Women


Article
Pre-Operative Vs Post-Operative Shunt Procedure in Meningocele Repair

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Abstract

A prospective study of 50 neonates with hydrocephalus and meningocele (one of the important congenital malformations involving defective development of spinal neural tube). This study to compare between patients with V-P shunt before repair of meningocele and those with repair first and the results shows that preoperative shunt procedure in patient with meningocele and hydrocephalus is very important aspect to prevent post-operative CSF leak and wound infection.

Keywords

CSF --- MRI --- OFC --- CT-scan --- U/S --- V-P shunt


Article
The Diagnostic Accuracy Of Preoperative Diagnosis In Adult Male Patients With Non-Traumatic Acute Abdominal Conditions

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Abstract

The term “acute abdomen” denotes any sudden spontaneous non-traumatic disorder whom the chief manifestation is in the abdomen. There is frequently a progressive underlying intra-abdominal disorders, therefore the early diagnosis and treatment of such conditions are essential for a favorable outcome. Abdominal pain is a common presentation that requires almost immediate management. Diagnosis of acute abdomen before laparotomy is essential in reducing the morbidity, mortality and at the same time in preventing unnecessary operations, especially when the diagnostic facilities are limited and clinical awareness plays an important role in the diagnosis and management. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the preoperative assessment with the operative diagnosis of adult male patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal conditions. This is a prospective study conducted at the AL-Sader medical city during the period from 1st.of December 2012 to 1st. of December 2014. The study included 65 patients with clinical manifestations suggestive of acute abdomen that require exploratory laparotomy, while any patients with trauma to the abdomen, previous laparotomy, acute abdomen of medical causes and those below 12 years old were excluded from the study. Acute abdomen was more common in the age group 20-39 years. This study revealed that acute appendicitis was the cause of acute abdomen in 52.3%. Other common causes of acute abdomen were perforated viscus / peritonitis 18.46% and intestinal obstruction 15.38%, . Leukocytosis has a sensitivity of 36.8% and a specificity of 66.6%. UA has a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 77.1%. US has a sensitivity of 66% and a specificity of 75%. Erect chest X-ray has a sensitivity of 20% and a specificity of 92.5%. Supine/erect plain abdominal X-rays has a sensitivity of 63.6% and a specificity of 93.02%. This study showed that the overall diagnostic accuracy of preoperative assessment was 86.15%. The diagnostic accuracy of perforated viscus /peritonitis was 100 %, the diagnostic accuracy of intestinal obstruction was 83.33%, while the diagnostic accuracy of acute appendicitis was 82.92%.


Article
The Effect of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) on The Blood Levels of Glucose, Sodium, Potassium, and Calcium Selectionly in Mentally Ill Patients

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Abstract

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a tool in the treatment for a few numbers of severe mental illnesses. It was used widely from 1930 s afterward to treat different types of psychiatric illnesses. And nowadays is very much limited for very sever conditions. Amnesiais reported as one of the post-ECT side effects associated with changes in certain electrolytes level especially serumcalcium(s.Ca+2) immediately after ECT and changes in blood brain permeability. Likewise changes in serum potassium (S.K+2), sodium (S.Na+)&blood glucose (b.Glu.)levels in patients after ECT session were also reported. ECT is also associated with CVS changes which again could reflect electrolytes change. The aim of the study is to establish if there would be any alteration in the level of (s.ca+2),(S.K+2)and (b.Glu.)in psychiatric patients admitted to Basra General Hospital.This finding could highlight the possible harm effects of ECT especially in patients with cardiovascular system (CVS)& renal disorders and aware physicians about this possible harm effects of ECT. The study was performed on 64 patients (31 male & 33 female) with averaged age of 45.5 years. The standard bilateral method of ECT was used to treat those patients with all precautions to eliminate any associated side – effects of the procedure. Blood samples were taken from all patients immediately pre- & post – ECT application, & were sent to the lab in Basra Hospital for(b.Glu.)& electrolytes analysis. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using SPSS application. There was a significant decrease in the values of(S.Na+),(S.K+2),&(b.Glu.) levels (P = 0.000) immediately after ECT exposure in the total number of patients with insignificant, decrease in the ( s.Ca+2)level (P = 0.067). In addition, a gender wised analysis showed that in male patients, there were significant decline in ( b.Glu.), (S.Na+), (S.K+2), but, a significant increase in(s.Ca+2) level. While in female patients, the same results were recorded for the ( b.Glu.), (S.Na+), &(S.K+2) with an insignificant increase in (s.Ca+2) level (P = 0.36).


Article
Assessment of Adenosine Deaminase and Total Antioxidant of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients in Hilla City

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Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory, autoimmune disease that causes pain, joint stiffness and loss of function. It can occur at any age but is more common in persons over the age of 30 years and affects women more often than men The Aims of the study is Compare changes in Adenosine deaminase activity among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and control group , Compare total anti-oxidant for patients with RA and control group The study was conducted in rheumatology unit in Marjan teaching hospital in Hilla city / Babil / Iraq from 1st December 2014 to 1st February 2015. The present study was conducted on (60) patients with rheumatoid arthritis and (53) apparently healthy subjects were taken as control group and the ages between (30–79) years. The sera obtained from the blood of patients and healthy subjects were used to measure the concentrations of Adenosine deaminase and Total antioxidant capacity ADA is an important enzyme of purine metabolism catalyzing the irreversible deamination of adenosine to form inosine and is considered as a marker of cell mediated immunity. RA patients have lower levels of serum antioxidants comparison to healthy person. In comparison with the control group, the patients with RA showed a significant increase in of Adenosine deaminase (P ≤ 0.05) concentrations (120.91 ng/ml ± 7.171 vs. 50.717 ng/mL ± 5.613), and a significant decrease in Total antioxidant capacity (P ≤ 0.05) concentration(2.8214 ± 1.118 vs. 9.413 ± 1.48).

Keywords

ADA --- T-AOC --- RA --- Seurm


Article
CT-Scan Finding in Chronic Rhinosinusitis at Babylon Province

Authors: Saad Abd Al-Raheem Al-Juboori
Pages: 250 -257
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Abstract

Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common disease in which a number of factors play a role like anatomical and environmental factors. This study identifies these factors by CT scan and the frequency of each.This study was designed to find Computed Tomography scan (CT scan) findings of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. This is a prospective and descriptive clinical study that is conducted at department of Otolaryngology /Al-Hilla Teaching Hospital over a period of eleven months (from June 2013-May 2014) on 50 patients (mean age of 28 year, most of them in 18-25 year age group making male to female ratio=1.5:1 for CRS patients that 60% reside in rural area) with clinical diagnosis of chronic rhinosinusitis. The distributions of sex, residence, sinus involvement and the percentage of CT-scan variants (in chronic rhinosinusitis patients) were studied.The most involved sinus was Maxillary sinus and least involved was Sphenoid sinus. High rates of anatomical and mucosal variants present in CT-scan of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis High percentage of anatomical and mucosal variation seen by CT scan in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis


Article
Screening for Antibacterial Activity of Streptomyces Spp. Isolated in Babylon, Iraq

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Abstract

Streptomyces are the biggest source for antibiotics production, they constitute about more than 75% in antibiotic productivity, and these antibiotics have a significant application in the commercial and therapeutic fields. The study included screening on the most potent antibacterial producing Streptomyces isolates. 41 Streptomyces isolates were primarily screened for antibacterial activity toward Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (E. coli), six isolates were selected (SMI-02, SMI-03, SMI-04, SMI-05, SMI-10 and SMI-16) which showed more antibacterial effect as related to other. Secondary screening revealed that two isolates (Streptomyces isolates SMI-04 and SMI-10) exhibited the potent and broadest antibacterial activity toward two G-positive (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) and three G-negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae).

Table of content: volume:13 issue:1